Publications by authors named "Wenjie Ma"

148 Publications

Retraction Note to: HHIP gene overexpression inhibits the growth, migration and invasion of human liver cancer cells.

J BUON 2021 Jul-Aug;26(4):1693

Department of Ninth Liver Disease, Qingdao Sixth People's Hospital, No.9, Qingdao, Shandong, 266033, China.

Retraction of "HHIP gene overexpression inhibits the growth, migration and invasion of human liver cancer cells", by Xiaobin Wang, Wenjie Ma, Jun Yin, Meizhu Chen, Hong Jin. JBUON 2020;25(5):2424-2429; PMID: 33277865 Following the publication of the above article, readers drew to our attention that part of the data was unreliable: Figures of this article appeared in other articles (by totally different authors). The authors were requested to provide the raw data and were also asked for an explanation to account for these concerns, but the Editorial Office did not receive any reply. Given above, we decided to retract this article. Authors were informed of the retraction. We thank the readers for bringing this matter to our attention. We apologize for any inconvenience it may cause.
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September 2021

Estimating PM concentration using the machine learning GA-SVM method to improve the land use regression model in Shaanxi, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 13;225:112772. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an Polytechnic University, Xi'an 710048, China.

With rapid economic growth, urbanization and industrialization, fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM) has become a major pollutant and shows adverse effects on both human health and the atmospheric environment. Many studies on estimating PM concentrations have been performed using statistical regression models and satellite remote sensing. However, the accuracy of PM concentration estimates is limited by traditional regression models; machine learning methods have high predictive power, but fewer studies have been performed on the complementary advantages of different approaches. This study estimates PM concentrations from satellite remote sensing-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, meteorological data, terrain data and other predictors in 2015 in Shaanxi, China, using a combined genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM) method, after which the spatial clustering pattern was explored at the season and year levels. The results indicated that temperature (r = -0.684), precipitation (r = -0.602) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r = -0.523) were significantly negatively correlated with the PM concentration, while AOD (r = 0.337) was significantly positively correlated with the PM concentration. Compared to conventional land use regression (LUR) and SVM models and previous related studies, the GA-SVM method demonstrated a significantly better prediction accuracy of PM concentration, with a higher 10-fold cross-validation coefficient of determination (R) of 0.84 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of 12.1 μg/m and 10.07 μg/m, respectively. Y-scrambling test shows that the models have no chance correlation. The central and southern parts of Shaanxi have high PM concentrations, which are mainly due to the pollutant emissions and meteorological and topographical conditions in those areas. There was a positive spatial agglomeration characteristic of regional PM pollution, and the spatial spillover effect of PM pollution for seasonal and annual variations does exist. In general, the GA-SVM method is robust and accurately estimates PM concentrations via a novel modeling framework application and high-quality spatiotemporal information. It also has great significance for the exploration of PM pollution estimation and high-precision mapping methods, especially early warning in high-risk areas. Finally, the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution should take pollution control measures from major cities and surrounding cities, and focus on the joint pollution control measures for plain cities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112772DOI Listing
September 2021

Is Colorectal Cancer Screening Absolutely Beneficial for Older Adults?

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.4155DOI Listing
September 2021

Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study.

Gut 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiological Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: Poor metabolic health and unhealthy lifestyle factors have been associated with risk and severity of COVID-19, but data for diet are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association of diet quality with risk and severity of COVID-19 and its interaction with socioeconomic deprivation.

Design: We used data from 592 571 participants of the smartphone-based COVID-19 Symptom Study. Diet information was collected for the prepandemic period using a short food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality was assessed using a healthful Plant-Based Diet Score, which emphasises healthy plant foods such as fruits or vegetables. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for COVID-19 risk and severity defined using a validated symptom-based algorithm or hospitalisation with oxygen support, respectively.

Results: Over 3 886 274 person-months of follow-up, 31 815 COVID-19 cases were documented. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of the diet score, high diet quality was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and severe COVID-19 (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). The joint association of low diet quality and increased deprivation on COVID-19 risk was higher than the sum of the risk associated with each factor alone (P=0.005). The corresponding absolute excess rate per 10 000 person/months for lowest vs highest quartile of diet score was 22.5 (95% CI 18.8 to 26.3) among persons living in areas with low deprivation and 40.8 (95% CI 31.7 to 49.8) among persons living in areas with high deprivation.

Conclusions: A diet characterised by healthy plant-based foods was associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. This association may be particularly evident among individuals living in areas with higher socioeconomic deprivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325353DOI Listing
September 2021

Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Verified the Efficacy of Qianyangyuyin Granules in Alleviating Left Ventricular Remodeling in a Hypertensive Rat Model.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 24;2021:5862361. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) can be assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to express the degree of cardiac fibrosis. Qianyangyuyin (QYYY) granules can effectively improve GLS in hypertensive patients. Using a hypertensive rat model, we carried out speckle tracking echocardiography to validate the effect of QYYY in diminishing LV remodeling.

Methods: We randomly divided 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) into SHR, SHR + valsartan (SHR + V), SHR + low-dose QYYY (SHR + QL), and SHR + high-dose QYYY (SHR + QH) groups, with four rats in each group. Another group of 4 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were selected into a normal control (WKY) group. At the 8th week, conventional echocardiographic parameters were measured by GE Vivid E95 ultrasound (12S probe, 10-12 MHz) and GLS by speckle tracking echocardiography with EchoPAC (version 203) software. HE and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to detect the cardiomyocyte width and collagen volume fraction after rat sacrifice. Collagen I, -SMA, S100A4, TGF-, Smad 3, MYH6, and MYH7 were further analyzed by Western blot.

Results: The absolute values of GLS significantly increased in the SHR + QH group compared to the SHR group, while the CVF and CW values significantly decreased. In addition, Collagen I, -SMA, S100A4, TGF-, Smad3, MYH7, and MYH7/MYH6 ratio remarkably reduced in the SHR + QH group. The value of GLS could be repetitively measured and positively correlated with the collagen volume fraction of the myocardium and the cardiomyocyte width of the left ventricular free wall.

Conclusions: GLS is a reliable indicator to evaluate the therapeutic effect on left ventricular remodeling in hypertension. QYYY granules can inhibit the development of cardiac fibrosis in the hypertensive rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5862361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410389PMC
August 2021

The Sulfur Microbial Diet and Risk of Colorectal Cancer by Molecular Subtypes and Intratumoral Microbial Species in Adult Men.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 1;12(8):e00338. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: We recently described the sulfur microbial diet, a pattern of intake associated with increased gut sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and incidence of distal colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed whether this risk differed by CRC molecular subtypes or presence of intratumoral microbes involved in CRC pathogenesis (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bifidobacterium spp.).

Methods: We performed Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association between the sulfur microbial diet and incidence of overall and distal CRC by molecular and microbial subtype in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012).

Results: We documented 1,264 incident CRC cases among 48,246 men, approximately 40% of whom had available tissue data. After accounting for multiple hypothesis testing, the relationship between the sulfur microbial diet and CRC incidence did not differ by subtype. However, there was a suggestion of an association by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) status with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.74, Ptrend = 0.07, Pheterogeneity = 0.04) for PTGS2-high CRC. The association of the sulfur microbial diet with distal CRC seemed to differ by the presence of intratumoral Bifidobacterium spp. with an adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.39, Ptrend = 0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.03) for Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC. We observed no apparent heterogeneity by other tested molecular markers.

Discussion: Greater long-term adherence to the sulfur microbial diet could be associated with PTGS2-high and Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC in men. Additional studies are needed to further characterize the role of gut microbial sulfur metabolism and CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323793PMC
August 2021

Race, ethnicity, community-level socioeconomic factors, and risk of COVID-19 in the United States and the United Kingdom.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101029. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 100 Cambridge Street, 15th Floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Background: There is limited prior investigation of the combined influence of personal and community-level socioeconomic factors on racial/ethnic disparities in individual risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis nested within a prospective cohort of 2,102,364 participants from March 29, 2020 in the United States (US) and March 24, 2020 in the United Kingdom (UK) through December 02, 2020 via the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application. We examined the contribution of community-level deprivation using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (NDI) and the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) to observe racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04331509.

Findings: Compared with non-Hispanic White participants, the risk for a positive COVID-19 test was increased in the US for non-Hispanic Black (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.47) and Hispanic participants (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.33-1.52) and in the UK for Black (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), South Asian (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49), and Middle Eastern participants (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61). This elevated risk was associated with living in more deprived communities according to the NDI/IMD. After accounting for downstream mediators of COVID-19 risk, community-level deprivation still mediated 16.6% and 7.7% of the excess risk in Black compared to White participants in the US and the UK, respectively.

Interpretation: Our results illustrate the critical role of social determinants of health in the disproportionate COVID-19 risk experienced by racial and ethnic minorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285255PMC
August 2021

In Situ Hand-in-Hand DNA Tile Assembly: A pH-Driven and Aptamer-Targeted DNA Nanostructure for TK1 mRNA Visualization and Synergetic Killing of Cancer Cells.

Anal Chem 2021 08 20;93(30):10511-10518. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Key Laboratory for Bio-Nanotechnology and Molecule Engineering of Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, China.

In situ stimuli-responsive molecular devices have gained much attention in biomedical areas due to their characteristics of increased image contrast and drug accumulation. Herein, we present a hand-in-hand in situ tile assembly for improved visualization of TK1 mRNA and killing of cancer cells. A pH-responsive and aptamer-functionalized tile motif (pH-Apt-TM) was first formed by four single-strand DNA, possessing pH-responsiveness and intracellular TK1 mRNA recognition capacity. When encountering target cells, the pH-Apt-TM could recognize target receptors on the cell surface through the aptamer domain. Meanwhile, the extracellular acidic pH gathered the pH-Apt-TM into a multifunctional hand-in-hand DNA tile assembly (HDTA) on the cells' surface. Compared to the pH-Apt-TM, studies revealed that the HDTA exhibited enhanced recognition, efficient cellular uptake, and improved visualization of TK1 mRNA, accompanied by gene silencing. Moreover, using Dox as a chemotherapeutic model, specific drug delivery and enhanced cell killing were achieved with target cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01453DOI Listing
August 2021

The Sulfur Microbial Diet Is Associated With Increased Risk of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Precursors.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Diet may contribute to the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) before age 50 (early-onset CRC). Microbial metabolism of dietary sulfur produces hydrogen sulfide (HS), a gastrointestinal carcinogen that cannot be easily measured at scale. As a result, evidence supporting its role in early neoplasia is lacking.

Methods: We evaluated long-term adherence to the sulfur microbial diet, a dietary index defined a priori based on increased abundance of 43 bacterial species involved with sulfur metabolism, with risk of CRC precursors among 59,013 individuals who underwent lower endoscopy in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2015), a prospective cohort study with dietary assessment every 4 years through validated food frequency questionnaires and an assessment of dietary intake during adolescence in 1998. The sulfur microbial diet was characterized by intake high in processed meats, foods previously linked to CRC development, and low in mixed vegetables and legumes. Multivariable logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: We documented 2911 cases of early-onset adenoma. After adjusting for established risk factors, higher sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with increased risk for early-onset adenomas (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.10-1.56, P = .02), but not serrated lesions. Compared with the lowest, women in the highest quartile of sulfur microbial diet scores had significantly increased risk of early-onset adenomas with greater malignant potential (OR, 1.65 for villous/tubulovillous histology; 95% CI, 1.12-2.43; P = .04). Similar trends for early-onset adenoma were observed based on diet consumed during adolescence. In contrast, no clear association for adenomas was identified after age 50.

Conclusions: Our findings in a cohort of young women support a role for dietary interactions with gut sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in early-onset colorectal carcinogenesis, possibly beginning in adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Depressive State in the Emergency Department During COVID-19: A National Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:566990. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliate Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Wulumuqi, China.

Chinese emergency department (ED) staff encountered significant mental stress while fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to investigate the prevalence and associated factors for depressive symptoms among ED staff (including physicians, nurses, allied health, and auxiliary ED staff). A cross-sectional national survey of ED staff who were on duty and participated in combating the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted March 1-15, 2020. A total of 6,588 emergency medical personnel from 1,060 hospitals responded to this survey. A majority of respondents scored above 10 points on the PHQ-9 standardized test, which is associated with depressive symptoms. Those aged 31-45, those working in the COVID-19 isolation unit, and those with relatives ≤ 16 or ≥70 years old at home all had statistically significant associations with scoring >10 points. Depressive symptoms among Chinese emergency medical staff were likely quite common during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce the importance of targeted ED staff support during future outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.566990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236535PMC
June 2021

Carbon support tuned electrocatalytic activity of a single-site metal-organic framework toward the oxygen reduction reaction.

Chem Sci 2021 Apr 30;12(22):7908-7917. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Beijing 100190 China

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess fantastic features such as structural diversity, tunable accessible pores and atomically dispersed active sites, holding tremendous potential as highly versatile platforms for fabricating single-site catalysts. The electrocatalytic activity of single-site MOFs can be improved and tuned several approaches; however, the exploitation of different carbon supports to modulate the nature of single active sites in MOFs for electrocatalysis has not been reported. Here, we find that the electrocatalytic activity of single-site MOFs toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be tuned by using carbon nanomaterials, , carbon nanotubes and graphene, as supports through MOF-support interactions in the manner of geometric and electronic effects. The introduction of MOF-support interactions not only greatly improves the electrocatalytic performance of MOFs toward the ORR in terms of onset and half-wave potentials and current density, but also alters the reaction pathway of the ORR. This finding provides a new horizon for the design and synthesis of single-site MOFs for electrocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc00997dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188507PMC
April 2021

Micrometer-scale transient ion transport for real-time pH assay in living rat brains.

Chem Sci 2021 Apr 19;12(21):7369-7376. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Science Beijing 100190 China

Ion transport has been widely used for various applications such as sensing, desalination and energy conversion; however, nearly all applications are based on steady-state ion transport. Herein, we for the first time demonstrate the capability of transient ion transport for sensing with both high spatial (∼μm) and temporal (∼ms) resolution by using pH as the model target. Transient ion transport behavior (, time-dependent ion current change) was observed by applying high-frequency pulse potential. Importantly, we proposed the ion distribution transient model for this time-dependent ion transport behavior. With this model, the temporal resolution of the as-developed pH microsensor based on ion current was improved to the ms level, thus satisfying the requirement of neurochemical recording. Moreover, our microsensor features good reproducibility, selectivity, and reversibility, and can thus real-time monitor the pH change in living rat brains. This study demonstrates the first example of sensing based on ion transport, opening a new way to neurochemical monitoring with ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution. This study is also helpful to understand the transient process of asymmetric ion transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc00061fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171349PMC
April 2021

Association of social distancing and face mask use with risk of COVID-19.

Nat Commun 2021 06 18;12(1):3737. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Given the continued burden of COVID-19 worldwide, there is a high unmet need for data on the effect of social distancing and face mask use to mitigate the risk of COVID-19. We examined the association of community-level social distancing measures and individual face mask use with risk of predicted COVID-19 in a large prospective U.S. cohort study of 198,077 participants. Individuals living in communities with the greatest social distancing had a 31% lower risk of predicted COVID-19 compared with those living in communities with poor social distancing. Self-reported 'always' use of face mask was associated with a 62% reduced risk of predicted COVID-19 even among individuals living in a community with poor social distancing. These findings provide support for the efficacy of mask-wearing even in settings of poor social distancing in reducing COVID-19 transmission. Despite mass vaccination campaigns in many parts of the world, continued efforts at social distancing and face mask use remain critically important in reducing the spread of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24115-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213701PMC
June 2021

Dietary fiber intake, the gut microbiome, and chronic systemic inflammation in a cohort of adult men.

Genome Med 2021 Jun 17;13(1):102. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: A higher intake of dietary fiber is associated with a decreased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. This may function in part due to abrogation of chronic systemic inflammation induced by factors such as dysbiotic gut communities. Data regarding the detailed influences of long-term and recent intake of differing dietary fiber sources on the human gut microbiome are lacking.

Methods: In a cohort of 307 generally healthy men, we examined gut microbiomes, profiled by shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing, and long-term and recent dietary fiber intake in relation to plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an established biomarker for chronic inflammation. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear mixed models.

Results: We found that inflammation-associated gut microbial configurations corresponded with higher CRP levels. A greater intake of dietary fiber was associated with shifts in gut microbiome composition, particularly Clostridiales, and their potential for carbohydrate utilization via polysaccharide degradation. This was particularly true for fruit fiber sources (i.e., pectin). Most striking, fiber intake was associated with significantly greater CRP reduction in individuals without substantial Prevotella copri carriage in the gut, whereas those with P. copri carriage maintained stable CRP levels regardless of fiber intake.

Conclusions: Our findings offer human evidence supporting a fiber-gut microbiota interaction, as well as a potential specific mechanism by which gut-mediated systemic inflammation may be mitigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00921-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212460PMC
June 2021

Abundance of Lactobacillus in porcine gut microbiota is closely related to immune response following PRRSV immunization.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Aug 26;259:109134. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National Poultry Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota plays a critical role in host immune system development and immune regulation, thus the composition of gut microbiota may affect how individuals respond to immunizations. Currently, little evidence is available on the correlation between porcine gut microbiota and vaccine immune response. Here, we investigated the influence of gut microbiota on immune response in pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine. Based on the antibody levels for PRRSV, the immunized pigs were divided into three groups (high, low, and others), and followed by virulent PRRSV challenge. The comprehensive analysis of microbial composition revealed that gut microbiota was similar in the richness and diversity among different groups before immunization. After immunization, the richness and diversity of gut microbial community in the high group were still similar to the low group, although there was a decrease in community diversity overtime. Interestingly, the antibody titer was positively correlated with the abundance of Lactobacillus in gut microbiota in immunized pigs. Further analysis indicated that gut microbial composition might be correlated to the clinical parameters such as body weight and rectal temperature after virus challenge. Taken together, our findings suggest that certain specific members of gut microbiota, such as Lactobacillus may serve as a mechanism for regulating the immune response following immunization in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109134DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of bowel movement frequency and laxative use with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in US women and men.

Int J Cancer 2021 10 4;149(8):1529-1535. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abnormal bowel movements have been related to a variety of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors such as dyslipidemia, diabetes and altered metabolism of bile acids and gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether bowel movement frequency affects the risk of developing HCC. We followed 88 123 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 28 824 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) for up to 24 years. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (95%CI). We documented 101 incident HCC cases. Compared to those with daily bowel movements, participants with bowel movement more than once per day had a multivariable HR of 1.93 (95%CI: 1.18 to 3.16) in the pooled cohorts. For the same comparison, the positive association appeared stronger for men (2.72, 95% CI: 1.14 to 6.44) than for women (1.63, 95% CI: 0.87 to 3.06) but there was no statistically significant heterogeneity by sex (P-value = .31). We found null associations between bowel movement every 2 days or less and the risk of HCC (HR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.62 to 1.79). The HR (95%CI) for participants who used laxatives regularly relative to those who never used laxatives was 1.00 (0.64 to 1.55). Our results suggest participants with bowel movement more than once daily is associated with a higher risk of developing HCC compared to those with daily bowel movements. These findings need to be confirmed and potential mechanisms underlying this association need to be elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33699DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of Screening Lower Endoscopy With Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Adults Older Than 75 Years.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jul;7(7):985-992

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Importance: Evidence indicates that screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) beginning at 50 years of age can detect early-stage CRC and premalignant neoplasms (eg, adenomas) and thus prevent CRC-related mortality. At present, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends continuing CRC screening until 75 years of age and individualized decision-making for adults older than 75 years, while accounting for a patient's overall health and screening history. However, scant data exist to support these recommendations.

Objective: To examine the association of lower gastrointestinal tract screening endoscopy with the risk of CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality in older US adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study of health care professionals in the US included data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) from January 1, 1988, through January 31, 2016, for the HPFS and June 30, 2016, for the NHS. Data were analyzed from May 8, 2019, to July 9, 2020.

Exposures: History of screening sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (routine/average risk or positive family history) to 75 years of age and after 75 years of age, assessed every 2 years.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incidence of CRC and CRC-related mortality confirmed by National Death Index, medical records, and pathology reports.

Results: Among 56 374 participants who reached 75 years of age during follow-up (36.8% men and 63.2% women), 661 incident CRC cases and 323 CRC-related deaths were documented. Screening endoscopy after 75 years of age was associated with reduced risk of CRC incidence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51-0.74) and CRC-related mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.78), regardless of screening history. The HR comparing screening with nonscreening after 75 years of age was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.50-0.89) for CRC incidence and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38-0.87) for CRC-related mortality among participants who underwent screening endoscopy before 75 years of age, and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.37-0.70) for CRC incidence and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43-0.93) for CRC-related mortality among participants without a screening history. However, screening endoscopy after 75 years of age was not associated with risk reduction in CRC death among participants with cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.59-2.35) or significant comorbidities (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.57-2.43).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, endoscopy among individuals older than 75 years was associated with lower risk of CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality. These data support continuation of screening after 75 years of age among individuals without significant comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138747PMC
July 2021

Genetically Predicted Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentration and Colorectal Cancer Survival: A Mendelian Randomization Consortium Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jul 10;30(7):1349-1358. Epub 2021 May 10.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Background: A positive association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer survival was reported in observational studies, which are susceptible to unmeasured confounding and reverse causality. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival.

Methods: We used individual-level data for 16,918 eligible colorectal cancer cases of European ancestry from 15 studies within the International Survival Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We calculated a genetic-risk score based on 52 CRP-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies. Because of the non-collapsibility of hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models, we used the additive hazards model to calculate hazard differences (HD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival, overall and by stage at diagnosis and tumor location. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, genotyping platform, study, and principal components.

Results: Of the 5,395 (32%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3,808 (23%) were due to colorectal cancer. Genetically predicted CRP concentration was not associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival (HD, -1.15; 95% CI, -2.76 to 0.47 per 100,000 person-years; = 0.16). Similarly, no associations were observed in subgroup analyses by stage at diagnosis or tumor location.

Conclusions: Despite adequate power to detect moderate associations, our results did not support a causal effect of circulating CRP concentrations on colorectal cancer-specific survival.

Impact: Future research evaluating genetically determined levels of other circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL6) with colorectal cancer survival outcomes is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254760PMC
July 2021

Enzymatic Behavior Regulation-Based Colorimetric and Electrochemiluminescence Sensing of Phosphate Using the Cobalt Oxyhydroxide Nanosheet.

Anal Chem 2021 05 22;93(17):6770-6778. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Bio-Nanotechnology and Molecule Engineering of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

In this work, a convenient and flexible assay for colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing of phosphate was proposed based on the enzymatic behavior regulation of the cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) nanosheet. CoOOH as a novel nanoenzyme exhibited a peroxidase-like activity, which could catalyze different substrates such as 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) with hydrogen peroxide (HO) as the electron acceptor. Phosphate could specifically regulate the enzymatic behavior of the CoOOH nanosheet via the deactivating effect. A high level of phosphate enabled a weak color change of ABTS, which offered a "turn-off" model of the colorimetric assay with a limit of detection of 0.673 μM. Based on the similar enzymatic behavior, this strategy could then be applied in the ECL assay utilizing l-arginine-6-aza-2-thiothymine-protected gold nanoclusters (Arg-ATT-AuNCs) as ECL signal indicators. Specifically, 4-CN was catalyzed to generate the precipitate and lead to the quenching on ECL emission. Different from colorimetric behavior, phosphate with a high concentration could induce strong ECL performance, which enabled the "turn-on" model of the ECL assay with a more sensitive determination down to 0.434 nM. This flexible enzymatic behavior regulation could then allow the phosphate measurement in environmental samples including tap water and river water with satisfactory accuracy, which holds the potential in the field of environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00557DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk factors for pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-induced moderate to severe hand-foot syndrome in breast cancer patients: assessment of baseline clinical parameters.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 7;21(1):362. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, 150081, China.

Background: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a side effect of skin related to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) application. Moderate to severe hand-foot syndrome (MSHFS) might have a serious impact on patients' quality of life and treatment. However, information on risk factors for the development of MSHFS is still limited. To analyze the risk factors for PLD-induced MSHFS in breast cancer patients and constructed a logistic regression prediction model.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients who were treated with a PLD regimen in the Tumor Hospital of Harbin Medical University from January 2017 to August 2019. A total of 26 factors were collected from electronic medical records. Patients were divided into MSHFS (HFS > grade 1) and NMHFS (HFS ≤ grade 1) groups according to the NCI classification. Statistical analysis of these factors and the construction of a logistic regression prediction model based on risk factors.

Results: A total of 44.7% (206/461) of patients developed MSHFS. The BMI, dose intensity, and baseline Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the MSHFS group, as well as good peripheral blood circulation, excessive sweat excretion, history of gallstones, and tumour- and HER2-positive percentages, were all higher than those in the NMHFS group (P < 0.05). The model for predicting the occurrence of MSHFS was P = 1/1 + exp. (11.138-0.110*BMI-0.234*dose intensity-0.018*baseline ALT+ 0.025*baseline AST-1.225*gallstone history-0.681* peripheral blood circulation-1.073*sweat excretion-0.364*with or without tumor-0.680*HER-2). The accuracy of the model was 72.5%, AUC = 0.791, and Hosmer-Lemeshow fit test P = 0.114 > 0.05.

Conclusions: Nearly half of the patients developed MSHFS. The constructed prediction model may be valuable for predicting the occurrence of MSHFS in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08028-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025507PMC
April 2021

Association of serum and aqueous humor myonectin concentrations with diabetic retinopathy.

Sci Rep 2021 03 30;11(1):7215. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 758 Hefei Road, Shibei District, Qingdao, 266035, Shandong, China.

Myonectin, a newly discovered myokine, enhances fatty acid uptake in cultured adipocytes and hepatocytes and suppresses circulating levels of free fatty acids in mice. This study is performed to evaluate the association between serum and aqueous humor myonectin concentrations with diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study was performed in a population of 228 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 72 control subjects. Diabetic patients were then divided into T2DM patients without DR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) patients, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients. Serum and aqueous humor myonectin concentrations were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. PDR patients showed significantly decreased serum and aqueous humor myonectin concentrations than in the other two T2DM patients. In addition, NPDR patients showed significantly lower serum and aqueous humor myonectin concentrations than T2DM patients without DR. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that serum and aqueous humor myonectin was correlated with a decreased risk of T2DM and DR. Simple linear regression analysis showed that serum myonectin was negatively correlated with duration of disease, body mass index (BMI), and HbA1c. Duration of disease and BMI were still correlated with the serum myonectin after a multiple linear regression analysis. Aqueous humor myonectin was negatively correlated with duration of disease, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure. Duration of disease and SBP was still correlated with the aqueous humor myonectin after a multiple linear regression analysis. Our investigation indicates an inverse association of serum and aqueous humor myonectin with DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86677-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009941PMC
March 2021

History of Diverticulitis and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Men: A Cohort Study.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Diverticulitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two highly prevalent disorders sharing common risk factors which are hypothesized to have an inflammatory basis.

Aims: To examine the association between history of diverticulitis and risk of incident CVD.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 43,904 men aged 40 to 75 years without a history of CVD (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) at enrollment who were followed up from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and disease information were self-reported biennially or quadrennially. Incident diverticulitis and CVD were confirmed by review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate age- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident CVD. We conducted a stratified analysis according to the presence or absence of CVD risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes).

Results: We identified 3848 incident cases of CVD during 856,319 person-years of follow-up. Men with diverticulitis had higher incidence of CVD (727 cases per 100,000 person-years) compared to men without diverticulitis [446 cases per 100,000 person-years, multivariate HR of 1.35 (95% CI 1.07-1.70)]. The association of diverticulitis and subsequent CVD appeared more evident among men without known CVD risk factors (HR 4.06, 95% CI 2.04-8.08) compared to those with one or more CVD risk factors (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.98-1.63).

Conclusions: Diverticulitis may be an independent risk factor of incident CVD, suggesting possible common etiopathogenic mechanisms. Diagnosis of diverticulitis underscores the importance of preventive measures to reduce future CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06949-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464617PMC
March 2021

Symptoms and syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity in pregnant women from two community cohorts.

Sci Rep 2021 03 25;11(1):6928. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, 9th floor, Becket House, 1 Lambeth Palace Road, London, SE1 7EU, UK.

We tested whether pregnant and non-pregnant women differ in COVID-19 symptom profile and severity, and we extended previous investigations on hospitalized pregnant women to those who did not require hospitalization. Two female community-based cohorts (18-44 years) provided longitudinal (smartphone application, N = 1,170,315, n = 79 pregnant tested positive) and cross-sectional (web-based survey, N = 1,344,966, n = 134 pregnant tested positive) data, prospectively collected through self-participatory citizen surveillance in UK, Sweden and USA. Pregnant and non-pregnant were compared for frequencies of events, including SARS-CoV-2 testing, symptoms and hospitalization rates. Multivariable regression was used to investigate symptoms severity and comorbidity effects. Pregnant and non-pregnant women positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were not different in syndromic severity, except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Pregnant were more likely to have received testing, despite reporting fewer symptoms. Pre-existing lung disease was most closely associated with syndromic severity in pregnant hospitalized. Heart and kidney diseases and diabetes increased risk. The most frequent symptoms among non-hospitalized women were anosmia [63% pregnant, 92% non-pregnant] and headache [72%, 62%]. Cardiopulmonary symptoms, including persistent cough [80%] and chest pain [73%], were more frequent among pregnant who were hospitalized. Consistent with observations in non-pregnant populations, lung disease and diabetes were associated with increased risk of more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86452-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994587PMC
March 2021

Symptom clusters in COVID-19: A potential clinical prediction tool from the COVID Symptom Study app.

Sci Adv 2021 03 19;7(12). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, USA.

As no one symptom can predict disease severity or the need for dedicated medical support in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we asked whether documenting symptom time series over the first few days informs outcome. Unsupervised time series clustering over symptom presentation was performed on data collected from a training dataset of completed cases enlisted early from the COVID Symptom Study Smartphone application, yielding six distinct symptom presentations. Clustering was validated on an independent replication dataset between 1 and 28 May 2020. Using the first 5 days of symptom logging, the ROC-AUC (receiver operating characteristic - area under the curve) of need for respiratory support was 78.8%, substantially outperforming personal characteristics alone (ROC-AUC 69.5%). Such an approach could be used to monitor at-risk patients and predict medical resource requirements days before they are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd4177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7978420PMC
March 2021

Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality After Colonoscopy Screening According to Individuals' Risk Profiles.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep;113(9):1177-1185

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: It remains unknown whether the benefit of colonoscopy screening against colorectal cancer (CRC) and the optimal age to start screening differ by CRC risk profile.

Methods: Among 75 873 women and 42 875 men, we defined a CRC risk score (0-8) based on family history, aspirin, height, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and diet. We calculated colonoscopy screening-associated hazard ratios and absolute risk reductions (ARRs) for CRC incidence and mortality and age-specific CRC cumulative incidence according to risk score. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: During a median of 26 years of follow-up, we documented 2407 CRC cases and 874 CRC deaths. Although the screening-associated hazard ratio did not vary by risk score, the ARRs in multivariable-adjusted 10-year CRC incidence more than doubled for individuals with scores 6-8 (ARR = 0.34%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26% to 0.42%) compared with 0-2 (ARR = 0.15%, 95% CI = 0.12% to 0.18%, Ptrend < .001). Similar results were found for CRC mortality (ARR = 0.22%, 95% CI = 0.21% to 0.24% vs 0.08%, 95% CI = 0.07% to 0.08%, Ptrend < .001). The ARR in mortality of distal colon and rectal cancers was fourfold higher for scores 6-8 than 0-2 (distal colon cancer: ARR = 0.08%, 95% CI = 0.07% to 0.08% vs 0.02%, 95% CI = 0.02% to 0.02%, Ptrend < .001; rectal cancer: ARR = 0.08%, 95% CI = 0.08% to 0.09% vs 0.02%, 95% CI = 0.02% to 0.03%, Ptrend < .001). When using age 45 years as the benchmark to start screening, individuals with risk scores of 0-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6-8 attained the threshold CRC risk level (10-year cumulative risk of 0.47%) at age 51 years, 48 years, 45 years, 42 years, and 38 years, respectively.

Conclusions: The absolute benefit of colonoscopy screening is more than twice higher for individuals with the highest than lowest CRC risk profile. Individuals with a high- and low-risk profile may start screening up to 6-7 years earlier and later, respectively, than the recommended age of 45 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418388PMC
September 2021

Racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Background: Racial and ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. In the initial phase of population-based vaccination in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.), vaccine hesitancy and limited access may result in disparities in uptake.

Methods: We performed a cohort study among U.S. and U.K. participants in the smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study (March 24, 2020-February 16, 2021). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (unsure/not willing) and receipt.

Results: In the U.S. ( =87,388), compared to White non-Hispanic participants, the multivariable ORs of vaccine hesitancy were 3.15 (95% CI: 2.86 to 3.47) for Black participants, 1.42 (1.28 to 1.58) for Hispanic participants, 1.34 (1.18 to 1.52) for Asian participants, and 2.02 (1.70 to 2.39) for participants reporting more than one race/other. In the U.K. ( =1,254,294), racial and ethnic minorities had similarly elevated hesitancy: compared to White participants, their corresponding ORs were 2.84 (95% CI: 2.69 to 2.99) for Black participants, 1.66 (1.57 to 1.76) for South Asian participants, 1.84 (1.70 to 1.98) for Middle East/East Asian participants, and 1.48 (1.39 to 1.57) for participants reporting more than one race/other. Among U.S. participants, the OR of vaccine receipt was 0.71 (0.64 to 0.79) for Black participants, a disparity that persisted among individuals who specifically endorsed a willingness to obtain a vaccine. In contrast, disparities in uptake were not observed in the U.K.

Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was greater among racial and ethnic minorities, and Black participants living in the U.S. were less likely to receive a vaccine than White participants. Lower uptake among Black participants in the U.S. during the initial vaccine rollout is attributable to both hesitancy and disparities in access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.25.21252402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924296PMC
February 2021

Depressive Symptoms, Sleep Quality and Diet During the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Epidemic in China: A Survey of Medical Students.

Front Public Health 2020 26;8:588578. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

The psychological condition of medical students may be influenced by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. This study investigated the prevalence and influencing factors of depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality and poor diet in students at Kunming Medical University during the early part of the COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional study was used from a questionnaire survey in February 2020. Of a total of 1,026 study participants, the prevalence of depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, and poor diet was, respectively, 22.4, 33.2, and 17.4%. Male students and students with a low degree of focus on COVID-19 had a high risk of depressive symptoms. A high percentage of females and students in the fifth grade, as well as students with high levels of concern about the negative impact of COVID-19 on their education or employment, comprised those with poor sleep quality. Students in the fifth grade and students with high levels of concern about the negative impact of COVID-19 on their education or employment were more likely to report poor diet. This study suggests the importance of monitoring medical students' depressive state during the COVID-19 outbreak, and universities are encouraged to institute policies and programs to provide educational counseling and psychological support to help students to cope with these problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.588578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870982PMC
February 2021

The gut microbiome modulates the protective association between a Mediterranean diet and cardiometabolic disease risk.

Nat Med 2021 02 11;27(2):333-343. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

To address how the microbiome might modify the interaction between diet and cardiometabolic health, we analyzed longitudinal microbiome data from 307 male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, together with long-term dietary information and measurements of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and inflammation from blood samples. Here, we demonstrate that a healthy Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with specific functional and taxonomic components of the gut microbiome, and that its protective associations with cardiometabolic health vary depending on microbial composition. In particular, the protective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiometabolic disease risk was significantly stronger among participants with decreased abundance of Prevotella copri. Our findings advance the concept of precision nutrition and have the potential to inform more effective and precise dietary approaches for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease mediated through alterations in the gut microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-01223-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186452PMC
February 2021

Healthy lifestyle, endoscopic screening, and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in the United States: A nationwide cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 02 1;18(2):e1003522. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Healthy lifestyle and screening represent 2 major approaches to colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. It remains unknown whether the CRC-preventive benefit of healthy lifestyle differs by endoscopic screening status, and how the combination of healthy lifestyle with endoscopic screening can improve CRC prevention.

Methods And Findings: We assessed lifestyle and endoscopic screening biennially among 75,873 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1988 to 2014) and 42,875 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1988 to 2014). We defined a healthy lifestyle score based on body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) for CRC incidence and mortality in relation to healthy lifestyle score according to endoscopic screening. Participants' mean age (standard deviation) at baseline was 54 (8) years. During a median of 26 years (2,827,088 person-years) follow-up, we documented 2,836 incident CRC cases and 1,013 CRC deaths. We found a similar association between healthy lifestyle score and lower CRC incidence among individuals with and without endoscopic screening, with the multivariable HR per one-unit increment of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.90) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.88), respectively (P-interaction = 0.99). The fraction of CRC cases that might be prevented (PAR) by endoscopic screening alone was 32% (95% CI, 31% to 33%) and increased to 61% (95% CI, 42% to 75%) when combined with healthy lifestyle (score = 5). The corresponding PAR (95% CI) increased from 15% (13% to 16%) to 51% (17% to 74%) for proximal colon cancer and from 47% (45% to 50%) to 75% (61% to 84%) for distal CRC. Results were similar for CRC mortality. A limitation of our study is that our study participants are all health professionals and predominantly whites, which may not be representative of the general population.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that healthy lifestyle is associated with lower CRC incidence and mortality independent of endoscopic screening. An integration of healthy lifestyle with endoscopic screening may substantially enhance prevention for CRC, particularly for proximal colon cancer, compared to endoscopic screening alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886195PMC
February 2021
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