Publications by authors named "Wenjin Wang"

125 Publications

Deep Learning of Morphologic Correlations To Accurately Classify CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells by Diffraction Imaging Flow Cytometry.

Anal Chem 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Institute for Advanced Optics, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang, Hunan 414006, China.

The two major subtypes of human T cells, CD4+ and CD8+, play important roles in adaptive immune response by their diverse functions. To understand the structure-function relation at the single cell level, we isolated 2483 CD4+ and 2450 CD8+ T cells from fresh human splenocytes by immunofluorescent sorting and investigated their morphologic relations to the surface CD markers by acquisition and analysis of cross-polarized diffraction image (p-DI) pairs. A deep neural network of DINet-R has been built to extract 2560 features across multiple pixel scales of a p-DI pair per imaged cell. We have developed a novel algorithm to form a matrix of Pearson correlation coefficients by these features for selection of a support cell set with strong morphologic correlation in each subtype. The p-DI pairs of support cells exhibit significant pattern differences between the two subtypes defined by CD markers. To explore the relation between p-DI features and CD markers, we divided each subtype into two groups of A and B using the two support cell sets. The A groups comprise 90.2% of the imaged T cells and classification of them by DINet-R yields an accuracy of 97.3 ± 0.40% between the two subtypes. Analysis of depolarization ratios further reveals the significant differences in molecular polarizability between the two subtypes. These results prove the existence of a strong structure-function relation for the two major T cell subtypes and demonstrate the potential of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for accurate and label-free classification of T cell subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03337DOI Listing
January 2022

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Transfer for Treatment of Longstanding Facial Paralysis: Long-term Outcomes and Complications.

In Vivo 2022 Jan-Feb;36(1):501-509

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China;

Background/aim: The use of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap for facial reanimation was established in the 1980s by the senior author of this paper. We aimed to analyze long-term outcome and complications of this procedure.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing SCM reanimation for longstanding facial palsy between January 2009 and December 2015. Patients with follow-up longer than 12 months (range=12-96) were included in the study. Facial muscle function was evaluated before and at each follow-up after the surgery with the House-Brackmann (HB) scale-facial nerve grading system and Facegram analysis. Donor site morbidity and overall complication rates were documented and analyzed.

Results: Forty-two patients aged 18-66 years (mean age=37) with a mean duration of facial palsy of 5 years (range=2-48) met the inclusion criteria. The HB score 2 years after surgery improved significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to the pre-operative condition (3.6 vs. 4.7). Twelve months after surgery, oral commissure excursion improved by mean 8.95 mm. No flap necrosis occurred, nor compromise of neck and shoulder function despite an obvious contour defect in the SCM donor site. None of the patients presented head posture or movement issues.

Conclusion: The SCM flap transfer is a reliable and effective procedure to achieve moderate improvement of the oral commissure excursion using a local method with moderate donor site morbidity. It can be regarded as a valuable option for dynamic facial reanimation in case of longstanding facial palsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12731DOI Listing
January 2022

TEX10 Promotes the Tumorigenesis and Radiotherapy Resistance of Urinary Bladder Carcinoma by Stabilizing XRCC6.

J Immunol Res 2021 20;2021:5975893. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Urology, Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Xiangyang, China.

Urinary bladder carcinoma refers to the commonest carcinoma with weak prognostic result for the patient as impacted by the limited treatment possibilities and challenging diagnosing process. Nevertheless, the molecular underpinning of bladder carcinoma malignant progression is still not clear. As a novel core part of pluripotency circuitry, testicular expression 10 (TEX10) plays an actively noticeable effect on reprogramming, early embryo development, and embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nevertheless, TEX10 expressions and functions within bladder carcinoma are still not known. The present work is aimed at revealing TEX10 expression and biological function within urinary bladder carcinoma and elucidating the potential mechanisms. Results showed that TEX10 is abundant in urinary bladder carcinoma, and its protein level was related to poor disease-free survival in a positive manner. Reduced TEX10 level inhibited urinary bladder carcinoma cell proliferating process and metastasis in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo. Notably, TEX10 might regulate carcinoma cell proliferating process and metastasis via XRCC6, thereby controlling the signaling of Wnt/-catenin and DNA repair channel. Moreover, TEX10 gene knockout reduced the radiotherapy resistance of urinary bladder carcinoma. In brief, this work revealed that TEX10 could exert a significant carcinogenic effect on urinary bladder carcinoma tumorigenesis and radiotherapy resistance through the activation of XRCC6-related channels. Accordingly, targeting TEX10 is likely to offer a novel and feasible therapeutically related strategy for inhibiting urinary bladder carcinoma tumorigenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5975893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8712183PMC
December 2021

Validation and application of a novel in vivo cervical spine kinematics analysis technique.

Sci Rep 2021 12 20;11(1):24266. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, 20043, China.

To validate the accuracy of Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) cervical spine modeling with three dimensional (3D)-3D registration for in vivo measurements of cervical spine kinematics. CBCT model accuracy was validated by superimposition with computed tomography (CT) models in 10 healthy young adults, and then cervical vertebrae were registered in six end positions of functional movements, versus a neutral position, in 5 healthy young adults. Registration errors and six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) kinematics were calculated and reported. Relative to CT models, mean deviations of the CBCT models were < 0.6 mm. Mean registration errors between end positions and the reference neutral position were < 0.7 mm. During flexion-extension (F-E), the translation in the three directions was small, mostly < 1 mm, with coupled LB and AR both < 1°. During lateral bending (LB), the bending was distributed roughly evenly, with coupled axial rotation (AR) opposite to the LB at C1-C2, and minimal coupled F-E. During AR, most of the rotation occurred in the C1-C2 segment (29.93 ± 7.19° in left twist and 31.38 ± 8.49° in right twist) and coupled LB was observed in the direction opposite to that of the AR. Model matching demonstrated submillimeter accuracy in cervical spine kinematics data. The presently evaluated low-radiation-dose CBCT technique can be used to measure 3D spine kinematics in vivo across functional F-E, AR, and LB positions, which has been especially challenging for the upper cervical spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-01319-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8688511PMC
December 2021

Fundamentals of Camera-PPG based Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Dec 20;PP. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

In Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), cardiac triggering that synchronizes data acquisition with cardiac contractions is an essential technique for acquiring high-quality images. Triggering is typically based on the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal (e.g. R-peak). Since ECG acquisition involves extra workflow steps like electrode placement and ECG signals are usually disturbed by magnetic fields in high Magnetic Resonance (MR) systems, we explored camera-based photoplethysmography (PPG) as an alternative. We used the in-bore camera of a clinical MR system to investigate the feasibility and challenges of camera-based cardiac triggering. Data from ECG, finger oximeter and camera were synchronously collected. We found that that camera-PPG provides a higher availability of signal (and trigger) measurement, and the PPG signals measured from the forehead show considerably less delay w.r.t. the coupled ECG R-peak than the finger PPG signals in terms of trigger detection. The insights obtained in this study provide a basis for an envisioned system design phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3136603DOI Listing
December 2021

N6-Methyladenosine Methyltransferase METTL14-Mediated Autophagy in Malignant Development of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:738406. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

N6-methyladenosine (mA) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification in eukaryotes and is related to stability, localization, or translation efficiency in tumorigenesis. Autophagy plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tumours. However, the relationship between mA and autophagy remains unclear. In this study, we used a rapamycin-induced autophagy model of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, and observed increased mA RNA methylation. When autophagy was activated, the methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14) expression was upregulated and influenced the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of OSCC cells. Through meRIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis, we found that METTL14 directly combined with eukaryotic translation initiation factor gamma 1 (eIF4G1) mRNA and decreased its RNA stability. According to the dual-luciferase reporter and mutagenesis assay, the mutated site 1 of exon 11 of eIF4G1 is the key target of METTL14. Knockdown of the main mA binding protein YTHDF2 may rescue the shortened half-life of mRNA induced by METTL14 overexpression. Furthermore, an tumour xenograft model confirmed that a high METTL14 expression can effectively reduce OSCC growth. Additionally, using clinical samples, we found that patients with advanced or moderately/poorly differentiated tumours exhibited lower METTL14 levels. Taken together, our results revealed that METTL14 mediated eIF4G1 expression mA modification and regulated autophagy levels and biological functions in OSCC. Our findings not only expand our understanding of the correlation between autophagy and RNA methylation in tumorigenesis but also present an opportunity to develop new therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.738406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8652297PMC
November 2021

Modified Camera Setups for Day-and-Night Pulse-rate Monitoring.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:1744-1748

Camera systems have been studied as a means for ubiquitous remote photoplethysmography. It was first considered for daytime applications using ambient light. However, main applications for continuous monitoring are in dark or low-light conditions (e.g. sleep monitoring) and, more recently, suitable light sources and simple camera adaptations have been considered for infrared-based solutions. This paper explores suitable camera configurations for pulse-rate monitoring during both day and night (24/7). Various configurations differing in the recorded spectral range are defined, i.e. straight-forward adaptations of a standard RGB camera by choosing proper optical filters. These systems have been studied in a benchmark involving day and night monitoring with various degrees of motion disturbances. The results indicate that, for the 24/7 monitoring, it is best to deploy the full spectral band of an RGB camera, and this can be done without compromising the monitoring performance at night.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630497DOI Listing
November 2021

Feasibility Study of Pulse Width at Half Amplitude of Camera PPG for Contactless Blood Pressure Estimation.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:365-368

Non-contact blood pressure (BP) estimation with imaging photoplethysmogram (PPG) that can be acquired by camera is a promising alternative to cuff-based technology because of its nature of pervasive, low-cost, and being continuous. Most of the non-contact BP estimation methods are based on the principle of pulse transit time (PTT) as being used for wearable cuffless BP measurement. However, PTT-based method on the one hand requires simultaneous capture of images of multiple skin sites with the sites being at a distance from each other; and on the other hand, it can only partially reflect BP changes according to previous studies. In this paper, we propose to use a different camera PPG feature that has not yet been fully studied - pulse width at half amplitude (PWHA) for the evaluation of BP in a non-contact way. PWHA can be obtained from a single-site camera PPG, and it can indicate BP changes. The relationship of PWHA and BP was analyzed on 16 healthy subjects with BP changes induced by deep breathing and stepping exercise. The results showed that beat-to-beat PWHA can well track dynamic BP changes, and it is inversely related to BP across the sampled population and within each individual with about 80% individuals having high correlations. The findings suggest that PWHA can reflect the dynamic changes in cardiovascular characteristics and thereby BP changes, demonstrating the feasibility of imaging PWHA for non-contact BP estimation beyond the PTT method.Clinical Relevance- This provides a potential new method for non-contact BP, which allows BP monitoring at home, clinical setting, and public places in a pervasive manner. It reduces contacts between persons during a pandemic and offers an ever-present way to monitor BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630964DOI Listing
November 2021

Insights of 3D Input CNN in EEG-based Emotion Recognition.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:212-215

Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals have shown to be a good source of information for emotion recognition algorithms in Human-Brain interaction applications. In this paper, a reproducible framework is proposed for classifying human emotions based on EEG signals. The framework consists of extracting frequency-dependent features from raw EEG signals to form a three-dimensional EEG image which is classified by a convolutional neural network (CNN). The framework is used to show that the 3D input CNN outperforms conventional methods with two-dimensional input, using a public dataset. The implementation of the framework is publicly available to facilitate further work on this topic: https://github.com/KvanNoord/3D-CNN-EEG-Emotion-Classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9631042DOI Listing
November 2021

Safety and efficacy of tofacitinib for treatment of ulcerative colitis: final analysis of OCTAVE Open, an open-label, long-term extension study with up to 7.0 years of treatment.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We present final data from OCTAVE Open, an open-label, long-term extension study.

Aims: The primary objective of OCTAVE Open was to assess the safety and tolerability of long-term tofacitinib in patients with ulcerative colitis; evaluating efficacy was a secondary objective.

Methods: Eligible patients included OCTAVE Induction 1&2 non-responders and OCTAVE Sustain completers/treatment failures. Patients in remission at OCTAVE Open baseline received tofacitinib 5 mg b.d.; all others received 10 mg b.d. Incidence rates (unique patients with events/100 patient-years) for adverse events of special interest were calculated; ≤7.0 years of observation. Efficacy endpoints derived from Mayo score were reported ≤36 months (last scheduled endoscopy visit).

Results: In OCTAVE Open, 769 of 944 patients (81.5%) initially received tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. Among all patients (2440.8 patient-years of exposure), incidence rates (IRs; 95% confidence intervals) for deaths and adverse events of special interest were: deaths, 0.25 (0.09-0.54); serious infections, 1.61 (1.14-2.20); herpes zoster (non-serious and serious), 3.16 (2.47-3.97); opportunistic infections, 0.87 (0.54-1.33); major adverse cardiovascular events, 0.16 (0.04-0.42); malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), 1.03 (0.67-1.52); non-melanoma skin cancer, 0.75 (0.45-1.19); deep vein thrombosis, 0.04 (0.00-0.23); pulmonary embolism, 0.21 (0.07-0.48). At Month 36, 66.9% and 40.3% showed clinical response, 64.6% and 37.1% had endoscopic improvement, and 58.9% and 33.7% maintained or achieved remission, with tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg b.d. respectively.

Conclusion: Tofacitinib demonstrated consistent safety up to 7.0  years. Data collected up to Month 36 support long-term efficacy beyond the 52-week maintenance study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16712DOI Listing
December 2021

Test-Retest Reliability of a New Device Versus a Long-Arm Goniometer to Evaluate Knee Proprioception.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Nov 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Context: Many methods used to evaluate knee proprioception have shortcomings that limit their use in clinical settings. Based on an inexpensive 3D camera, a new portable device was recently used to evaluate the joint position sense (JPS) of the knee joint. However, the test-retest reliability of the new method remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the new device and a long-arm goniometer for assessing knee JPS, and to compare the variability of the 2 methods.

Design: Prospective observational study of the test-retest reliability of knee JPS measurements.

Methods: Twenty-one healthy adults were tested in 2 sessions with a 1-week interval. Three target knee flexion angles (30°, 45°, and 60°) were reproduced in each session. Target and reproduced angles were measured with both methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of the measurement, and Bland-Altman plots were used to quantify test-retest reliability. Paired t tests were used to compare knee JPS (absolute error of the target-reproduced angle) between the methods.

Results: The new device (good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients .74-.80; standard error of the measurement 0.52°-0.61°) demonstrated better test-retest reliability than the goniometer (poor to fair intraclass correlation coefficients .23-.43; standard error of the measurement 0.89°-2.07°) and better test-retest agreement (respective mean differences for the 30°, 45°, and 60° knee angles: 0.11°, 0.13°, and 0.41° for the new system; 0.84°, 1.52°, and 1.18° for the goniometer). The measurements (absolute errors of the target-reproduced angles) with the goniometer were significantly greater than those with the new device (P < .05); the SDs of repeated measurements with the goniometer (1.50°-2.41°) were greater than with the new device (1.08°-1.38°).

Conclusions: Given that the new device has good reliability and sufficient precision, it is the better alternative for evaluating knee JPS. Goniometers should be used with caution to assess knee JPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2021-0146DOI Listing
November 2021

Changing Public Tolerance for Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors in China, 2010-2017: A Decomposition Analysis.

Authors:
Kai Lin Wenjin Wang

Arch Sex Behav 2021 11 26;50(8):3433-3445. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Center for Drug and Health Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Although the majority of the Chinese general public remains unaccepting of same-sex sexual behaviors, results from multiple waves of the Chinese General Social Survey have shown a substantial change in the public tolerance for same-sex sexual behaviors between 2010 and 2017. Using logistic regression models and decomposition analysis, the current study revealed that while changes in the changes in the demographic predictors (e.g., cohort succession and improved education) contributed to some of the attitudinal change, changes in the predictor coefficients explained most of the attitudinal change. Specifically, the Internet historically played a critical role in shaping pro-LGBTQ consciousness in China, but its effect has diminished over time. Socioeconomic factors such as education and household registration status (i.e., urban versus rural origin) have gained statistical significance and effect size in their prediction of public tolerance. Policy and advocacy implications of the findings are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-02080-yDOI Listing
November 2021

Influences of Physical Environmental Cues on People With Dementia: A Scoping Review.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Oct 23:7334648211050376. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Physical environmental cues can provide important support to people with dementia (PwD). Compared to interventions involving construction, some cues can be achieved more easily, with less expense, and with fewer disruptions to PwD's daily lives. This review aims to examine existing empirical evidence about the impacts of cues on PwD's behaviors. We adopted the PRISMA scoping review approach and identified 32 articles. The results show visual cues have been frequently studied. The signage facilitates PwD's wayfinding. Concealed doors (e.g., concealing doorknobs) effectively prevent exit attempts. PwD also eat better with tableware of higher-contrasting colors or good lighting conditions. Clearer toilet signage results in better continence. Applying cues properly contributes to improving PwD's well-being and decreasing the burden for caregivers. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the impacts of other sensory cues (e.g., tactile, olfactory, and auditory), which require further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07334648211050376DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparisons of tai chi and Iyengar yoga intervention effects on muscle strength, balance, and confidence in balance.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Oct;61(10):1333-1338

School of Sport Medicine and Rehabilitation, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China -

Background: The aim of the study is to compare a 16-week tai chi and Iyengar yoga program effects on muscle strength, static and dynamic balance, and balance confidence in elderly people.

Methods: A total of 48 participants (≥60 years old) without mobility-impairing neurological disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease/symptoms during moderate exercise, poorly controlled hypertension, or balance-impairing drug use. Participants were divided into a tai chi group, an Iyengar yoga group, and a control group (eight males and eight females per group), using a restricted randomization scheme generated by software. While the former two undertook 16-week exercise programs, the control group received general education. Maximum concentric strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. The one-legged stand with eyes closed, "8 feet up and go," and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were used to assess static balance, dynamic balance, and balance confidence in daily activities, respectively.

Results: Both programs improved all measures significantly with tai chi being more effective for increasing knee flexor strength (P=0.045) and extensor strength (P=0.032) and ABC score (P=0.034); Iyengar yoga was more effective for improving static balance (P=0.014) and dynamic balance (P=0.025; all P values here vs. the other program).

Conclusions: Tai chi and Iyengar yoga can improve strength, balance, and balance confidence among older people. Both are suitable exercise choices for older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.11752-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Examination of Potential of Thermopile-Based Contactless Respiratory Gating.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 17;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

To control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is effective to perform a fast screening of the respiratory rate of the subject at the gate before entering a space to assess the potential risks. In this paper, we examine the potential of a novel yet cost-effective solution, called thermopile-based respiratory gating, to contactlessly screen a subject by measuring their respiratory rate in the scenario with an entrance gate. Based on a customized thermopile array system, we investigate different image and signal processing methods that measure respiratory rate from low-resolution thermal videos, where an automatic region-of-interest selection-based approach obtains a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.8 breaths per minute. We show the feasibility of thermopile-based respiratory gating and quantify its limitations and boundary conditions in a benchmark (e.g., appearance of face mask, measurement distance and screening time). The technical validation provided by this study is helpful for designing and implementing a respiratory gating solution toward the prevention of the spread of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21165525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400084PMC
August 2021

Camera-based discomfort detection using multi-channel attention 3D-CNN for hospitalized infants.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jul;11(7):3059-3069

Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Background: Detecting discomfort in infants is an important topic for their well-being and development. In this paper, we present an automatic and continuous video-based system for monitoring and detecting discomfort in infants.

Methods: The proposed system employs a novel and efficient 3D convolutional neural network (CNN), which achieves an end-to-end solution without the conventional face detection and tracking steps. In the scheme of this study, we thoroughly investigate the video characteristics (e.g., intensity images and motion images) and CNN architectures (e.g., 2D and 3D) for infant discomfort detection. The realized improvements of the 3D-CNN are based on capturing both the motion and the facial expression information of the infants.

Results: The performance of the system is assessed using videos recorded from 24 hospitalized infants by visualizing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and measuring the values of area under the ROC curve (AUC). Additional performance metrics (labeling accuracy) are also calculated. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves an AUC of 0.99, while the overall labeling accuracy is 0.98.

Conclusions: These results confirms the robustness by using the 3D-CNN for infant discomfort monitoring and capturing both motion and facial expressions simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250023PMC
July 2021

[Advances in construction of triazine-based porous organic polymers and their applications in solid phase microextraction].

Se Pu 2021 Feb;39(2):125-129

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China.

The large surface area, adjustable pore structure, good thermal and chemical stabilities, and abundant -electron systems make triazine-based porous organic polymers (TPOPs) as promising porous materials for gas storage, catalysis, energy conversion and adsorption. Recently, TPOPs have aroused ever-increasing interest and are considered as one of the research highlights in solid phase microextraction (SPME) and other sample pretreatment techniques. This minireview summarizes the recent advancements in the synthesis of TPOPs and their applications in SPME. The application prospects of the TPOPs in SPME and other sample pretreatment techniques are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.07036DOI Listing
February 2021

Reducing the effects of parallax in camera-based pulse-oximetry.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 May 20;12(5):2813-2824. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656AE, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Camera-based pulse-oximetry enables contactless estimation of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO). Because of the lack of readily available and affordable single-optics multi-spectral cameras, custom-made multi-camera setups with different optical filters are currently mostly used. The introduced parallax by these cameras could however jeopardise the SpO algorithm assumptions, especially during subject movement. In this paper we investigate the effect of parallax quantitatively by creating a large dataset consisting of 150 videos with three different parallax settings and with realistic and challenging motion scenarios. We estimate oxygen saturation values with a previously used global frame registration method and with a newly proposed adaptive local registration method to further reduce the parallax-induced image misalignment. We found that the amount of parallax has an important effect on the accuracy of the SpO measurement during movement and that the proposed local image registration reduces the error by more than a factor of 2 for the most common motion scenarios during screening. Extrapolation of the results suggests that the error during the most challenging motion scenario can be reduced to approximately 2 percent when using a parallax-free single-optics camera. This study provides important insights on the possible applications and use cases of remote pulse-oximetry with current affordable and readily available cameras.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.419199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194625PMC
May 2021

High-speed fluoroscopic imaging for investigation of three-dimensional knee kinematics before and after marathon running.

Gait Posture 2021 07 8;88:231-237. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Knee injuries often occur during or shortly after marathon running, and are linked to altered knee kinematics.

Research Question: The kinematics of healthy knees during pre- and post-marathon running have not been examined with high-speed fluoroscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of marathon running on knee kinematics during walking and running by using a combined high-speed fluoroscopy and MRI technique.

Methods: Ten healthy runners underwent knee MRI within 24 h before marathon running to construct three-dimensional (3D) knee models. Knee kinematics during treadmill walking and running were evaluated using high-speed fluoroscopy (200hz) within 24 h before and as soon as possible (within 5 h) after marathon running. All pre- and post-marathon measurements were compared.

Results: (1) For post-marathon walking, posterior femoral translation increased 1.4 mm at initial contact (p = 0.015); proximal-distal distance of tibia and femur decreased 0.7 mm and 0.8 mm at initial contact and after contact, respectively (p = 0.039, p = 0.046); and valgus femur rotation increased 1.2° after contact (p = 0.027). (2) For post-marathon running, proximal-distal distance decreased 0.7 mm and 1.0 mm at initial contact and after contact (p = 0.011, p = 0.003) respectively; knee flexion decreased 4.3° before contact (p = 0.007); knee flexion increased 1.8° and 2.6° at initial contact and after contact, respectively (p = 0.038, p = 0.011); external femoral rotation increased 1.2° and 1.8° at initial contact and after contact, respectively (p = 0.012, p = 0.037). Valgus femoral rotation after contact increased 2.3° (p = 0.001).

Significance: Post-marathon changes in valgus and external femoral rotation, knee flexion, posterior femoral translation, and proximal-distal distance may increase the risk of knee injury. This study provides information to better understand the response of the knee to marathon running.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.06.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Change in Susceptibility Values in Knee Cartilage After Marathon Running Measured Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 11 24;54(5):1585-1593. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been used to study the magnetic susceptibility properties of collagen fibers in articular cartilage; however, it is unclear whether QSM is sensitive to changes due to degradation caused by long-distance running. It is clinically important to understand the link between long-distance running and microstructural changes in knee cartilage.

Purpose: To investigate the ability of QSM to assess microstructural changes within cartilage after repetitive loading.

Study Type: Prospective.

Population: Thirteen recreational, male long-distance runners.

Field Strength/sequence: Three-dimensional gradient recalled echo acquired at 3 T.

Assessment: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D kinematics (translations and rotations during treadmill walking and running) of the knee joint were collected before and after marathon running. The compartments for analysis included the patella, trochlea, and subregions of femoral and tibial cartilage. Changes in regional susceptibility and cartilage thickness were calculated after marathon running. A susceptibility profile was obtained by fitting susceptibility as a function of the normalized depth of cartilage from the superficial to deep layers.

Statistical Tests: Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, 95% confidence interval (CI) of the depth-wise susceptibility profile, Pearson correlation or Spearman correlation.

Results: There was a statistically significant increase in susceptibility value in the weight-bearing region of central medial femoral cartilage (cMF-c) after marathon running (pre-marathon: -0.0219 ± 0.0151 ppm, post-marathon: -0.0070 ± 0.0213 ppm, P < 0.05), while the cartilage thickness did not show significant changes in any regions (P-value range: 0.068-0.963). Significant susceptibility elevations occurred in the middle and deep layers of cMF-c (95% CIs did not overlap). A trend toward a positive correlation was found between the changes in susceptibility value in cMF-c and proximal-distal translation of the knee joint during walking (r = 0.55, P = 0.101) and running (r = 0.57, P = 0.089).

Data Conclusion: Localized magnetic susceptibility alterations were observed within knee cartilage in the weight-bearing area after repetitive loading without any morphologic changes.

Level Of Evidence: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27745DOI Listing
November 2021

N6-methyladenosine demethyltransferase FTO-mediated autophagy in malignant development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncogene 2021 06 10;40(22):3885-3898. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

N6-methyladenosine (mA) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification in eukaryotes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here, we established a cell model of rapamycin-induced autophagy to screen mA-modifying enzymes. We found that mA demethylase fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) plays a key role in regulating autophagy and tumorigenesis by targeting the gene encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factor gamma 1 (eIF4G1) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Knocked down of FTO expression in OSCC cell lines, resulting in downregulation of eIF4G1 along with enhanced autophagic flux and inhibition of tumorigenesis. Rapamycin inhibited FTO activity, and directly targeted eIF4G1 transcripts and mediated their expression in an mA-dependent manner. Dual-luciferase reporter and mutagenesis assays confirmed that YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA-binding protein 2 (YTHDF2) targets eIF4G1. Conclusively, after FTO silencing, YTHDF2 captured eIF4G1 transcripts containing mA, resulting in mRNA degradation and decreased expression of eIF4G1 protein, thereby promoting autophagy and reducing tumor occurrence. Therefore, rapamycin may regulate mA levels, determining the autophagic flux of OSCC, thereby affecting the biological characteristics of cancer cells. This insight expands our understanding of the crosstalk between autophagy and RNA methylation in tumorigenesis, which is essential for therapeutic strategy development for OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01820-7DOI Listing
June 2021

A Super-Enhancer Driven by FOSL1 Controls miR-21-5p Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:656628. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

MiR-21-5p is one of the most common oncogenic miRNAs that is upregulated in many solid cancers by inhibiting its target genes at the posttranscriptional level. However, the upstream regulatory mechanisms of miR-21-5p are still not well documented in cancers. Here, we identify a super-enhancer associated with the gene (MIR21-SE) by analyzing the genomic regulatory landscape in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We show that the MIR21-SE regulates miR-21-5p expression in different HNSCC cell lines and disruption of MIR21-SE inhibits miR-21-5p expression. We also identified that a key transcription factor, FOSL1 directly controls miR-21-5p expression by interacting with the MIR21-SE in HNSCC. Moreover, functional studies indicate that restoration of miR-21-5p partially abrogates FOSL1 depletion-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion. Clinical studies confirmed that miR-21-5p expression is positively correlated with FOSL1 expression. These findings suggest that FOSL1-SE drives miR-21-5p expression to promote malignant progression of HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.656628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085558PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib Re-treatment for Ulcerative Colitis After Treatment Interruption: Results from the OCTAVE Clinical Trials.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Nov;15(11):1852-1863

Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Aims: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib re-treatment following treatment interruption in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Methods: Here, patients with clinical response to tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. induction therapy were randomised to receive placebo in OCTAVE Sustain. Those experiencing treatment failure after Week 8 of OCTAVE Sustain entered OCTAVE Open and re-initiated tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. [re-treatment subpopulation]; efficacy and safety data are presented up to Month 36 of OCTAVE Open.

Results: Median time to treatment failure following interruption was 169 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.0-179.0) and 123 [95% CI, 91.0-168.0] days for induction remitters, and induction responders but non-remitters, respectively. Following re-treatment with tofacitinib, rates (non-responder imputation after a patient discontinued; latest observation carried forward imputation after a patient advanced to a subsequent study [NRI-LOCF]) of clinical response, remission, and endoscopic improvement were 74.0%, 39.0%, and 55.0% at Month 2, and 48.5%, 37.4%, and 42.4% at Month 36, respectively. Among induction remitters and induction responders but non-remitters, clinical response rates at Month 36 were 60.6% and 42.4% [NRI-LOCF], respectively. Efficacy was recaptured regardless of prior tumour necrosis factor inhibitor failure status. The safety profile of tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. re-treatment was consistent with the overall cohort and demonstrated no new safety risks associated with exposure of ≤36 months.

Conclusions: Median time to treatment failure was numerically higher in induction remitters versus induction responders but non-remitters. Following treatment interruption, efficacy was safely and successfully recaptured with tofacitinib 10 mg b.d. re-treatment in a substantial proportion of patients [ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01458574;NCT01470612].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8575053PMC
November 2021

Classification of Hemodynamics Scenarios from a Public Radar Dataset Using a Deep Learning Approach.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Intelligent Systems, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Contact-free sensors offer important advantages compared to traditional wearables. Radio-frequency sensors (e.g., radars) offer the means to monitor cardiorespiratory activity of people without compromising their privacy, however, only limited information can be obtained via movement, traditionally related to heart or breathing rate. We investigated whether five complex hemodynamics scenarios (resting, apnea simulation, Valsalva maneuver, tilt up and tilt down on a tilt table) can be classified directly from publicly available contact and radar input signals in an end-to-end deep learning approach. A series of robust k-fold cross-validation evaluation experiments were conducted in which neural network architectures and hyperparameters were optimized, and different data input modalities (contact, radar and fusion) and data types (time and frequency domain) were investigated. We achieved reasonably high accuracies of 88% for contact, 83% for radar and 88% for fusion of modalities. These results are valuable in showing large potential of radar sensing even for more complex scenarios going beyond just heart and breathing rate. Such contact-free sensing can be valuable for fast privacy-preserving hospital screenings and for cases where traditional werables are impossible to use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21051836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961385PMC
March 2021

Impact of makeup on remote-PPG monitoring.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 03 4;6(3):035004. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Camera-based remote photoplethysmography (remote-PPG) enables contactless measurement of blood volume pulse from the human skin. Skin visibility is essential to remote-PPG as the camera needs to capture the light reflected from the skin that penetrates deep into skin tissues and carries blood pulsation information. The use of facial makeup may jeopardize this measurement by reducing the amount of light penetrating into and reflecting from the skin. In this paper, we conduct an empirical study to thoroughly investigate the impact of makeup on remote-PPG monitoring, in both the visible (RGB) and invisible (Near Infrared, NIR) lighting conditions. The experiment shows that makeup has negative influence on remote-PPG, which reduces the relative PPG strength (AC/DC) at different wavelengths and changes the normalized PPG signature across multiple wavelengths. It makes (i) the pulse-rate extraction more difficult in both the RGB and NIR, although NIR is less affected than RGB, and (ii) the blood oxygen saturation extraction in NIR impossible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that systematically investigate the impact of makeup on camera-based remote-PPG monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/ab51baDOI Listing
March 2020

Video-based actigraphy is an effective contact-free method of assessing sleep in preterm infants.

Acta Paediatr 2021 06 12;110(6):1815-1816. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neonatology, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247861PMC
June 2021

Outcomes of Tofacitinib Dose Reduction in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in Stable Remission from the Randomised RIVETING Trial.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul;15(7):1130-1141

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Aims: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We present primary completion analysis from RIVETING, an ongoing, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial evaluating efficacy and safety of tofacitinib dose reduction to 5 mg twice daily [BID] versus remaining on 10 mg BID in patients in stable remission on tofacitinib 10 mg BID maintenance therapy.

Methods: Patients had received tofacitinib 10 mg BID for ≥ 2 consecutive years and been in stable remission for ≥ 6 months before enrolment. The primary endpoint was modified Mayo score remission at Month 6. Safety was assessed up to February 20, 2020 [data cut-off].

Results: In all, 140 patients were randomised [1:1] to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID; 77.1% and 90.0% of patients in the 5 and 10 mg BID groups, respectively, were in modified Mayo score remission at Month 6 (adjusted difference 12.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-25.0). Smaller differences between treatment groups were seen in patients with baseline endoscopic subscore of 0 versus 1 [9.8%; -3.0-22.6, and 21.1%; -6.1-48.2, respectively], and in patients without versus with prior tumour necrosis factor inhibitor [TNFi] failure [9.5%; -6.6-25.6, and 17.4%; -1.6-36.3, respectively]. Adverse events [AE] and serious AE rates were similar across treatment groups; no deaths were reported.

Conclusions: Most patients in stable remission on 10 mg BID maintenance therapy maintained remission following dose de-escalation. For patients who dose de-escalated, those in deep endoscopic remission and those without prior TNFi failure were more likely to maintain remission. Efficacy data were limited to the first 6 months; a longer duration of follow-up during RIVETING will further characterise the impact of dose reduction on maintenance of remission. Safety findings were consistent with the established safety profile of tofacitinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256630PMC
July 2021

Energy Efficiency Optimization in Massive MIMO Secure Multicast Transmission.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;22(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

Herein, we focus on energy efficiency optimization for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink secure multicast transmission exploiting statistical channel state information (CSI). Privacy engineering in the field of communication is a hot issue under study. The common signal transmitted by the base station is multicast transmitted to multiple legitimate user terminals in our system, but an eavesdropper might eavesdrop this signal. To achieve the energy efficiency utility-privacy trade-off of multicast transmission, we set up the problem of maximizing the energy efficiency which is defined as the ratio of the secure transmit rate to the power consumption. To simplify the formulated nonconvex problem, we use a lower bound of the secure multicast rate as the molecule of the design objective. We then obtain the eigenvector of the optimal transmit covariance matrix into a closed-form, simplifying the matrix-valued multicast transmission strategy problem into a power allocation problem in the beam domain. By utilizing the Minorize-Maximize method, an iterative algorithm is proposed to decompose the secure energy efficiency optimization problem into a sequence of iterative fractional programming subproblems. By using Dinkelbach's transform, each subproblem becomes an iterative problem with the concave objective function, and it can be solved by classical convex optimization. We guarantee the convergence of the two-level iterative algorithm that we propose. Besides, we reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm by substituting the design objective with its deterministic equivalent. The numerical results show that the approach we propose performs well compared with the conventional methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22101145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597299PMC
October 2020

Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Tradeoff in Massive MIMO Multicast Transmission with Statistical CSI.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Sep 18;22(9). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

As the core technology of 5G mobile communication systems, massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) can dramatically enhance the energy efficiency (EE), as well as the spectral efficiency (SE), which meets the requirements of new applications. Meanwhile, physical layer multicast technology has gradually become the focus of next-generation communication technology research due to its capacity to efficiently provide wireless transmission from point to multipoint. The availability of channel state information (CSI), to a large extent, determines the performance of massive MIMO. However, because obtaining the perfect instantaneous CSI in massive MIMO is quite challenging, it is reasonable and practical to design a massive MIMO multicast transmission strategy using statistical CSI. In this paper, in order to optimize the system resource efficiency (RE) to achieve EE-SE balance, the EE-SE trade-offs in the massive MIMO multicast transmission are investigated with statistical CSI. Firstly, we formulate the eigenvectors of the RE optimization multicast covariance matrices of different user terminals in closed form, which illustrates that in the massive MIMO downlink, optimal RE multicast precoding is supposed to be done in the beam domain. On the basis of this viewpoint, the optimal RE precoding design is simplified into a resource efficient power allocation problem. Via invoking the quadratic transform, we propose an iterative power allocation algorithm, which obtains an adjustable and reasonable EE-SE tradeoff. Numerical simulation results reveal the near-optimal performance and the effectiveness of our proposed statistical CSI-assisted RE maximization in massive MIMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22091045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597104PMC
September 2020

Stretchable, Healable, and Degradable Soft Ionic Microdevices Based on Multifunctional Soaking-Toughened Dual-Dynamic-Network Organohydrogel Electrolytes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 4;12(50):56393-56402. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, P. R. China.

Electronic materials and devices that can mimic biological systems featured with elasticity, toughness, self-healing, degradability, and environmental friendliness drive the technological developments in fields spanning from bioelectronics, biomedical diagnosis and therapy, electronic skin, and soft robotics to Internet-of-Things with "green" electronics. Among them, ionic devices based on gel electrolytes have emerged as attractive candidates for biomimetic systems. Herein, we presented a straightforward approach to demonstrate soft ionic microdevices based on a versatile organohydrogel platform acting as both a free-standing, stretchable, adhesive, healable, and entirely degradable support and a highly conductive, dehydration- and freezing-tolerant electrolyte. This is achieved by forming a gelatin/ferric-ion-cross-linked polyacrylic acid (GEL/PAA) dual dynamic supramolecular network followed by soaking into a NaCl glycerol/water solution to further toughen the gelatin network via solvent displacement, thus obtaining a high toughness of 1.34 MJ·cm and a high ionic conductivity (>7 mS·cm). Highly stretchable and multifunctional ionic microdevices are then fabricated based on the organohydrogel electrolytes by simple transfer printing of carbon-based microelectrodes onto the prestretched gel surface. Proof-of-concept microdevices including resistive strain sensors and microsupercapacitors are demonstrated, which displayed outstanding stretchability to 300% strain, resistance to dehydration for >6 months, autonomous self-healing, and rapid room-temperature degradation within hours. The present material design and fabrication approach for the organohydrogel-based ionic microdevices will provide promising scope for life-like and sustainable electronic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14472DOI Listing
December 2020
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