Publications by authors named "Wenshui Xia"

84 Publications

A general strategy to synthesis chitosan oligosaccharide-O-Terpenol derivatives with antibacterial properties.

Carbohydr Res 2021 May 14;503:108315. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, PR China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, PR China.

The objectives of the present study are to synthesize a series of chitosan oligosaccharide-O-Terpenol (COS-O-Ter) derivatives and their implication to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity. Herein, a general strategy is described for preparing COS-O-Ter derivatives, including substitution and deprotection reactions. The structures of COS-O-Ter derivatives were characterized by FT-IR, H NMR, XRD, TGA, and elemental analysis. COS-O-Ter derivatives revealed the excellent solubility and in vitro antibacterial activity. Moreover, their antibacterial activities were more sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than Escherichia coli (E. coli) indicating the effective potential application of COS-O-Ter derivatives as natural antibacterial agents. The aforementioned study opens a pave to expand the application scope of COS and its derivatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2021.108315DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of citronellol grafted chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives on regulating anti-inflammatory activity.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 20;262:117972. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China. Electronic address:

In order to improve the anti-inflammatory activity of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), chitosan oligosaccharide graft citronellol derivatives (COS-g-Cit1-3) were successfully synthesized via grafting citronellol (Cit) onto COS backbone. The degrees of substitution (DS) of COS-g-Cit1-3 were 0.165, 0.199 and 0.182, respectively. The structure of COS-g-Cit1-3 was confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, H NMR and elemental analysis. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity evaluation results displayed that COS-g-Cit1-3 drastically reduced the paw swelling, and the oedema inhibitions were 22.58 %, 29.03 % and 25.81 %, respectively. The results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of COS-g-Cit1-3 were significantly higher than COS and COS-g-Cit2 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory ability. The results also presented that COS-g-Cit1-3 reduced the expression levels of TNF-α by promoting the secretion of IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, western blot analysis data proved that COS-g-Cit1-3 inactivated the NF-κB signaling pathway via inhibiting the phosphorylation of p65, IKBα and IKKβ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117972DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of methodological proposal in sensory evaluation for Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) by data mining and sensory panel.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 27;356:129698. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) needs sensory evaluation for grading. This study compared data mining (DM) and sensory panel evaluation (SPE), using data visualization (DV) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), respectively. Results showed that Yangcheng Lake Crab (YLC) was the most welcomed for "umami" and "sweet" according to DV; and QDA (7-scale) showed similar results of the highest "aroma-sweet" (Average Score 4.5) and "taste-umami" (Average Score 4.6) in YLC. The difference was that, DV was fast based on big data (1.4 million words); while QDA quantified detailed attributes (principle components > 85.3% averagely) based on highly-trained sensory panel of good distinguishing- and repeating- ability that F value showed 76.4% of all attributes > 5% for panelist averagely, and mean square error < 0.500 except one panelist. In conclusion, DM was quick but qualitative; while SPE was laborious but informative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129698DOI Listing
September 2021

Charge-Reversible Surfactant-Induced Transformation Between Oil-in-Dispersion Emulsions and Pickering Emulsions.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 16;60(21):11793-11798. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK.

A novel charge-reversible surfactant, (CH ) N-(CH ) COONa, was designed and synthesized, which together with silica nanoparticles can stabilize a smart n-octane-in-water emulsion responsive to pH. At high pH (9.3) the surfactant is anionic carboxylate, which together with the negatively charged silica nanoparticles co-stabilize flowable oil-in-dispersion emulsions, whereas at low pH (4.1) it is turned to cationic form by forming amine salt which can hydrophobize in situ the negatively charged silica nanoparticles to stabilize viscous oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions. At neutral pH (7.5), however, this surfactant is converted to zwitterionic form, which only weakly hydrophobises the silica particles to stabilize O/W Pickering emulsions of large droplet size. Moreover, demulsification can be achieved rapidly triggered by pH. With this strategy particles can be controlled either dispersed in water or adsorbed at the oil-water interface endowing emulsions with the capacity for intelligent and precise control of stability as well as viscosity and droplet size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102098DOI Listing
May 2021

Development and properties of bacterial cellulose, curcumin, and chitosan composite biodegradable films for active packaging materials.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 May 10;260:117778. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Food Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

To deal with serious environmental damage resulting from plastic packaging materials, biodegradable films using natural products have gained considerable attention. Here, we provide a simple, fast, and environmentally-friendly route to construct a biodegradable film using chitosan (CS), bacterial cellulose (BC), and curcumin (Cur). Composite films (CSn-BC-Cur) using CS with different molecular weights were investigated, and their water moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS), contact angle (CA), mechanical properties, barrier properties, and antioxidant properties were compared. The obtained films were characterized by SEM, XRD, and TGA. The results showed that chitosan with a higher molecular weight presented higher contact angles and mechanical properties, along with a lower moisture content, water vapor transmission rate, and oxygen transmission rate. Furthermore, when the composite film was placed in 95 % ethanol, it released active substances. The results suggest that these composite films can be used as promising materials for food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117778DOI Listing
May 2021

The characterization and biological activities of synthetic N, O-selenized chitosan derivatives.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 15;173:504-512. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Synthetic selenium polysaccharides with potential bioactivity have drawn great interest due to the SeO bonds existing in the structure. Herein, N, O-selenized N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosan (sNCCS) was synthesized through carboxyethylation and selenylation. Various characterizations were performed to identify the structure of sNCCS, indicating that SeO bonds were formed both at the C-6 hydroxyl groups and the introduced C-2 carboxyethyl groups. The highest yield and selenium content of all sNCCS reached 84.5% and 1.553 mg/g, respectively. In vitro evaluation exhibited that sNCCS has excellent bile acid binding capacity, which was 1.63, 2.00, and 2.55-fold higher than that of N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosan (NCCS). Moreover, it was found that higher selenium content could significantly enhance the antioxidant properties of sNCCS. Importantly, no obvious cytotoxic effect had been observed on Caco-2 cells. Taken together, sNCCS with desirable biological activity and non-cytotoxicity might be considered as an effective ingredient in the fields of food or medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.084DOI Listing
March 2021

Advances in the application of chitosan as a sustainable bioactive material in food preservation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 6:1-36. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Chitosan is obtained from chitin and considered to be one of the most abundant natural polysaccharides. Due to its functional activity, chitosan has received intense and growing interest in terms of applications for food preservation over the last half-century. Compared with earlier studies, recent research has increasingly focused on the exploration of preservation mechanism as well as the targeted inhibition with higher efficiency, which is fueled by availability of more active composite ingredients and integration of more technologies, and gradually perceived as "chitosan-based biofilm preservation." In this Review, we comprehensively summarize the potential antimicrobial mechanisms or hypotheses of chitosan and its widely compounded ingredients, as well as their impacts on endogenous enzymes, oxidation and/or gas barriers. The strategies used for enhancing active function of the film-forming system and subsequent film fabrication processes including direct coating, bioactive packaging film and layer-by-layer assembly are introduced. Finally, future development of chitosan-based bioactive film is also proposed to broaden its application boundaries. Generally, our goal is that this Review is easily accessible and instructive for whose new to the field, as well as hope to advance to the filed forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1869920DOI Listing
January 2021

Improving the oxidative stability of fish oil nanoemulsions by co-encapsulation with curcumin and resveratrol.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 10;199:111481. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Tuna fish oil (TFO), is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids comprising particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are essential for the human's health enhancement. However, their foremost problems are poor solubility, low bioavailability, and easy oxidization, which limit their wide range of applications in food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this research is to develop TFO nanoemulsions encapsulating curcumin (CUR) and resveratrol (RES) as co-antioxidants, stabilized with different concentrations of two modified starches including Purity Gum 2000 (PG) and Purity Gum Ultra (PGU). The effect of diverse quantities of modified starches on droplet size, droplet charges, viscosity, and oxidative stability of produced nanoemulsions was assessed at different storage temperatures (4, 25, and 40 °C). Furthermore, to assess the antioxidant activity and capacity of loaded nanoemulsions, DPPH, and ABTS assays were used, respectively. Among various samples, PGU2.5 and PG9 emulsified by PGU and PG2000 had showed the premium results of stability during storage at all temperatures over other formulations. Even at 40 °C, 199.10 μL/mL of PGU2.5 and 258.59 μL/mL of PG9 were required to attain the level of DPPH IC, which were the lowest concentration as compare to other nanoemulsions. Taken together, it was accredited that co-encapsulation of CUR and RES inside the TFO nanoemulsion-based delivery systems can be efficient for the production of functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111481DOI Listing
March 2021

A strategy of ultrasound-assisted processing to improve the performance of bio-based coating preservation for refrigerated carp fillets (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

Food Chem 2021 May 13;345:128862. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

Effects of ultrasound-assisted chitooligosaccharides (COS-UA) coating on the quality attributes and microbial composition of refrigerated grass carp fillets were evaluated. The results showed that COS and COS-UA coatings retarded quality deterioration of fillets during storage. Compared to COS coatings, COS-UA treated samples had lower contents of BAs, simultaneously their levels of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), K value and total viable counts (TVC) were further decreased by 13.6%, 4.2% and 7.8% on day 12, respectively. High-throughput sequencing showed that Aeromonas and Shewanella increased rapidly in control samples and became the main microbiota at day 12. By contrast, both coatings changed the microbial composition and reduced the proportion of spoilage organisms. Based on multiple evaluations, COS-UA extended shelf life of fillets by another 2 days when compared to COS. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment could be considered as an effective supplementary to improve the preservation effect of COS-based coatings for fresh preprocessed fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128862DOI Listing
May 2021

Redox-Responsive Oil-In-Dispersion Emulsions Stabilized by Similarly Charged Ferrocene Surfactants and Alumina Nanoparticles.

Langmuir 2020 Dec 23;36(48):14589-14596. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P.R. China.

A redox-responsive oil-in-dispersion emulsion was developed by using a cationic ferrocene surfactant (FcCOCN) and AlO nanoparticles, in which the required concentrations of FcCOCN and AlO nanoparticles are as low as 0.001 mM (≈0.005 cmc) and 0.006 wt %, respectively. Rapid demulsification can be successfully achieved through a redox trigger, resulting from the transition of FcCOCN from a normal cationic surfactant form into a strongly hydrophilic Bola type form (FcCOCN). Moreover, FcCOCN together with the particles almost resides in the aqueous phase and can be recovered after the reduction reaction. Not only the amount of surfactant and nanoparticles are significantly reduced but also the emulsifier (surfactant and alumina) can be recycled and reused from the aqueous phase, which is a sustainable and economical strategy for various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02350DOI Listing
December 2020

Chitosan oligosaccharide-g-linalool polymer as inhibitor of hyaluronidase and collagenase activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 12;166:1570-1577. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) was modified by grafting Linalool (Lin) on its backbone to improve its anti-inflammatory activity. By changing the molar ratios of COS to Lin, three different degrees of substitution COS-g-Lin1-3 were prepared. The degrees of substitution of derivatives were 0.65, 0.80 and 1.14 respectively. The structure of COS-g-Lin1-3 were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, H NMR and elemental analysis in order to show the COS-g-Lin1-3 successfully synthesized. Besides, the thermal stability, solubility, pH stability as well as crystallinity were also investigated. The results revealed that the derivatives exhibited higher thermal stability and more remarkable anti-inflammatory property against hyaluronidase and collagenase than that of COS. The good biocompatibility made this novel material a promising and effective compound for anti-inflammatory applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.036DOI Listing
January 2021

Facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of geraniol conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jan 16;251:117099. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, PR China.

A new chitosan oligosaccharide derivative (COS-N-Ger), based on geraniol (Ger) modificated onto the NH position of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) via a facile method, was prepared and employed to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity. The structures of COS-N-Ger derivatives were confirmed by FT-IR, H, C NMR, and elemental analysis. The characterization results showed successful synthesis of derivatives and the degrees of substitution (DS) of COS-N-Ger1-3 were from 0.260 to 0.283 with the yields up to 78 %. The in vitro antibacterial activity evaluation results presented a significant inhibition effect of COS-N-Ger1-3 derivatives on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as compared to COS. Moreover, their antibacterial activities were dose-dependent and more sensitive to S. aureus than E. coli. The results provide reliable theoretical supports for exploring the application of COS derivatives in the food industry as new potential antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117099DOI Listing
January 2021

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized Chinese sturgeon protein hydrolysates prepared by using two different enzymes.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 22;85(10):3313-3322. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

The structural and physicochemical characteristics of protein hydrolysates prepared from Chinese sturgeon through the enzymatic hydrolysis process were evaluated. Two different enzymes including papain and alcalase 2.4L were used in the hydrolysis process. The papain enzyme significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis (20.62%) and decreased the ζ-potential (12.4 ± 1.31 mV) as compared to the alcalase enzyme, which represented 15.55% and 15.53 ± 0.77 mV, respectively. Alcalase 2.4L hydrolysate exhibited smaller particle size (822.047 ± 61.26 nm) than papain hydrolysate (1425.39 ± 44.82 nm). Hydrolysis by papain and alcalase 2.4L enzymes decreased the molecular weights (MW ≤ 1,000 Da) to 98.27% and 86.84%, respectively. The surface hydrophobicity and turbidity of the hydrolysates significantly affected by enzyme type and protein concentrations. By using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the papain hydrolysate showed a higher relative crystallinity degree (30.33%) than alcalase 2.4L hydrolysate (29.40%), whereas the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed more clearly peaks for the amide bands of alcalase hydrolysate. The thermal properties also affected by enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, since the melting temperatures were 159.17 and 149.58 °C, whereas the rate of mass loss was 67.04% and 62.8%, for papain and alcalase hydrolysates, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The enzymatic hydrolysis process of proteins is employed to obtain the nutritionally and functionality important peptides that result during the preparation of fish protein hydrolysate. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural and physicochemical characteristics of protein hydrolysate prepared from Chinese sturgeon. This study showed that these characteristics were affected by enzymatic hydrolysis conditions especially enzyme type. The finding of this study may be useful in terms of providing new information on the properties of the protein hydrolysate and the structural changes resulting from controlled enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Overall, these conditions could potentially alter the secondary structure of the protein hydrolysates or peptides and enhance their functional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15345DOI Listing
October 2020

Coating white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with edible fully deacetylated chitosan incorporated with clove essential oil and kojic acid improves preservation during cold storage.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 28;162:1276-1282. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

School of Food Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, PR China.

The effect of fully deacetylated chitosan (FDCH) edible coating combined with kojic acid (KA) and clove essential oil (CEO) as natural preservatives was investigated on the shelf-life of white prawn shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during 15 days at cold storage. The results indicated that FDCH:KA:CEO coating significantly inhibited the increase in total aerobic plate count, total volatile basic nitrogen content and pH of shrimp in comparison with the control. Moreover, compared with the control, the changes of total color difference (ΔE values) and melanosis were significantly retarded, and the texture parameters and sensory scores were significantly improved in shrimp treated by FDCH:KA:CEO suggesting that there is a synergistic effect between FDCH, KA, and CEO. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight loss was observed for coated shrimp during the storage. The results suggested that FDCH:KA:CEO coating may be promising to be used as active packaging for extending the shelf life, and incorporation of KA and CEO may enhance the efficacy of the coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.248DOI Listing
November 2020

Optimization of the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine for modulating aroma compound formation in fermented tilapia fish head hydrolysate using response surface methodology.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 17;331:127353. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore; National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, No. 377 Linquan Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China. Electronic address:

Aroma defects limit the application of fish protein hydrolysates as flavourings. This study aimed to develop a flavour concentrate from fermented tilapia fish head hydrolysate bymaximising the Maillard reaction production of meaty and roasted aroma associated compounds. We studied the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine to form meat-like odorants using response surface methodology. A 3-factored and 3-leveled Box Behnken design was employed, where the independent variables were cysteine concentration (A, w/v, %), heating temperature (B, °C) and heating time (C, min). 2-Methyl-3-furanthiol and 2-furfurylthiol were used as response factors. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: A, 0.80%; B, 183.80 °C; C, 89.34 min. Compared with the controls, Maillard reaction products enriched the meaty and roasted aroma associated compounds in the treated hydrolysate. In conclusion, the treated tilapia fish head hydrolysate may be used as a base in development of new fish-based flavourings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127353DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of the wheat starch/wheat protein ratio in a batter on fat absorption and quality attributes of fried battered and breaded fish nuggets.

J Food Sci 2020 Jul 22;85(7):2098-2104. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

The Department of Animal & Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Battered and breaded fish nuggets (BBFNs) were prepared by treating fish with a batter composed of wheat starch (WS) and wheat protein (WP) blends (at the ratios of 15:1, 13:1, 11:1, 9:1, and 7:1, w/w), frying at 170 °C (40 s) followed by 190 °C (30 s). Fried BBFNs were evaluated for moisture and fat contents, color, shrinkage, acrylamide content, and fat distribution. Results showed that moisture content and brightness (L value from colorimetry) increased with a decrease of WS/WP ratio to 11:1 w/w, then decreased as WS/WP ratio further decreased, while fat content, fat distribution level, and shrinkage of fried BBFNs presented opposite results. However, there was a slight influence of WS/WP ratio on yellowness (b value), redness (a value), and acrylamide content of fried BBFNs. Among WS/WP ratios, fried BBFNs with 11:1 w/w have the highest moisture content (16.43%) and the lowest fat content (23.39%), fat distribution level, shrinkage (10.72%), and acrylamide content (57 mg/kg), while a crust with golden-yellow color was observed. This study demonstrates that moisture evaporation and fat absorption were significantly influenced by WS/WP ratio in the batter (P < 0.05), with the most effective results in quality attributes improvement of fried BBFNs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study clearly showed that the fat content and quality attributes of fried BBFNs were significantly affected by WS/WP ratio in the batter (P < 0.05). The inhibition of fat absorption and improvement of shrinkage and color in fried BBFNs was the most effective for a 11:1 w/w WS/WP ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15303DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of ultrasonic, microwave, and combined ultrasonic-microwave pretreatments on the enzymatic hydrolysis process and protein hydrolysate properties obtained from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

J Food Biochem 2020 08 19;44(8):e13292. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Degree of hydrolysis (DH), yield, amino acid profile, protein solubility, and antioxidant activity of Chinese sturgeon protein hydrolysates, as influenced by thermal pretreatment, ultrasonic (US), microwave (MW), and combined US-microwave pretreatments were investigated. Initially, the samples were subjected to thermal pretreatments in order to measure their effect on DH, which increased at 55°C. The DH recorded 7.63, 5.55, and 6.02% for US, MW, and combined US-MW pretreatment (US + MW), respectively, at the optimal time (8 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis (EN) of pretreated samples increased the DH to 19.41, 14.18, and 16.91% for US + EN, MW + EN, and US + MW + EN, respectively. The US + EN treatment was most effective for obtaining higher DH and yield, which were 19.41% and 18.62%, respectively. The use of US + EN also resulted in an increase in the percentage of molecular weights (≤1,000 Da), amino acid content and protein solubility, which reached 89.24, 80.08, and 98.58%, respectively. While, US + MW + EN pretreatment has achieved the highest antioxidant activities by IC of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-Azinobis (3-ehtylbenzothiazoli- 6-sulfnic acid), which were 3.01 and 1.85 mg/ml, respectively, in addition to the reducing power assay, which was 0.528 at a protein concentration of 5 mg/ml. Therefore, US and combined US-MW techniques can play a promising role in the production of protein hydrolysates and the improvement of their antioxidant properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Nowadays, interest in Chinese sturgeon production has increased as a promising source of protein and antioxidant peptides. The optimal thermal pretreatment can be used to enhance the degree of hydrolysis. The results indicated that the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment enhanced the degree of hydrolysis, which could be useful in the preparation of protein hydrolysate with higher yields. The use of combined US-MW significantly improved the antioxidant properties of the protein hydrolysate. The combined US-MW technique is a novel method for obtaining valuable peptides and protein hydrolysates that can be applied as antioxidant constituents in the food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13292DOI Listing
August 2020

Correlations between microbiota succession and flavor formation during fermentation of Chinese low-salt fermented common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inoculated with mixed starter cultures.

Food Microbiol 2020 Sep 18;90:103487. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, 1800 Lihue Ave, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihue Ave, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China.

The correlation between microbiota succession and flavor development in Chinese traditional fermented fish (Suanyu) inoculated with mixed starter cultures was studied. The results showed that 17 free amino acids, 22 free fatty acids and 9 organic acids were present. A total of 81 aroma compounds were detected during Suanyu fermentation. Aldehydes were the most abundant aroma compounds in the early stage of fermentation and esters contributed most to the aroma in the later stage of fermentation. The correlation analysis of microbial succession and flavor dynamics based on bidirectional orthogonal partial least squares (O2PLS) suggested that in addition to starter cultures, other microorganisms including 2 bacteria genera and 11 fungi genera were also responsible for the formation of flavor compounds. These results may help focus further research to improve the flavor quality of traditional fermented fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2020.103487DOI Listing
September 2020

Technological roles of microorganisms in fish fermentation: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 15;61(6):1000-1012. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Fermentation is an important way to process and preserve fish. It not only gives the product a unique flavor and texture, but it also contributes to increased nutritional value and better functional properties. The production of fermented fish relies on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as microbial metabolic activity. This review focuses on the role of microorganisms on texture change, flavor formation, and biogenic amines accumulation in fermented fish. In addition, the production conditions and the major biochemical changes in fermented fish products are also introduced to help understand the factors influencing the quality of fermented fish. Moreover, prospects for further research of fermented fish are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1750342DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of Storage Conditions on Microbiological Characteristics, Biogenic Amines, and Physicochemical Quality of Low-Salt Fermented Fish.

J Food Prot 2020 Jun;83(6):1057-1065

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science and Technology, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, People's Republic of China (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1724-9481 [Y.X.]).

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term storage at various temperatures (4, 25, and 35°C) on flavor and microbiological and physicochemical qualities of traditional Chinese low-salt fermented fish (Suanyu). Food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (coliforms, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella) were inhibited during the 90 days of storage at all temperatures. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and total viable bacteria counts of samples stored at 35°C were reduced sharply, whereas other parameters were stable. Compared with refrigerated storage (4°C), higher storage temperatures (25 and 35°C) accelerated moisture migration, lipid oxidation, and proteolytic degradation. Storage time had a greater effect than storage temperature on the increase of volatile compounds in Suanyu. Refrigerated storage was better than higher storage temperatures (25 and 35°C) for maintaining the odor quality of Suanyu during the storage period. Total biogenic amine concentrations in all samples were ≪200 mg/kg. Suanyu can be consumed safely during 90 days of storage based on the levels of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and concentrations of biogenic amines, but refrigerated storage effectively slows down the microbial and physicochemical changes, resulting in better organoleptic quality. The results of this study will be useful for processors controlling the safety and quality of fermented fish during transport and storage.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-19-607DOI Listing
June 2020

Development and properties of new kojic acid and chitosan composite biodegradable films for active packaging materials.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Feb 16;144:483-490. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

School of Food Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Chitosan and kojic acid composite films (CHn-KAm) utilizing three chitosan with differing molecular weights and kojic acid in different ratios were investigated. Results showed that chitosan with higher molecular weights presented higher viscosity, mechanical properties and lower water vapor permeability. Furthermore, kojic acid addition further significantly decreased apparent viscosity, water content, water vapor permeability as well as increasing the antibacterial activity of the films. Increasing the kojic acid concentration resulted in increased levels of a*, b*, ΔE*, opacity values and a decreased L* value, as compared to chitosan films. The mechanical properties of CHn-KAm films increased significantly with kojic acid addition into chitosan. FTIR spectral analyses revealed a strong interaction in the film matrix consistent with composite film mechanical and physical properties. The CHn-KAm films showed significant antibacterial effectiveness. The results suggested that the use of chitosan with a higher molecular weight as CHn-KAm films is expected to be a promising material for food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.12.126DOI Listing
February 2020

Cinnamyl alcohol modified chitosan oligosaccharide for enhancing antimicrobial activity.

Food Chem 2020 Mar 30;309:125513. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122 Jiangsu, PR China.

The present study aims at synthesizing and in vitro antibacterial activity evaluation of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) modified by Cinnamyl alcohol (Cin) onto the OH position of COS. Three different degrees of substitution (DS) COS-O-Cin1-3 were synthesized by changing different molar ratios of COS to Cin. UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), H nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis were conducted to characterize the successful synthesis of COS-O-Cin1-3. The results showed that they exhibited higher thermal stability, weaker crystallinity and better antibacterial properties than that of COS. These results aided in obtaining the important supports for exploring new functional antibacterial agents, which expand the scope of COS's application in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125513DOI Listing
March 2020

Use of Wine and Dairy Yeasts as Single Starter Cultures for Flavor Compound Modification in Fish Sauce Fermentation.

Front Microbiol 2019 9;10:2300. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Effects of wine and dairy yeast fermentation on chemical constituents of tilapia fish head hydrolysate supplemented with glucose in an unsalted and acidic environment were investigated. Three wine yeasts ( Biodiva, Lalvin EC-1118 and Frootzen) and one dairy yeast ( NCYC1425) were employed as single starter cultures, respectively, and were compared with one soy sauce yeast ( NCYC1433). Each yeast showed different growth kinetics and fermentation performance. Compared with NCYC1433, other yeasts presented a significant higher rate of glucose consumption ( < 0.05). Besides, NCYC1425 and Frootzen produced more citric acid and succinic acid, respectively, while Lalvin EC-1118 exhibited higher pyruvic acid production. Significant lower levels of total free amino acids were observed in samples inoculated with wine yeasts relative to other yeasts ( < 0.05). Non-soy sauce yeasts produced increased various levels of esters and alcohols without traditional fish sauce unpleasant odorants, especially NCYC1425 and Frootzen. The results confirmed that non-soy sauce yeasts are suitable for fish sauce flavor compound modification and to develop a fast fermentation process for saltless fish sauce from fish head, which could increase the acceptability of fish sauce and improve the utilization of fish by-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794352PMC
October 2019

The relationship between degradation of myofibrillar structural proteins and texture of superchilled grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillet.

Food Chem 2019 Dec 29;301:125278. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

The Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Softening is always a problem in fish preservation. This study was aimed to investigate the role of myofibrillar structural proteins degradation in fish softening. The changes of myofibrillar structural proteins, muscle ultrastructure, myofibril fragmentation, and shear force were studied. The results indicated that during the superchilled preservation of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), small (low-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like desmin and troponin-T initiated textural deterioration, leading to Z-disk weakening and actin loosening. In contrast, giant (high-molecular-weight) myofibrillar structural proteins like titin and nebulin were degraded in more amount in the later storage, contributing to Z-disk and M-band disassembly and vague of light and dark regions (I and A bands). Compared to each other, desmin and titin played more important part in softening. All these changes were involved in the increase of muscle fibril segments and the sharp decrease of shear force.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125278DOI Listing
December 2019

Technological properties and probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional low-salt fermented Chinese fish Suan yu.

J Food Biochem 2019 08 4;43(8):e12865. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

This study aims to investigate the technological properties of yeast strains isolated from traditional low-salt fermented Suan yu fish as starter culture. A step-by-step approach was used to determine the technological properties of the isolated yeast strains. The enzymatic activity (catalase, urease, β-glucosidase, protease, and lipase) under adverse conditions (pH, salt, and temperature) were evaluated. Principal component analysis was used to assess data. Twenty-five strains with desirable technological properties were selected for evaluation of probiotic traits (tolerance at pH 2.5 and 0.3% bile salts, antimicrobial activity, hydrophobic properties, and biofilm production). These isolates were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Finally, seven isolates with desirable probiotic traits were analyzed for their ability to survive through gastric transit using a gastrointestinal simulation model. An In vitro test showed that isolates 3, 12, 19, 24, and 43 exhibited high survival levels (60%-70%), similar to those of the indicator strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The results suggest that five isolates (S. cerevisiae strains 3, 12, 19, 24, and 43) showed desirable technological properties and probiotic traits and therefore can be used as functional starter cultures to produce fermented fish products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Researchers have investigated the activity of LAB as functional and probiotic microorganisms; however, information on the probiotic potential of yeasts remains limited. Yeasts are microorganisms that present and induce biochemical changes in several fermented meat and fish products. In the present study, the technological and probiotic properties of 52 isolates from Suan yu were investigated to identify potential probiotic strains for starter cultures. Our results suggest that five isolated S. cerevisiae strains showed desirable technological properties and probiotic traits and therefore can be used as functional starter cultures to produce fermented fish products, and other fermented foods. Functional yeast isolates are used to effectively improve the quality of fermented fish products for consumer acceptance. This study has focused on the possibility to produce a functional Suan yu using a potential probiotic S. cerevisiae as starter culture to enhance health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12865DOI Listing
August 2019

Effect of chitosan with different molecular weight on the stability, antioxidant and anticancer activities of well-dispersed selenium nanoparticles.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2019 Feb;13(1):30-35

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi, 214122 Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

This study was designed to evaluate and compare the stability, antioxidant and anticancer activities of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated with different molecular weight (MW) of chitosan (CS) (1500Da, 48 kDa, 510 kDa). The size range of well-dispersed SeNPs was effectively controlled by I first and then coated with CS. The morphology, size and surface charge of generated SeNPs were characterised by several technologies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the relationship between SeNPs and CS. SeNPs decorated with CS (510 kDa) can keep stable for more than 45 days. As observed from the results of a simple photometric system, the antioxidant activities of decorated SeNPs were enhanced compared to undecorated SeNPs. SeNPs coated with higher MW of CS (510 kDa) showed the strongest antioxidant activities. Moreover, the treatments of SeNPs decorated with CS inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The proposed results demonstrated the critical roles of the MW of CS on the stability, antioxidant and anticancer properties of CS-coated SeNPs, which provided an important design cue for future applications of functional foods and additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2018.5052DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent advances in quality retention of non-frozen fish and fishery products: A review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 29;60(10):1747-1759. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Fishery products are delicious, nutritional and healthy foods, and their popularity in today's market is growing. With the changes in consumer consumption expectations as well as the development of reliable cold-chains, fresh preprocessed fishery products such as fillets are more popular with consumers and producers because of their convenience for processing and cooking. However, fishery products after being removed from water have a short shelf life due to their intrinsic characteristics. Therefore, developing effective preservation technology to extend postmortem shelf life of fishery products has been an on-going area of study. This review summarizes the patterns of quality deterioration and external factors that affect postmortem quality of fishery products, and then updates the recent advances with preservation methods for fishery products including superchilling, modified atmosphere packaging, active packaging, edible coatings, irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed, and future trends for improving the preservation of fishery products are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1596067DOI Listing
July 2020

Quality, functionality, and microbiology of fermented fish: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 24;60(7):1228-1242. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Fermentation is a traditional food preservation method and is widely used for improving food safety, shelf life, and organoleptic and nutritional attributes. Fermented fish are produced and consumed in different parts of the world and are an integral part of many food cultures. Furthermore, fermented fish are a source of interesting microbes and are an important industry in many countries. This review tries to update the types and manufacturing processes for fermented fish around the world. The emphasis is on this work related to fermented fish and their health benefits, as well as the contribution of microorganisms to their fermentation. A variety of different approaches have been used to determine and understand microbial composition and functionality. Moreover, some challenges and future research directions regarding fermented fish are also discussed in this review. Further research into fermented fish products is of crucial importance not only for the food industry but also for human health. However, extensive in vivo and toxicological studies are essential before the application of bioactive-rich fermented fish products for human health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1565491DOI Listing
March 2020

Differential roles of ice crystal, endogenous proteolytic activities and oxidation in softening of obscure pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) fillets during frozen storage.

Food Chem 2019 Apr 17;278:452-459. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Obscure pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) softening during frozen storage remains to be solved. This study was therefore aimed to provide explanations by differentiate the roles of three potential factors in fish softening. The influences of ice crystal, endogenous proteolytic activities, and oxidization were distinguished by treatment of fish fillets with liquid nitrogen, iodoacetic acid, and tea polyphenol with ascorbic acid, respectively. This distinguishing method was verified to be effective by investigation in ice crystal microstructure, endogenous proteolytic activities and lipid and protein oxidation. In comparison of three factors, it showed that the shear force of fish fillets with smaller ice crystals was about 15.5% and 13.7% higher than those with the inhibition of endogenous proteolytic activities and oxidation respectively, indicating the dominant role of ice crystal in frozen fish softening. Besides, quality decline of frozen fish was initially fast and then slowed down during the storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.11.084DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of inoculating autochthonous starter cultures on N-nitrosodimethylamine and its precursors formation during fermentation of Chinese traditional fermented fish.

Food Chem 2019 Jan 26;271:174-181. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 120, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2018 and Staphylococcus xylosus 135 inoculation on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and its precursors formation, and on microbiological characteristics of Chinese traditional fermented fish products (CTFPs). The results indicated that three strains could directly degrade NDMA in culture broth, and the highest degradation rate was observed in L. plantarum 120. The lactic acid bacteria counts in samples inoculated with L. plantarum 120 and mixed starter cultures were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the others during the initial and middle fermentation stages (≤3 weeks). The final contents of total volatile base nitrogen, trimethylamine, dimethylamine, nitrite and NDMA in inoculated samples were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in spontaneous fermentation samples. According to these results, the inoculation with autochthonous starter cultures was a promising method to inhibit the NDMA and its precursors accumulation in CTFPs during fermentation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.186DOI Listing
January 2019
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