Publications by authors named "Wenwu Zhou"

38 Publications

Chromosome-level genome assembly of the mirid predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), an important natural enemy in the rice ecosystem.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Though the genomes of many rice herbivorous pests have recently been well characterized, little is known about the genome of their natural enemies. Here, by using the Illumina and PacBio platforms, we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of the mirid species Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), which is an economically and ecologically important natural enemy in the rice ecosystem acting as a dominant predator for planthoppers and leafhoppers in the field. Through Hi-C scaffolding, 1615 scaffolds with a total size of 338.08 Mb were successfully anchored onto 13 chromosomes. The assembled genome size was 345.75 Mb with a final scaffold N50 of 27.58 Mb. Approximately 107.51 Mb of sequences accounting for 31.10% of the genome were identified as repeat elements, and 14,644 protein-coding genes were annotated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C. lividipennis clustered with other Hemipteran species and diverged from Apolygus lucorum about 66.7 million years ago. Gene families related to detoxification, environmental adaptation and digestion were analysed comparatively with other Hemipteran species, but no significant expansion or contraction was found in C. lividipennis. We also observed male meiosis in C. lividipennis, which showed a typical post-reduction of sex chromosomes and a karyotype of 2n = 22 + XY. As the first natural-enemy genome in the rice ecosystem, the genomic resource of C. lividipennis not only expands our understanding of the multitrophic interactions (host plant-prey-predator), but also provides a genomic basis for better understanding this dominant predator and therefore promotes sustainable rice pest management and food grain production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13516DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration and flue gas emission under anoxic environment in Tibet Plateau.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Science, Tibet University, No. 10, Zangda East Road, Chengguan District, Lhasa, 850000, China.

Waste incineration is a process of full combustion reaction between waste and oxygen at high temperature. It is a new problem whether the special natural environmental conditions of Tibet Plateau, such as low air pressure, low oxygen content, and low temperature, will affect the waste incineration in the plateau area. In this work, the influence of different parameters on MSW incineration efficiency and flue gas emission were investigated. The results showed that the temperatures exhibited a significant impact on the flue gas emission. Under the lower temperature, CO was determined to be the main pollutant. With the increase of temperature, NOx became the main pollutant. The optimal temperature range of flue gas emission was between 800 and 900°C. A slight negative pressure in incinerator was benefit for incineration system safety and flue gas emissions. The optimal range was -50 to 0Pa. Lower oxygen content (3-6%) in the incinerator affected the incineration efficiency and flue gas emission. Meanwhile, the high oxygen content had no obvious impact on the flue gas emission, but the cost increased and the service life of the incinerator was affected. The optimal oxygen content in the incinerator was controlled at 6-8%. Furthermore, the air temperatures, pressures, and oxygen content in the natural environment had no significant effect on MSW incineration process. Increasing the air volume would bring about the increase of N in the incinerator. This work provides the basic data support for MSW incineration technology in plateau area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15977-xDOI Listing
August 2021

TMSB4 Overexpression Enhances the Potency of Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Myocardial Repair.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:670913. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of the Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: The actin-sequestering proteins, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, are known to be associated with angiogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI). Herein, we aimed to identify the mechanism of HIF-1α induction by Tβ4 and investigate the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) transfected with the Tβ4 gene () in a rat model of MI.

Methods: Rat BMMSCs were isolated, cultured, and transfected with the gene by using the lentivirus-mediated method. Rats with surgically induced MI were randomly divided into three groups ( = 9/group); after 1 week, the rats were injected at the heart infarcted border zone with TMSB4-overexpressed BMMSCs (BMMSC-TMSB4 ), wild-type BMMSCs that expressed normal levels of TMSB4 (BMMSC-TMSB4 ), or medium (MI). The fourth group of animals ( = 9) underwent all surgical procedures necessary for MI induction except for the ligation step (Sham). Four weeks after the injection, heart function was measured using transthoracic echocardiography. Infarct size was calculated by TTC staining, and collagen volume was measured by Masson staining. Angiogenesis in the infarcted heart area was evaluated by CD31 immunofluorescence histochemistry. experiments were carried out to observe the effect of exogenous Tβ4 on HIF-1α and explore the various possible mechanism(s).

Results: experiments showed that vascular density 4 weeks after treatment was about twofold higher in BMMSC-TMSB4 -treated animals than in BMMSC-TMSB4 -treated animals ( < 0.05). The cardiac function and infarct size significantly improved in both cell-treatment groups compared to controls. Notably, the cardiac function and infarct size were most prominent in BMMSC-TMSB4 -treated animals (both < 0.05). HIF-1α and phosphorylated HIF-1α (p-HIF-1α) were significantly enhanced by exogenous Tβ4, which was nonetheless blocked by the factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) promoter (YC-1). The expression of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD) was decreased upon treatment with Tβ4 and further decreased with the combined treatment of Tβ4 and FG-4497 (a specific PHD inhibitor).

Conclusion: TMSB4-transfected BMMSCs might significantly improve recovery from myocardial ischemia and promote the generation of HIF-1α and p-HIF-1α the AKT pathway, and inhibit the degradation of HIF-1α the PHD and FIH pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.670913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221609PMC
June 2021

Diversified Bund Vegetation Coupled With Flowering Plants Enhances Predator Population and Early-Season Pest Control.

Environ Entomol 2021 08;50(4):842-851

Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Insecticide overuse in crop production systems often results in detrimental effects on predators and parasitoids, which regulate important insect pests. The natural enemies are also unable to survive in monocrop landscapes with the absence of shelter or food sources. Diversified vegetation, especially with flowering plants, can enhance natural enemy abundance and diversity, thus strengthening biological control, enabling farmers to reduce insecticides. In this study, we conserved bund vegetation and manipulated the existing rice landscapes with flowering plants to provide food and shelter for the biological control agents. Our study revealed significant positive relationships between predator densities and bund plant diversity. The abundance of predators significantly increased in the eco-engineered plots, especially at the flowering peaks compared to the insecticide-treated and control plots, while parasitoids were more diverse in both the eco-engineered and control plots. There were no significant differences in planthopper and leafhopper densities among the treatments during the rice early and maximum tillering stages, suggesting effective natural control of these herbivore pests in the eco-engineered plots at the early rice-growing season. However, at the heading stage relatively higher planthopper and leafhopper populations in the control and eco-engineered plots than in the insecticide-sprayed plots were recorded, suggesting perhaps the need for insecticide interventions if exceeding the threshold at this time. Our study indicates that manipulating the habitats surrounding the rice fields to enhance natural enemies is a sustainable practice in rice production as it can enhance the natural suppression of pests and thus reducing the need for insecticide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvab027DOI Listing
August 2021

Review on application of perylene diimide (PDI)-based materials in environment: Pollutant detection and degradation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 17;780:146483. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Environment, Jiangsu Engineering Lab of Water and Soil Eco-Remediation, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Environment pollution is getting serious and various poisonous contaminants with chemical durability, biotoxicity and bioaccumulation have been widespreadly discovered in municipal wastewaters and surface water. The detection and removal of pollutants show great significance for the protection of human health and other organisms. Due to its distinctive physical and chemical properties, perylene diimide (PDI) has received widespread attention from different research fields, especially in the area of environment. In this review, a comprehensive summary of the development of PDI-based materials in fluorescence detection and advanced oxidation technology for environment was introduced. Firstly, we chiefly presented the recent progress about the synthesis of PDI and PDI-based nanomaterials. Then, their application in fluorescence detection for environment was presented and categorized, principally including the detection of heavy metal ions, harmful anions and organic contaminants in the environment. In addition, the application of PDI and PDI-based materials in different advanced oxidation technologies for environment, such as photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, Fenton and Fenton-like reaction and persulfate activation, was also summarized. At last, the challenges and future prospects of PDI-based materials in environmental applications were discussed. This review focuses on presenting the practical applications of PDI and PDI-based materials as fluorescent probes or catalysts (especially photocatalysts) in the detection of hazardous substances or catalytic elimination of organic contaminants. The contents are aimed at supplying the researchers with a deeper understanding of PDI and PDI-based materials and encouraging their further development in environmental applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146483DOI Listing
August 2021

Extraction and Quantification of Sphingolipids from Hemiptera Insects by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Bio Protoc 2021 Feb 20;11(4):e3923. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Institute of Insect Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects of Zhejiang Province, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Sphingolipids are major structural components of endomembranes and have also been described as an intracellular second messenger involved in various biological functions in all eukaryotes and a few prokaryotes. Ceramides (Cer), the central molecules of sphingolipids, have been depicted in cell growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. With the development of lipidomics, the identification of ceramides has been analyzed in many species, mostly in model insects. However, there is still a lack of research in non-model organisms. Here we describe a relatively simple and sensitive method for the extraction, identification, and quantification of ceramides in Hemiptera Insects (brown planthooper), followed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). C18 is used as the separation column for quantitative detection and analysis on the triple quadruple liquid mass spectrometer. In this protocol, the standard curve method is adopted to confirm the more accurate quantification of ceramides based on the optional detection conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953250PMC
February 2021

Individualized Surgical Reconstruction of the Right Ventricle Outflow Tract in Double Outlet Right Ventricle With Mirror Image-Dextrocardia.

Front Pediatr 2021 19;9:611007. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the surgical reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in double outlet right ventricle with a major coronary artery crossing the right ventricular outflow tract in the presence of mirror image-dextrocardia. From January 2005 to December 2019, 19 double outlet right ventricle patients (median age 4 years) with mirror image-dextrocardia and a major coronary artery crossing the right ventricular outflow tract received surgical repair. An autologous pericardial patch was used to enlarge the right ventricular outflow tract in four patients without pulmonary stenosis and three patients with mild pulmonary stenosis. A valved bovine jugular venous conduit was added to a hypoplastic native pathway in nine patients, among which six patients with moderate pulmonary stenosis received small-sized bovine jugular venous conduit implantation (diameter ≤ 16 mm). In comparison, a large-sized bovine jugular venous conduit (diameter >16 mm) was adopted in a total of three patients with severe pulmonary stenosis. Finally, three patients with preoperative pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥40 mmHg) did not undergo further intervention of right ventricular outflow tract due to the adequate outflow tract blood flow. There was no hospital mortality. One patient with sub-pulmonary ventricular septal defect and concomitant severe pulmonary hypertension died from respiratory failure 11 months after the operation. Kaplan-Meier survival was 94% at 5, 10 years. Within a mean echocardiographic follow-up of 6.9 ± 3.6 years, a total of two patients received reintervention due to valvular stenosis of the bovine jugular venous conduit (pressure gradient > 50 mmHg at 4 and 9 years) after surgical operation. Actuarial freedom from reoperation was 90 and 72% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. During the last echocardiographic follow-up phase, all the survivors were in NYHA class I. Double outlet right ventricle with mirror image-dextrocardia is a rare and complicated congenital cardiac malformation. Surgical reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract should be individualized based on the degree of pulmonary stenosis and the specific anatomical features of each patient. Reconstructing the pulmonary artery using the various sizes of valved bovine jugular venous conduit is a safe and effective surgical method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.611007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933223PMC
February 2021

Transcriptional changes revealed genes and pathways involved in the deficient testis caused by the inhibition of alkaline ceramidase (Dacer) in Drosophila melanogaster.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 Mar 15;106(3):e21765. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, MOA Key Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Sphingolipids are ubiquitous structural components of eukaryotic cell membranes which are vital for maintaining the integrity of cells. Alkaline ceramidase is a key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway; however, little is known about the role of the enzyme in the male reproductive system of Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the impact of alkaline ceramidase (Dacer) on male Drosophila, we got Dacer deficiency mutants (MUs) and found they displayed apparent defects in the testis's phenotype. To profile the molecular changes associated with this abnormal phenotype, we performed de novo transcriptome analyses of the MU and wildtype (WT) testes; and revealed 1239 upregulated genes and 1102 downregulated genes. Then, six upregulated DEGs (papilin [Ppn], croquemort [Crq], terribly reduced optic lobes [Trol], Laminin, Wunen-2, collagen type IV alpha 1 [Cg25C]) and three downregulated DEGs (mucin related 18B [Mur18B], rhomboid-7 [Rho-7], CG3168) were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in WT and MU samples. The differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with catalytic activity, oxidoreductase activity and transmembrane transporter activity, which significantly contributed to extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, fatty acids biosynthesis as well as glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. The results highlight the importance of Dacer in the reproductive system of D. melanogaster and provide valuable resources to dig out the specific biological functions of Dacer in insect reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21765DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification and Functional Characterization of Two Putative Pheromone Receptors in the Potato Tuber Moth, .

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:618983. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Pheromones are a kind of signal produced by an animal that evoke innate responses in conspecifics. In moth, pheromone components can be detected by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (OSNs) housed in long sensilla trichoids on the male antennae. The pheromone receptors (PRs) located in the dendrite membrane of OSNs are responsible for pheromone sensing in most Lepidopteran insects. The potato tuber moth is a destructive pest of Solanaceae crops. Although sex attractant is widely used in fields to monitor the population of , no study has been reported on the mechanism the male moth of uses to recognize sex pheromone components. In the present study, we cloned two pheromone receptor genes and in . The transcripts of them were highly accumulated in the antennae of male adults. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of oocyte demonstrated that these two PR proteins both responded to (, )-4,7-13: OAc and (, , )-4,7,10-13: OAc, the key sex pheromone components of , whilst they responded differentially to these two ligands. Our findings for the first time characterized the function of pheromone receptors in gelechiid moth and could promote the olfactory based pest management of in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.618983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868389PMC
January 2021

Targeted Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Using an Intelligent Doxorubicin-Loaded Hexapeptide Hydrogel.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Jun;16(6):842-852

Self-assembling peptide hydrogels have a high water content, good biocompatibility and have become a competitive research object in the fields of tissue engineering, cancer treatment and drug delivery. In our research, a hexapeptide with high pH sensitivity was designed and synthesized by utilizing a solid-phase synthesis method. Under physiological conditions, the peptide could self-assemble into a hydrogel. When it reached the tumor acidic microenvironment, the peptide was degraded and doxorubicin was released to exert its antitumor effect. A series of physicochemical properties were investigated, including gelling ability, secondary structure, micromorphology, rheological properties and drug release studies. The results illustrated that PIDO peptide hydrogel has good pH responsiveness and injectability. cytotoxicity experiments and antitumor experiments showed that PIDO peptide hydrogel has a highly effective therapeutic effect on tumor cells and is less toxic to normal tissues. Our research provides a promising option for targeted drug delivery and sustainable release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2935DOI Listing
June 2020

Author Correction: Ecological pest control fortifies agricultural growth in Asia-Pacific economies.

Nat Ecol Evol 2020 Nov;4(11):1567

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01318-7DOI Listing
November 2020

Ecological pest control fortifies agricultural growth in Asia-Pacific economies.

Nat Ecol Evol 2020 11 31;4(11):1522-1530. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The Green Revolution is credited with alleviating famine, mitigating poverty and driving aggregate economic growth since the 1960s. In Asia, high-input technology packages secured a tripling of rice output, with germplasm improvements providing benefits beyond US$4.3 billion yr. Here, we unveil the magnitude and macro-economic relevance of parallel nature-based contributions to productivity growth in non-rice crops over the period 1918-2018 (across 23 different Asia-Pacific geopolitical entities). We empirically demonstrate how biological control resolved invasive pest threats in multiple agricultural commodities, ensuring annually accruing (on-farm) benefits of US$14.6-19.5 billion yr. Scientifically guided biological control of 43 exotic invertebrate pests permitted 73-100% yield-loss recovery in critical food, feed and fibre crops including banana, breadfruit, cassava and coconut. Biological control thereby promoted rural growth and prosperity even in marginal, poorly endowed, non-rice environments. By placing agro-ecological innovations on equal footing with input-intensive measures, our work provides lessons for future efforts to mitigate invasive species, restore ecological resilience and sustainably raise output of global agrifood systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01294-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Allelic differences of clustered terpene synthases contribute to correlated intraspecific variation of floral and herbivory-induced volatiles in a wild tobacco.

New Phytol 2020 11 12;228(3):1083-1096. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Plant volatile emissions can recruit predators of herbivores for indirect defense and attract pollinators to aid in pollination. Although volatiles involved in defense and pollinator attraction are primarily emitted from leaves and flowers, respectively, they will co-evolve if their underlying genetic basis is intrinsically linked, due either to pleiotropy or to genetic linkage. However, direct evidence of co-evolving defense and floral traits is scarce. We characterized intraspecific variation of herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), the key components of indirect defense against herbivores, and floral volatiles in wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. We found that variation of (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-α-bergamotene contributed to the correlated changes in HIPVs and floral volatiles among N. attenuata natural accessions. Intraspecific variations of (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-α-bergamotene emissions resulted from allelic variation of two genetically co-localized terpene synthase genes, NaTPS25 and NaTPS38, respectively. Analyzing haplotypes of NaTPS25 and NaTPS38 revealed that allelic variations of NaTPS25 and NaTPS38 resulted in correlated changes of (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-α-bergamotene emission in HIPVs and floral volatiles in N. attenuata. Together, these results provide evidence that pleiotropy and genetic linkage result in correlated changes in defenses and floral signals in natural populations, and the evolution of plant volatiles is probably under diffuse selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16739DOI Listing
November 2020

Application of Modified Sliding Anastomosis in the Repair of Aortic Coarctation.

Biomed Res Int 2020 14;2020:3805385. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Middle Renmin Road 139, Changsha 410000, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the early and midterm results of a modified sliding anastomosis technique in patients with aortic coarctation.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we reported a new repair method and compared the early and midterm outcome(s) with a conventional surgical approach for the management of patients with aortic coarctation. Forty-eight aortic coarctation patients with a narrowed segment length longer than 2 cm were operated at our department's pediatric surgical division. Excision of the coarctation and end-to-end anastomosis was carried out in twenty-five patients (control group). In contrast, a modified sliding technique was used for twenty-three cases in the observation group. Other accompanying cardiac anomalies simultaneously repaired included ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. All patients received 1.5-10 years of postoperative echocardiographic follow-up.

Results: This is a retrospective study carried out between January 2005 and June 2018. The study population consisted of forty-eight patients, which included twenty-six male and twenty-two female patients, with an average age of 5.2 ± 1.9 months (range, 28 days to 1 year). There was no mortality. The operative time, the number of intercostal artery disconnection, the drainage volume, and arm-leg systolic pressure gradient postoperation were less in the observation group as compared to the control group ( < 0.05). Also, cases with an anastomotic pressure gradient exceeding 10 mmHg during follow-up were less in the observation group as compared to the control group ( < 0.05). The postoperative complications encountered were chylothorax (control group 2 cases vs. observation group 0) and pulmonary atelectasis (control group 4 cases vs. observation group 1). They all, however, recovered after conservative treatment. Three patients in the control group underwent balloon angioplasty (reintervention) postoperative 2-4 years due to an increase in the anastomotic pressure gradient (>20 mmHg). After reintervention, the anastomotic pressure gradient reduced to 14 mmHg, 15 mmHg, and 17 mmHg, respectively.

Conclusions: For long segment aortic coarctation patients (longer than 2 cm), the use of the modified sliding anastomotic technique effectively helps to retain more autologous tissues, enlarge the diameter of the anastomosis, and decrease anastomotic tension and vascular injury. Therefore, this technique provides a new idea for the surgical treatment of aortic coarctations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3805385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245663PMC
March 2021

An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic pesticides. Part 4: Alternatives in major cropping systems.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 4;27(24):29867-29899. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Agricultural Research Department, Veneto Agricoltura, Legnaro, Italy.

We present a synthetic review and expert consultation that assesses the actual risks posed by arthropod pests in four major crops, identifies targets for integrated pest management (IPM) in terms of cultivated land needing pest control and gauges the implementation "readiness" of non-chemical alternatives. Our assessment focuses on the world's primary target pests for neonicotinoid-based management: western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) in maize; wireworms (Agriotes spp.) in maize and winter wheat; bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) in winter wheat; brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) in rice; cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) and silver-leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci) in cotton. First, we queried scientific literature databases and consulted experts from different countries in Europe, North America, and Asia about available IPM tools for each crop-pest system. Next, using an online survey, we quantitatively assessed the economic relevance of target pests by compiling country-level records of crop damage, yield impacts, extent of insecticide usage, and "readiness" status of various pest management alternatives (i.e., research, plot-scale validation, grower-uptake). Biological control received considerable scientific attention, while agronomic strategies (e.g., crop rotation), insurance schemes, decision support systems (DSS), and innovative pesticide application modes were listed as key alternatives. Our study identifies opportunities to advance applied research, IPM technology validation, and grower education to halt or drastically reduce our over-reliance on systemic insecticides globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09279-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378116PMC
August 2020

Midgut microbiota diversity of potato tuber moth associated with potato tissue consumed.

BMC Microbiol 2020 03 11;20(1):58. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Agro-biodiversity and Pest Management of China's Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, China.

Background: The potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a worldwide pest that feeds on both the leaves and tubers of potato plants. PTM larvae can digest leaves, or tubers, resulting in serious damage to potato plants in the field and potato tubers in storage. To understand how midgut bacterial diversity is influenced by the consumption of these two tissue types, the symbiotic bacteria in the potato-feeding PTM midgut and the endophytic bacteria of potato tissues were analyzed.

Results: At the genus level, the bacterial community composition in the PTM midgut was influenced by the tissues consumed, owing to their different nutrient contents. Escherichia_Shigella and Enterobacter were the most dominant genera in the midgut of leaf-feeding and tuber-feeding PTMs, respectively. Interestingly, even though only present in low abundance in leaves and tubers, Escherichia_Shigella were dominantly distributed only in the midgut of leaf-feeding PTMs, indicating that specific accumulation of these genera have occurred by feeding on leaves. Moreover, Enterobacter, the most dominant genus in the midgut of tuber-feeding PTMs, was undetectable in all potato tissues, indicating it is gut-specific origin and tuber feeding-specific accumulation. Both Escherichia_Shigella and Enterobacter abundances were positively correlated with the dominant contents of potato leaves and tubers, respectively.

Conclusions: Enrichment of specific PTM midgut bacterial communities was related to different nutrient levels in different tissues consumed by the insect, which in turn influenced host utilization. We provide evidence that a portion of the intestinal microbes of PTMs may be derived from potato endophytic bacteria and improve the understanding of the relationship between potato endophytic bacteria and the gut microbiota of PTMs, which may offer support for integrated management of this worldwide pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01740-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066784PMC
March 2020

Host plant odours and their recognition by the odourant-binding proteins of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Jul 2;76(7):2453-2464. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Insect Behavior Regulation; Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is one of the major pests in citrus production because it transmits huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus plants. Odourant-binding proteins (OBPs) play an important role in the olfactory perception of insects. Revealing the function of DcitOBPs is beneficial to the development of new ACP management strategies.

Results: An analysis of the components of volatiles from the new shoots of six host plant species showed that β-caryophyllene was the characteristic volatile compound in flushing shoots and the most abundant volatile compound in three of the six tested ACP host plant species. The tissue expression profiles of nine known DcitOBPs were analyzed based on a transcriptome database, and DcitOBP3 and DcitOBP6 exhibited high expression in the antennae of both sexes and the ovipositor of females. The binding ability of two recombinant proteins with eight ligands was studied through competitive binding analysis; the results showed that DcitOBP6 exhibited stronger binding to β-caryophyllene. Behavioural trials indicated that sexually mature female adults of D. citri were significantly attracted to β-caryophyllene at concentrations of 0.1 μL mL and 10 μL mL . RNAi analysis in female D. citri showed that the reduction of DcitOBP6 transcript abundance led to a decrease in antennae EAG activity and behavioural responses to β-caryophyllene.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate that DcitOBP6 is involved in the perception of an important host plant volatile, β-caryophyllene, in the ACP, and provide a theoretical foundation for behavioural interference in ACP management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5786DOI Listing
July 2020

Functions of duplicated glucosinolate sulfatases in the development and host adaptation of Plutella xylostella.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2020 04 14;119:103316. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory for Ecological Pest Control of Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China; International Joint Research Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control, Ministry of Education, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

Evolutionary adaptations of herbivorous insects are often dictated by the necessity to withstand a corresponding evolutionary innovation in host plant defense. Glucosinolate sulfatase (GSS) enzyme activity is considered a central adaptation strategy in Plutella xylostella against glucosinolates (GS)-myrosinase defense system in the Brassicales. The high functional versatility of sulfatases suggests that they may perform other vital roles in the process of growth and development. Here, we used a CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate stable homozygous single/double mutant lines of gss1 or/and gss2 with no predicted off-target effects, to analyze the functions of the pair of duplicated genes in the development and host adaptation of P. xylostella. The bioassays showed that, when fed on their usual artificial diet, significant reduction in egg hatching rate and final larval survival rate of the single mutant line of gss2 compared with the original strain or mutant lines of gss1, revealing unexpected functions of GSS2 in embryonic and larval development. When larvae of homozygous mutant lines were transferred onto a new food, Arabidopsis thaliana, no induced effect at protein level of GSS1/2 or gene expression level of gss1/gss2 was detected. The absence of GSS1 or GSS2 reduced the survival rate of larvae and prolonged the duration of the larval stage, indicating that both GSS1 and GSS2 played an important role in adaptation to host plants. The versatile functions of duplicated GSSs in this study provide a foundation for further research to understand potential functions of other sulfatase members and support evidence of adaptation in herbivorous insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103316DOI Listing
April 2020

Examination of Plasma Cell-Free DNA of Glioma Patients by Whole Exome Sequencing.

World Neurosurg 2019 05 29;125:e424-e428. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Jiangsu Clinical Medicine Center of Tissue Engineering and Nerve Injury Repair and Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, Peoples Republic of China; Department of Clinic Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, Peoples Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To analyze the plasma cell-free DNA (Cf-DNA) in glioma patients with high throughout sequencing for a novel non-invasive method for the early diagnosis and management of glioma.

Methods: Six patients with glioma were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from June 2015 to September 2016. Their plasma samples were tested for Cf-DNA by whole exon sequencing and mutations were analyzed by bioinformatics.

Results: After filtering the raw sequencing data of Cf-DNA, 33,173 mutations were obtained from 12,462 genes of which 442 genes and 655 mutation sites were identical to that in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. However, when we compared the Cf-DNA data with the glioma mutated loci in the Cancer Genome Alta database, only 4 mutations matched with the glioma sequences in the Cancer Genome Alta and did not correspond to that of the paired-tumor tissues.

Conclusions: There were some cancer-related somatic mutations in the Cf-DNA of glioma patients, but no identical mutations were found in the paired solid tumors. Therefore, plasma Cf-DNA mutations may not be a suitable marker for the detection of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.092DOI Listing
May 2019

Characterization and Expression Profiling of Neuropeptides and G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) for Neuropeptides in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 6;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Insect Behavior Regulation, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Neuropeptides are endogenous active substances that widely exist in multicellular biological nerve tissue and participate in the function of the nervous system, and most of them act on neuropeptide receptors. In insects, neuropeptides and their receptors play important roles in controlling a multitude of physiological processes. In this project, we sequenced the transcriptome from twelve tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid, Kuwayama. A total of 40 candidate neuropeptide genes and 42 neuropeptide receptor genes were identified. Among the neuropeptide receptor genes, 35 of them belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), four of them belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and three of them are leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors. The expression profile of the 82 genes across developmental stages was determined by qRT-PCR. Our study provides the first investigation on the genes of neuropeptides and their receptors in , which may play key roles in regulating the physiology and behaviors of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321106PMC
December 2018

Estimation and emissions from crop straw and animal dung in Tibet.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 16;631-632:1038-1045. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Lab of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy, Tianjin University, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300072, China.

Based on the statistics data, this paper estimated the quantity of biomass resource, and then the distribution of emissions from its combu3stion and gasification was analyzed in Tibet in 2015. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) biomass energy is rich in Tibet and its geographical distribution and quantity mainly depends on the relationship between ecological zones and the climate conditions. Crop straw is mainly distributed in Xigazê, Lasha, Qamdo and Shannan with the total quantity of 3.29×10t/year; while animal dung is mainly distributed in Nagqu, Qamdo and Xigazê with the total quantity of 1.69×10t/year. For the acquirable quantity of crop straw and animal dung is 7.27×10t/year, mainly distributed in Nagqu, Qamdo and Xigazê. (2) The energy production potential of crop straw and animal dung in Tibet for combustion (thermal efficiency: 22.5%), HLG (system efficiency: 28.75% based on our investigation) and VLG (system efficiency: 38.75%) is 2.56×10J/year, 3.28×10J/year and 4.42×10J/year, respectively. (3) Compared to the household combustion, the reduction of SO is 72% with HLG and 97% with VLG, and the NOx reduction is 79% with HLG, 96% with VLG and 72% with gasification-combustion case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.029DOI Listing
August 2018

Evidence of an evolutionary hourglass pattern in herbivory-induced transcriptomic responses.

New Phytol 2017 Aug 15;215(3):1264-1273. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Str. 8, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Herbivory-induced defenses are specific and activated in plants when elicitors, frequently found in the herbivores' oral secretions, are introduced into wounds during attack. While complex signaling cascades are known to be involved, it remains largely unclear how natural selection has shaped the evolution of these induced defenses. We analyzed herbivory-induced transcriptomic responses in wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, using a phylotranscriptomic approach that measures the origin and sequence divergence of herbivory-induced genes. Highly conserved and evolutionarily ancient genes of primary metabolism were activated at intermediate time points (2-6 h) after elicitation, while less constrained and young genes associated with defense signaling and biosynthesis of specialized metabolites were activated at early (before 2 h) and late (after 6 h) stages of the induced response, respectively - a pattern resembling the evolutionary hourglass pattern observed during embryogenesis in animals and the developmental process in plants and fungi. The hourglass patterns found in herbivory-induced defense responses and developmental process are both likely to be a result of signaling modularization and differential evolutionary constraints on the modules involved in the signaling cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14644DOI Listing
August 2017

Species-specific regulation of herbivory-induced defoliation tolerance is associated with jasmonate inducibility.

Ecol Evol 2017 06 17;7(11):3703-3712. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Institute of Plant Sciences University of Bern Bern Switzerland.

Induced changes in root carbohydrate pools are commonly assumed to determine plant defoliation tolerance to herbivores. However, the regulation and species specificity of these two traits are not well understood. We determined herbivory-induced changes in root carbohydrates and defoliation tolerance in seven different solanaceous plant species and correlated the induced changes in root carbohydrates and defoliation tolerance with jasmonate inducibility. Across species, we observed strong species-specific variation for all measured traits. Closer inspection revealed that the different species fell into two distinct groups: Species with a strong induced jasmonic acid (JA) burst suffered from a reduction in root carbohydrate pools and reduced defoliation tolerance, while species with a weak induced JA burst maintained root carbohydrate pools and tolerated defoliation. Induced JA levels predicted carbohydrate and regrowth responses better than jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels. Our study shows that induced JA signaling, root carbohydrate responses, and defoliation tolerance are closely linked, but highly species specific, even among closely related species. We propose that defoliation tolerance may evolve rapidly via changes in the plant's defense signaling network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468159PMC
June 2017

Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 06 23;114(23):6133-6138. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745 Jena, Germany;

Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, (2.5 Gb) and (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700073114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468653PMC
June 2017

Gallium Modified HUSY Zeolite as an Effective Co-support for NiMo Hydrodesulfurization Catalyst and the Catalyst's High Isomerization Selectivity.

Chemistry 2017 Jul 14;23(39):9369-9382. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249, P. R. China.

The effects of metal-modified acidic co-supports on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity and isomerization selectivity of highly refractory organosulfur compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene have been investigated. Y zeolite crystals with high Si/Al ratios and small crystallite sizes were successfully synthesized by a new hydrothermal synthesis approach. The synthesized Y zeolite crystals were ion-exchanged and stabilized. The prepared samples were then modified with different gallium contents using an impregnation method to adjust their acidity properties, and these modified samples were used as co-supports for NiMo sulfide HDS catalysts. The catalyst containing 10 wt.% zeolite Y modified by 2 wt.% gallium (NiMo/2GaY-ASA-A) exhibited the highest HDS activity, with 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) conversion nearly double the rate of the catalyst without zeolite at 563 K, 4.0 MPa and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 40 h . NiMo/2GaY-ASA-A also exhibited superior isomerization ability, with 3,4'-DMBP, 4,4'DMBP, and 3,6-DMDBT as the main products, indicating that the isomerization pathway was the main reaction route over NiMo/2GaY-ASA-A. The superior catalytic performance is related to the synergistic effect of the proper amount of medium and strong Brønsted acid sites. The compounds 3,6-DMDBT and 3,7-DMDBT (isomers of 4,6-DMDBT) and 3,4,6-TMDBT and tetra-methyl-DBT (transmethyl products) were detected simultaneously in the HDS product of 4,6-DMDBT for the first time over NiMo/GaY-ASA-A catalysts. Finally, a new reaction network over NiMo/2GaY-ASA-A was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201701307DOI Listing
July 2017

Tissue-Specific Emission of (E)-α-Bergamotene Helps Resolve the Dilemma When Pollinators Are Also Herbivores.

Curr Biol 2017 May 20;27(9):1336-1341. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Strasse 8, 07745 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

More than 87% of flowering plant species are animal-pollinated [1] and produce floral scents and other signals to attract pollinators. These floral cues may however also attract antagonistic visitors, including herbivores [2]. The dilemma is exacerbated when adult insects pollinate the same plant that their larvae consume. It remains largely unclear how plants maximize their fitness under these circumstances. Here we show that in the night-flowering wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, the emission of a sesquiterpene, (E)-α-bergamotene, in flowers increases adult Manduca sexta moth-mediated pollination success, while the same compound in leaves is known to mediate indirect defense against M. sexta larvae [3, 4]. Forward and reverse genetic analyses demonstrated that both herbivory-induced and floral (E)-α-bergamotene are regulated by the expression of a monoterpene-synthase-derived sesquiterpene synthase (NaTPS38). The expression pattern of NaTPS38 also accounts for variation in (E)-α-bergamotene emission among natural accessions. These results highlight that differential expression of a single gene that results in tissue-specific emission of one compound contributes to resolving the dilemma for plants when their pollinators are also herbivores. Furthermore, this study provides genetic evidence that pollinators and herbivores interactively shape the evolution of floral signals and plant defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.017DOI Listing
May 2017

Evolution of herbivore-induced early defense signaling was shaped by genome-wide duplications in .

Elife 2016 11 4;5. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany.

Herbivore-induced defenses are widespread, rapidly evolving and relevant for plant fitness. Such induced defenses are often mediated by early defense signaling (EDS) rapidly activated by the perception of herbivore associated elicitors (HAE) that includes transient accumulations of jasmonic acid (JA). Analyzing 60 HAE-induced leaf transcriptomes from closely-related species revealed a key gene co-expression network (M4 module) which is co-activated with the HAE-induced JA accumulations but is elicited independently of JA, as revealed in plants silenced in JA signaling. Functional annotations of the M4 module were consistent with roles in EDS and a newly identified hub gene of the M4 module (NaLRRK1) mediates a negative feedback loop with JA signaling. Phylogenomic analysis revealed preferential gene retention after genome-wide duplications shaped the evolution of HAE-induced EDS in . These results highlight the importance of genome-wide duplications in the evolution of adaptive traits in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5115867PMC
November 2016

Insect herbivory elicits genome-wide alternative splicing responses in Nicotiana attenuata.

Plant J 2015 Oct;84(1):228-43

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, D-07745, Jena, Germany.

Changes in gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) are involved in many responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in eukaryotic organisms. In response to attack and oviposition by insect herbivores, plants elicit rapid changes in gene expression which are essential for the activation of plant defenses; however, the herbivory-induced changes in AS remain unstudied. Using mRNA sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis on tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) feeding-induced AS in both leaves and roots of Nicotiana attenuata. Feeding by M. sexta for 5 h reduced total AS events by 7.3% in leaves but increased them in roots by 8.0% and significantly changed AS patterns in leaves and roots of existing AS genes. Feeding by M. sexta also resulted in increased (in roots) and decreased (in leaves) transcript levels of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in the AS machinery of plants and induced changes in SR gene expression that were jasmonic acid (JA)-independent in leaves but JA-dependent in roots. Changes in AS and gene expression elicited by M. sexta feeding were regulated independently in both tissues. This study provides genome-wide evidence that insect herbivory induces changes not only in the levels of gene expression but also in their splicing, which might contribute to defense against and/or tolerance of herbivory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12997DOI Listing
October 2015

The rapidly evolving associations among herbivore associated elicitor-induced phytohormones in Nicotiana.

Plant Signal Behav 2015 ;10(7):e1035850

a Department of Molecular Ecology ; Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology ; Jena , Germany.

In response to herbivore attack, plants perceive herbivore associated elicitors (HAE) and rapidly accumulate jasmonic acid (JA) and other phytohormones, which interact in complex ways, such as the crosstalk between JA and salicylic acid (SA). Although recent studies have shown that HAE-induced individual phytohormones can be highly specific among closely related species, it remains unclear how conserved and specific the relationships among HAE-induced phytohormones are. Here we analyzed the correlations among 4 different phytohormones, JA, JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), SA, and abscisic acid (ABA) in 6 closely related Nicotiana species that were induced by 3 different HAEs. Our results showed that while no clear association between ABA and other phytohormones were found, the positive association between JA and JA-Ile is mostly conserved among closely related Nicotiana species. Interestingly, the association between JA and SA are highly variable and can be regulated by different HAEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2015.1035850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623057PMC
May 2016

Herbivore associated elicitor-induced defences are highly specific among closely related Nicotiana species.

BMC Plant Biol 2015 Jan 16;15. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, D-07745, Jena, Germany.

Background: Herbivore-induced defence responses are often specific - different herbivores induce different defence responses in plants - and their specificity is largely mediated by chemical cues (herbivore-associated elicitors: HAEs) in insect oral or oviposition secretions. However, the specificity and the mechanisms of HAE-induced defence have not been investigated in the context of the evolutionary relationships among plant species. Here we compare the responses of six closely related Nicotiana species to a synthetic elicitor, N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (C18:3-Glu) and HAE of two insect herbivores (the Solanaceae specialist Manduca sexta and generalist Spodoptera littoralis).

Results: HAE-induced defences are highly specific among closely related Nicotiana species at three perspectives. 1) A single Nicotiana species can elicit distinct responses to different HAEs. N. pauciflora elicited increased levels of JA and trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPI) in response to C18:3-Glu and the oral secretions of M. sexta (OS Ms ) but not to oral secretions of S. littoralis (OS Sl ). In contrast, N. miersii only responded to OS Sl but not to the other two HAEs. The specific responses to different HAEs in Nicotiana species are likely due to the perception by the plant of each specific component of the HAE. 2) One HAE can induce different defence responses among closely related Nicotiana species. OS Ms and C18:3-Glu induced JA and TPI accumulations in N. linearis, N. attenuata, N. acuminata and N. pauciflora, but not in N. miersii and N. obtusifolia. 3) The effect of HAE-induced defences differ for the Solanaceae specialist M. sexta and the generalist S. littoralis. Among the four tested Nicotiana species, while the growth rate of M. sexta was only reduced by the induced defences elicited by C18:3-Glu; the growth rate of S. littoralis can be reduced by the induced defences elicited by all three HAEs. This is likely due to differences in the susceptibility of the specialist M. sexta and generalist S. littoralis to induced defences of their host.

Conclusions: Closely related Nicotiana species elicit highly specific defence responses to herbivore associated elicitors and provide an ideal framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary divergence of induced resistance in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-014-0406-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4304619PMC
January 2015
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