Publications by authors named "Wenlong Zhang"

343 Publications

Norfloxacin suppresses Leptospira-induced inflammation through inhibiting p65 and ERK phosphorylation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Microb Pathog 2021 Nov 23:105315. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Leptospirosis is a worldwide re-emerging zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Inflammatory storms induced by Leptospira are the reason to induce immunoparalysis and organ failures. Antibiotics are still the current mainstream treatment for leptospirosis. In addition to their antibacterial action, the immunomodulatory function of antibiotics has been paid more and more attention. In this study, the role of norfloxacin on Leptospira-induced inflammation was investigated. Treatment with norfloxacin down-regulated Leptospira-induced IL-1β and TNF-α both in vivo and vitro models. Further study showed that norfloxacin inhibited Leptospira-induced phosphorylation of p65 and ERK. Norfloxacin also inhibited the Leptospira-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation with the increased level of Na/K-ATPase Pump β1 subunit and decreased level of Kcnk6. These results indicated that norfloxacin suppressed Leptospira-induced inflammation through inhibiting p65 and ERK phosphorylation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Norfloxacin may be a potential candidate for suppressing inflammatory storms caused by Leptospira.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105315DOI Listing
November 2021

Eutrophication dangers the ecological status of coastal wetlands: A quantitative assessment by composite microbial index of biotic integrity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 12:151620. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

The intertidal wetland ecosystem is vulnerable to environmental and anthropogenic stressors. Understanding how the ecological statuses of intertidal wetlands respond to influencing factors is crucial for the management and protection of intertidal wetland ecosystems. In this study, the community characteristics of bacteria, archaea and microeukaryote from Jiangsu coast areas (JCA), the longest muddy intertidal wetlands in the world, were detected to develop a composite microbial index of biotic integrity (CM-IBI) and to explore the influence mechanisms of stresses on the intertidal wetland ecological status. A total of 12 bacterial, archaea and microeukaryotic metrics were determined by range, responsiveness and redundancy tests for the development of ba-IBI, ar-IBI and eu-IBI. The CM-IBI was further developed via three sub-IBIs with weight coefficients 0.40, 0.33 and 0.27, respectively. The CM-IBI (R = 0.58) exhibited the highest goodness of fit with the CEI, followed by ba-IBI (R = 0.36), ar-IBI (R = 0.25) and eu-IBI (R = 0.21). Redundancy and random forest analyses revealed inorganic nitrogen (inorgN), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) to be key environmental variables influencing community compositions. A conditional reasoning tree model indicated the close associating between the ecological status and eutrophication conditions. The majority of sites with water inorgN<0.67 mg/L exhibited good statuses, while the poor ecological status was observed for inorgN>0.67 mg/L and TP > 0.11 mg/L. Microbial networks demonstrated the interactions of microbial taxonomic units among three kingdoms decreases with the ecological degradation, suggesting a reduced reliability and stability of microbial communities. Multi-level path analysis revealed fishery aquaculture and industrial development as the dominant anthropogenic activities effecting the eutrophication and ecological degradation of the JCA tidal wetlands. This study developed an efficient ecological assessment method of tidal wetlands based on microbial communities, and determined the influence of human activities and eutrophication on ecological status, providing guidance for management standards and coastal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151620DOI Listing
November 2021

Emergency vaccine immunization protects hamsters against acute leptospirosis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Nov 10;161(Pt A):105274. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, PR China; Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, PR China. Electronic address:

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a global critical zoonotic disease in terms of mortality and morbidity. Vaccines are often used to prevent leptospirosis. However, few studies have reported the therapeutic effect of a vaccine against Leptospira infection. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the emergency vaccine immunization against acute leptospirosis in hamsters. Treatment with a whole-cell vaccine (Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai) at 24 h post-infection improved the survival rate of hamsters with lower leptospiral burden and minor pathological damage to organs. The vaccine also protected against multiple Leptospira serotypes acute infection. However, the protective effect of the vaccines was lost when beginning treatment at 36 h or 48 h post-infection. These results indicated that vaccines could treat acute leptospirosis in hamsters, but only if immunization is within 24 h after infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105274DOI Listing
November 2021

New insights into nitrogen removal potential in urban river by revealing the importance of microbial community succession on suspended particulate matter.

Environ Res 2021 Nov 10:112371. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

The importance of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in nitrogen removal from aquatic environments has been acknowledged in recent years by recognizing the role of attached microbes. However, the succession of attached microbes on suspended particles and their role in nitrogen removal under specific surface microenvironment are still unknown. In this study, the causation among characteristics of SPM, composition and diversity of particle-attached microbial communities, and abundances of nitrogen-related genes in urban rivers was firstly quantitatively established by combing spectroscopy, 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing, absolute gene quantification and supervised integrated machine learning. SPM in urban rivers, coated with organic layers, was mainly composed of silt and clay (87.59-96.87%) with D50 (medium particle size) of 8.636-30.130 μm. In terms of material composition of SPM, primary mineral was quartz and the four most abundant elements were O, Si, C, Al. The principal functional groups on SPM were hydroxyl and amide. Furthermore, samples with low, medium and high levels of ammoxidation potential were classified into three groups, among which significant differences of microbial communities were found. Samples were also separated into three groups with low, medium and high levels of denitrification potential and significant differences occurred among groups. The particle size, content of functional groups and concentration of SPM were identified as the most significant factors related with microbial communities, playing an important role in succession of particle-attached microbes. In addition, the path model revealed the significantly positive effect of organic matter and particle size on the microbial communities and potential nitrogen removal. The content of hydroxyl and temperature were identified as the most effective predicting factors for ammoxidation potential and denitrification potential respectively by Random Forests Regression models, which had good predictive performances for potential of ammoxidation (R = 0.71) and denitrification (R = 0.61). These results provide a basis for quickly assessing the ability of nitrogen removal in urban rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112371DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of nitrogen on the longitudinal and vertical patterns of the composition and potential function of bacterial and archaeal communities in the tidal mudflats.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29:151210. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

Increasing attention has been focused on the diminishing health of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the effects of eutrophication on tidal flat ecosystems is beneficial for the restoration and management of coastal ecosystems. However, previous studies did not consider the effects of nitrogen on the structure and function of bacterial and archaeal communities in longitudinal and vertical profiles. Here, the diversity, composition, assembly mechanism, and potential metabolic function of the bacterial and archaeal communities were studied in two longitudinal tidal sections at different eutrophic levels. Nitrogen and salinity were the critical factors that influenced the bacterial and archaeal community composition using canonical correspondence and multivariate regression tree analyses. For the bacterial community, the higher nitrogen loading in tidal mudflats resulted in the convergence of diversity and structure in the longitudinal profile of bacteria, but divergence was detected in the vertical profile. For archaea, the diversity tended to be convergent in longitudinal and vertical profiles in the higher nitrogen area, but the change of structure was similar to that of bacteria. Besides the homogeneous processes influenced by salinity, the assembly process of the bacterial community was mainly influenced by heterogeneous selection (34.8%) and that of archaea by dispersal limitation (19.5%). However, the bacterial and archaeal communities in the higher nitrogen section presented more of an influence of heterogeneous selection (respectively, 39 and 5.6%) than that of the lower nitrogen section (respectively, 10 and 0.2%). Structural equation modeling indicated that nitrogen may have inhibited the effects of the bacterial community on nitrogen turnover in nitrogen-rich anoxic sediment environments, but may have strengthened the effect of the archaeal community on carbon metabolism compared to bacteria. This work deepens our understanding of the responses of bacterial and archaeal community structure and potential function to nitrogen pollution in tidal mudflats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151210DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of long-term exposure to silver nanoparticles on the structure and function of microplastic biofilms in eutrophic water.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 12:112182. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

Microplastics are frequently detected in natural aquatic systems proximate to populated areas, such as urban rivers and lakes, and can be rapidly colonized by microbial communities. Microplastics and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) share similar pathways into natural waters and tend to form heteroaggregations. However, very little is known about the long-term impacts on the structure and function of microplastic biofilms when chronically exposed to silver nanoparticles. Thus, the present study assessed the accumulation property of AgNPs on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microplastics via adsorption tests and studied the chronic effects of AgNPs on the structure and function of microplastic biofilms via 30-day microcosmic experiments in eutrophic water. The adsorption tests showed that the biofilms-colonized PMMA microplastics presented the highest adsorption of 0.98 mg/g in the 1 mg/L AgNPs microcosms. After the 30-day exposure, lactic dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species generation of PMMA biofilms increased by 33.23% and 23.98% compared to the MPs-control group with no-AgNPs, indicating that the number of dead cells colonizing microplastics significantly increased. Network analysis suggested that the stabilization of the bacterial community declined with the long-term exposure to AgNPs through the reduction of the modularity and average path length of the network. Compared to the MPs-control group, long-term exposure to AgNPs caused cumulatively inhibitory effects on the nitrogen removal and the NO emissions in eutrophic water. The isotopomer analysis revealed that the contribution rate of NO reduction to NO emissions was gradually increasing with the AgNPs exposure. Real-time PCR analysis showed that denitrification genes were less sensitive to AgNPs than the nitrification genes, with gene nosZ performed the most negligible response. Overall, our results revealed that long-term exposure to AgNPs could alter biogeochemical cycling involved by microplastic biofilms and cumulatively reduce the self-recovery of the eutrophic ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112182DOI Listing
October 2021

Nitrogen cycling processes and the role of multi-trophic microbiota in dam-induced river-reservoir systems.

Water Res 2021 Nov 30;206:117730. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xikang Road #1, Nanjing 210098, P R China.

The nitrogen (N) cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles in river systems, and it plays an important role in maintaining biogeochemical balance and global climate stability. One of the main ways that humans have altered riverine ecosystems is through the construction of hydropower dams, which have major effects on biogeochemical cycles. Most previous studies examining the effects of damming on N cycling have focused on the whole budget or flux along rivers, and the role of river as N sources or sinks at the global or catchment scale. However, so far there is still lack of comprehensive and systematic summarize on N cycling and the controlling mechanisms in reservoirs affected by dam impoundment. In this review, we firstly summarize N cycling processes along the longitudinal riverine-transition-lacustrine gradient and the vertically stratified epilimnion-thermocline-hypolimnion gradient. Specifically, we highlight the direct and indirect roles of multi-trophic microbiota and their interactions in N cycling and discuss the main factors controlling these biotic processes. In addition, future research directions and challenges in incorporating multi-trophic levels in bioassessment, environmental flow design, as well as reservoir regulation and restoration are summarized. This review will aid future studies of N fluxes along dammed rivers and provide an essential reference for reservoir management to meet ecological needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117730DOI Listing
November 2021

Determination of the direct and indirect effects of bend on the urban river ecological heterogeneity.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 4:112166. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

The ecological heterogeneity created by river bends benefits the diversity of microorganisms, which is vital for the pollutant degradation and overall river health. However, quantitative tools capable of determining the interactions among different trophic levels and species are lacking, and research regarding ecological heterogeneity has been limited to a few species. By integrating the multi-species-based index of biotic integrity (Mt-IBI) and the structure equation model (SEM), an interactions-based prediction modeling framework was established. Based on DNA metabarcoding, a multi-species (i.e., bacteria, protozoans, and metazoans) based index of biotic integrity including 309 candidate metrics was developed. After a three-step screening process, eight core metrics were obtained to assess the ecological heterogeneity, quantitatively. The Mt-IBI value, which ranged from 2.08 to 7.17, was calculated as the sum of each single core metric value. The Mt-IBI revealed that the ecological heterogeneity of concave banks was higher than other sites. According to the result of the SEM, D was the controlling factor (r = -0.779) of the ecological heterogeneity under the influence of the river bends. The bend-induced redistribution of sediment particle further influenced the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The nitrogen group (r = 0.668) also played an essential role in determining the ecological heterogeneity, follow by carbon group (r = 0.455). Furthermore, the alteration of niches would make a difference on the ecological heterogeneity. This multi-species interactions-based prediction modeling framework proposed a novel method to quantify ecological heterogeneity and provided insight into the enhancement of ecological heterogeneity in river bends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112166DOI Listing
October 2021

Correction: Inhibition of host Ogr1 enhances effector CD8 T-cell function by modulating acidic microenvironment.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Nov;28(10-11):1225-1226

NHC Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Beijing Engineering Research Center for Experimental Animal Models of Human Critical Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00384-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Gut microbiota involved in leptospiral infections.

ISME J 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, PR China.

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease worldwide. Intestinal bleeding is a common but neglected symptom in severe leptospirosis. The regulatory mechanism of the gut microbiota on leptospirosis is still unclear. In this study, we found that Leptospira interrogans infection changed the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. Weight loss and an increased leptospiral load in organs were observed in the gut microbiota-depleted mice compared with those in the control mice. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to the microbiota-depleted mice reversed these effects. The phagocytosis response and inflammatory response in bone marrow-derived macrophages and thioglycolate-induced peritoneal macrophages were diminished in the microbiota-depleted mice after infection. However, the phagocytosis response and inflammatory response in resident peritoneal macrophage were not affected in the microbiota-depleted mice after infection. The diminished macrophage disappearance reaction (bacterial entry into the peritoneum acutely induced macrophage adherence to form local clots and out of the fluid phase) led to an increased leptospiral load in the peritoneal cavity in the microbiota-depleted mice. In addition, the impaired capacity of macrophages to clear leptospires increased leptospiral dissemination in Leptospira-infected microbiota-depleted mice. Our study identified the microbiota as an endogenous defense against L. interrogans infection. Modulating the structure and function of the gut microbiota may provide new individualized preventative strategies for the control of leptospirosis and related spirochetal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01122-6DOI Listing
September 2021

In vivo two-photon characterization of tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAM/M) and CX3CR1 during different steps of brain metastasis formation from lung cancer.

Neoplasia 2021 11 26;23(11):1089-1100. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University School of Medicine, Munich, Germany; Department of Neurosurgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University School of Medicine, Munich, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Brain metastases frequently occur in lung cancer and dramatically limit prognosis of affected patients. The influence of tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAM/M) and their receptor CX3CR1 on different steps of brain metastasis formation from lung cancer is poorly characterized. We established a syngeneic orthotopic cerebral metastasis model in mice by combining a chronic cranial window with repetitive intravital 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. This allowed in vivo tracking of fluorescence-expressing tumor cells and TAM/M on a single-cell level over weeks. Intracarotid injection of red tdTomato-fluorescent Lewis lung carcinoma cell was performed in transgenic mice either proficient or deficient for CX3CR1. After intracarotid cell injection, intravascular tumor cells extravasated into the brain parenchyma and formed micro- and mature macrometastases. We observed potential phagocytosis of extravasated tumor cells by TAM/M. However, during later steps of metastasis formation, these anti-tumor effects diminished and were paralleled by TAM/M accumulation and activation. Although CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in a lower number of extravasated tumor cells, progression of these extravasated cells into micro metastases was more efficient. Overall, this resulted in a comparable number of mature macrometastases in CX3CR1-deficient and -proficient mice. Our findings indicate that unspecific inhibition of CX3CR1 might not be a suitable therapeutic option to prevent dissemination of lung cancer cells to the brain. Given the close interaction between TAM/M and tumor cells during metastasis formation, other therapeutic approaches targeting TAM/M function may warrant further evaluation. The herein established orthotopic mouse model may be a useful tool to evaluate such concepts in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2021.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479202PMC
November 2021

Ultraviolet avoidance by embryonic buoyancy control in three species of marine fish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 25;806(Pt 3):150542. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL, USA.

Pelagic fish embryos are thought to float in or near surface waters for the majority of their development and are presumed to have little to no control over their mobility, rendering these embryos at high risk for damages associated with surface stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We recently challenged these long-standing paradigms by characterizing a potential mechanism of stressor avoidance in early-life stage mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) in which embryos sense external cues, such as UVR, and modify their buoyancy to reduce further exposure. It is unknown whether embryos of other marine fish with pelagic spawning strategies have similar capabilities. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated buoyancy change in response to UVR in three additional species of marine fish that utilize a pelagic spawning strategy: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), and cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Embryos of all three species displayed increased specific gravity and loss of buoyancy after exposures to environmentally relevant doses of UVR, a response that may be ubiquitous to fish with pelagic embryos. To gain further insight into this response, we investigated recovery of buoyancy, oxygen consumption, energy depletion, and photolyase induction in response to UVR exposures in at least one of the three species listed above.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150542DOI Listing
September 2021

Microbial community coalescence: does it matter in the Three Gorges Reservoir?

Water Res 2021 Oct 8;205:117638. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China. Electronic address:

The microbial community coalescence describes the mixing of microbial communities and the merging of their surrounding environments. Despite its prevalence in natural ecosystems and its potential influence on ecological processes, little research focused on the extent of coalescence between aquatic microbial communities. In this research, we analyzed the microbial communities in the Three Gorges Reservoir, a typical deep-water reservoir on the Yangtze River. The biogeography and the coalescence of microbial communities in water and sediment were illustrated and analyzed based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). Differences in composition and diversity were identified between microbial communities in water and sediment, and microbial communities in sediment were more diverse than those in water. Between adjacent communities, by calculating the proportion of overlapped taxa, adopting the SourceTracker algorithm, and quantifying the connectivity of microbial cohesion, we found that the extent of intra-medium coalescence was strong (19.8%) and inter-media coalescence was faint (0.2%). 50 keystone species were selected using the cohesion metric. They displayed a stronger coalescence extent than average, and formed an accumulating pattern from upstream to downstream in the Three Gorges Reservoir, exhibiting their importance in the ecological network. Potential influencing factors of microbial community coalescence in aquatic environments were discussed, including environmental conditions, types of habitats, suspended particles in water, and microscale microbial activities. To summarize, this research depicted the coalescence of microbial communities in a deep-water reservoir and emphasized its ecological importance. We anticipate more attention and further research on the processes of microbial coalescence in the aquatic environment, which might provide new insights into turnover of microbial keystone species and changes in aquatic ecological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117638DOI Listing
October 2021

Propelling the practical application of the intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation system: System amelioration, environmental influences and analytical strategies.

Chemosphere 2022 Jan 8;287(Pt 2):132196. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xikang Road #1, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

The intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) possesses an enhanced ability of recalcitrant contaminant removal and energy generation, owing to the compact communication between biotic components and photocatalysts during the system operation. The photocatalysts in the ICPB system could dispose of noxious contaminants to relieve the external pressure on microorganisms which could realize the mineralization of the photocatalytic degradation products. However, due to the complex components in the composite system, the mechanism of the ICPB system has not been completely understood. Moreover, the variable environmental conditions would play a significant role in the ICPB system performance. The further development of the ICPB scheme requires clarification on how to reach an accurate understanding of the system condition during the practical application. This review starts by offering detailed information on the system construction and recent progress in the system components' amelioration. We then describe the potential influences of relevant environmental factors on the system performance, and the analytical strategies applicable for comprehending the critical processes during the system operation are further summarized. Finally, we put forward the research gaps in the current system and envision the system's prospective application. This review provides a valuable reference for future researches that are devoted to assessing the environmental disturbance and exploring the reaction mechanisms during the practical application of the ICPB system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132196DOI Listing
January 2022

Uncovering the interplay between pH receptors and immune cells: Potential drug targets (Review).

Oncol Rep 2021 Oct 3;46(4). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of The Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Beijing 100020, P.R. China.

Extracellular acidosis is associated with various immunopathological states. The microenvironment of numerous solid tumours and inflammatory responses during acute or chronic infection are all related to a pH range of 5.5‑7.0. The relationship between inflammation and immune escape, cancer metabolism, and immunologic suppression drives researchers to focus on the effects of low pH on diverse components of disease immune monitoring. The potential effect of low extracellular pH on the immune function reveals the importance of pH in inflammatory and immunoreactive processes. In this review, the mechanism of how pH receptors, including monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), Na/H exchanger 1, carbonic anhydrases (CAs), vacuolar‑ATPase, and proton‑sensing G‑protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), modulate the immune system in disease, especially in cancer, were studied. Their role in immunocyte growth and signal transduction as part of the immune response, as well as cytokine production, have been documented in great detail. Currently, immunotherapy strategies have positive therapeutic effects for patients. However, the acidic microenvironment may block the effect of immunotherapy through compensatory feedback mechanisms, leading to drug resistance. Therefore, we highlight promising therapeutic developments regarding pH manipulation and provide a framework for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8179DOI Listing
October 2021

Biomarker Identification in Membranous Nephropathy Using a Long Non-coding RNA-Mediated Competitive Endogenous RNA Network.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Dec 1;13(4):615-623. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Nephrology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, No. 126, Xian Tai Street, Changchun, 130033, Jilin, China.

Purpose: This study was aimed to identify biomarker associated with membranous nephropathy (MN) progression by integration of expression profiles and competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network analysis.

Methods: The gene (GSE108113) and microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles (GSE64306) were downloaded to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs, miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between MN and control groups. The functions and pathways enriched by the differentially expressed mRNAs were analyzed. The mRNA-lncRNA co-expression network was constructed followed by and the ceRNA network construction.

Results: Total 264 upregulated and 196 downregulated differentially expressed mRNAs, 79 upregulated and 4 downregulated lncRNAs, as well as 115 upregulated and 93 downregulated miRNAs were obtained between MN and control groups. After analysis, the differential mRNAs were significantly involved in multiple immune-related processes, and cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation processes, as well as pathways of taste transduction and lysosome. Finally, a ceRNA network consisting of 4 mRNAs (EPB41L5, FAM43A, PRKG1 and TTC14), 3 lncRNAs (LINC00052, LINC00641 and N4BP2L2-IT2) and 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-3605-5p, hsa-miR-148a-3p, hsa-miR-497-5p and hsa-miR-148b-3p) was constructed.

Conclusion: Our study indicated dysregulation of immune- and apoptosis-associated functions and taste transduction and lysosome pathways may play important roles in MN progression. Deregulated ceRNAs, such as LINC00052-hsa-miR-145-5p-EPB41L5, LINC00052-hsa-miR-148a-3p-FAM43A and LINC00641-hsa-497-5p-PRKG1, may be associated with MN development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-021-00466-zDOI Listing
December 2021

Assessing the effects of cascade dams on river ecological status using multi-species interaction-based index of biotic integrity (Mt-IBI).

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 23;299:113585. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

Cascade dams have exerted significant effects on river ecosystems. To quantitatively assess dam-induced effects on river ecological status, a novel multi-species interaction-based index of biotic integrity (Mt-IBI) was developed. Benthic microbiota was selected as a bio-indicator for its sensitivity to the environmental disturbance. An environmental DNA metabarcoding tool was used to identify microbiota (bacteria, protozoan, and metazoan). The Mt-IBI was applied to assess the ecological status of the Hanjiang River, a representative dam-affected river in China. Fifteen sampling sites along the Hanjiang River were sampled in June 2018. Seven core metrics were screened from a total of 364 candidate metrics to calculate the value of the Mt-IBI. The Mt-IBI of the Hanjiang River ranged from 1.90 to 6.39, with a mean value of 4.02. The mean values of Mt-IBI at the reservoir and riverine side of dams were 2.11 and 3.81, respectively. The downstream reach without dam constructions had the highest mean Mt-IBI (5.79). Thus, the continuity of the river was strongly related to the Mt-IBI. Structural equation models (SEMs) were further established to identify the dominant environmental variables in the dam-affected river. The SEMs indicated that flow velocity (coefficient 0.749) was the most important determinant of ecological status in the Hanjiang River. Water organic matter also played a vital role in determining the ecological status of the Hanjiang River, and exerted the strongest direct effect (P < 0.001, r = 0.712). The reliability of SEMs was verified by building a support vector regression model (R = 0.8141). This study can provide new tools for ecological assessment and diagnosis, and provide a new perspective for the management of cascade dams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113585DOI Listing
December 2021

How environmental stress leads to alternative microbiota states in a river ecosystem: A new insight into river restoration.

Water Res 2021 Sep 11;203:117538. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P.R. China.

Catastrophic shifts in river ecosystems can abruptly degrade their structures and functions, often reducing the efficacy of traditional remediation targeting physicochemical properties. Alternative stable states theory can not only explain this phenomenon but also provide a new insight into river restoration; however, little is known about the existence and implications of alternative stable states in a river. Considering the important role of benthic microbiota in sustaining river ecosystem structures and functions, ecological theory and high-throughput sequencing were combined to firstly investigate multi-stability in microbial communities and its relationship with environmental factors in river sediments. The Nanjing reach of the Yangtze River was selected as the study area because of its huge spatial heterogeneity and varying degrees of pollution. Bimodal distributions combined with temporal variations of microbiota status provided direct evidence of bistability by showing the instability at the intermediate. In addition, environmental stress, particularly concentrations of NH-N and NO-N, was identified as an important driver of alternative microbiota states from the perspectives of the behavior of bistable ecosystems. Comparison of α-diversity indices and network properties between two alternative microbiota states revealed that the diversity and co-occurrence pattern of microbial communities will be high if they are settled in favorable environments (i.e., comprehensive sediment quality identification index > 3.7). Key taxa, including Clostridiales, Nitrospirales and Myxococcales, were discerned by combining LEfSe and network analysis, and their strong interspecies interactions were believed to be an important factor in triggering alternative microbiota states. This study suggests alternative stable states theory should be considered in river remediation to better understand the response of river ecosystems to environmental stress and the effect of hysteresis, benefiting the implementation of effective monitoring and restoration strategies in a river of urban area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117538DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnostic and prognostic value of microRNA-2355-3p and contribution to the progression in lung adenocarcinoma.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):4747-4756

Department of Hematology and Oncology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

The aim of this study was to delve into the clinical significance and biological function of miR-2355-3p in LUAD. Tissues and blood samples from 116 LUAD patients and blood samples of 90 healthy volunteers were collected. The relative expression of miR-2355-3p was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The receiver operating curve (ROC) was plotted for diagnostic value estimation. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, and multivariate survival analyses were performed for prognostic value estimation. A luciferase reporter assay was carried out to confirm the interaction of miR-2355-3p and . The CCK-8 and transwell assays were conducted to explore the function of miR-2355-3p on LUAD cells. Rescue experiments were performed to verify the interaction. miR-2355-3p showed an upregulated expression in the samples of LUAD patients. For diagnostic value estimation, the AUC was 0.905 with a sensitivity was 84.5% and specificity of 83.3%. For the estimation of prognostic value, the -value of log-rank test on K-M curves was 0.002 and 0.006 for overall survival and progression survival, respectively. Based on multivariate Cox regression analysis, miR-2355-3p was a powerful prognostic tool with a -value of 0.027. has binding sites with miR-2355-3p, an expression level, and luciferase activity negatively correlated with miR-2355-3p expression. Knockdown of miR-2355-3p inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of LUAD cells, but can rescue this inhibition. miR-2355-3p has the potential to be a diagnostic marker and prognostic marker for LUAD. Inhibition of miR-2355-3p in LUAD cells can suppress the progression of LUAD at least partly by direct targeting .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1952367DOI Listing
December 2021

4,4'-Dimethoxychalcone regulates redox homeostasis by targeting riboflavin metabolism in Parkinson's disease therapy.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 10 28;174:40-56. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, 510260, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress damage plays a pivotal role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Previously, we developed a blood brain barrier-penetrating peptide-based "Trojan Horse" strategy to deliver 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (DMC) for PD therapy and revealed neuroprotective properties of DMC in a PD model; however, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here, we report that DMC attenuated motor impairment, degeneration of DA neurons and α-synuclein aggregation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and exogenous human α-synuclein-induced PD mouse models. Mechanistically, DMC increased the expression of two critical intermediates in riboflavin metabolism: riboflavin kinase (RFK) and its metabolic product, flavin mononucleotide (FMN). We provide the first direct evidence that FMN ameliorated oxidative stress damage and dopaminergic neuron degeneration both in vitro and in vivo and that riboflavin metabolism was required for DMC-mediated neuroprotection. DMC-induced restoration of redox homeostasis was mediated via the activation of protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ) signaling. Together, our findings reveal that DMC may serve as a novel antioxidant in PD intervention and also define a novel mechanism that underlies its therapeutic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.07.038DOI Listing
October 2021

RankSRGAN: Generative Adversarial Networks with Ranker for Image Super-Resolution.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jul 26;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

AbstractGenerative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have demonstrated the potential to recover realistic details for single image super-resolution (SISR). To further improve the visual quality of super-resolved results, PIRM2018-SR Challenge employed perceptual metrics to assess the perceptual quality, such as PI, NIQE, and Ma. However, existing methods cannot directly optimize these indifferentiable perceptual metrics, which are shown to be highly correlated with human ratings. To address the problem, we propose Super-Resolution Generative Adversarial Networks with Ranker (RankSRGAN) to optimize generator in the direction of different perceptual characteristic. Specifically, we first train a Ranker which can learn the behaviour of perceptual metrics and then introduce a novel rank-content loss to optimize the perceptual quality. The most appealing part is that the proposed method can combine the strengths of different SR methods to generate better results. Furthermore, we proposed two simple and effective strategies with a single Ranker or multiple Rankers to provide multi-dimension constraints for the generator. Extensive experiments show that RankSRGAN achieves visually pleasing results and reaches state-of-the-art performance in perceptual metrics and quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3096327DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of rabbit polyclonal antibody against porcine gasdermin D protein and determination of the expression of gasdermin D in cultured cells and porcine tissues.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 11 21;187:105945. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, PR China; Northeastern Science Inspection Station, China Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Pathogen Biology, PR China. Electronic address:

Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) is a member of the gasdermin (Gsdm) protein family, and its cleavage by inflammatory cysteine proteases (caspases, CASPs) is a critical event in cell pyroptosis. The role and functions of GSDMD on mice and humans are widely studied, but its expression, structure, and function in other species are less known. In the present work, rabbit anti-porcine GSDMD (pGSDMD) polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits with prokaryotic expressed recombinant pGSDMD (rpGSDMD). The prepared polyclonal antibody showed good specificity in Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays. Western blot results showed that the polyclonal antibody could recognize overexpressed pGSDMD in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) and endogenously expressed pGSDMD in cultured intestinal porcine enterocytes (IPEC-J2) and porcine kidney cells (PK-15). Western blot also revealed that pGSDMD was expressed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, gallbladder, and jejunum of pigs. HEK293T cells overexpressing GSDMD showed green fluorescence in the IIF assay only after being treated with 0.3% Triton-X 100, which indicated that the full-length pGSDMD was located in the plasma but not on the cell membrane. This work provides a useful tool and basic information for further studies on pGSDMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2021.105945DOI Listing
November 2021

Integrating experiments with system-level biogeochemical modeling to understand nitrogen cycling of reservoir sediments at elevated hydrostatic pressure.

Environ Res 2021 09 15;200:111671. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

Impoundment of rivers to construct reservoirs for hydropower and irrigation greatly increase the hydrostatic pressure acting on river sediments with potential repercussions for ecosystem-level microbial activity and metabolism. Understanding the functioning and responses of key biogeochemical cycles such as that of nitrogen cycling to shifting hydrostatic pressure is needed to estimate and predict the systemic nutrient dynamics in deep-water reservoirs. We studied the functioning of bacterial communities involved in nitrogen transformation in bioreactors maintained under contrasting hydrostatic pressures (0.5 MPa-3.0 MPa) and complemented the experimental approach with a functional gene-informed biogeochemical model. The model predictions were broadly consistent with observations from the experiment, suggesting that the rates of NO production decreased while the sediment concentration of nitrite increased significantly with increasing pressure, at least when exceeding 1.0 MPa. Changes in nitrite reduction (nirS) and aerobic ammonia oxidation (amoA) genes abundances were in accordance with the observed changes in NO production and nitrite levels. Moreover, the model predicted that the higher pressures (P > 1.5 MPa) would intensify the inhibition of N production via denitrification and result in an accumulation of ammonia in the sediment along with a decrease in dissolved oxygen. The results imply that increased hydrostatic pressure caused by dam constructions may have a strong effect on microbial nitrogen conversion, and that this may result in lower nitrogen removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111671DOI Listing
September 2021

Insight into the ion exchange in the adsorptive removal of fluoride by doped polypyrrole from water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.

In this study, the polypyrrole (PPy) samples doped with Cl (PPy-Cl), SO (PPy-SO4) and SO+Cl (PPy-SO4+Cl) were synthesized by chemical polymerization for the adsorptive removal of fluoride ion from water. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared PPy samples were characterized by FT-IR, BET, SEM, XPS, and zeta potential. The adsorption experiments revealed that the PPy-Cl exhibited faster kinetics and higher adsorption capacity (13.98 mg/g), more than 4 times that of PPy-SO4 (3.08 mg/g) and PPy-SO4+Cl (3.17 mg/g). The kinetics of the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir model. FT-IR, EDX, and XPS tests for PPy samples before and after fluoride adsorption demonstrated that anion exchange between F and Cl or SO4 was the prior mechanism for fluoride ion removal from water. Cl was more favorable than SO in the ion exchange with F. Meanwhile, the Cl or SO exchanged with F was mainly bound to the active nitrogen that accounts for 6% of the total nitrogen in PPy molecular matrix. Further study of zeta potential and pH influence experiment demonstrated the electrostatic interaction is auxiliary interaction for the fluoride removal by doped PPy samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15027-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel spontaneous myelodysplastic syndrome mouse model.

Animal Model Exp Med 2021 06 14;4(2):169-180. Epub 2021 May 14.

NHC Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine Beijing Engineering Research Center for Experimental Animal Models of Human Critical Diseases Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Comparative Medicine Center Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) Beijing China.

Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of disorders involving hemopoietic dysfunction leading to leukemia. Although recently progress has been made in identifying underlying genetic mutations, many questions still remain. Animal models of MDS have been produced by introduction of specific mutations. However, there is no spontaneous mouse model of MDS, and an animal model to simulate natural MDS pathogenesis is urgently needed.

Methods: In characterizing the genetically diverse mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC) we observed that one, designated JUN, had abnormal hematological traits. This strain was thus further analyzed for phenotypic and pathological identification, comparing the changes in each cell population in peripheral blood and in bone marrow.

Results: In a specific-pathogen free environment, mice of the JUN strain are relatively thin, with healthy appearance. However, in a conventional environment, they become lethargic, develop wrinkled yellow hair, have loose and light stools, and are prone to infections. We found that the mice were cytopenic, which was due to abnormal differentiation of multipotent bone marrow progenitor cells. These are common characteristics of MDS.

Conclusions: A mouse strain, JUN, was found displaying spontaneous myelodysplastic syndrome. This strain has the advantage over existing models in that it develops MDS spontaneously and is more similar to human MDS than genetically modified mouse models. JUN mice will be an important tool for pathogenesis research of MDS and for evaluation of new drugs and treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212821PMC
June 2021

Inhibition of host Ogr1 enhances effector CD8 T-cell function by modulating acidic microenvironment.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Nov 22;28(10-11):1213-1224. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

NHC Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Beijing Engineering Research Center for Experimental Animal Models of Human Critical Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.

Immunotherapies for cancer, such as immune checkpoint blockade or adoptive T-cell transfer, can lead to a long-lasting clinical response. But the therapeutic response rate remains low on account of many tumors that have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade immune surveillance. Solid tumors are characterized by the highly acidic microenvironment, which may weaken the effectiveness of antitumor immunity. Here, we explored a promising therapeutic development deployed by pH manipulation for avoiding immunoevasion. The highly acidified microenvironment of melanoma induces the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor (Ogr1) in T cells, which weakened their effective function and promote tumor growth. Ogr1 inhibition reactivate CD8 T cells and have a cytotoxic role by reducing the activity of high glycolysis, resulting in comparatively low acidification of the tumor microenvironment, and leads to tumor suppression. In addition, the adoptive transfer of Ogr1-CD8 T cells enhanced the antitumor responses, with the potential for immediate clinical transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00354-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571096PMC
November 2021

Effects of black carbon-based thin-layer capping for nitrogen-overloaded sediment remediation on microbial community assembly.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 19;788:147888. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

Black carbon is considered as a promising material for thin-layer capping for sediment remediation. However, the effects of black carbon-based thin-layer capping on microbial communities have not been thoroughly studied. Here, the preparation conditions of capping material were optimized, and the interaction and assembly mechanisms of the microbial community in sediment under black carbon capping were studied. The results showed that concentration of NH-N in the overlying water was stably lower than 0.5 mg/L after capping. The abundance of key genes related to nitrogen transformation in the sediment was increased. Denitrification was the dominant nitrogen removal pathway under coarse granule capping, while aromatic compound degradation was dominant under fine granule capping and dissimilatory N reduction to ammonium was regarded as the dominant nitrogen removal pathway. Community assembly was mainly driven by deterministic processes (≥ 80%). Interactions between rare and common operational taxonomic units were most frequent. The functional zoning of nitrogen transformation in the vertical aerobic, hypoxic, and anaerobic zones of the sediment was strengthened because of black carbon capping. Overall, these results expand our current understanding of the ecological significance of black carbon capping for remediating contaminated sediment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147888DOI Listing
September 2021

Bacterial contribution to 17β-estradiol mineralization in lake sediment as revealed by C-DNA stable isotope probing.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 2;286:117505. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PR China.

The accumulation of estrogens in aquatic environments has drawn increasing public concern due to their adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bacteria play important roles in eliminating estrogens from the environment, but knowledge of the identity and functions of the microorganisms involved in metabolizing these steroid hormones in the natural microbial communities is lacking. Here, we added C-17β-estradiol (C-E2) to sediments collected from Zhushan (ZS) Bay, Meiliang (ML) Bay, Gonghu (GH) Bay, and the central area (CA) of the Taihu Lake. The indigenous assimilators of E2 in the sediments were recognized using C-DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP), and their effects on C-E2 mineralization were studied under aerobic condition. During the 30-day incubation period, ZS Bay had the highest cumulative percentage of C-E2 mineralization to CO (65.5%), while CA presented the lowest (51.4%). Based on DNA-SIP, we saw that Novosphingobium, Ralstonia, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Nitrosomonas, and Alcaligenes were involved in E2-derived C assimilation for the entire incubation period. Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Mycobacterium only assimilated C for the first half of the incubation. H16 was identified as an E2 assimilator for the first time in this study. In addition, the temporal changes in assimilator abundances during the incubation period indicated that these genera played dominant roles at different stages in the process of E2 biodegradation. The bacteria engaged in the assimilation of E2 in situ were identified, and the rate of increase in the relative abundance of assimilators was significantly (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with the E2 mineralization in sediments. This information enhances our knowledge of in situ E2 biodegradation and provides a potential resource that could be used to eliminate estrogens in sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117505DOI Listing
October 2021

Determining the effect of sertraline on nitrogen transformation through the microbial food web in sediments based on N-DNA-stable isotope probing.

Environ Res 2021 08 19;199:111347. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

Antidepressants may influence the food web and alter the nitrogen cycle through top-down forces. However, the effect of antidepressants on the key nitrogen-using species in the benthic microbial food web remains unclear, particularly the resulting changes in the nitrogen transformation process within the microecosystems. Therefore, in this study, we employed DNA stable-isotope probing to detect nitrogen-converting organisms at various trophic levels and quantify the nitrogen transformation process for the first time. The input of sertraline greatly increased nitrogen-transforming microorganisms and promoted more species to participate in the nitrogen transformation process. 100 μg/L sertraline was observed to stimulate the predation of bacteria via protozoa and metazoan, increasing the total nitrogen flow flux through the microbial food web to 31.50%, 1.32 times that of the natural condition. The results confirm that at sertraline concentrations close to the lowest observable effect concentration in the meiobenthos (100 μg/L), key components in the microbial food web were largely interfered and exerted a long-term interference on the nutrient cycle in the river sediment ecosystem. These findings confirm that sertraline has negative effects on river ecosystems from the perspective of microbial food webs and open a new line of inquiry into assessing ecological risks of antidepressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111347DOI Listing
August 2021

Zeolite-iron oxide nanocomposite from fly ash formed a 'clubbell' structure: integration of cardiac biocapture macromolecules in serum on microelectrodes.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 05 15;188(6):187. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Shandong, 250021, Jinan, China.

A new zeolite-iron oxide nanocomposite (ZEO-IO) was extracted from waste fly ash of a thermal power plant and utilized for capturing aptamers used to quantify the myocardial infarction (MI) biomarker N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP); this was used in a probe with an integrated microelectrode sensor. High-resolution microscopy revealed that ZEO-IO displayed a clubbell structure and a particle size range of 100-200 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Si, Al, Fe, and O in the synthesized ZEO-IO. The limit of detection for NT-ProBNP was 1-2 pg/mL (0.1-0.2 pM) when the aptamer was sandwiched with antibody and showed the doubled current response even at a low NT-ProBNP abundance. A dose-dependent interaction was identified for this sandwich with a linear plot in the concentration range 1 to 32 pg/mL (0.1-3.2 pM) with a determination coefficient R = 0.9884; y = 0.8425x-0.5771. Without  sandwich, the detection limit was 2-4 pg/mL (0.2-0.4 pM) and the determination coefficient was R = 0.9854; y = 1.0996x-1.4729. Stability and nonfouling assays in the presence of bovine serum albumin, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin revealed that the aptamer-modified surface is stable and specific for NT-Pro-BNP. Moreover, NT-ProBNP-spiked human serum exhibited selective detection. This new nanocomposite-modified surface helps in detecting NT-Pro-BNP and diagnosing MI at stages of low expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04834-wDOI Listing
May 2021
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