Publications by authors named "Wenming Zhang"

220 Publications

Analysis of Community Composition of Bacterioplankton in Changle Seawater in China by Illumina Sequencing Combined with Bacteria Culture.

Orthop Surg 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Joint Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To characterize the abundance and relative composition of seawater bacterioplankton communities in Changle city using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bacterial culture techniques.

Methods: Seawater samples and physicochemical factors were collected from the coastal zone of Changle city on 8 September 2019. Nineteen filter membranes were obtained after using a suction filtration system. We randomly selected eight samples for total seawater bacteria (SWDNA group) sequencing and three samples for active seawater bacteria (SWRNA group) sequencing by Illumina MiSeq. The remaining eight samples were used for bacterial culture and identification. Alpha diversity including species coverage (Coverage), species diversity (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson index), richness estimators (Chao1), and abundance-based richness estimation (ACE) were calculated to assess biodiversity of seawater bacterioplankton. Beta diversity was used to evaluate the differences between samples. The species abundance differences were determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Statistical analyses were performed in R environment.

Results: The Alpha diversity in the SWDNA group in each index was ACE 3206.99, Chao1 2615.12, Shannon 4.64, Simpson 0.05, and coverage 0.97; the corresponding index was ACE 1199.55, Chao1 934.75, Shannon 3.49, Simpson 0.09, and coverage 0.99. The sequencing results of seawater bacterial genes in the coastal waters of Changle city showed that the phyla of high-abundance bacteria of both the SWDNA and SWRNA groups included Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The main classes included Oxyphotobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. The main genera included Synechococcus CC9902, Chloroplast, and Cyanobium_PCC-6307. Beta diversity analysis showed a significant difference between the SWDNA and SWRNA groups (P < 0.05). The species abundance differences between SWDNA and SWRNA groups after Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed that, at the phylum level, Actinomycetes was more abundant in SWDNA group (9.17 vs 1.02%, P < 0.05); at the class level, Actinomycetes (δ- Proteus) was more abundant in SWDNA group (9.47% vs 1.01%, P < 0.05); and at the genus level, Chloroplast was more abundant in SWRNA group (13.07% vs 44.57%, P < 0.05). Nine species and 53 colonies were found by bacterial culture: 20 strains of Vibrio (37.74%), 22 strains of Enterobacter (41.51%), and 11 strains of non-fermentative bacteria (20.75%).

Conclusion: Illumi MiSeq sequencing of seawater bacteria revealed that the total bacterial community groups and the active bacterial community groups mainly comprised Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroides at the phylum level; Oxyphotobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and γ-Proteobacteria at the class level; with Synechococcus_CC9902, Chloroplast, and Cyanobium_PCC-6307 comprising the predominant genera. Exploring the composition and differences of seawater bacteria assists understanding regarding the biodiversity and the infections related to seawater bacteria along the coast of the Changle, provides information that will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of such infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13060DOI Listing
November 2021

The draft genome sequence of strain DSM 27193, a yeast capable of producing palmitoleic acid-rich lipids.

3 Biotech 2021 Nov 3;11(11):488. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Section II: Technical Biology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg4, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

In this study, the draft genome of the recently isolated oleaginous yeast DSM 27193, which can accumulate high content of palmitoleic acid (POA), was sequenced and analyzed. Only few studies have reported about POA-rich lipid production by so far. The ITS region analysis indicated that strain DSM 27193 is closely related to and . The size of the assembled draft genome of strain DSM 27193 is 14.8 Mb, containing 5477 encoded protein sequences with a G + C content of 40.83%. Among the annotated genes, two stearoyl-CoA desaturases encoded by and were identified which are potentially involved in POA accumulation. Further analysis of POA-rich lipid synthesis pathway genes in DSM 27193 will provide additional insights for POA artificial synthesis through metabolic engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-03040-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566629PMC
November 2021

The extracellular β-glucosidase BGL2 has two variants with different molecular sizes and hydrolytic activities in the stipe or pilei of .

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 Nov;167(11)

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Microbial Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, PR China.

Two variants of extracellular β-glucosidase (BGL2) were purified from the stipe and pilei of . In the stipe, BGL2 was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 220 kDa, representing a mature full-length peptide of BGL2. However, in the pilei, the apparent molecular mass of BGL2 was only approximately 120 kDa, consisting of the 60 kDa N-terminal fragment and 55 kDa C-terminal fragment. The hydrolytic activities of BGL2 purified from the pilei were higher than those of BGL2 purified from the stipe. No mRNA splice variants of were detected. Therefore, the different variants of BGL2 in the stipe and pilei were not formed by differential RNA splicing. Furthermore, experiments showed that full-length BGL2 could be cleaved by endogenous proteases from pilei or commercial trypsin at a similar site to form an oligomeric protein consisting of the N-terminal fragment and C-terminal fragment similar to BGL2 from pilei. The hydrolytic activity of BGL2 increased after cleavage by those proteases . We conclude that the 120 kDa variant of BGL2 in the pilei of is formed by posttranslational proteolytic cleavage. Posttranslational proteolytic cleavage is an efficient way to regulate the activity of BGL2 to adapt to the needs of different physiological functions in the elongation stipe and expansion pilei of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.001100DOI Listing
November 2021

Defense pathways of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under silver nanoparticle stress: Extracellular biosorption, internalization and antioxidant genes.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 6:132764. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have been investigated the toxic effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) on algae; however, little attention has been paid to the defense pathways of algae cells to Ag-NPs. In the study, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was selected as a model organism to investigate the defense mechanisms to Ag-NPs exposure. The results showed that exopolysaccharide and protein in bound-extracellular polymeric substances significantly increased under Ag-NPs stress. These metal-binding groups including C-O-C (exopolysaccharide), CH/CH (proteins), O-H/N-H (hydroxyl group) and C-H (alkyl groups) played a key role in extracellular biosorption. The internalized or strongly bound Ag (1.90%-17.45% of total contents) was higher than the loosely surface biosorption (0.31%-1.79%). The accumulation of glutathione disulfide (GSSG), together with the decline of reduced glutathione/GSSG (GSH/GSSG) ratio in C. reinhardtii cells, indicated a significant oxidative stress caused by exposure of Ag-NPs. The increasing phytochelatin accompanied with the decreasing GSH level indicated a critical role to intracellular detoxification of Ag. Furthermore, upregulation of antioxidant genes (MSOD, QTOX2, CAT1, GPX2, APX and VTE3) can cope with oxidative stress of Ag-NPs or Ag. The up-regulation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX2) genes and the reduction in GSH contents showed that the toxicity of Ag-NPs could be mediated by an intracellular ascorbate-GSH defense pathway. These findings can provide valuable information on ecotoxicity of Ag-NPs, potential bioremediation and adaptation capabilities of algal cells to Ag-NPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132764DOI Listing
November 2021

Increased Lipid Production in from Acetate through Metabolic Engineering and Cosubstrate Fermentation.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 11 29;10(11):3129-3138. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Section II: Technical Biology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 4, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Bioconversion of acetate, a byproduct generated in industrial processes, into microbial lipids using oleaginous yeasts offers a promising alternative for the economic utilization of acetate-containing waste streams. However, high acetate concentrations will inhibit microbial growth and metabolism. In this study, the acetate utilization capability of PO1f was successively improved by overexpressing the key enzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), which resulted in an accumulation of 9.2% microbial lipids from acetate in shake flask fermentation. By further overexpressing the second key enzymes of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in , the lipid content was increased to 25.7% from acetate. Finally, the maximum OD of 29.2 and a lipid content of 41.7% were obtained with the engineered strain by the adoption of cosubstrate (glycerol and acetate) fed-batch fermentation, which corresponded to an increase of 68 and 95%, respectively. These results presented a promising strategy for economic and efficient microbial lipid production from the waste acetate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.1c00405DOI Listing
November 2021

Should Posterior Midline Structures Be Preserved in Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Spine Surg 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China.

Study Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the available evidence on the preservation of posterior midline structures in decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

Summary Of Background Data: The gold-standard treatment for LSS refractory to conservative management is facet-preserving laminectomy. The question remains whether the midline structures should be preserved in decompression surgery for LSS.

Materials And Methods: We performed a systematic review of the Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases in search of published reports comparing midline structure preservation (MSP) and conventional laminectomy (CL) for LSS. The population was divided into 2 groups: (1) MSP group (intervention) and (2) CL group (control). The various outcome parameters including blood loss, operation time, hospital stay, back and leg pain, functional scores including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) scores, satisfaction, and instability rates were analyzed. Data were extracted and aggregated for meta-analysis.

Results: Of the published reports, 16 met our inclusion criteria with an aggregated 540 in the intervention and 538 in the control groups, respectively. The aggregated data demonstrated patients undergoing MSP had significantly decreased back pain Visual Analog Scale compared with CL, regardless of time after surgery (P=0.007). The MSP group also showed a significantly lower Oswestry Disability Index score and SF-36 Mental Component Summary score (P=0.005 and 0.03, respectively) and longer 6-month walking distance (P<0.00001). The patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in the MSP group (P=0.02), and the instability rate was significantly lower in the MSP group compared with the CL group (P<0.0001). At 3 days after surgery, MSP significantly decreased the level of creatinine phosphokinase (P<0.00001). Regarding intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, leg pain Visual Analog Scale score, Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and SF-36 Physical Component Summary score, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups. However, MSP showed significantly higher operation time (P=0.04).

Conclusions: We concluded despite heterogenous and limited data, this study suggests that preservation of midline structure leads to less severe back pain, better functional recovery, and satisfaction rate. Meanwhile, it decreases creatinine phosphokinase level and instability rate.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-therapeutic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001268DOI Listing
October 2021

Comprehensive evaluation for the one-pot biosynthesis of butyl acetate by using microbial mono- and co-cultures.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Oct 16;14(1):203. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Puzhu South Road 30#, Nanjing, 211800, People's Republic of China.

Background: Butyl acetate has shown wide applications in food, cosmetics, medicine, and biofuel sectors. These short-chain fatty acid esters can be produced by either chemical or biological synthetic process with corresponding alcohols and acids. Currently, biosynthesis of short chain fatty acid esters, such as butyl butyrate, through microbial fermentation systems has been achieved; however, few studies regarding biosynthesis of butyl acetate were reported.

Results: In this study, three proof-of-principle strategies for the one-pot butyl acetate production from glucose through microbial fermentation were designed and evaluated. (1) 7.3 g/L of butyl acetate was synthesized by butanol-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum NJ4 with the supplementation of exogenous acetic acid; (2) With the addition of butanol, 5.76 g/L of butyl acetate can be synthesized by acetate-producing Actinobacillus succinogenes130z (ΔpflA); (3) Microbial co-culture of C. acetobutylicum NJ4 and A. succinogenes130z (ΔpflA) can directly produce 2.2 g/L of butyl acetate from glucose by using microbial co-culture system with the elimination of precursors. Through the further immobilization of A. succinogenes130z (ΔpflA), butyl acetate production was improved to 2.86 g/L.

Conclusion: Different microbial mono- and co-culture systems for butyl acetate biosynthesis were successfully constructed. These strategies may be extended to the biosynthesis of a wide range of esters, especially to some longer chain ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-02053-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520270PMC
October 2021

Adaptive epipolar distance transform and adaptive matching cost for stereo matching.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Aug;38(8):1170-1177

This paper presents a new algorithm that robustly performs stereo matching for textureless regions in stereo images. To this end, we design an adaptive matching cost which employs a special term. This term can assign distinguishable values to pixels adaptively according to the texture information. Specifically, first, we improve the epipolar distance transform by utilizing a linear expansion function and obtain an adaptive epipolar distance transform (AEDT); second, we propose an adaptive matching cost utilizing the AEDT to deal with textureless region problems. Experiments on the Middlebury benchmark demonstrate that the proposed method can perform accurate stereo matching on textureless regions. Moreover, the experiments show that the proposed adaptive matching cost can be directly utilized to other methods to improve the disparity results in textureless regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.424889DOI Listing
August 2021

Electrospun [email protected] Nanofibers Composite as Efficient Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of New Energy Photoelectric Devices, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China.

Nanoscale [email protected] was prepared by loading FeO and Sn nanoparticles onto CNFs synthesized via electrostatic spinning and subsequent thermal treatment by solvothermal reaction, and were used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The prepared anode delivers an excellent reversible specific capacity of 1120 mAh·g at a current density of 100 mA·g at the 50th cycle. The recovery rate of the specific capacity (99%) proves the better cycle stability. FeO nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of nanofibers with high density, effectively increasing the electrochemical reaction sites, and improving the electrochemical performance of the active material. The rate and cycling performance of the fabricated electrodes were significantly improved because of Sn and FeO loading on CNFs with high electrical conductivity and elasticity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11092203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471746PMC
August 2021

Bioconversion of Methanol by Synthetic Methylotrophy.

Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

As an important building block in the chemical industry, methanol has become an attractive substrate in biorefinery owing to its abundance and low cost. With the development of synthetic biology, metabolic engineering of non-methylotrophy to construct synthetic methylotrophy has drawn increased attention. As for the metabolic construction of methanol assimilation pathway in some industrial hosts, several artificial methanol assimilation pathways have recently been designed and constructed based on the computer-aided design. Particularly, these artificial methanol assimilation pathways possess advantages of shorter reaction steps, stronger driving forces, and independence on oxygen. Accordingly, this chapter reviewed strategies of constructing synthetic methylotrophs, including introducing methanol metabolic modules derived from natural methylotrophs and designing artificial methanol assimilation pathways. Future challenges and prospects were also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/10_2021_176DOI Listing
September 2021

Challenges and Future Perspectives of Promising Biotechnologies for Lignocellulosic Biorefinery.

Molecules 2021 Sep 6;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China.

Lignocellulose is a kind of renewable bioresource containing abundant polysaccharides, which can be used for biochemicals and biofuels production. However, the complex structure hinders the final efficiency of lignocellulosic biorefinery. This review comprehensively summarizes the hydrolases and typical microorganisms for lignocellulosic degradation. Moreover, the commonly used bioprocesses for lignocellulosic biorefinery are also discussed, including separated hydrolysis and fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and consolidated bioprocessing. Among these methods, construction of microbial co-culturing systems via consolidated bioprocessing is regarded as a potential strategy to efficiently produce biochemicals and biofuels, providing theoretical direction for constructing efficient and stable biorefinery process system in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433869PMC
September 2021

Assessment of seawater bacterial infection in rabbit tibia by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bacterial culture.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jul 21;16(1):463. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the bacterial community composition following ocean bacterial infection using an animal model.

Methods: This animal-based experiment was conducted from September 2019 to November 2019. Eighteen seawater filter membranes were collected from Changle City, Fujiian Province, China, on September 8, 2019. Ten filter membranes were used for implantation. Eight filter membranes that were used in the bacterial culture for the exploration of seawater bacteria were assigned to the seawater group (SG). Fourteen healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Seawater filter membranes and asepsis membranes were implanted into the tibia in the EG and CG, respectively. One week after surgery, tibial bone pathology tissues were collected and assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Medullary cavity tissues were collected for the performance of Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bacterial culture. The differences between EG and CG were assessed by pathological observation under light microscopy and SEM, high-throughput bacterial sequencing, and bacterial culture.

Results: Compared with the CG, the infection rate was 100%, and the mortality value was 20% after the implantation of the filter membranes in the EG. Both light microscopy and SEM showed that a large number of bacteria were distributed in the bone marrow cavity after ocean bacterial infection. No bacterial growth was found in the CG. Illumina MiSeq sequencing found that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Thermotogae, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria at the phylum level and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_7, Haloimpatiens, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_15, Clostridiaceae_1, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_18, and Oceanotoga were the dominant bacteria in genus level among the EG. In the bacterial culture of the medullary cavity tissues, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shewanella algae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Vibrio vulnificus were the predominant infective species. Moreover, compared with the SG, the EG showed a higher detection rate of E. coli and S. aureus (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively). The detection rates of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. fluvialis were higher in the SG than the EG (P = 0.007, P = 0.03, and P = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: Our model, which was comprehensively evaluated using four techniques: histopathology and SEM observation, gene detection, and bacteria culture, provides a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients in such settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02553-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293552PMC
July 2021

Microbial application of thermophilic Thermoanaerobacterium species in lignocellulosic biorefinery.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Aug 20;105(14-15):5739-5749. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering Nanjing Tech University, Puzhu South Road 30#, Nanjing, 211800, People's Republic of China.

Recently, thermophilic Thermoanaerobacterium species have attracted increasing attentions in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which can directly utilize lignocellulosic materials for biofuels production. Compared to the mesophilic process, thermophilic process shows greater prospects in CBP due to its relatively highly efficiency of lignocellulose degradation. In addition, thermophilic conditions can avoid microbial contamination, reduce the cooling costs, and further facilitate the downstream product recovery. However, only few reviews specifically focused on the microbial applications of thermophilic Thermoanaerobacterium species in lignocellulosic biorefinery. Accordingly, this review will comprehensively summarize the recent advances of Thermoanaerobacterium species in lignocellulosic biorefinery, including their secreted xylanases and bioenergy production. Furthermore, the co-culture can significantly reduce the metabolic burden and achieve the more complex work, which will be discussed as the further perspectives. KEY POINTS: • Thermoanaerobacterium species, promising chassis for lignocellulosic biorefinery. • Potential capability of hemicellulose degradation for Thermoanaerobacterium species. • Efficient bioenergy production by Thermoanaerobacterium species through metabolic engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11450-4DOI Listing
August 2021

[Advances in the metabolic engineering for the production of tetracarbon organic acids].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 May;37(5):1697-1720

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu, China.

Tetracarbon organic acids are important platform chemicals that are widely used in the food, chemical, medicine, material industries and agriculture. Compared with the traditional petrochemical process, the production of tetracarbon organic acids by microbial fermentation is more promising due to milder reaction conditions, greener process and better environmental compatibility. This review summarizes the biosynthetic pathways and metabolic mechanisms for the production of tetracarbon organic acids, and illustrates recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives in the production of tetracarbon organic acids by naturally selected or purposefully engineered strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200727DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 29;8:603558. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Liaocheng Infectious Disease Hospital, Liaocheng, China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulative status, particularly for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. However, the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in these patients under routine prophylactic anticoagulation remains unknown. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prevalence of VTE in these patients by pooling the results of these observational studies. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of VTE in critically ill patients with COVID-19 were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases. A random-effect model was used to pool the results by incorporating the potential heterogeneity. A total of 19 studies with 1,599 patients were included. The pooled results revealed that the prevalence of VTE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 was 28.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.0-36.8%], 25.6% (95% CI: 17.8-33.4%), and 16.4% (95% CI: 10.1-22.7%), respectively. Limited to studies, in which all patients received routine prophylactic anticoagulation, and the prevalence for VTE, DVT, and PE was 30.1% (95% CI: 19.4-40.8%), 27.2% (95% CI: 16.5-37.9%), and 18.3% (95% CI: 9.8%-26.7%), respectively. The prevalence of DVT was higher in studies with routine screening for all patients, when compared to studies with screening only in clinically suspected patients (47.5% vs. 15.1%, < 0.001). Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have a high prevalence of VTE, despite the use of present routine prophylactic anticoagulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.603558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116594PMC
April 2021

Emerging Applications of 3D Printing in Biomanufacturing.

Trends Biotechnol 2021 Nov 27;39(11):1114-1116. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, PR China; Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, PR China.

The combination of 3D printing and synthetic biology is a sustainable strategy to fabricate biological objects and systems that behave in a preprogrammed manner. Many microorganisms have been genetically engineered as cell factories for the biosynthesis of chemicals using fermentation, and 3D printing of living materials using these cells could lead to a new paradigm for biomanufacturing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2021.04.005DOI Listing
November 2021

A pragmatic eLCR for an ultrasensitive detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in joint synovial fluid: superior to qPCR.

Analyst 2021 Jun 22;146(11):3500-3509. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Fujian Provincial Institute of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005, China.

For periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) patients, an early and rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in joint synovial fluid is of great significance for receiving timely treatment and avoiding side effects. In clinical practice, the methods for detecting MRSA include the culture-based method and the PCR-based mecA gene detection method with fluorescent readout. However, the culture-based method requires up to 3-7 days for incubation and elaborative screening. The PCR-based molecular diagnosis, due to its high sensitivity, improves the detection time but sacrifices cost and gives false-positive results. Herein, a ligation chain reaction (LCR)-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to detect the mecA of MRSA with the advantages of rapidity, accuracy and low cost. In this system, an integrated dsDNA labeled with thiol and biotin at both terminals is generated only in the presence of the target DNA after LCR, followed by immobilization of the integrated dsDNAs on the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated gold electrode, and then the streptavidin horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRPs) is specifically bound to the biotin labels via biotin-streptavidin interaction, generating the catalytic amperometric readout. Impressively, the developed method achieved the detection of rare mecA in the joint synovial fluid of PJI patients (417-666 copies as quantified by qPCR). The proposed electrochemistry-based method is highly convenient for the point-of-care testing and was comparable with PCR in sensitivity, but superior in selectivity (single-base differentiation) and cost (nanomolar DNA probe consumption and simple device), demonstrating its huge potential in clinical applications for MRSA diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00350jDOI Listing
June 2021

Food Allergies: An Example of Translational Research.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2021 05;41(2):143-163

Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Food allergies have been rising in prevalence since the 1990s, imposing substantial physical, psychosocial, and economic burdens on affected patients and their families. Until recently, the only therapy for food allergy was strict avoidance of the allergenic food. Recent advances in translational studies, however, have led to insights into allergic sensitization and tolerance. This article provides an overview of cutting-edge research into food allergy and immune tolerance mechanisms utilizing mouse models, human studies, and systems biology approaches. This research is being translated and implemented in the clinical setting to improve diagnosis and reduce food allergy's public health burden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2021.01.003DOI Listing
May 2021

Bonding the Terminal Isocyanate-Related Functional Group to the Surface Manganese Ions to Enhance Li-Rich Cathode's Cycling Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 7;13(15):17565-17576. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China.

Capacity fading of Li-rich cathodes in the cycling process is mainly caused by the irreversible side reactions at the interface of electrode and electrolyte by reason of the lack of a corrosion resistant surface. In this work, isocyanate-related functional groups (-N═C═O groups and polyamide-like groups) were tightly bonded on the surface of Li-rich oxides through a urea decomposition gas heat-treatment. The surface isocyanate functionalization inhibits the side reaction of PF hydrolysis to give LiPFO and HF species at the surface of Li-rich materials in the cycle process. As compared to the untreated Li-rich sample U0, the samples with the spinel-like layer and isocyanate functionalized surface exhibited an enhanced cycle stability. The capacity retention of the treated sample U3 reached as high as 92.6% after 100 cycles at the current density of 100 mA/g, larger than 66.8% for the untreated sample. Even at a higher current density of 1000 mA/g, sample U3 gives a capacity retention of 81.7% after 300 cycles. The findings of this work reveal the importance of surface isocyanate functionalization in restraining the surface side reactions and also suggest an effective method to design Li-rich cathode materials with better electrochemistry performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01726DOI Listing
April 2021

Dense stereo fish-eye images using a modified hemispherical ASW algorithm.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Apr;38(4):476-487

In this paper, we concentrate on dense estimation of disparities between fish-eye images without corrections. Because of the distortions, fish-eye images cannot be processed directly utilizing the classical adaptive support weight (ASW) method for perspective images. To address this problem, we propose a modified hemispherical ASW method in a hemispherical framework. First, 3D epipolar curves are calculated directly on a hemispherical model to deal with the problem that 2D epipolar curves cannot cover the whole image disc. Then, a modified ASW method with hemispherical support window and hemispherical geodesic distance is presented. Moreover, a three-dimensional epipolar distance transform (3DEDT) is proposed and fused into the matching cost to cope with the textureless region problem. The benefit of this approach is demonstrated by realizing the dense stereo matching for fish-eye images using a public fish-eye data set, for which both objectively evaluated as well as visually convincing results are provided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.413120DOI Listing
April 2021

Epidemiological investigation and intergenerational clinical characteristics of 24 coronavirus disease patients associated with a supermarket cluster: a retrospective study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 1;21(1):647. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Intensive Care Unit, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, 252000, Shandong, China.

Background: In view of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it remains unclear whether the severity of illness and time interval from symptom onset to release from quarantine differ between cases that originated from clusters and cases reported in other areas. This study aimed to assess epidemiological and intergenerational clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients associated with cluster outbreaks to provide valuable data for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

Methods: We identified the first employee with COVID-19 at a supermarket and screened the close contacts of this index patient. Confirmed cases were divided into two groups according to the generation (first generation comprising supermarket employees [group A] and second or third generations comprising family members or friends of the supermarket employees [group B]). The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the two groups were retrospectively compared.

Results: A total of 8437 people were screened, and 24 COVID-19 patients were identified. Seven patients (29.2%) were asymptomatic; three patients were responsible for six symptomatic cases. The interval from the confirmation of the first case to symptom onset in symptomatic patients was 5-11 days. The clinical manifestations of symptomatic patients upon admission were non-specific. All patients (including the seven asymptomatic patients) were admitted based on chest computed tomography features indicative of pneumonia. There were 11 cases in group A (first generation) and 13 cases in group B (second generation, 11 cases; third generation, 2 cases), with no significant differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between the two groups, except for sex, duration from symptom onset to hospitalization, and underlying disease (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: For cluster outbreaks, it is important to comprehensively screen close the contacts of the index patient. Special attention should be paid to asymptomatic cases. The clinical management of cluster patients is similar to that of other COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10713-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016429PMC
April 2021

Immune changes beyond Th2 pathways during rapid multifood immunotherapy enabled with omalizumab.

Allergy 2021 09 29;76(9):2809-2826. Epub 2021 May 29.

Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Multifood oral immunotherapy (mOIT) with adjunctive anti-IgE (omalizumab, XOLAIR ) treatment affords safe, effective, and rapid desensitization to multiple foods, although the specific immune mechanisms mediating this desensitization remain to be fully elucidated.

Methods: Participants in our phase 2 mOIT trial (NCT02643862) received omalizumab from baseline to week 16 and mOIT from week 8 to week 36. We compared the immune profile of PBMCs and plasma taken at baseline, week 8, and week 36 using high-dimensional mass cytometry, component-resolved diagnostics, the indirect basophil activation test, and Luminex.

Results: We found (i) decreased frequency of IL-4 peanut-reactive CD4 T cells and a marked downregulation of GPR15 expression and CXCR3 frequency among γδ and CD8 T-cell subsets at week 8 during the initial, omalizumab-alone induction phase; (ii) significant upregulation of the skin-homing receptor CCR4 in peanut-reactive CD4 T and Th2 effector memory (EM) cells and of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) in peanut-reactive CD8 T and CD8 EM cells; (iii) downregulation of CD86 expression among antigen-presenting cell subsets; and (iv) reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines, notably IL-17, at week 36 post-OIT. We also observed significant attenuation of the Th2 phenotype post-OIT, defined by downregulation of IL-4 peanut-reactive T cells and OX40 in Th2EM cells, increased allergen component-specific IgG4/IgE ratio, and decreased allergen-driven activation of indirectly sensitized basophils.

Conclusions: This exploratory study provides novel comprehensive insight into the immune underpinnings of desensitization through omalizumab-facilitated mOIT. Moreover, this study provides encouraging results to support the complex immune changes that can be induced by OIT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609920PMC
September 2021

New MR-based measures for the evaluation of age-related lumbar paraspinal muscle degeneration.

Eur Spine J 2021 09 19;30(9):2577-2585. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Spine Lab, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 79# Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, China.

Purpose: Although signal intensity on T2W axial images is sensitive in detection of fatty infiltration to assess paraspinal muscle degeneration, it is affected by inhomogeneities of magnetic fields and individual variabilities. The purpose of this study was to propose reference adjusted signal measures on T2W axial images and determine their capacities in reflecting age-related lumbar paraspinal muscle degeneration.

Methods: Lumbar MR images of 421 population-based subjects (177 men and 244 women, mean age 53.1 years, range 19.8-87.9 years) were studied. A custom software Spine Explore (Tulong 2.0) was used to automatically obtain paraspinal measurements of multifidus, erector spinae and psoas major. FCSA/TCSA was defined as functional cross-sectional area relative to total cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle. Two new signal measures were canal-adjusted and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-adjusted signal, defined as the ratio between mean signal measurements and the mean signal of the canal and CSF.

Results: The raw signal measurements of the paraspinal muscles were weakly correlated to age (r = 0.28-0.39, P < 0.001). When the signal of canal (r = 0.43-0.59, P < 0.001) or CSF (r = 0.45-0.61, P < 0.001) was used as reference, the correlations substantially increased. Signal measurements of three paraspinal muscles, adjusted or not, were strongly associated with Goutallier score (ρ = 0.60-0.65, P < 0.001) and FCSA/TCSA (r = -0.64 to -0.82, P < 0.001). Greater Goutallier score was associated with greater age (r = 0.38-0.60, P < 0.001), while Lumbar indentation value (LIV) not.

Conclusion: On routine T2W axial MR images the adjusted signal measurements using an internal reference of CSF or canal can better reflect age-related degenerative changes in the paraspinal muscles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-021-06811-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Biofilm application in the microbial biochemicals production process.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 May-Jun;48:107724. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, PR China; Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, PR China.

Biofilms can be naturally formed through the attachment of microorganisms on the supporting materials. However, natural biofilms formed in the environment may cause some detrimental effects, such as the equipment contamination and food safety issues et al. On the contrary, biofilms mediated microbial fermentation provides a promising approach for the efficient biochemicals production owing to the properties of self-immobilization, high resistance to toxic reactants and maintenance of long-term cells activity. While few reviews have specifically addressed the biological application of biofilms in the microbial fermentation process. Accordingly, this review will comprehensively summarize the biofilms formation mechanism and potential functions in the microbial fermentation process. Furthermore, the construction strategies for the formation of stable biofilms through synthetic biology technology or the modification of suitable supporting materials will be also discussed. The application of biofilms mediated fermentation will provide an outlook for the biorefinery platform in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2021.107724DOI Listing
April 2021

[Comparison of CLIF and TLIF in treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis combined with lumbar spinal stenosis].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Feb;35(2):210-216

Department of Orthopedics, the Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen Guangdong, 518033, P.R.China.

Objective: To observe the difference between crenel lateral interbody fusion (CLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) combined with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

Methods: The clinical data of DLS combined with LSS patients meeting the selection criteria admitted between May 2018 and May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. According to different surgical methods, the patients were divided into CLIF group (33 cases) and TLIF group (32 cases). There were no significant differences ( >0.05) between the two groups in gender, age, disease duration, lesion segments, lumbar bone mineral density, degree of lumbar spondylolisthesis, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height, lumbar lordosis (LL), and segmental lordosis (SL). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and perioperative complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. Lumbar CT scan was performed at last follow-up to compare the intervertebral fusion rate between the two groups. Intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height, LL, and SL were measured before operation, at 2 weeks, 3 months after operation, and at last follow-up. VAS score and ODI were used to evaluate the pain and improvement of the quality of life of the patients.

Results: There were no neurological and vascular complications in the two groups. The operation time and intraoperative blood loss in CLIF group were significantly less than those in TLIF group ( <0.05). Patients in both groups were followed up for a median time of 18 months. All the incisions healed by first intention except 1 incision in TLIF group because of poor blood glucose control. No complications such as bedsore, falling pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis were found in both groups. At last follow-up, the intervertebral fusion rates in CLIF and TLIF group were 90.91% (30/33) and 93.75% (30/32), respectively, showing no significant difference ( =0.185, =0.667). The VAS score, ODI, intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height, LL, and SL were significantly improved in both groups at each time point after operation ( <0.05). Except that VAS score in CLIF group was significantly lower than that in TLIF group at 2 weeks after operation ( =-4.303, =0.000), there were no significant differences in VAS score and ODI between the two groups at other time points ( >0.05). The intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height, LL, and SL in CLIF group were significantly higher than those in TLIF group at each time point after operation, and the differences were significant ( <0.05).

Conclusion: CLIF in the treatment of DLS combined with LSS can achieve the similar effectiveness with traditional TLIF, and has such advantages as minimal invasion and faster recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202008092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171688PMC
February 2021

Microbial yield from infectious tissues pretreated by various methods: an invitro study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Feb 21;22(1):209. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different pretreatment methods on the microbial yield from infectious tissues.

Methods: Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Escherichia coli (EC) and Candida albicans (CA) were used to construct single-surface, full-surface, and internal infection models in sterile pork tissue. Manual milling (MM), mechanical homogenization (MH), sonificated (SF), dithiothreitol (DTT), and direct culture (DC) were used to pretreat these tissues, the microbial yield from different pretreatment methods were recorded and compared. Moreover, periprosthetic tissues collected intraoperatively from periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) patients were used as a verification.

Results: The study showed that the microbial yield from MH pretreatment was significantly higher than that of MM (P < 0.01) and SF pretreatment method (P < 0.01). Furthermore, in the internal infection model, the microbial yield from MH group was also significantly higher than that of SF (P < 0.01), DTT (P < 0.01), and DC group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the number of bacterial colonies obtained from periprosthetic tissues pretreated by MH was significantly higher than pretreated by other pretreatment methods (P = 0.004).

Conclusions: The effects of MH and DTT in microbial yield were significantly higher than that of DC, SF and MM, and these methods can be used to process multiple tissue samples at the same time, which might further improve the diagnostic sensitivity of infectious disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04071-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898421PMC
February 2021

A staged representation electrochemical stimulated strategy to regulate intracellular reducing power for improving succinate production by Escherichia coli AFP111.

Biotechnol J 2021 May 24;16(5):e2000415. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Background: Escherichia coli AFP111 was previously engineered for succinate production by eliminating byproducts of synthesis pathways. Still, the succinate yield is limited due to the insufficient NADH supplement, when fed with glucose. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) allows microorganisms to perform unbalanced fermentation by establishing polarized cathode interaction.

Methods And Results: In this study, a cathode electrode was used as an additional electron donor to improve succinate synthesis by E. coli AFP111. In MEC with -0.65 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) poised on cathode electrode, 95.72% electrons were transferred into cells via neutral red (NR), and the ratio of NADH/NAD increased by 2.5-fold. Meanwhile, compared with the control experiment, the value of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) changed from -240 to -265 mV in MEC, which was beneficial for NADH generation. During two-stage fermentation (no potential growth stage followed by electric stimulation) in MEC, succinate yield was increased by 29.09% (the final yield was 0.71 g g ), and glucose consumption rate was enhanced by 36.22%. In addition, the carbon flux was pumped to succinate and pyruvate metabolism was enhanced.

Conclusion And Implications: Staged representation of electrochemical stimulated strategy is effective for succinate producing in engineered E. coli by regulating intracellular reducing power, which provides a new concept for producing reduced metabolite in unbalanced fermentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202000415DOI Listing
May 2021

CT differentiation of gastric ectopic pancreas from gastric stromal tumor.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Feb 4;21(1):52. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Radiology, TongDe Hospital of ZheJiang Province, No. 234, Gucui Road, Hangzhou, 310012, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Gastric ectopic pancreas (GEPs) is a rare developmental anomaly which is difficult to differentiate it from submucosal tumor such as gastric stromal tumor (GST) by imaging methods. Since the treatments of the GEPs and GST are totally different, a correct diagnosis is essential. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the CT features of them to help us deepen the understanding of GEPs and GST.

Methods: This study enrolled 17 GEPs and 119 GST, which were proven pathologically. We assessed clinical and CT features to identify significant differential features of GEPs from GST using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: In univariate analysis, among all clinicoradiologic features, features of age, symptom, tumor marker, location, contour, peritumoral infiltration or fat-line of peritumor, necrosis, calcification, CT attenuation value of unenhancement phase/arterial phase/portal venous phase (CTu/CTa/CTp), the CT attenuation value of arterial phase/portal venous phase minus that of unenhanced phase (DEAP/DEPP), long diameter (LD), short diameter (SD) were considered statistically significant for the differentiation of them. And the multivariate analysis revealed that location, peritumoral infiltration or fat-line of peritumor, necrosis and DEPP were independent factors affecting the identification of them. In addition, ROC analysis showed that the test efficiency of CTp was perfect (AUC = 0.900).

Conclusion: Location, the presence of peritumoral infiltration or fat-line of peritumor, necrosis and DEPP are useful CT differentiators of GEPs from GST. In addition, the test efficiency of CTp in differentiating them was perfect (AUC = 0.900).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01617-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860050PMC
February 2021

Dietary Supplementation With Promotes Growth and Gut Health of Weaned Piglets.

Front Vet Sci 2020 15;7:600772. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with different types of () on the growth and gut health of weaned piglets. A total of 160 piglets were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (a basal diet), BS-A group (a basal diet supplemented with A at 1 × 10 CFU/g feed), BS-B group (a basal diet supplemented with B at 1 × 10 CFU/g feed), and BS-C group (a basal diet supplemented with C at 1 × 10 CFU/g feed). All groups had five replicates with eight piglets per replicate. On days 7, 21, and 42 of the trial, blood plasma and intestinal tissues and digesta samples were collected to determine plasma cytokine concentrations, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota community and metabolic activity, and the expression of genes related to gut physiology and metabolism. The results showed that dietary supplementation improved ( < 0.05) the body weight and average daily gain (in BS-B and BS-C groups) of weaned piglets and decreased ( < 0.05) the diarrhea rates (in BS-A, BS-B, and BS-C groups). In the intestinal morphology analysis, supplementation improved ( < 0.05) the size of villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum of weaned piglets. , and were the most dominant microflora in piglets' colon whatever the trial group and time of analysis. Dietary BS-C supplementation increased ( < 0.05) the relative abundances of and and decreased ( < 0.05) the relative abundances of and compared with the control group. In addition, dietary supplementation increased ( < 0.05) the indicators of intestinal health, including plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10, as well as the colonic levels of short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, dietary supplementation also up-regulated ( < 0.05) the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways related to intestinal microbiota maturation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a diet containing BS-B or BS-C can efficiently promote growth performance, decrease diarrhea incidence, and ameliorate several indicators of intestinal health through the modulation of gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity in weaned piglets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.600772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844206PMC
January 2021

Effects of different tissue specimen pretreatment methods on microbial culture results in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Feb;10(2):96-104

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Aims: Microbiological culture is a key element in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, cultures of periprosthetic tissue do not have optimal sensitivity. One of the main reasons for this is that microorganisms are not released from the tissues, either due to biofilm formation or intracellular persistence. This study aimed to optimize tissue pretreatment methods in order to improve detection of microorganisms.

Methods: From December 2017 to September 2019, patients undergoing revision arthroplasty in a single centre due to PJI and aseptic failure (AF) were included, with demographic data and laboratory test results recorded prospectively. Periprosthetic tissue samples were collected intraoperatively and assigned to tissue-mechanical homogenization (T-MH), tissue-manual milling (T-MM), tissue-dithiothreitol (T-DTT) treatment, tissue-sonication (T-S), and tissue-direct culture (T-D). The yield of the microbial cultures was then analyzed.

Results: A total of 46 patients were enrolled, including 28 patients in the PJI group and 18 patients in the AF group. In the PJI group, 23 cases had positive culture results via T-MH, 22 cases via T-DTT, 20 cases via T-S, 15 cases via T-MM, and 13 cases via T-D. Three cases under ongoing antibiotic treatment remained culture-negative. Five tissue samples provided the optimal yield. Any ongoing antibiotic treatment had a relevant influence on culture sensitivity, except for T-DTT.

Conclusion: T-MH had the highest sensitivity. Combining T-MH with T-DTT, which requires no special equipment, may effectively improve bacterial detection in PJI. A total of five periprosthetic tissue biopsies should be sampled in revision arthroplasty for optimal detection of PJI. Cite this article: 2021;10(2):96-104.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.102.BJR-2020-0104.R3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937541PMC
February 2021
-->