Publications by authors named "Wenjing Zhang"

646 Publications

Passive cancer targeting with a viral nanoparticle depends on the stage of tumorigenesis.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Tumor targeting with nanoparticles is a promising strategy for cancer diagnosis and treatment, especially for drug delivery to solid tumors. Previous studies mainly focused on nanoparticle design to improve their targeting efficiency, but few have investigated the impact of tumor progression stages on the targeting efficiency. Here, we used PEGylated viral nanoparticles (VNPs) of bacteriophage P22 to explore the relationship between targeting efficiency and tumor progression stages using a colorectal cancer model. We found an 8.1-fold increase in the accumulation of P22 VNPs systematically injected 7 days after tumor inoculation compared with those injected 21 days after tumor inoculation. Most tumor-targeted P22 VNPs were concentrated in tumor-associated macrophages in the tumor blood vessels, the density of which decreased with the progression of tumors. These results reveal that the tumor targeting efficiency of P22 VNPs decreased with tumor progression. These findings provide valuable information for not only the understanding of controversial observations regarding targeted cancer therapy in experimental and clinical studies but also the design of nanoparticle-based tumor targeting probes or therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01619aDOI Listing
June 2021

Engineering circular RNA regulators to specifically promote circular RNA production.

Theranostics 2021 24;11(15):7322-7336. Epub 2021 May 24.

Second Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China 116044.

A large number of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been discovered in the mammalian transcriptome with high abundance, which play vital roles in gene regulation, thereby participating in the development of multiple diseases. However, the biogenesis, regulation, and especially manipulation of circRNAs still remain largely unknown. Engineering circRNA regulators (ECRRs) were developed to promote circRNA biogenesis. Multiple circRNA mini-gene reporters were generated to evaluate the regulatory role of ECRRs. RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, northern blot, western blot, and flow cytometry assays were applied to assess the efficiency of artificial circRNA regulators on circRNA production in the presence or absence of RNase R treatment. We engineered circRNA regulators by combining sequence-specific RNA binding motifs of human Pumilio 1 with functional domains that could form dimerization. We applied these engineered regulators to promote the circRNA production of the exogenous circRNA minigene reporter circGFP, thereby stimulating the functional GFP protein generation. Crucially, such regulation is in time-course dependent and dose-dependent manners with designed specificity. Moreover, the application of ECRRs could also stimulate circRNA biogenesis of another minigene reporter circScreen, suggesting that ECRRs can be commonly used to promote circRNA generation of exogenous reporters. Most importantly, ECRRs could be utilized to specifically promote the production of the endogenous circRNAs circ10720 and circBIRC6 as well. Our approach allows the creation of engineered regulators to target virtually any pre-mRNA , offering a novel avenue to investigate circRNA biogenesis and manipulate disease-related circRNA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.56990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210604PMC
May 2021

Impact of Amine Additives on Perovskite Precursor Aging: A Case Study of Light-Emitting Diodes.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 17:5836-5843. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-58183, Sweden.

Amines are widely employed as additives for improving the performance of metal halide perovskite optoelectronic devices. However, amines are well-known for their high chemical reactivity, the impact of which has yet to receive enough attention from the perovskite light-emitting diode community. Here, by investigating an unusual positive aging effect of CHNHI/CsI/PbI precursor solutions as an example, we reveal that amines gradually undergo N-formylation in perovskite precursors over time. This reaction is initialized by hydrolysis of dimethylformamide in the acidic chemical environment. Further investigations suggest that the reaction products collectively impact perovskite crystallization and eventually lead to significantly enhanced external quantum efficiency values, increasing from ∼2% for fresh solutions to ≳12% for aged ones. While this case study provides a positive aging effect, a negative aging effect is possible in other perovksite systems. Our findings pave the way for more reliable and reproducible device fabrication and call for further attention to underlying chemical reactions within the perovskite inks once amine additives are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01349DOI Listing
June 2021

Inflammation characteristics and anti-inflammation treatment with tocilizumab of severe/critical COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 17;17(8):2124-2134. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Preventive Medicine, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing 400038, People's Republic of China.

The efficacy of tocilizumab on the prognosis of severe/critical COVID-19 patients is still controversial so far. We aimed to delineate the inflammation characteristics of severe/critical COVID-19 patients and determine the impact of tocilizumab on hospital mortality. Here, we performed a retrospective cohort study which enrolled 727 severe or critical inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China), among which 50 patients received tocilizumab. This study confirmed that most recovered patients manifested relatively normal inflammation levels at admission, whereas most of the deceased cases presented visibly severe inflammation at admission and even progressed into extremely aggravated inflammation before their deaths, proved by some extremely high concentrations of interleukin-6, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count. Moreover, based on the Cox proportional-hazards models before or after propensity score matching, we demonstrated that tocilizumab treatment could lessen mortality by gradually alleviating excessive inflammation and meanwhile continuously enhancing the levels of lymphocytes within 14 days for severe/critical COVID-19 patients, indicating potential effectiveness for treating COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.56952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193270PMC
May 2021

Rapid 3-dimensional shape determination of globular proteins by mobility capillary electrophoresis and native mass spectrometry.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 28;11(18):4758-4765. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology No. 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian Dist Beijing China

Established high-throughput proteomics methods provide limited information on the stereostructures of proteins. Traditional technologies for protein structure determination typically require laborious steps and cannot be performed in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we report a new medium throughput method by combining mobility capillary electrophoresis (MCE) and native mass spectrometry (MS) for the 3-dimensional (3D) shape determination of globular proteins in the liquid phase, which provides both the geometric structure and molecular mass information of proteins. A theory was established to correlate the ion hydrodynamic radius and charge state distribution in the native mass spectrum with protein geometrical parameters, through which a low-resolution structure (shape) of the protein could be determined. Our test data of 11 different globular proteins showed that this approach allows us to determine the shapes of individual proteins, protein complexes and proteins in a mixture, and to monitor protein conformational changes. Besides providing complementary protein structure information and having mixture analysis capability, this MCE and native MS based method is fast in speed and low in sample consumption, making it potentially applicable in top-down proteomics and structural biology for intact globular protein or protein complex analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc01965hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159243PMC
April 2020

Phase 1a study of the CDK4/6 inhibitor, FCN-437c, in Chinese patients with HR + /HER2- advanced breast cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong an Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Purpose This phase 1a, first-in-human study assessed the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor activity of FCN-437c, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor. Methods The study enrolled female patients with HR + /HER2- advanced breast cancer (BC) who failed standard of care therapy. A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was utilized with a starting dose of 50 mg daily for 3 weeks on and 1 week off treatment in 28-day cycles. Patients received escalating doses of FCN-437c monotherapy (50, 100, 200, 300, and 450 mg). Results Seventeen patients received FCN-437c 50 mg (n = 3), 100 mg (n = 3), 200 mg (n = 3), 300 mg (n = 6), and 450 mg (n = 2). Two patients who received the 450-mg dose experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; grade 4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia); no DLT was observed at any other dose level. Frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of any grade were hematological: leukopenia (94.1%), neutropenia (88.2%), anemia (64.7%), and thrombocytopenia (47.1%). Grade 3-4 TEAEs included neutropenia (64.7%) and leukopenia (47.1%). Exposure of FCN-437c increased almost proportionally to doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg. At doses from 200 to 450 mg, there appeared to be a trend of saturation. The MTD was determined to be 300 mg. Of 15 patients with measurable disease, nine (60.0%) patients experienced stable disease; no complete or partial responses were observed. Conclusions These results established an acceptable safety profile for FCN-437c in patients with advanced BC, and there were no unexpected signals relative to other CDK4/6 inhibitors. (NCT04488107; July 13, 2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01133-2DOI Listing
June 2021

KAT1 triggers YTHDF2-mediated ITGB1 mRNA instability to alleviate the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 5;170:105713. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, the Laboratory for Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Henan Eye Hospital, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment. This study focuses on the function of lysine acetyltransferase 1 (KAT1) in the progression of DR and the epigenetic mechanism. A mouse model with DR was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Abundantly expressed genes in STZ-induced mice were analyzed. KAT1 was found to be significantly downregulated in the retinal tissues of model mice. Retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) and retinal Müller cells (rMCs) were cultured in high-glucose medium for in vitro studies. Upregulation of KAT1 suppressed inflammation, neovascularization, and vascular leakage in mouse retinal tissues, and it reduced the activity and inflammatory responses in rMCs, as well as the proliferation and metastatic potential of RMECs. KAT1 activated the transcription activity of YTHDF2 through histone acetylation of the promoter, and YTHDF2 triggered the instability of ITGB1 mRNA to induce mRNA degradation in an m6A manner. The activities of rMCs and RMECs were increased by sh-YTHDF2 but suppressed by sh-ITGB1. The FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed upon ITGB1 silencing. Collectively, this study demonstrated that KAT1 triggers YTHDF2-mediated ITGB1 mRNA instability to alleviate the progression of DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105713DOI Listing
June 2021

Flexible and Filter-Free Color-Imaging Sensors with Multicomponent Perovskites Deposited Using Enhanced Vapor Technology.

Small 2021 Jun 6:e2007543. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Halide perovskites are promising photoactive materials for filter-free color-imaging sensors owing to their outstanding optoelectronic properties, tunable bandgaps, and suitability for large-scale fabrication. However, producing patterned perovskite films of sufficiently high quality for such applications poses a challenge for existing fabrication methods: using solution processes to prepare patterned perovskite films is complicated, while evaporation methods often result in perovskite photodetectors with limited performance. In this paper, the authors report the development of an improved evaporation method in which substrates are treated with a brominated (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane self-assembled monolayer to improve the properties of the patterned perovskite films. The resulting perovskite photodetectors exhibit significantly enhanced photosensitivity and long-term stability (exceeding 100 days). Additionally, the polymer substrates facilitate device flexibility. Finally, perovskites comprising three different halide components, each with a different bandgap, are integrated into a device array using the developed evaporation technology, yielding sensors that enable the discrimination of red, green, and blue colors. Thus, the flexible photosensor arrays can generate colorful images closely resembling perceived patterns, demonstrating reliable color imaging. Therefore, this study successfully demonstrates filter-free color-imaging by integrating high-performance patterned and multicomponent perovskite photodetectors, highlighting the potential of such detectors for advanced optoelectronic applications, including hyperspectral imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007543DOI Listing
June 2021

Soil characteristics and microbial community response in rare earth mining areas in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

The microbial community and functional flora in rare earth mining areas are correlated, but the characteristics and metabolic pathways of pollutant in such mining areas are still poorly known. The heavy metals, rare earth elements, and microorganisms present after mining of rare earth mine sites were analyzed. After mining, all sampling sites exhibited low pH and low total organic carbon levels, accompanied by high iron and aluminum concentrations. The development of vegetation is closely related to the development of microorganisms. In the complex environment of rare earth mining areas, Proteobacteria exhibit an absolute competitive advantage. During mine environmental recovery, the relative abundances of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi will increase markedly, and with further restoration the relative abundance of Firmicutes will gradually decrease. Many genera of bacteria related to the N cycle and heavy metal metabolism were detected in the study area, indicating the important metabolic pathways for ammonia nitrogen and heavy metals in rare earth mining areas. Bacterial genera that promote plant nitrogen fixation also occur in the area, further revealing the nitrogen cycle. This research is important for health assessment and recovery of rare earth mines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14337-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Circ_RPL23A acts as a miR-1233 sponge to suppress the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma by promoting ACAT2.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, No.348, Dexiang Street, Jiamusi, 154002, Heilongjiang, Province, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a prevalent urological carcinoma with high metastatic risk. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified as effective diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for ccRCC. This research aims to disclose the effect and regulatory mechanism of circRNA ribosomal protein L23a (circ_RPL23A) in ccRCC. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to examine circ_RPL23A, microRNA-1233 (miR-1233) and acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2). Cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cell viability, invasion and migration, which were respectively conducted by using flow cytometry, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), transwell assays. The levels of ACAT2 protein and cell cycle proteins, proliferation-associated protein, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated proteins were measured by western blot. Target relationship was analyzed via dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull down assay. The animal model was used to study how circ_RPL23A affects in vivo. Circ_RPL23A was lower expressed in ccRCC tissues and cells. The elevated circ_RPL23A suppressed cell cycle progression, proliferation, migration and invasion but promoted apoptosis in ccRCC cells. MiR-1233 was a target of circ_RPL23A and direct targeted to ACAT2. Besides, circ_RPL23A exerted its anti-tumor effect by sponging miR-1233, and then relieved the inhibition effect of miR-1233 on ACAT2. Overexpression of circ_RPL23A also curbed ccRCC tumor growth in vivo. Circ_RPL23A inhibited ccRCC progression by upregulating ACAT2 expression by competitively binding miR-1233, which might provide an in-depth cognition for ccRCC pathogenesis and circ_RPL23A might be a promising biomarker in ccRCC diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09901-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Analyses of key mRNAs and lncRNAs for different osteo-differentiation potentials of periodontal ligament stem cell and gingival mesenchymal stem cell.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Both human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) are candidate seed cells for bone tissue engineering, but the osteo-differentiation ability of the latter is weaker than the former, and the mechanisms are unknown. To explore the potential regulation of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), this study obtained the gene expression profiles of hPDLSCs and hGMSCs in both undifferentiated and osteo-differentiated conditions by microarray assay and then analysed the common and specific differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs in hPDLSCs and hGMSCs through bioinformatics method. The results showed that 275 mRNAs and 126 lncRNAs displayed similar changing patterns in hPDLSCs and hGMSCs after osteogenic induction, which may regulate the osteo-differentiation in both types of cells. In addition, the expression of 223 mRNAs and 238 lncRNAs altered only in hPDLSCs after osteogenic induction, and 177 mRNAs and 170 lncRNAs changed only in hGMSCs. These cell-specific differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs could underlie the different osteo-differentiation potentials of hPDLSCs and hGMSCs. Finally, dickkopf Wnt signalling pathway inhibitor 1 (DKK1) was proved to be one regulator for the weaker osteo-differentiation ability of hGMSCs through validation experiments. We hope these results help to reveal new mRNAs-lncRNAs-based molecular mechanism for osteo-differentiation of hPDLSCs and hGMSCs and provide clues on strategies for improving stem cell-mediated bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16571DOI Listing
May 2021

Relationship of Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) and Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Polymorphisms with Overall Cancer Susceptibility: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 28 Studies with 60 612 Subjects.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 24;27:e932146. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Programmed death-1 and its ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) regulate tumor immunotherapy. A large number of studies have explored the relationship between PD-1, PD-L1, and different tumor susceptibility. However, these conclusions are not always consistent. Therefore, we updated this meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE and other databases were searched systematically to obtain related research. Then, we used STATA15.0 software to carry out the final meta-analysis. The computational advantage is better than OR to evaluate this relationship. RESULTS A total of a total of 28 related studies were involved in our meta-analysis. It was found that PD-1 rs11568821 and rs7421861 increased the overall cancer probability in the allelic genetic model, while PD-1 rs36084323 effectively reduced the risk of cancer in the dominant genetic model. In the homozygous genetic model, PD-L1 rs17718883 effectively increased the probability of tumorigenesis. PD-L1rs4143815 is associated with a reduced incidence of cancer in heterozygote, homozygote and dominant genetic patterns. Subgroup analysis showed that PD-1rs2227981 can promote the susceptibility to breast cancer, while PD-1rs2227982 can reduce the susceptibility to breast cancer. PD-L1 rs2890658 can significantly reduce the risk of lung and liver cancer. CONCLUSIONS PD-1rs11568821, rs36084323, rs7421861, pD-L1rs17718883, and rs4143815 are associated with tumor susceptibility. However, a review based on more experimental evidence is needed to verify our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.932146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162050PMC
May 2021

Author Correction: Calcium ion-induced formation of β-sheet/-turn structure leading to alteration of osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

Sci Rep 2021 May 19;11(1):10866. Epub 2021 May 19.

1The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90711-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134469PMC
May 2021

Prognostic value of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 3;22(1):722. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, P.R. China.

Esophageal cancer has always been one of the major malignant tumor types affecting the health of the Chinese population. Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), SOX4 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) are all potent inducers of invasion and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the role of these signaling molecules and their implication in ESCC have remained largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 on the prognosis of patients with ESCC were explored. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression levels of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2. The χ test was used to analyze the association between protein expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model survival analysis was performed to investigate the effects of the three proteins examined on disease prognosis. The results indicated that MTA1 may be used as a prognostic and diagnostic marker for ESCC. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that MTA1-SOX4 signaling is associated with prognosis in ESCC. However, no significant association was noted between SOX4 and EZH2 in the present study, which was inconsistent with previously reported findings. The function of the MTA1-SOX4-EZH2 axis and the interactions of the proteins involved require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120658PMC
July 2021

Insights into pH-dependent transformation of gibberellic acid in aqueous solution: Transformation pathway, mechanism and toxicity estimation.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 8;104:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Gibberellic acid (GA) is widely used in agriculture and maybe transfer with groundwater flow, which is an endocrine disruptor, but few studies have focused on the transformation pathway and toxicity assessment of GA and its products. Here, GA and its transformation products in aqueous solution were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry hybrid ion trap time-of-flight (LCMS-IT-TOF) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The results showed that the half-life of GA transformation in ultrapure water was 16.1-24.6 days at pH=2.0-8.0, with the lowest half-life occurring at pH=8.0 and highest half-life occurring at pH=3.3. Isomerized gibberellic acid (Iso-GA) and gibberellenic acid (GEA) were the main transformation products with a little hydroxy gibberellic acid (OH-GA). In North China groundwater, the mass balance of GA and its products was 76.2%, including Iso-GA (58%), GEA (7.9%), GA (7.3%) and OH-GA (3%) after reaching transformation equilibrium. Using Gaussian 09 for chemical computation, it was found that the transformation mechanism of GA was dependent upon the bond energy and the stereochemical feature of its molecular structure. GA always isomerized from the γ-lactone ring due to the lowest bond energy between the oxygen terminus of the γ-lactone ring and A ring. While GA and its transformation products all had developmental toxicity, the predicated LC (96 hr) and LD of the main products of GA were much lower than those of GA, indicating GA would be transformed into higher toxicity derivatives in water environments, posing a significant health risk to humans and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.009DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel Vancomycin-Functionalized-Magnetic Graphene Composite for Use as a Near-Infrared-Induced Synergistic Chemo-Photothermal Antibacterial.

Macromol Biosci 2021 May 13:e2100082. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratory of Nanoscale Biosensing and Bioimaging (NBAB), School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, School of Biomedical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Optometry, and Vision Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325027, China.

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains are a major cause of disease. They continue to remain a challenge in the clinic particularly in the vision system. For example, infectious endophthalmitis is a major blind-causing disease caused by bacteria. A highly efficient synergistic antibacterial treatment that uses a photothermal antibacterial therapeutic with a chemo-antibacterial therapeutic in a multifunctional nanocomposite is reported. It is prepared by immobilizing vancomycin onto the surface of a magnetic chitosan-graphene (VCM-MCG) composite. An antibacterial effect is achieved when VCM-MCG is applied. This effect is enhanced when the nanocomposites are irradiated with a near-infrared laser. Growth of gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria are suppressed efficiently. Such a composite can help manage the control of pathogenic bacteria growth in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mabi.202100082DOI Listing
May 2021

Pharmacokinetic study of an anti-trypanosome agent with different formulations and administration routes in mice by HPLC-MS/MS.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 May 12:e5169. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previously compound 12 showed great anti-trypanosome activity without toxicity in an in vivo study. In the current study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to investigate its pharmacokinetics in mouse plasma. A protein precipitation method was applied to extract the compound, and it was then separated using a Kinetex C column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 300 μl/min. The analytes were detected with the multiple reaction monitoring in negative electrospray ionization source for quantitative response of the compounds. Compound 12 was detected at m/z 477.0 → 367.2, while the internal standard compound 14 was detected at m/z 499.2 → 268.2. Inter- and intra-day precision was <5.22 and 2.79% respectively, while the accuracy range was within ±9.65%. The method was successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of compound 12 in mouse plasma with two formulations (20% Cremophor EL or sesame oil) and drug administration routes (oral and intraperitoneal injection). We observed a better drug serum concentration with the Cremophor formulation, and the two different drug administration routes did not show significant differences from the drug distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5169DOI Listing
May 2021

Cargo encapsulated hepatitis E virus-like particles for anti-HEV antibody detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 22;185:113261. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

Viral capsid-nanoparticle hybrid structures incorporating quantum dots (QDs) into virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute an emerging bioinspired type of nanoarchitecture paradigm used for various applications. In the present study, we packed inorganic QDs in vitro into the hepatitis E virus-like particle (HEV-LP) and developed a fluorometric biosensor for HEV antibody detection. Firstly, for the preparation of QDs-encapsulated HEV-LPs ([email protected]), the HEV-LPs produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system were disassembled and reassembled in the presence of QDs using the self-assembly approach. Thus, the prepared [email protected] exhibited excellent fluorescence properties similar to QDs. Further, in the presence of HEV antibodies in the serum samples, when mixed with [email protected], bind together and further bind to anti-IgG-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The target-specific anti-IgG-MNPs and [email protected] enrich the HEV antibodies by magnetic separation, and the separated [email protected] HEV antibodies are quantified by fluorescence measurement. This developed method was applied to detect the HEV antibody from sera of HEV-infected monkey from 0 to 68 days-post-infection and successfully diagnosed for HEV antibodies. The viral RNA copies number from monkey fecal samples by RT-qPCR was compared to the HEV antibody generation. This study first used QDs-encapsulated VLPs as useful fluorescence emitters for biosensing platform construction. It provides an efficient route for highly sensitive and specific antibody detection in clinical diagnosis research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113261DOI Listing
August 2021

Isolation and Characterization of a Subtype 4b of Hepatitis E Virus Using a PLC/PRF/5 cell-derived Cell Line Resistant to Porcine Sapelovirus Infection.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan.

A human hepatocarcinoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, is susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and is used for isolating this virus. It is difficult to use this cell line for the isolation of HEV directly from fecal specimens of swine or wild boar contaminated with porcine sapelovirus (PSV), because PSV infection results in rapid and extensive cytopathic effects in PLC/PRF/5 cells, interrupting the growth of HEV. Herein, we used a PSV infection-resistant cell line, N1380 derived from PLC/PRF/5 cells, and we successfully isolated an HEV-4b strain from a PSV-positive swine fecal specimen. Our results indicate that N1380 cells are a useful tool for the isolation of HEV from swine or wild boar fecal specimens, even when they are co-infected with PSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.100DOI Listing
April 2021

Pattern Recognition Receptor-initiated Innate Immune Responses in mouse Prostatic Epithelial Cells.

Biol Reprod 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Three major pathogenic states of the prostate, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis, are related to the local inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of prostate inflammation remain largely unknown. Given that the innate immune responses of the tissue-specific cells to microbial infection or auto-antigens contribute to local inflammation, this study focused on pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate immune responses in mouse prostatic epithelial cells (PECs). Primary mouse PECs abundantly expressed Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR4, TLR5, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and p204. These PRRs can be activated by their respective ligands: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin of Gram-negative bacteria for TLR4 and TLR5, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for TLR3 and MDA5, and herpes simplex virus DNA analog (HSV60) for p204. LPS and flagellin predominantly induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including TNFA, IL6, MCP1, and CXCL10. Poly(I:C) and HSV60 predominantly induced the expression of type 1 interferons (IFNA and IFNB) and antiviral proteins: Mx GTPase 1, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, and IFN-stimulated gene 15. The replication of mumps virus in PECs was inhibited by type 1 IFN signaling. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying innate immune response in the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioab076DOI Listing
April 2021

Decade-scale change in testate amoebae community primarily driven by anthropogenic disturbance than natural change in a large subtropical reservoir.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 20;784:147026. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Aquatic EcoHealth Group, Fujian Key Laboratory of Watershed Ecology, Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

Understanding the extent of human activities leading to an influx of chemical pollutants that cause substantial environmental transformations is the focus of much ongoing research. In this study, we present a multi-proxy record based on a sediment core from a large subtropical reservoir (Xinfengjiang Reservoir) in south China with an emphasis on the changes in testate amoebae community, in combination with sedimentological (radioactivity, physicochemistry, nutrient and organochlorine pesticides) and climatological (air temperature and precipitation) data over the last three decades. Twenty-seven testate amoebae species belonging to seven genera (Arcella, Centropyxis, Cyclopyxis, Difflugia, Netzelia, Euglypha and Pseudodifflugia) were observed. Species richness, abundance and biomass of testate amoebae were in ranges of 18-26 species, 616-825 ind. ml and 9.0-19.4 μg C ml, respectively. Two development stages of the reservoir, dated to 1978-1993 (stage 1) and 1993-2006 (stage 2), were distinguished based on testate amoebae communities. Stage 1 was characterized by elevated dry bulk density, carbon-to‑nitrogen ratio and p,p'-DDE in the sediment core and an impact of nitrogen and sulfur deficiency on testate amoebae. Stage 2 was marked by a decrease of dry bulk density, elevated concentrations of aluminum, iron and carbon, low carbon-to‑nitrogen ratio and organochlorine pesticides, fluctuations in rainfall on shorter and yearly timescales, and a stronger influence of the organochlorine pesticides on testate amoebae. Testate amoebae community change and the identified two-stage development were consistent with atmospheric deposition of organochlorine pesticides from anthropogenic sources inside and outside the reservoir watershed, nutrient influx and sediment physicochemistry. The testate amoebae community dynamics and a strong community-environment relationship in stage 2 were linked with non-random patterns in the biotic neighborhoods of species (deterministic processes). The results suggest a stronger impact of anthropogenic disturbance than natural environmental change on testate amoebae community variation of Xinfengjiang Reservoir over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147026DOI Listing
August 2021

A multimodal meta-analysis of regional structural and functional brain alterations in type 2 diabetes.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2021 Apr 20;62:100915. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu 610041, China; Research Unit of Psychoradiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu 610041, China; Functional and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan University, NO. 37 Guoxue Xiang, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structural and functional alterations of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients; however, there is no systematic information on the relations between abnormalities in these two domains. We conducted a multimodal meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry and regional resting-state functional MRI studies in T2DM, including fifteen structural datasets (693 patients and 684 controls) and sixteen functional datasets (378 patients and 358 controls). We found, in patients with T2DM compared to controls, conjoint decreased regional gray matter volume (GMV) and altered intrinsic activity mainly in the default mode network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus/Rolandic operculum, left middle and inferior temporal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus; decreased GMV alone in the limbic system; and functional abnormalities alone in the cerebellum, insula, and visual cortex. This meta-analysis identified complicated patterns of conjoint and dissociated brain alterations in T2DM patients, which may help provide new insight into the neuropathology of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2021.100915DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk stratification scores for hospitalization duration and disease progression in moderate and severe patients with COVID-19.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 14;21(1):120. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Preventive Medicine, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Background: During outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), healthcare providers are facing critical clinical decisions based on the prognosis of patients. Decision support tools of risk stratification are needed to predict outcomes in patients with different clinical types of COVID-19.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study recruited 2425 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. A logistic regression model was used to select and estimate the factors independently associated with outcomes. Simplified risk stratification score systems were constructed to predict outcomes in moderate and severe patients with COVID-19, and their performances were evaluated by discrimination and calibration.

Results: We constructed two risk stratification score systems, named as STPCAL (including significant factors in the prediction model: number of clinical symptoms, the maximum body temperature during hospitalization, platelet count, C-reactive protein, albumin and lactate dehydrogenase) and TRPNCLP (including maximum body temperature during hospitalization, history of respiratory diseases, platelet count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and prothrombin time), to predict hospitalization duration for moderate patients and disease progression for severe patients, respectively. According to STPCAL score, moderate patients were classified into three risk categories for a longer hospital duration: low (Score 0-1, median = 8 days, with less than 20.0% probabilities), intermediate (Score 2-6, median = 13 days, with 30.0-78.9% probabilities), high (Score 7-9, median = 19 days, with more than 86.5% probabilities). Severe patients were stratified into three risk categories for disease progression: low risk (Score 0-5, with less than 12.7% probabilities), intermediate risk (Score 6-11, with 18.6-69.1% probabilities), and high risk (Score 12-16, with more than 77.9% probabilities) by TRPNCLP score. The two risk scores performed well with good discrimination and calibration.

Conclusions: Two easy-to-use risk stratification score systems were built to predict the outcomes in COVID-19 patients with different clinical types. Identifying high risk patients with longer stay or poor prognosis could assist healthcare providers in triaging patients when allocating limited healthcare during COVID-19 outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01487-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045569PMC
April 2021

Isolation and characterization of mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 from a fecal sample from a wild boar in Japan.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 11;166(6):1671-1680. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan.

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) have been identified in various mammalian species, including humans, bats, and pigs. However, isolation and complete genome sequences of MRVs from wild boars have not yet been reported. In this study, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed an MRV from a free-living wild boar in Japan using the porcine-sapelovirus-resistant cell line N1380. Complete and empty virus particles were obtained from the N1380 cell culture supernatants, and complete genome sequences were obtained from complete virus particles. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolated MRV, named TY-14, could be classified as MRV3 and had a close genetic relationship to an MRV2 isolate from a lion in a Japanese zoo (L2, L3, and M3 genes) and a human MRV2 isolate from Japan (S2 gene). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TY-14 clustered only with bat MRVs in the M1 phylogenetic tree but formed a cluster with several animal MRVs in the M2 and S3 phylogenetic trees and branched independently in the L1, S1, and S4 phylogenetic trees, suggesting a genetic relationship to viruses of unknown origin. Recombination events were identified in the M2 gene. These results suggest that TY-14 was generated by reassortment and recombination events involving MRVs circulating in Japan, viruses from bats, and other viruses of unknown origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05053-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Morphological alterations of the corpus callosum in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia before and 1-year after treatment.

Schizophr Res 2021 May 8;231:115-121. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Functional and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The corpus callosum (CC) is known to be altered in patients with schizophrenia. However, its morphologic characteristics are less well studied in treatment-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients, as is the effect of antipsychotic treatment on this structure.

Methods: T-1 weighted MRI scans were obtained from 160 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients (AN-FES) and 155 healthy controls (HCs) before treatment initiation. Among the patients, forty-four were available for follow-up studies after one year of antipsychotic treatment, and were divided into good-outcome (n = 31) and poor-outcome subgroups (n = 13) based on whether there was a 50% reduction in Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline. A computer algorithm was applied to automatically identify the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and obtain morphological measurement parameters of the CC.

Results: Compared with HCs, AN-FES patients showed a significant reduction of thickness in the posterior midbody of the CC. This deficit was correlated with severity of negative symptoms. After one year of antipsychotic treatment, there was no significant change in CC morphological measurements in schizophrenia patients, nor was there a significant difference of CC morphological measurements between good-outcome and poor-outcome subgroups at baseline or at 1-year follow-up.

Conclusion: Thickness of the posterior midbody of the CC is reduced in the early course of schizophrenia before treatment. This alteration was not affected by antipsychotic treatment and was unrelated to treatment outcome at 1-year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.03.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Emerging nanotaxanes for cancer therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 05 1;272:120790. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine and Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, China; Engineering Technology Research Center of Modernized Pharmaceutics, Education Office of Anhui Province, Hefei, 230012, China. Electronic address:

The clinical application of taxane (including paclitaxel, docetaxel, and cabazitaxel)-based formulations is significantly impeded by their off-target distribution, unsatisfactory release, and acquired resistance/metastasis. Recent decades have witnessed a dramatic progress in the development of high-efficiency, low-toxicity nanotaxanes via the use of novel biomaterials and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs). Thus, in this review, the achievements of nanotaxanes-targeted delivery and stimuli-responsive nano-DDSs-in preclinical or clinical trials have been outlined. Then, emerging nanotherapeutics against tumor resistance and metastasis have been overviewed, with a particular emphasis on synergistic therapy strategies (e.g., combination with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, biotherapy, immunotherapy, gas therapy, phototherapy, and multitherapy). Finally, the latest oral nanotaxanes have been briefly discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120790DOI Listing
May 2021

EIF5A2 controls ovarian tumor growth and metastasis by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the TGFβ pathway.

Cell Biosci 2021 Apr 7;11(1):70. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Background: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to tumor metastasis and chemoresistance. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) is highly expressed in a variety of human cancers but rarely expressed in normal tissues. While EIF5A2 has oncogenic activity in several cancers and contributes to tumor metastasis, its role in ovarian cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether EIF5A2 contributes to ovarian tumor metastasis by promoting EMT.

Methods: To investigate the role of EIF5A2, we knocked out (KO) EIF5A2 using lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 nickase in high invasive SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells and overexpressed EIF5A2 in low invasive OVCAR3 cells using lentiviral vector. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion was examined in vitro ovarian cancer cells and tumor metastasis was evaluated in vivo using orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse models.

Results: Here we report that EIF5A2 is highly expressed in ovarian cancers and associated with patient poor survival. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 nickase vector mediated knockout (KO) of EIF5A2 inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SKOV3 and OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells that express high levels of EIF5A2. In contrast, overexpression of EIF5A2 promotes EMT in OVCAR3 epithelial adenocarcinoma cells that express relatively low EIF5A2 levels. KO of EIF5A2 in SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, while its overexpression promotes cell migration and invasion in OVCAR3 adenocarcinoma cells. We further demonstrate that EIF5A2 promotes EMT by activating the TGFβ pathway and KO of EIF5A2 inhibits ovarian tumor growth and metastasis in orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse models.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that EIF5A2 is an important controller of ovarian tumor growth and metastasis by promoting EMT and activating the TGFβ pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00578-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025533PMC
April 2021

Retraction notice to "Microplastic pollution in intertidal sediments along the coastline of China" [Environmental Pollution 263 (2020)].

Environ Pollut 2021 May;276:116710

Research and Development Center for Efficient Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, 264003, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, PR China; Muping Coastal Environment Research Station, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, 264003, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116710DOI Listing
May 2021

Inflammatory Markers Predict Survival in Patients With Advanced Gastric and Colorectal Cancers Receiving Anti-PD-1 Therapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:638312. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

There is a lack of useful biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) therapy for advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. To address this issue, in this study we investigated the correlation between inflammatory marker expression and survival in patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. Data for 111 patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer treated with anti-PD-1 regimens were retrospectively analyzed. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and clinical characteristics of each patient were selected as the main variables. Overall response rate, disease control rate, and progression-free survival were primary endpoints, and overall survival and immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were secondary endpoints. The chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate relationships between categorical variables. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed, and median progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall response rate and disease control rate of anti-PD-1therapy in advanced gastric and colorectal tumors were 12.61 and 66.66%, respectively. The patients with MLR < 0.31, NLR < 5, and PLR < 135 had a significantly higher disease control rate than those with MLR > 0.31, NLR > 5, and PLR > 135 ( < 0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that MLR < 0.31, BMI > 18.5, and anti-PD-1 therapy in first-line were associated with prolonged PFS. MLR < 0.31 and BMI > 18.5 were associated with prolonged overall survival. The irAE rate differed significantly between PLR groups, and PLR < 135 was associated with an increased rate of irAEs ( = 0.028). These results indicate that the inflammatory markers NLR, MLR, and PLR have clinical utility for predicting survival or risk of irAEs in patients with advanced gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.638312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005614PMC
March 2021

Ionic Dendrimer Based Polyamide Membranes for Ion Separation.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 29;15(4):7522-7535. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 115, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark.

Separating low/high-valent ions with sub-nanometer sizes is a crucial yet challenging task in various areas (.., within environmental, healthcare, chemical, and energy engineering). Satisfying high separation precision requires membranes with exceptionally high selectivity. One way to realize this is constructing well-designed ion-selective nanochannels in pressure-driven membranes where the separation mechanism relies on combined steric, dielectric exclusion, and Donnan effects. To this aim, charged nanochannels in polyamide (PA) membranes are created by incorporating ionic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers interfacial polymerization. Both sub-10 nm sizes of the ionic PAMAM dendrimer molecules and their gradient distributions in the PA nanofilms contribute to the successful formation of defect-free PA nanofilms, containing both internal (intramolecular voids) and external (interfacial voids between the ionic PAMAM dendrimers and the PA matrix) nanochannels for fast transport of water molecules. The external nanochannels with tunable ionizable groups endow the PA membranes with both high low/high-valent co-ion selectivity and chemical cleaning tolerance, while the ion sieving/transport mechanism was analyzed by employing the Donnan steric pore model with dielectric exclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00936DOI Listing
April 2021