Publications by authors named "Wenjun Wang"

579 Publications

Improving the performance of OLEDs by controlling the molecular orientation in charge carrier transport layers.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16845-16856

The transition dipole moment (TDM) orientation in the emission layer (EML) of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted increasing attention from many researchers. But the study point at the molecular orientation in the hole transport layer (HTL) and electron transport layer (ETL) was not reported widely. In this paper, the molecular orientation of HTLs and ETLs were controlled by the deposition rate. The angle-dependent PL spectra and the variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) were used for evaluating the molecular orientation of B3PYMPM and TAPC, respectively. We found that fast deposition rate can boost preferentially vertical molecular orientation in both molecules and facilitate the hole and electron mobility, which was tested by the current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage curves of HODs and EODs. Moreover, the HTLs and ETLs were employed in OLED devices to verify the influence of molecular orientation on charge carrier mobility, which determined the performance of OLEDs significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418566DOI Listing
May 2021

Recent Advances in Tumor Microenvironment Hydrogen Peroxide-Responsive Materials for Cancer Photodynamic Therapy.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jan 3;12(1):15. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University (Nanjing Tech), Nanjing, 211800, People's Republic of China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as one of the noninvasive clinical cancer phototherapies, suffers from the key drawback associated with hypoxia at the tumor microenvironment (TME), which plays an important role in protecting tumor cells from damage caused by common treatments. High concentration of hydrogen peroxide (HO), one of the hallmarks of TME, has been recognized as a double-edged sword, posing both challenges, and opportunities for cancer therapy. The promising perspectives, strategies, and approaches for enhanced tumor therapies, including PDT, have been developed based on the fast advances in HO-enabled theranostic nanomedicine. In this review, we outline the latest advances in HO-responsive materials, including organic and inorganic materials for enhanced PDT. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for further research on HO-responsive anticancer agents are envisioned .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-019-0347-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770924PMC
January 2020

Exploration of yellow-emitting phosphors for white LEDs from natural resources.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(16):4716-4722

White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used in various lighting fields as a part of energy-efficient technology. However, some shortcomings of luminescent materials for white LEDs, such as complexity of synthesis, high cost, and harmful impact on the environment, limit their practical applications to a large extent. In this respect, the present work aims to study the ability of using Berberine (BBR) chloride extracted from Rhizoma coptidis and Phellodendron Chinese herbs as yellow phosphor for white LEDs. For this, white LEDs were successfully fabricated by applying 0.006 g of BBR chloride onto the blue LED chips (450 nm). The produced LEDs exhibited good luminescence properties at a voltage of 2.4 V along with eco-friendly characteristics and low cost. The Commission International de l'Eclairage chromaticity, the correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index were determined to be (${x} = {0.32}$, ${y} = {0.33}$), 5934 K, and 74, respectively. Therefore, BBR chloride is a suitable environmentally friendly and easily accessible yellow phosphor for white LEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.424108DOI Listing
June 2021

A HO self-sufficient nanoplatform with domino effects for thermal-responsive enhanced chemodynamic therapy.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 8;11(7):1926-1934. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech) Nanjing 211800 China

Chemodynamic therapy (CDT), employing Fenton or Fenton-like catalysts to convert hydrogen peroxide (HO) into toxic hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) to kill cancer cells, holds high promise in tumor therapy due to its high selectivity. However, the anticancer efficacy is unsatisfactory owing to the limited concentration of endogenous HO. Herein, thermal responsive nanoparticles with HO self-sufficiency are fabricated by utilizing organic phase change materials (PCMs) to encapsulate iron-gallic acid nanoparticles (Fe-GA) and ultra-small CaO. PCMs, acting as the gatekeeper, could be melted down by the hyperthermia effect of Fe-GA under laser irradiation with a burst release of Fe-GA and CaO. The acidic tumor microenvironment would further trigger CaO to generate a large amount of HO and Ca. The self-supplied HO would be converted into ˙OH by participating in the Fenton reaction with Fe-GA. Meanwhile, generation of Ca could cause mitochondrial damage and lead to apoptosis of tumor cells. With efficient tumor accumulation illustrated in photoacoustic imaging, Fe-GA/[email protected] demonstrated a superior tumor-suppressive effect without inducing systemic toxicity. The study presents a unique domino effect approach of PCM based nanoparticles with thermal responsiveness, HO self-supply, and greatly enhanced CDT effects, showing bright prospects for highly efficient tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc05506aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148300PMC
January 2020

MicroRNA-146b-3p regulates the dysfunction of vascular smooth muscle cells via repressing phosphoinositide-3 kinase catalytic subunit gamma.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):2627-2638

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Dalian Municipal Center Hospital, Dalian Liaoning, China.

MicroRNAs are crucial regulators in the phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Nonetheless, the role of miR-146b-3p in VSMCs remains unclear. In the present study, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) at different concentrations was employed to stimulate VSMCs for different times, to establish the model of VSMC dysfunction. The relative expression of miR-146b-3p was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The proliferation of VSMCs was measured by BrdU assay. Flow cytometry analysis was employed for the analysis of cell cycle. VSMC migration was detected by Transwell assay. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase catalytic subunit-gamma (PIK3CG) and markers of VSMC differentiation, including α-SMA, SM-22α, SMMHC, and Calponin were examined employing Western blot. The targeting relationship between miR-146b-3p and PIK3CG 3'-UTR was affirmed by dual-luciferase gene assay. We report that the reduction of miR-146b-3p expression was induced by PDGF-BB in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner ( < 0.05). The overexpression of miR-146b-3p counteracted the effects of PDGF-BB on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and increased the expressions of differentiation markers ( < 0.05). Additionally, PIK3CG expression was negatively regulated by miR-146b-3p, and the restoration of PIK3CG partly eliminated the effects of miR-146b-3p on VSMCs ( < 0.05). In summary, miR-146b-3p represses the proliferation, migration, and phenotype switch of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB via targeting PIK3CG. Therefore, miR-146b-3p/PIK3CG may be a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1937904DOI Listing
December 2021

Temporal Network Embedding for Link Prediction via VAE Joint Attention Mechanism.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 9;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Network representation learning or embedding aims to project the network into a low-dimensional space that can be devoted to different network tasks. Temporal networks are an important type of network whose topological structure changes over time. Compared with methods on static networks, temporal network embedding (TNE) methods are facing three challenges: 1) it cannot describe the temporal dependence across network snapshots; 2) the node embedding in the latent space fails to indicate changes in the network topology; and 3) it cannot avoid a lot of redundant computation via parameter inheritance on a series of snapshots. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel TNE method named temporal network embedding method based on the VAE framework (TVAE), which is based on a variational autoencoder (VAE) to capture the evolution of temporal networks for link prediction. It not only generates low-dimensional embedding vectors for nodes but also preserves the dynamic nonlinear features of temporal networks. Through the combination of a self-attention mechanism and recurrent neural networks, TVAE can update node representations and keep the temporal dependence of vectors over time. We utilize parameter inheritance to keep the new embedding close to the previous one, rather than explicitly using regularization, and thus, it is effective for large-scale networks. We evaluate our model and several baselines on synthetic data sets and real-world networks. The experimental results demonstrate that TVAE has superior performance and lower time cost compared with the baselines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3084957DOI Listing
June 2021

Refined regulation and nitrogen doping of biochar derived from ramie fiber by deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for catalytic persulfate activation toward non-radical organics degradation and disinfection.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 18;601:544-555. Epub 2021 May 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, PR China. Electronic address:

Sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOPs) has great promise in water treatment, there is thereby a pressing need yet still a significant challenge to rationally design an efficient and green catalyst for heterogeneous catalytic reactions. In this study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared and employed to simultaneously achieve structural engineering of fibrils separation and surface modifying of nitrogen doping on biochar derived from filaments biomass (NRBF) of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud). The more regular structure and pure carbon with reasonable configuration, and the N doped in hexatomic ring of NRBF were great impetus to improve the catalytic performance for peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation, with 4.5 times higher degradation rate of tetracycline than pristine biochar. The in-depth mechanistic study of PDS activation confirmed that dominated pathway was in transition from original reactive species (O) in pristine biochar system to a direct electron-shuttle pathway in NRBF system. Moreover, the non-radical dominated NRBF/PDS system showed good potential for bacteria (Escherichia coli) inactivation in disinfection application. Therefore, this work provides the underlying insights to guide the design of a functional and green biochar converting from Ramie filaments by an environmentally friendly facile protocol to achieve multiple purposes of wastewater decontamination and disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.080DOI Listing
May 2021

Ratiometric fluorescent probe for tetracycline detection based on waste printing paper.

Luminescence 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.

Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. In this study, a ratiometric fluorescence (FL) probe was developed to detect TC in water samples using waste printing paper extract as a FL indicator. For this ratiometric probe, the emission of printing paper extract at 436 nm gradually decreased and the emission of a mixed solution at 538 nm significantly increased with the sequential addition of TC upon excitation at 390 nm, coupled with a marked FL colour change from bright blue to faint yellow. Therefore, a ratiometric F /F FL probe was created for TC detection by simply mixing the printing paper extraction and TC. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range from 1 to 100 μM and a detection limit of 0.48 μM (S/N = 3) for TC were obtained. Importantly, the FL probe can be easily prepared with rapid response, high sensitivity, and good selectivity. The application of waste printing paper extract for detection of TC in environmental water samples was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.4100DOI Listing
June 2021

Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Micro and Nano-Structures on CIGS/ITO Bilayer Films for Thin-Film Solar Cells.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 6;14(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Qujiang Campus, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054, China.

Cu(In, Ga)Se (CIGS) thin films have attracted considerable interest as potential photovoltaic solar cells. Moreover, several current studies are focusing on improving their conversion efficiency. This study proposes a method to process micro- and nanostructures onto the surface of CIGS/ITO bilayer films to broaden the field of solar cell application. The bilayer films exhibited optical characteristics different from those of a single-film during processing. Field intensities at different layer positions of the CIGS/ITO bilayer films were analyzed, and different structures were fabricated by varying a set of parameters. Ripples were obtained using a pulse energy of 0.15 μJ and scanning speeds in the range of 0.1-1 mm/s, but after increasing speed to 3-5 mm/s, ripple structures were produced that had a large period of several microns and spatial porous nanostructures. This pattern exhibited low reflectivity. Optimal structures were obtained at a scanning speed of 3.5 mm/s a pulse energy of 0.15 μJ, and a reflectivity lower than 5%. Large areas characterized by micron-sized ripple structures and accompanied by nanoscale porous structures presented high optical performance and efficiency, which can be used to broaden the application of thin film-based solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124838PMC
May 2021

Infection microenvironment-activated nanoparticles for NIR-II photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal/chemodynamic synergistic anti-infective therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 May 25;275:120918. Epub 2021 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, 211800, China. Electronic address:

Subcutaneous abscesses caused by drug-resistant bacteria pose huge challenges to human health. The design of infection microenvironment-activated biomaterials has an advantage for the diagnosis and treatment of infective diseases due to its high specificity and efficiency. Herein, a novel theranostic platform based on CuO nanoparticles (NPs) is successfully constructed via a simple, fast and low-cost approach. The CuO NPs exhibit high sensitivity to overexpressed HS and HO in the bacterial infection microenvironment. After in situ injection, the CuO NPs will rapidly react with the endogenous HS to generate CuS NPs, which exhibits high absorbance in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) biowindow. The CuS NPs serving as NIR-II photoacoustic contrast agents can exactly distinguish between inflammatory and normal tissues. With the guidance of NIR-II photoacoustic imaging (PAI), HS-activated photothermal antibacterial therapy (PTAT) can realize excellent antibacterial performance under 1060 nm laser irradiation. Meanwhile, the CuO NPs can effectively catalyze HO at the site of inflammation to produce hydroxyl radicals with strong antibacterial property via Fenton-like reaction, resulting in the damage of bacterial cell membrane. Furthermore, the application of CuO NPs can enhance epidermic migration and facilitate the re-epithelialization of the infected skin. In vivo experiment shows that 97.9% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are eliminated by the synergistic PTAT and chemodynamic antibacterial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120918DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of Hub Genes to Regulate Breast Cancer Spinal Metastases by Bioinformatics Analyses.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 12;2021:5548918. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology, Inner Mongolia People's Hospital, Hohhot, 010017 Inner Mongolia, China.

Breast cancer (BC) had been one of the deadliest types of cancers in women worldwide. More than 65% of advanced-stage BC patients were identified to have bone metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the BC spinal metastases remained largely unclear. This study screened dysregulated genes in the progression of BC spinal metastases by analyzing GSE22358. Moreover, we constructed PPI networks to identify key regulators in this progression. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these key regulators were involved in regulating the metabolic process, cell proliferation, Toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and mRNA surveillance. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that key regulators, including C1QB, CEP55, HIST1H2BO, IFI6, KIAA0101, PBK, SPAG5, SPP1, DCN, FZD7, KRT5, and TGFBR3, were correlated to the OS time in BC patients. In addition, we analyzed TCGA database to further confirm the expression levels of these hub genes in breast cancer. Our results showed that these regulators were significantly differentially expressed in breast cancer, which were consistent with GSE22358 dataset analysis. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrated that CEP55 was remarkably upregulated in the advanced stage of breast cancer compared to the stage I breast cancer sample and was significantly upregulated in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) compared to other types of breast cancers, including luminal and HER2-positive cancers, demonstrating CEP55 may have a regulatory role in TNBC. Finally, our results showed that CEP55 was the most highly expressed in Basal-like 1 TNBC and Basal-like 2 TNBC samples but the most lowly expressed in mesenchymal stem-like TNBC samples. Although more studies are still needed to understand the functions of key regulators in BC, this study provides useful information to understand the mechanisms underlying BC spinal metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5548918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133842PMC
May 2021

Investigation of the Multi-Target Mechanism of Guanxin-Shutong Capsule in Cerebrovascular Diseases: A Systems Pharmacology and Experimental Assessment.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:650770. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Guanxin-Shutong capsule (GXSTC), a combination of Mongolian medicines and traditional herbs, has been clinically proven to be effective in treating cerebrovascular diseases (CBVDs). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of GXSTC in CBVDs remain largely unknown. In this study, a combination of systems pharmacology and experimental assessment approach was used to investigate the bioactive components, core targets, and possible mechanisms of GXSTC in the treatment of CBVDs. A total of 15 main components within GXSTC were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a literature research. Fifty-five common genes were obtained by matching 252 potential genes of GXSTC with 462 CBVD-related genes. Seven core components in GXSTC and 12 core genes of GXSTC on CBVDs were further determined using the protein-protein interaction (PPI) and component-target-pathway (C-T-P) network analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis results predicted that the molecular mechanisms of GXSTC on CBVDs were mainly associated with the regulation of the vascular endothelial function, inflammatory response, and neuronal apoptosis. Molecular docking results suggested that almost all of core component-targets have an excellent binding activity (affinity < -5 kcal/mol). More importantly, in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) -injured rats, GXSTC significantly improved the neurological function, reduced the infarct volume, and decreased the percentage of impaired neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting results indicated that GXSTC markedly upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), while downregulating the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transcription factor AP-1 (c-Jun) in MCAO-injured rats. These findings confirmed our prediction that GXSTC exerts a multi-target synergetic mechanism in CBVDs by maintaining vascular endothelial function, inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory processes. The results of this study may provide a theoretical basis for GXSTC research and the clinical application of GXSTC in CBVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.650770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155632PMC
May 2021

A next generation sequencing combined genome-wide association study identifies novel tuberculosis susceptibility loci in Chinese population.

Genomics 2021 May 28;113(4):2377-2384. Epub 2021 May 28.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; Collaborative Innovation Center, Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong 272067, China. Electronic address:

The genetic factors of tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility have been widely recognized. Here we performed a two-stage study in 616 TB patients and 709 healthy controls to systematically identify the genetic markers of TB susceptibility. In the discovery stage, we identified 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles that had potential associations with TB susceptibility. In the validation stage, we confirmed that 6 nominally significant SNPs, including 2 novel missense variants at RAB17 and DCTN4 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, P = 4.98 × 10 and OR = 2.30, P = 3.17 × 10 respectively), were associated with the predisposition to TB. Moreover, our study found that HLA-II allele DQA1*05:05 (P = 0.0011, OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.15-1.77) was a TB susceptibility locus for the first time. This study comprehensively investigated the genetic variants that were associated with TB susceptibility and provided insight into the tuberculosis pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.035DOI Listing
May 2021

Type I Photosensitizers Revitalizing Photodynamic Oncotherapy.

Small 2021 May 26:e2006742. Epub 2021 May 26.

Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, 210009, China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown great potential for tumor treatment with merits of non-invasiveness, high selectivity, and minimal side effects. However, conventional type II PDT relying on O presents poor therapeutic efficacy for hypoxic tumors due to the oxygen-dependent manner. Alternatively, emerging researches have demonstrated that type I PDT exhibits superiority over type II PDT in tumor treatment owing to its diminished oxygen-dependence. In this review, state-of-the-art studies concerning recent progress in type I photosensitizers are scrutinized, emphasizing the strategies to construct highly effective type I photosensitizers. As the foundation, basic principles of type I PDT are presented, and up-to-date type I photosensitizers are summarized and classified based on their attributes. Then, a literature review of representative type I photosensitizers (including nanomaterials and small molecules) is presented with impetus to delineate their novel designs, action mechanisms, as well as anticancer PDT applications. Finally, the remaining challenges and development directions of type I photosensitizers are outlined, highlighting key scientific issues toward clinical translations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006742DOI Listing
May 2021

Ginseng polysaccharides alter the gut microbiota and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, potentiating the antitumour effect of antiprogrammed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy.

Gut 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Dr Neher's Biophysics Laboratory for Innovative Drug Discovery/State Key laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, China.

Objective: Programmed death 1 and its ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy is promising for late-stage lung cancer treatment, however, the response rate needs to be improved. Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in immunotherapy sensitisation and has been shown to possess immunomodulatory potential. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the combination treatment of ginseng polysaccharides (GPs) and αPD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) could sensitise the response by modulating gut microbiota.

Design: Syngeneic mouse models were administered GPs and αPD-1 mAb, the sensitising antitumour effects of the combination therapy on gut microbiota were assessed by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and 16S PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. To assess the immune-related metabolites, metabolomics analysis of the plasma samples was performed.

Results: We found GPs increased the antitumour response to αPD-1 mAb by increasing the microbial metabolites valeric acid and decreasing L-kynurenine, as well as the ratio of Kyn/Trp, which contributed to the suppression of regulatory T cells and induction of T cells after combination treatment. Besides, the microbial analysis indicated that the abundance of and was higher in responders to anti-PD-1 blockade than non-responders in the clinic. Furthermore, the combination therapy sensitised the response to PD-1 inhibitor in the mice receiving microbes by FMT from six non-responders by reshaping the gut microbiota from non-responders towards that of responders.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that GPs combined with αPD-1 mAb may be a new strategy to sensitise non-small cell lung cancer patients to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The gut microbiota can be used as a novel biomarker to predict the response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321031DOI Listing
May 2021

Ammonia nitrogen removal from coking wastewater and high quality gypsum recovery by struvite recycling by using calcium hydroxide as decomposer.

J Environ Manage 2021 Aug 12;292:112712. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808, China.

This study deals with the highly significant and cost-effective pretreatment of the high concentration of the Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) in coking wastewater to improve the biodegradability. Struvite crystallization is a promising process for TAN removal, but the high operating cost hinders its application. To solve this problem, a novel struvite recycling process was proposed for pre-treating TAN present in the coking wastewater, within which struvite was decomposed in the solid-liquid system using Ca(OH) as the decomposer. The results indicates that 91% of ammonium in struvite could be stripped out from the decomposition solution, with Ca(OH):NH in the molar ratio of 2:1, temperature at 35 °C and a gas to liquid volume ratio of 3500. The resulting solution, post the escape of the ammonia, was dissolved by sulfuric acid. Approximately 100% of the phosphate and magnesium were observed to be released from the insoluble phosphate compounds, resulting in the formation of high-purity gypsum. A TAN removal efficiency of 89% could be achieved by reusing the supernatant after the dissolution of the decomposition product, at pH 9.5 and the Mg:TAN:PO-P molar ratio of 1.2:1:1. The pilot-scale test demonstrated that approximately 86% TAN was removed from the coking wastewater and the purity of recovered could reach over 99%. Further economic analysis proves that the operation cost of the proposed process is 0.55$ per m of coking wastewater, showing a 73% cost reduction when compared to struvite crystallization without recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112712DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcription Factor CsWRKY65 Participates in the Establishment of Disease Resistance of Citrus Fruits to .

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 14;69(20):5671-5682. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China.

is the primary pathogen that causes serious yield losses worldwide. In our previous study, CsWRKY transcription factors (TFs) and some genes associated with immunity were identified in citrus fruits after infection, but little information is available in the literature on the mechanisms of TFs in citrus disease resistance. In this study, the possible mechanisms of CsWRKY65 participating in the establishment of disease resistance were investigated. Results show that CsWRKY65 was a transcriptional activator in the nucleus. The dual-luciferase transient assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that CsWRKY65 bound with , , , and promoters to activate gene transcription. Besides, the transient overexpression of induced reactive oxygen species accumulation and increased gene expression in leaves. The transient overexpression of in the citrus peel enhanced the disease resistance against . In conclusion, CsWRKY65 is likely to be involved in regulating the disease resistance to of citrus fruits by directly activating the expressions of , , , and . This study provides new information for the mechanism of citrus WRKY TFs participating in the establishment of disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01411DOI Listing
May 2021

Phenotypic heterogeneity and metastasis of breast cancer cells.

Cancer Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University

While intratumoral genomic heterogeneity can impede cancer research and treatment, less is known about the effects of phenotypic heterogeneities. To investigate the role of cell migration heterogeneities in metastasis, we phenotypically sorted metastatic breast cancer cells into two subpopulations based on migration ability. While migration is typically considered to be associated with metastasis, when injected orthotopically in vivo, the weakly migratory subpopulation metastasized significantly more than the highly migratory subpopulation. To investigate the mechanism behind this observation, both subpopulations were assessed at each stage of the metastatic cascade, including dissemination from the primary tumor, survival in the circulation, extravasation, and colonization. While both subpopulations performed each step successfully, weakly migratory cells presented as circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters in the circulation, suggesting clustering as one potential mechanism behind the increased metastasis of weakly migratory cells. RNA sequencing revealed weakly migratory subpopulations to be more epithelial and highly migratory subpopulations to be more mesenchymal. Depletion of E-cadherin expression from weakly migratory cells abrogated metastasis. Conversely, induction of E-cadherin expression in highly migratory cells increased metastasis. Clinical patient data and blood samples showed that CTC clustering and E-cadherin expression are both associated with worsened patient outcome. This study demonstrates that deconvolving phenotypic heterogeneities can reveal fundamental insights into metastatic progression. More specifically, these results indicate that migratory ability does not necessarily correlate with metastatic potential, and that E-cadherin promotes metastasis in phenotypically-sorted breast cancer cell subpopulations by enabling CTC clustering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1799DOI Listing
May 2021

Plumbagin suppresses non-small cell lung cancer progression through downregulating ARF1 and by elevating CD8 T cells.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jul 6;169:105656. Epub 2021 May 6.

Dr. Neher's Biophysics Laboratory for Innovative Drug Discovery, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau (SAR), China; State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau (SAR), China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Joint Lab on Chinese Medicine and Immune Disease Research, China. Electronic address:

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed to improve patient outcomes. Plumbagin (PLB), a natural sesquiterpene present in many Chinese herbal medicines, has been reported for its anti-cancer activity in various cancer cells. In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PLB on the tumorigenesis of NSCLC were investigated. PLB dose-dependently inhibited the growth of NSCLC cell lines. PLB promoted ROS production, activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, and induced cell apoptosis, accompanied by the decreased expression level of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in NSCLC cancer cells, and those effects of PLB could be reversed by the pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). More importantly, the calcium chelator (BM) significantly reversed PLB-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, PLB significantly inhibited the growth of both H1975 xenograft and LLC1 tumors and exhibited antitumor activity by enhancing the number and the effector function of CD8 T cells in KRASLA2 mice model and the LLC1 xenograft. Our findings suggest that PLB exerts potent antitumor activity against NSCLC in vitro and in vivo through ARF1 downregulation and induction of antitumor immune response, indicating that PLB is a new novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of patients with NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105656DOI Listing
July 2021

Retraction notice to "Salidroside protects ATDC5 cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced injury through up-regulation of microRNA-145 in osteoarthritis" [Int. Immunopharmacol. 67 (2019) 441-448].

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 28;95:107711. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107711DOI Listing
June 2021

Modulated Luminescence of Lanthanide Materials by Local Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Lanthanide materials have great applications in optical communication, biological fluorescence imaging, laser, and so on, due to their narrow emission bandwidths, large Stokes' shifts, long emission lifetimes, and excellent photo-stability. However, the photon absorption cross-section of lanthanide ions is generally small, and the luminescence efficiency is relatively low. The effective improvement of the lanthanide-doped materials has been a challenge in the implementation of many applications. The local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) can improve the luminescence in different aspects: excitation enhancement induced by enhanced local field, emission enhancement induced by increased radiative decay, and quenching induced by increased non-radiative decay. In addition, plasmonic NPs can also regulate the energy transfer between two close lanthanide ions. In this review, the properties of the nanocomposite systems of lanthanide material and plasmonic NPs are presented, respectively. The mechanism of lanthanide materials regulated by plasmonic NPs and the scientific and technological discoveries of the luminescence technology are elaborated. Due to the large gap between the reported enhancement and the theoretical enhancement, some new strategies applied in lanthanide materials and related development in the plasmonic enhancing luminescence are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11041037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072723PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alpha monotherapy in Chinese inactive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers.

Liver Int 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background & Aims: The effectiveness and safety of peginterferon alpha (peg-IFN-α) monotherapy in inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers (IHCs) have not been fully evaluated.

Methods: This observational study prospectively enrolled 298 IHCs in China from 2015 to 2019. Participants were given the right to choose to either receive peg-IFN-α monotherapy (treatment group, n = 142) or be monitored without treatment (control group, n = 156) according to their wishes. The scheduled treatment duration was 48 weeks. All participants were followed up to 72 weeks. The main efficacy endpoint was hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance at 72 weeks.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups. At 72 weeks, intention-to-treat analysis showed that the rates of HBsAg clearance and seroconversion of the treatment group were 47.9% (68/142) and 36.6% (52/142), respectively, which were significantly higher than the HBsAg clearance rate of 1.9% (3/156) and the seroconversion rate of 0.6% (1/156) in the control group (both P < .001). Baseline HBV DNA < 20 IU/mL, lower HBsAg levels at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks, alanine aminotransferase elevation at 12 weeks, and greater HBsAg reduction from baseline to 12 and 24 weeks were independent predictors of HBsAg clearance. Generally, the therapy was well tolerated. Only five participants discontinued therapy as a result of peg-IFNα-related adverse events.

Conclusions: Peg-IFN-α monotherapy results in high rates of HBsAg clearance and seroconversion and the treatment is safe for IHCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14897DOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of high-fat emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia mice intervened by a polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 18;152:112230. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Lab for Agro-product Processing and Quality Control of Nanchang City, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

Genome-wide DNA methylation was used to study the lipid-lowering effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja polysaccharide (CPP). The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and the potential underlying mechanisms of action of CPP-2 in high-fat emulsion (HFE)-induced mice. The results showed that CPP-2 reduced the level of genome-wide DNA methylation in the liver of HFE-induced mice, which had a lipid-lowering effect by regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling-, fatty acid metabolism-, fatty acid biosynthesis- and adipocytokine signaling pathways. A series of lipid metabolism genes were screened out by conjoint analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Hereafter, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) as target genes were selected to validate the accuracy of the results. The findings demonstrated that CPP-2 might be effective in lowering the lipid content, thereby protecting against HFE-induced hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112230DOI Listing
June 2021

Tumor-targeted Gd-doped mesoporous FeO nanoparticles for T/T MR imaging guided synergistic cancer therapy.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):787-799

School of Medical Imaging, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

In this study, a novel intelligent nanoplatform to integrate multiple imaging and therapeutic functions for targeted cancer theranostics. The nanoplatform, [email protected] NPs, was constructed Gd-doped mesoporous FeO nanoparticles following with the doxorubicin (DOX) loading in the mesopores of the NPs. The [email protected] NPs exhibited good properties in colloidal dispersity, photothermal conversion, NIR triggered drug release, and high T/T relaxicity rate (=9.64 mMs, = 177.71 mMs). Benefiting from the high MR contrast, [email protected] NPs enabled simultaneous T/T dual-modal MR imagining on 4T1 bearing mice and the MR contrast effect was further strengthened by external magnetic field. In addition, the [email protected] NPs revealed the strongest inhibition to the growth of 4T1 and under NIR irradiation and guidance of external magnetic field. Moreover, biosafety was also validated by and tests. Thus, the prepared [email protected] NPs would provide a promising intelligent nanoplatform for dual-modal MR imagining guided synergistic therapy in cancer theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1909177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079076PMC
December 2021

Cost-effectiveness of Atezolizumab Plus Bevacizumab vs Sorafenib for Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e214846. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Importance: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma has been shown to improve overall and progression-free survival compared with standard sorafenib treatment. However, because of the high cost of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, assessment of its value by considering both efficacy and cost is needed.

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib for patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This economic evaluation was performed from June through September 2020, with a 6-year investment time period. Hypothetical patients were male and female adults 18 years or older who had a diagnosis of locally advanced metastatic or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by histologic or clinical features.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Health care costs (adjusted to 2020 US dollars), life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab vs sorafenib were examined using a partitioned survival model. One-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to examine model uncertainty. The model was also used to estimate price reductions of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab that would achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness.

Results: In the base case analysis of a hypothetical sample of 424 patients, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with an increase of 0.623 life-years (1.840 vs 1.218 life-years) and 0.484 QALYs (1.412 vs 0.928 QALYs) and with an incremental cost of $156 210 per patient compared with sorafenib. The ICER was $322 500 per QALY (5th to 95th percentile, $149 364-$683 744 per QALY), with 0.6% and 5.1% chance of being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $100 000 and $150 000 per QALY, respectively. The ICER never decreased below $150 000 per QALY in the 1-way sensitivity analyses. To achieve more favorable cost-effectiveness under the thresholds of $150 000 to $100 000 per QALY, the prices of atezolizumab and bevacizumab would need to be reduced by 37% to 47%.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this economic evaluation, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was associated with clinical benefit but was not cost-effective compared with sorafenib for first-line treatment of unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma from a US payer perspective. A substantial reduction in price for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab would be needed to achieve favorable cost-effectiveness for this new therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027915PMC
April 2021

Proteomic analysis of psoriatic skin lesions in a Chinese population.

J Proteomics 2021 05 30;240:104207. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Dermatology, No. 1 Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China; Institute of Dermatology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China; Key Laboratory of Dermatology, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, China, Hefei 230032, China; Anhui Provincial Institute of Translational Medicine, Hefei 230032, China; Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder with undefined pathogenesis. Several biomarkers for this disease have been identified by proteomic analysis. We explored the whole-proteomic changes in 45 pairs of psoriatic and adjacent noninvolved skin tissues in a Chinese population. A total of 3686 proteins were identified, of which 3008 were quantified. A total of 102 and 124 proteins were upregulated and downregulated in lesional skin, respectively. SART1 (P = 3.55 × 10) and GLTP (P = 1.54 × 10) were the most significantly down- and upregulated proteins. Nearly 90% of these differentially regulated proteins exhibited the same expression trends as those in an online RNA sequencing dataset for psoriasis; 19 differentially regulated proteins exhibited a negative relationship with DNA methylation data for psoriatic lesions. The differentially expressed proteins were enriched in ribosomes, antigen processing and presentation, immune response, and IL-17 signalling pathways. This study identified multiple differentially regulated proteins in psoriatic lesions, which suggested that changes in the proteome play important regulatory roles in psoriasis-associated processes. SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic analysis was performed in 45 pairs of psoriatic and adjacent noninvolved skin tissues in a Chinese population. More than 3000 proteins were quantified, of which 226 were differentially expressed in psoriatic skin tissues. These proteins were mainly enriched in the immune response, antigen processing and presentation and IL-17 signalling pathways, which have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104207DOI Listing
May 2021

NUPR1 participates in YAP-mediate gastric cancer malignancy and drug resistance via AKT and p21 activation.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr;73(6):740-748

General Surgery, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objectives: To assess nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) level in human gastric cancer (GC) cells, explore the effects of NUPR1 on GC progression, and investigate the possible regulatory mechanism.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunoblot and quantitative PCR assays were conducted to detect the NUPR1 level in human GC tissues and corresponding normal tissues. Also, NUPR1 expression level correlates with clinical features of GC patients. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT), transwell assays, Immunoblot assays, and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were used to evaluate the effects of NUPR1 on the proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and apoptosis of GC cells in vitro. Immunoblot assays were performed to detect the potential mechanism in NUPR1-mediated drug resistance.

Key Findings: We found the expression of NUPR1 was upregulated in human gastric cancer tissues and correlated with the clinical features including tumour size, tumour stage and, lymph node metastasis. We further noticed that the depletion of NUPR1 inhibited the invasion and EMT of gastric cancer cells and stimulated the apoptosis. In doxorubicin-resistant gastric cancer cells, yes-associated protein (YAP) activation was up-regulated, and YAP could regulate the expression of NUPR1 to affect drug-resistance. We further provided the evidence that overexpression of NUPR1 reversed the effect of YAP knockdown on cell malignancy and drug resistance via regulating AKT and p21 pathway.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated the involvement of NUPR1 in the progression of gastric cancer and elucidated its molecular mechanism in regulating drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab010DOI Listing
April 2021

Ancient Xinjiang mitogenomes reveal intense admixture with high genetic diversity.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 31;7(14). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China.

Xinjiang is a key region in northwestern China, connecting East and West Eurasian populations and cultures for thousands of years. To understand the genetic history of Xinjiang, we sequenced 237 complete ancient human mitochondrial genomes from the Bronze Age through Historical Era (41 archaeological sites). Overall, the Bronze Age Xinjiang populations show high diversity and regional genetic affinities with Steppe and northeastern Asian populations along with a deep ancient Siberian connection for the Tarim Basin Xiaohe individuals. In the Iron Age, in general, Steppe-related and northeastern Asian admixture intensified, with North and East Xinjiang populations showing more affinity with northeastern Asians and South Xinjiang populations showing more affinity with Central Asians. The genetic structure observed in the Historical Era of Xinjiang is similar to that in the Iron Age, demonstrating genetic continuity since the Iron Age with some additional genetic admixture with populations surrounding the Xinjiang region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd6690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011967PMC
March 2021

Conserved role of ENDOG in promoting autophagy.

Autophagy 2021 04 28;17(4):1061-1062. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Zhuhai Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhuhai People's Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Jinan University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

ENDOG (endonuclease G), a mitochondrial endonuclease, is known to participate in apoptosis and paternal mitochondria elimination. However, the role and underlying mechanism of ENDOG in regulating macroautophagy remain unclear. We recently reported that ENDOG released from mitochondria promotes autophagy during starvation, which we demonstrated is evolutionarily conserved across species by performing experiments in human cell lines, mice, , and . This study demonstrates that ENDOG can be phosphorylated by GSK3B, which enhances the interaction between ENDOG with YWHAG and leads to the release of TSC2 and PIK3C3 from YWHAG, followed by MTOR pathway suppression and autophagy initiation. Additionally, the endonuclease activity of ENDOG is essential for activating the DNA damage response and thus inducing autophagy. Consequently, this study uncovered an exciting new role for ENDOG as a crucial regulator of autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1907513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078748PMC
April 2021

Fabrication of self-aligning convergent waveguides of microlens arrays to collect and guide light.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):3327-3341

The optical properties of microlens arrays may be significantly affected by the optical crosstalk effect between adjacent lenses. Recently, this issue has triggered increasing attention in the scientific community. In this study, an integrated microlens array (MLA) consisting of self-aligning convergent waveguides of microlenses was fabricated. The optical crosstalk effect does not influence the performance of such system. Based on the self-focusing effect principle, self-writing of the waveguide array was achieved in a photosensitive polymer. The light collection and guiding performance of the MLA with and without thermal cross-linking treatment was analyzed in depth. The relation between the stray light and the filling rate of the MLA shows that a high filling rate decreases the optical crosstalk. Finally, an integrated MLA with a large area, high uniformity, and excellent optical performance was fabricated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.413243DOI Listing
February 2021