Publications by authors named "Wenhua Wang"

147 Publications

Serum apelin-13 and risk of death following severe traumatic brain injury.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 May 26;516:64-68. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kunshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunshan Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Kunshan 215300, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Apelin-13 can be expressed in brain tissue and exert neuroprotective effects. We attempted to determine whether serum apelin-13 is a prognostic biomarker for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI).

Methods: Of 126 sTBI patients and 126 healthy controls, serum apelin-13 concentrations were quantified using ELISA. The trauma severity was assessed by Glasgow coma scale scores and Rotterdam computerized tomography scores. The relationship between serum apelin-13 concentrations and posttraumatic 30-day mortality was assessed using multivariate analysis.

Results: Serum apelin-13 concentrations were significantly lower in patients than in controls. Serum apelin-13 concentrations of non-surviving and surviving patients within posttraumatic 30 days were strongly correlated with Glasgow coma scale scores and Rotterdam computerized tomography scores. Serum apelin-13 emerged as an independent predictor for 30-day mortality and overall survival. There was a significant discriminatory capability with respect to serum apelin-13 concentrations for the risk of 30-day death. Moreover, its prognostic predictive ability was similar to those of Glasgow coma scale scores and Rotterdam computerized tomography scores.

Conclusions: Declined serum apelin-13 concentrations, in substantial correlation with increasing severity, are independently associated with short-term mortality, hinting than serum apelin-13 might represent a useful prognostic biomarker for sTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.01.014DOI Listing
May 2021

C-C Bond Cleavage Initiated Cascade Reaction of β-Enaminones: One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-ones.

J Org Chem 2021 Feb 13;86(3):2917-2928. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Environment and Public Health, Xiamen Key Laboratory of Food and Drug Safety, Xiamen Huaxia University, Xiamen, Fujian 361024, China.

An unprecedented C(CO)-C(Ar) bond cleavage of β-enaminones has been realized under mild and transition-metal-free conditions. The cascade transformation based on this C-C bond cleavage involves 1,3-O/C migration and aerobic hydroxylation and leads to various 5-hydroxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-ones with broad functional group tolerance. The application of this methodology has been showcased by preparing 5-alkoxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-one derivatives and a pyrrolo[2,1-]isoquinolin-3-one derivative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02832DOI Listing
February 2021

A gene-based risk score model for predicting recurrence-free survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 5;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the most frequent liver cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of primary liver cancers worldwide. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) of HCC patients is a critical factor in devising a personal treatment plan. Thus, it is necessary to accurately forecast the prognosis of HCC patients in clinical practice.

Methods: Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we identified genes associated with RFS. A robust likelihood-based survival modeling approach was used to select the best genes for the prognostic model. Then, the GSE76427 dataset was used to evaluate the prognostic model's effectiveness.

Results: We identified 1331 differentially expressed genes associated with RFS. Seven of these genes were selected to generate the prognostic model. The validation in both the TCGA cohort and GEO cohort demonstrated that the 7-gene prognostic model can predict the RFS of HCC patients. Meanwhile, the results of the multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the 7-gene risk score model could function as an independent prognostic factor. In addition, according to the time-dependent ROC curve, the 7-gene risk score model performed better in predicting the RFS of the training set and the external validation dataset than the classical TNM staging and BCLC. Furthermore, these seven genes were found to be related to the occurrence and development of liver cancer by exploring three other databases.

Conclusion: Our study identified a seven-gene signature for HCC RFS prediction that can be used as a novel and convenient prognostic tool. These seven genes might be potential target genes for metabolic therapy and the treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07692-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786458PMC
January 2021

Construction and validation of a 6-gene nomogram discriminating lung metastasis risk of breast cancer patients.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(12):e0244693. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women. Metastasis is the foremost cause of death. Breast tumor cells have a proclivity to metastasize to specific organs. The lung is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, we aimed to build a useful and convenient prediction tool based on several genes that may affect lung metastasis-free survival (LMFS). We preliminarily identified 319 genes associated with lung metastasis in the training set GSE5327 (n = 58). Enrichment analysis of GO functions and KEGG pathways was conducted based on these genes. The best genes for modeling were selected using a robust likelihood-based survival modeling approach: GOLGB1, TMEM158, CXCL8, MCM5, HIF1AN, and TSPAN31. A prognostic nomogram for predicting lung metastasis in breast cancer was developed based on these six genes. The effectiveness of the nomogram was evaluated in the training set GSE5327 and the validation set GSE2603. Both the internal validation and the external validation manifested the effectiveness of our 6-gene prognostic nomogram in predicting the lung metastasis risk of breast cancer patients. On the other hand, in the validation set GSE2603, we found that neither the six genes in the nomogram nor the risk predicted by the nomogram were associated with bone metastasis of breast cancer, preliminarily suggesting that these genes and nomogram were specifically associated with lung metastasis of breast cancer. What's more, five genes in the nomogram were significantly differentially expressed between breast cancer and normal breast tissues in the TIMER database. In conclusion, we constructed a new and convenient prediction model based on 6 genes that showed practical value in predicting the lung metastasis risk for clinical breast cancer patients. In addition, some of these genes could be treated as potential metastasis biomarkers for antimetastatic therapy in breast cancer. The evolution of this nomogram will provide a good reference for the prediction of tumor metastasis to other specific organs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244693PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773205PMC
March 2021

Application of in Simulated Solid-State Fermentation for Production: Changes of Microbial Community Structure and Flavor Metabolism.

Front Microbiol 2020 27;11:598758. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Enzyme Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China.

is conducive to the synthesis of ester compounds in brewing the Chinese liquor ; esters are crucial for the quality of . In this study, simulated solid-state fermentation for production was used to explore whether artificial addition of could improve the flavor substance in , and the underlying mechanisms. Two experimental groups were studied, in which Y3604 (Group A) and YF1503 (Group B) were added, respectively; in the control group (Group C), no was added. Adding strain Y3604 increased the content of esters in fermentation samples, especially ethyl acetate and ethyl caproate, and reduced the content of higher alcohols. Adding strain YF1503 had little effect on the ester content but decreased the content of higher alcohols. The diversity and abundance of prokaryotic genera in Group A and B samples were similar, but there were some differences compared with Group C. The correlations of genera in Group A or B samples were simple compared with group C. Although the predominant eukaryotic genera in the three groups were consistent, the abundance of each gene varied among groups. Based on our findings, bioaugmentation of fermentation with will change the ethyl acetate content and cause changes in the levels of other flavor substances. We suggest that the changes in flavor substances caused by the addition of are mainly due to changes in the microbial community structure that result from the addition of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.598758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728721PMC
November 2020

[Silencing long non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS2 inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells ].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Nov;40(11):1615-1621

Department of Gynecology, Pingxiang People's Hospital, Pingxiang 337000, China.

Objective: To explore the inhibitory effects of silencing long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) HIF1A-AS2 on epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor stem cell-like phenotype in cervical cancer cells.

Methods: We designed 3 shRNA constructs for silencing HIF1A-AS2 in CaSki cells, and the shRNA with the strongest interference effect was selected for subsequent experiment. CaSki cells were transfected with shRNA-NC or Sh-HIF1A-AS2, and the changes in cell viability, invasion ability, EMT, expressions of EMT-related proteins, formation of cell spheres and expressions of stem cell markers were detected.

Results: Transfection with shRNA-NC and Sh-HIF1A-AS2 did not significantly affected the viability of CaSki cells ( > 0.05). Compared with the cells transfected with shRNA-NC, the cells transfected with Sh- HIF1A-AS2 showed significantly reduced invasion ability, expressions of vimentin N-cadherin, and cell sphere formation ability. HIF1A-AS2 silencing obviously lowered the rate of ABCG2-positive cells, significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expressions of Nanog, OCT4, and SOX2, and strongly enhanced the expression of E-cadherin in CaSki cells ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Silencing HIF1A-AS2 can inhibit proliferation, invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.11.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704379PMC
November 2020

Stability of Human Serum Amyloid A Fibrils.

J Phys Chem B 2020 11 16;124(47):10708-10717. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.

In systemic amyloidosis, serum amyloid A (SAA) fibril deposits cause widespread damages to tissues and organs that eventually may lead to death. A therapeutically intervention therefore has either to dissolve these fibrils or inhibit their formation. However, only recently has the human SAA fibril structure been resolved at a resolution that is sufficient for development of drug candidates. Here, we use molecular dynamic simulations to probe the factors that modulate the stability of this fibril model. Our simulations suggest that fibril formation starts with the stacking of two misfolded monomers into metastable dimers, with the stacking depending on the N-terminal amyloidogenic regions of different chains forming anchors. The resulting dimers pack in a second step into a 2-fold two-layer tetramer that is stable enough to nucleate fibril formation. The stability of the initial dimers is enhanced under acidic conditions by a strong salt bridge and side-chain hydrogen bond network in the C-terminal cavity (residues 23-51) but is not affected by the presence of the disordered C-terminal tail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c08280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688565PMC
November 2020

Development of Aggregation-Caused Quenching Probe-Loaded Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers with Fluorescence Tracking Potentials.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2020 Oct 25;21(8):296. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Recently, pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) are getting more attention as an effective approach of pulmonary drug delivery, and nanoparticle-based formulations have become a new generation of pMDIs, especially for water insoluble drugs. Up until now, there is no clinical application of nanoparticle-based pMDIs. The main hurdle remains in the lack of knowledge of the in vivo fate of those systems. In this study, a fluorescent probe named P4 with aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect was loaded in the nanoparticle-based pMDIs to track the in vivo fate. P4 probe expressed strong fluorescence when distributed in intact nanoparticles, but quenched in the in vivo aqueous environment due to molecular aggregation. Experimentally, P4 probe was encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as P4-SLN, and then, the formulation of pMDIs was optimized. The content (w/w) of the optimal formulation (P4-SLN-pMDIs) was as follows: 6.02% Pluronic® L64, 12.03% ethanol, 0.46% P4-SLN, and 81.49% 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a). P4-SLN-pMDI was transparent in appearance, possessed a particle size of 132.07 ± 3.56 nm, and the fine particle fraction (FPF) was 39.53 ± 1.94%, as well good stability was shown within 10 days. The results indicated P4-SLN-pMDI was successfully prepared. Moreover, the ACQ property of P4-SLN-pMDIs was verified, which ensured the fluorescence property as a credible tool for in vivo fate study. Taken together, this work established a platform that could provide a firm theoretical support for exploration of the in vivo fate of nanoparticle-based pMDIs in subsequent studies. Grapical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01782-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Vitamin A deficiency and its treatment in captive Sunda pangolins.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Mar 15;7(2):554-558. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

The high incidence of disease in captive pangolins is a major obstacle in pangolin-conservation breeding programs. Therefore, elucidating pangolins' susceptibility to disease is the key to conservation progress. At the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (PRB-SCNU), vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed in 14 captive Sunda pangolins. Typical eye signs included lacrimal eyes, keratopathy and a blank, milky orb. The afflicted pangolins were treated with vitamins A and D for 15-30 days; all individuals recovered. We report the detection and treatment of vitamin A deficiency in captive Sunda pangolins at the PRB-SCNU. Our results could provide guidance for the future prevention and treatment of vitamin A deficiency and associated diseases in pangolin species, both to reduce the incidence of these diseases in captive pangolins and to aid conservation efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.367DOI Listing
March 2021

Inhalable solid lipid nanoparticles for intracellular tuberculosis infection therapy: macrophage-targeting and pH-sensitive properties.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most threatening pathogens for its latent infection in macrophages. The intracellular MTB isolated itself from drugs and could spread via macrophages. Therefore, a mannose-modified macrophage-targeting solid lipid nanoparticle, MAN-IC-SLN, loading the pH-sensitive prodrug of isoniazid (INH), was designed to treat the latent tuberculosis infection. The surface of SLNs was modified by a synthesized 6-octadecylimino-hexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentanol (MAN-SA) to target macrophages, and the modified SLNs showed a higher cell uptake in macrophages (97.2%) than unmodified SLNs (42.4%). The prodrug, isonicotinic acid octylidene-hydrazide (INH-CHO), was synthesized to achieve the pH-sensitive release of INH in macrophages. The INH-CHO-loaded SLNs exhibited a pH-sensitive release profile and accomplished a higher accumulated release in pH 5.5 media (82.63 ± 2.12%) compared with the release in pH 7.4 media (58.83 ± 3.84%). Mycobacterium smegmatis was used as a substitute for MTB, and the MAN-IC-SLNs showed a fourfold increase of intracellular antibiotic efficacy and enhanced macrophage uptake because of the pH-sensitive degradation of INH-CHO and MAN-SA in SLNs, respectively. For the in vivo antibiotic efficacy test, the SLNs group displayed an 83% decrease of the colony-forming unit while the free INH group only showed a 60% decrease. The study demonstrates that macrophage targeting and pH-sensitive SLNs can be used as a promising platform for the latent tuberculosis infection. Graphical Abstract Table of contents: Macrophage-targeting and pH-sensitive solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were administrated to the lung via nebulization. Macrophage targeting was achieved by appropriate particle size and surface mannose modification with synthesized MAN-SA. After being swallowed by macrophages, the prodrug, Isonicotinic acid octylidene-hydrazide (INH-CHO), quickly released isoniazid, which was triggered by the intracellular acid environment. The SLNs exhibited higher intracellular antibiotic efficacy due to their macrophage-targeting and pH-sensitive properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-020-00849-7DOI Listing
September 2020

Distribution of rare earth elements in PM emitted from burning coals and soil-mixed coal briquettes.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Nov 7;97:96-101. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China; Hebei University of Economics and Business, Shijiazhuang 050061, China.

Emission from burning coals is one of the major sources of the airborne particles in China. We carried out a study on the rare earth elements (REEs) in the inhalable particulate matter (PM) emitted from burning coals and soil-coal honeycomb briquettes with different volatile contents and ash yields in a combustion-dilution system. Gravimetric analysis indicates that the equivalent mass concentration of the PM emitted from burning the coals is higher than that emitted from burning the briquettes. The ICP-MS analysis indicates that the contents of total REEs in the coal-burning PM are lower than those in the briquette-burning PM. In addition, the contents of the light rare earth elements (LREEs) are higher than those of the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) in the PM emitted from burning the coals and briquettes, demonstrating that the REEs in both the coal-burning and briquette-burning PM are dominated by LREEs. The higher contents of total REEs and LREEs in the coal-burning PM are associated with the higher ash yields and lower volatile contents in the raw coals. A comparative analysis indicates that the La/Sm ratios in the PM emitted from burning the coals and briquettes, being lower than 2, are lower than those in the particles from gasoline-powered vehicle emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.05.010DOI Listing
November 2020

Discovery and development of a novel short-chain fatty acid ester synthetic biocatalyst under aqueous phase from Monascus purpureus isolated from Baijiu.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 8;338:128025. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China; Key Laboratory of Brewing Molecular Engineering of China Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Short-chain fatty acid esters are important flavor chemicals in Chinese traditional fermented Baijiu. Monascus purpureus was recognized as an important microorganism contributing to ester synthesis. However, the molecular basis for ester synthesis was still lacking. The present work combined genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, gene library construction, and enzyme engineering to discover a novel catalyst from M. purpureus (isolated from Baijiu fermentation starter). Enzyme LIP05, belonging to the α/β hydrolase family, was identified to synthesize short-chain fatty acid esters under aqueous phase. After deleting the lid domain of LIP05, the synthesis of ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, or ethyl decanoate was achieved. Ethyl octanoate with the highest conversion ratio of 93.7% was obtained with the assistance of ultrasound. The study reveals the molecular basis for synthesizing short-chain fatty acid esters by M. purpureus and will promote the application of the species or the enzyme in food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128025DOI Listing
February 2021

Development of primary care assessment tool-adult version in Tibet: implication for low- and middle-income countries.

Prim Health Care Res Dev 2019 07 1;20:e94. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Aim: To conduct advanced psychometric analysis of Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) in Tibet and identify avenues for metric performance improvement.

Background: Measuring progress toward high-performing primary health care can contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals. The adult version of PCAT is an instrument for measuring patient experience, with key elements of primary care. It has been extensively used and validated internationally. However, only little information is available regarding its psychometric properties obtained based on advanced analysis.

Methods: We used data collected from 1386 primary care users in two prefectures in Tibet. First, iterative confirmatory factor analysis examined the fit of the primary care construct in the original tool. Then item response theory analysis evaluated how well the questions and individual response options perform at different levels of patient experience. Finally, multiple logistic regression modeling examined the predicative validity of primary care domains against patient satisfaction.

Findings: A best final structure for the PCAT-Tibetan includes 7 domains and 27 items. Confirmatory factor analysis suggests good fit for a unidimensional model for items within each domain but doesn't support a unidimensional model for the entire instrument with all domains. Non-parametric and parametric item response theory analysis models show that for most items, the favorable response option (4 = definitely) is overwhelmingly endorsed, the discriminability parameter is over 1, and the difficulty parameters are all negative, suggesting that the items are most sensitive and specific for patients with poor primary care experience. Ongoing care is the strongest predictor of patient satisfaction. These findings suggest the need for some principles in adapting the tool to different health system contexts, more items measuring excellent primary care experience, and update of the four-point response options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1463423619000239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609993PMC
July 2019

Air quality improvement in response to intensified control strategies in Beijing during 2013-2019.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 12;744:140776. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan.

Beijing's air pollution has become of increasing concern in recent years. The central and municipal governments have issued a series of laws, regulations, and strategies to improve ambient air quality. The "Clean Air Action" issued in 2013 and the "Comprehensive Action" issued in 2017 largely addressed this concern. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the two action plans by environmental monitoring data and evaluated the influencing factors including meteorology, pollutant emissions, and energy structure. The spatial distributions of air pollutants were analyzed using the Kriging interpolation method. The Principal Component Analysis-Multiple Nonlinear Regression (PCA-MNLR) model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors. The results have shown that Beijing's air quality had a measurable improvement over 2013-2019. "Good air quality" days had the highest increases, and "hazardous air quality" days had the most decreases. SO decreased most, followed by CO, PM, PM, and NO in descending order, but O showed a fluctuant increase. The "Comprehensive Action" was more effective than the "Clean Air Action" in reducing heavy pollution days during the heating period. The meteorological normalized values of the main pollutants were lower than the observation data during 2013-2016. However, the observed values became lower than the normalized values after 2017, which indicated beneficial weather conditions in 2017 and afterwards. The emissions of SO and dust significantly decreased while NOx had a slight decrease, and the energy structure changed with a dramatic decrease in coal consumption and an obvious increase in the use of natural gas and electricity. The significant reduction of coal-fired emissions played a dominant role in improving Beijing's air quality, and vehicle emission control should be further enhanced. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the two action plans and the experience in Beijing should have potential implications for other areas and nations suffering from severe air pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140776DOI Listing
November 2020

Diagnostic value of urinary microprotein concentration for patients with negative urinary protein test results and positive urinary casts on microscopic examination.

J Clin Lab Anal 2020 Nov 19;34(11):e23487. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Objective: To analyze the association between positive urinary casts on microscopic examination and urinary microprotein concentration in the case of negative urinary protein test results. This study also investigated the diagnostic value of urinary microprotein examination.

Subjects: A total of 949 samples that were analyzed with a UF-1000i Urine Analyzer and returned cast alarm results were categorized into two groups, a positive and negative group, according to qualitative urinary protein sulfosalicylic acid test results. Then, 54 samples with negative protein test results but positive cast results according to microscopic examination were selected as the study group; 60 normal people with healthy physical examination results were selected as the control group. Both groups underwent urinary microprotein tests, including urinary microalbumin (mAlb), α1-microglobulin (A1M), transferrin (TRU), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). T tests were used to evaluate mean differences between groups and chi-square tests were used to calculate ratio differences between groups.

Results: (a) Microscopic examinations of the positive and negative protein groups revealed no statistically significant difference in cast detection rate (P = .421). (b) Among the 54 samples in the study group, 37 were found to have abnormal casts, while in the remaining 17 samples, only hyaline casts were detected. (c) The detection levels of mAlb, A1M, and IgG in the study group were significantly higher than the control group (P values < .05).

Conclusion: Urinary microprotein test should be included in the re-examination rules for routine tests for patients with negative protein results and positive casts under microscopic examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676179PMC
November 2020

Combining Mass Spectrometry with Paternò-Büchi Reaction to Determine Double-Bond Positions in Lipids at the Single-Cell Level.

Anal Chem 2020 08 27;92(16):11380-11387. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.

Single cell MS (SCMS) techniques are under rapid development for molecular analysis of individual cells among heterogeneous populations. Lipids are basic cellular constituents playing essential functions in energy storage and the cellular signaling processes of cells. Unsaturated lipids are characterized with one or multiple carbon-carbon double (C═C) bonds, and they are critical for cell functions and human diseases. Characterizing unsaturated lipids in single cells allows for better understanding of metabolomic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of rare cells (e.g., cancer stem cells); however, these studies remain challenging. We developed a new technique using a micropipette needle, in which Paternò-Büchi (PB) reactions at C═C bond can be induced, to determine locations of C═C bonds in unsaturated lipids at the single-cell level. The micropipette needle is produced by combining a pulled glass capillary needle with a fused silica capillary. Cell lysis solvent and PB reagent (acetone or benzophenone) are delivered into the micropipette needle (tip size ≈ 15 um) through a fused silica capillary. The capillary needle plays multiple functions (i.e., single cell sampling probe, cell lysis container, microreactor, and nano-ESI emitter) in the experiments. Both regular (no reaction) and reactive (with PB reaction) SCMS analyses of the same cell can be achieved. C═C bond locations were determined from MS scan and MS/MS of PB products assisted by Python programs. This technique can potentially be used for other reactive SCMS studies to enhance molecular analysis for broad ranges of single cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c02245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482314PMC
August 2020

Relationship between particle size and lung retention time of intact solid lipid nanoparticle suspensions after pulmonary delivery.

J Control Release 2020 09 1;325:206-222. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China; College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

The relationship between the particle size and lung retention time of inhaled nanocarriers was unclear, and this uncertainty hampered the design of nanocarriers for pulmonary delivery. The debate resulted from a lack of knowledge regarding the integrity of the involved nanocarriers. A distinguishable bioimaging probe which could differentiate between integrated and disintegrated nanocarriers by emitting different signals was introduced to address this problem. The aza-BODIPY structured aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) probes were promising candidates, because they showed intense fluorescence signals in intact nanocarriers while quenched after the decomposition of nanocarriers. This attribute was called an on-off switch. In this paper, ACQ probes were encapsulated into a solid lipid nanoparticle suspension (SLNS) with different particle sizes (120-480 nm), and the relationship between particle size and lung retention time after pulmonary delivery was investigated in BALB/c mice. The results showed that a larger particle size led to a longer lung retention time. By comparing with the results of a non-water-quenching probe, the SLNS systems were found to be mostly intact in the pulmonary region. These findings will serve as a firm basis for the design and development of nanocarriers for pulmonary delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Possible environmental effects on the spread of COVID-19 in China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 7;731:139211. Epub 2020 May 7.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus, designated as SARS-CoV-2, emerged in Wuhan, China and was identified as the causal pathogen of COVID-19. The epidemic scale of COVID-19 has increased dramatically, with confirmed cases increasing across China and globally. Understanding the potential affecting factors involved in COVID-19 transmission will be of great significance in containing the spread of the epidemic. Environmental and meteorological factors might impact the occurrence of COVID-19, as these have been linked to various diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), whose causative pathogens belong to the same virus family as SARS-CoV-2. We collected daily data of COVID-19 confirmed cases, air quality and meteorological variables of 33 locations in China for the outbreak period of 29 January 2020 to 15 February 2020. The association between air quality index (AQI) and confirmed cases was estimated through a Poisson regression model, and the effects of temperature and humidity on the AQI-confirmed cases association were analyzed. The results show that the effect of AQI on confirmed cases associated with an increase in each unit of AQI was statistically significant in several cities. The lag effect of AQI on the confirmed cases was statistically significant on lag day 1 (relative risk (RR) = 1.0009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0004, 1.0013), day 2 (RR = 1.0007, 95% CI: 1.0003, 1.0012) and day 3 (RR = 1.0008, 95% CI: 1.0003, 1.0012). The AQI effect on the confirmed cases might be stronger in the temperature range of 10 °C ≤ T < 20 °C than in other temperature ranges, while the RR of COVID-19 transmission associated with AQI was higher in the relative humidity (RH) range of 10% ≤ RH < 20%. Results may suggest an enhanced impact of AQI on the COVID-19 spread under low RH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204718PMC
August 2020

Hydrogen peroxide sensor HPCA1 is an LRR receptor kinase in Arabidopsis.

Nature 2020 02 19;578(7796):577-581. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a major reactive oxygen species in unicellular and multicellular organisms, and is produced extracellularly in response to external stresses and internal cues. HO enters cells through aquaporin membrane proteins and covalently modifies cytoplasmic proteins to regulate signalling and cellular processes. However, whether sensors for HO also exist on the cell surface remains unknown. In plant cells, HO triggers an influx of Ca ions, which is thought to be involved in HO sensing and signalling. Here, by using forward genetic screens based on Ca imaging, we isolated hydrogen-peroxide-induced Ca increases (hpca) mutants in Arabidopsis, and identified HPCA1 as a leucine-rich-repeat receptor kinase belonging to a previously uncharacterized subfamily that features two extra pairs of cysteine residues in the extracellular domain. HPCA1 is localized to the plasma membrane and is activated by HO via covalent modification of extracellular cysteine residues, which leads to autophosphorylation of HPCA1. HPCA1 mediates HO-induced activation of Ca channels in guard cells and is required for stomatal closure. Our findings help to identify how the perception of extracellular HO is integrated with responses to various external stresses and internal cues in plants, and have implications for the design of crops with enhanced fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2032-3DOI Listing
February 2020

Predictors of patient satisfaction and outpatient health services in China: evidence from the WHO SAGE survey.

Fam Pract 2020 Sep;37(4):465-472

Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Canada.

Background: Patient satisfaction is an essential indicator in medical practise and research. To monitor the health and well-being of adult populations and the ageing process, the World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE), compiling longitudinal information in six countries including China as one major data source.

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify potential predictors for patient satisfaction based on the 2007-10 WHO SAGE China survey.

Methods: Data were analysed using random forests (RFs) and ordinal logistic regression models based on 5774 responses to predict overall patient satisfaction on their most recent outpatient health services visit over the last 12 months. Potential predictor variables included access to care, costs of care, quality of care, socio-demographic and health care characteristics and health service features. Increase of the mean-squared error (incMSE) due to variable removal was used to assess relative importance of the model variables for accurately predicting patient satisfaction.

Results: The survey data suggest low frequency of dissatisfaction with outpatient services in China (1.8%). Self-reported treatment outcome of the respective visit of a care facility demonstrated to be the strongest predictor for patient satisfaction (incMSE +15%), followed by patient-rated communication (incMSE +2.0%), and then income, waiting time, residency and patient age. Individual patient satisfaction in the survey population was predicted with 74% accuracy using either logistic regression or RF.

Conclusions: Patients' perceived outcomes of health care visits and patient communication with health care professionals are the most important variables associated with patient satisfaction in outpatient health services settings in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmaa011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474531PMC
September 2020

Effects of fortification of Daqu with various yeasts on microbial community structure and flavor metabolism.

Food Res Int 2020 03 9;129:108837. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology & Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China; Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Fortification of Daqu with isolated functional strains can influence the metabolic activity of the microbial community, and thus alter the flavors of the Baijiu produced with Daqu as a fermentation starter. Here, we analyzed the microbial community dynamics of, and volatile compound production by, Daqu fortified respectively with three high-yield ethyl caproate-producing yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y7#09, Hyphopichia burtonii F12507 and Clavispora lusitaniae YX3307), or with a mixture of these three strains, during the fermentation of Baijiu. The microbial community was investigated using Illumina HiSeq technology. Three bacterial genera (Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Enterobacter) and four fungal genera (Pichia, Clavispora, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis) were dominant in the microbial communities. The volatile compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-one flavor compounds were detected in all samples, including seven alcohols, 26 esters and four aldehydes. In particular, an increase in ethyl caproate content was associated with Daqu fortified with S. cerevisiae Y7#09, C. lusitaniae YX3307, or the mixed inoculum. The ester content of these fortified Daqu was higher in the later stage of the fermentation than that in unfortified Daqu, or in Daqu fortified with H. burtonii F12507. Our results show that fortification of Daqu with aroma-producing yeast strains influenced the microbial community composition in the Daqu and affected its metabolic activity. Overall, this study reveals the features of fortified Daqu microbial communities in different phases and improves understanding of the relationships between aroma-producing yeast and the metabolic activity of microbial communities in Baijiu production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108837DOI Listing
March 2020

Cleavage, Downregulation, and Aggregation of Serum Amyloid A.

J Phys Chem B 2020 02 30;124(6):1009-1019. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry , University of Oklahoma , Norman , Oklahoma 73019 , United States.

Various diseases cause overexpression of the serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, which in some cases, but not in all cases, leads to amyloidosis as a secondary disease. Response to the overexpression involves dissociation of the SAA hexamer and subsequent cleavage of the released monomers, most commonly yielding fragments SAA of the full-sized SAA. We report results from molecular dynamic simulations that probe the role of this cleavage for downregulating the activity and concentration of SAA. We propose a mechanism that relies on two elements. First, the probability to assemble into hexamers is lower for the fragments than it is for the full-sized protein. Second, unlike other fragments, SAA can switch between two distinct configurations. The first kind is easy to proteolyse (allowing a fast reduction of the SAA concentration) but prone to aggregation, whereas the situation is opposite for the second kind. If the time scale for amyloid formation is longer than the one for proteolysis, the aggregation-prone species dominates. However, if environmental conditions such as low pH increases the risk of amyloid formation, the ensemble shifts toward the more protected form. We speculate that SAA amyloidosis is a failure of this switching mechanism leading to accumulation of the aggregation-prone species and subsequent amyloid formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b10843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346682PMC
February 2020

Airborne fiber particles: Types, size and concentration observed in Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 7;705:135967. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan.

Airborne fibers are of public concern because of their potential threat to the environment, however their physical and chemical properties are poorly understood. Fibers are defined as having an aspect ratio >3:1. Fiber particles were collected in the near surface air, surface deposited dust and building materials in Beijing. They were examined using analytical scanning electron microscopy. The particles were initially classified into two categories: organic and inorganic. Organic fibers comprised microplastic and natural organic fiber particles. Inorganic fibers were mainly man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), asbestos (represented by chrysotile), calcium sulfate and metal fiber particles. Microplastic and MMMFs fibers were most abundant, accounting for 34.6% and 40.3% in total, respectively, followed by asbestos (7.8%), calcium sulfate (7.2%), metal fibers (5.6%) and natural organic fiber particles (4.5%). The number-concentration of these particles was about 16.7 × 10 fibers/ml at 1.5 m above the ground and about 14.1 × 10 fibers/ml at about 18 m, suggesting the particles were mainly derived from surface and were re-suspended. Approximately 80% of the airborne fiber were smaller than 20 μm in length, which is possibly the critical size for fiber particles to re-suspend into the air. Surface dust and construction sites were speculated to be the major contributors of the fiber particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135967DOI Listing
February 2020

Expression Profile of the Digestive Enzymes of Reveals Its Adaptation to Diet Specialization.

ACS Omega 2019 Nov 14;4(22):19925-19933. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, School of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, PR China.

The expression of animal digestive enzymes reflects important dietary adaptations. The pangolin, also known as scaly anteater, is a specialized myrmecophage that consumes mainly ants and termites, but its digestive enzymes have not been fully investigated. Therefore, in this study, we used shotgun proteomic analysis to examine the protein components of the saliva and intestinal juice of a Sunda pangolin () that died shortly after being rescued. The intestinal juice contained greater variety of digestive enzymes, including α-amylase, maltase-glucoamylase, α,α-trehalase, sucrase-isomaltase, pepsin A, trypsin, pancreatic endopeptidase E, carboxypeptidase A1, carboxypeptidase B, dipeptidyl-peptidase 4, and pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase. The digestive enzymes identified in the saliva were maltase-glucoamylase and trypsin, and chitinase which was also found in the intestinal juice. Compared with other animals, the Sunda pangolin has less intestinal protease diversity and lacks key digestive enzymes, such as chymotrypsin and pancreatic elastase. The expression profile of the digestive enzymes of the Sunda pangolin reveals animal's adaptation to a diet consisting mainly of ants and termites. Our results will facilitate the preparation of artificial food for rescued pangolins and for those in captivity for conservation breeding efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882119PMC
November 2019

Association between the BHMT gene rs3733890 polymorphism and the efficacy of oral folate therapy in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

Ann Hum Genet 2019 11 20;83(6):434-444. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Oral folate is currently the most common treatment for hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which seriously threatens human health, but its efficacy is unsatisfactory. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is a key enzyme that regulates Hcy metabolism. We investigated the association between the BHMT rs3733890 and the efficacy of oral folate therapy for HHcy in the Chinese Han population and analysed the effects of gene-environmental interactions on the efficacy. Blood samples were collected from 1071 eligible patients at baseline, and these individuals received subsequent folate treatment for 90 days. A total of 638 patients included in the final analysis were grouped into the treatment success group or the treatment failure group based on posttreatment Hcy levels. Hcy concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MassArray system) was used to assess the genotype of BHMT rs3733890. Stratified analyses based on additive models and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction were used to explore gene-environmental interactions. The genotype distribution presented distinct differences in the two groups. The mutant genotype and allele had significantly increased risk of treatment failure (p < 0.05). Furthermore, synergistic effects of the BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism with environmental risk factors (smoking, drinking, past history) on the efficacy of therapy were also found. However, future, large well-designed studies, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ahg.12326DOI Listing
November 2019

Evaluating Primary Health Care Performance from User Perspective in China: Review of Survey Instruments and Implementation Issues.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 14;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

China Center for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

This review aims to summarize the progress of patient evaluation studies focusing on primary health care (PHC) in China, specifically in relation to survey instruments and implementation issues. Eligible studies published in English or Chinese were obtained through online searches of PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. A descriptive reporting approach was used due to variations in the measurements and administration methods between studies. A total of 471 articles were identified and of these articles; of those 91 full-text articles were included in the final analysis. Most studies used author-developed measurements with five-point Likert response scales and many used the Chinese translations of validated tools from other countries. Most instruments assessed the physical environment, medical equipment, clinical competency and convenience aspects of PHC using a satisfaction rating instead of care experience reporting. Many studies did not report the sampling approach, patient recruitment procedures and survey administration modes. The patient exit survey was the most commonly used survey implementation method. The focus on the structural dimensions of PHC, inconsistent wording, categories of response options that use satisfaction rating, and unclear survey implementation processes are common problems in patient evaluation studies of PHC in China. Further studies are necessary to identify population preferences of PHC in China in order to move towards developing Chinese value-based patient experience measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466226PMC
March 2019

Determinants of Overall Satisfaction with Public Clinics in Rural China: Interpersonal Care Quality and Treatment Outcome.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 27;16(5). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1M5, Canada.

The primary health care quality factors determining patient satisfaction will shape patient-centered health reform in China. While rural public clinics performed better than hospitals and private clinics in terms of patient perceived quality of primary care in China, there is little information about which quality care aspects drove patients' satisfaction. Using a World Health Organization database on 1014 rural public clinic users from eight provinces in China, our multiple linear regression model estimated the association between patient perceived quality aspects, one treatment outcome, and overall primary health care satisfaction. Our results show that treatment outcome was the strongest predictor of overall satisfaction (β = 0.338 (95% CI: 0.284 to 0.392); < 0.001), followed by two interpersonal care quality aspects, Dignity (being treated respectfully) (β = 0.219 (95% CI: 0.117 to 0.320); < 0.001) and Communication (clear explanation by the physician) (β = 0.103 (95% CI: 0.003 to 0.203); = 0.043). Prompt attention (waiting time before seeing the doctor) and Confidentiality (talking privately to the provider) were not correlated with overall satisfaction. The treatment outcome focus, and weak interpersonal primary care aspects, in overall patient satisfaction, pose barriers towards a patient-centered transformation of China's primary care rural clinics, but support the focus of improving the clinical competency of rural primary care workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427360PMC
February 2019

Dynamic stacking of an expected branch point adenosine in duplexes containing pseudouridine-modified or unmodified U2 snRNA sites.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 04 21;511(2):416-421. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Center for RNA Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA. Electronic address:

The pre-mRNA branch point sequence (BPS) anneals with a pseudouridine-modified region of the U2 small nuclear (sn)RNA, and offers a 2' hydroxyl group of a bulged adenosine as the nucleophile for the first catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing. To increase our structural understanding of branch site selection, we characterized a duplex containing a BPS sequence that is common among multicellular eukaryotes (5'-UACUGAC-3') and the complementary U2 snRNA site using NMR. A major conformation of the expected branch site adenosine stacked within the duplex and paired with the conserved pseudouridine of the U2 snRNA strand. In contrast, the guanosine preceding the branch site appeared flexible and had weak contacts with the surrounding nucleotides. Pseudouridine-modified and unmodified U2 snRNA-BPS-containing duplexes remained structurally similar. These results highlight the importance of auxiliary factors to achieve the active bulged conformation of the branch site nucleophile for the first step of pre-mRNA splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.02.073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402984PMC
April 2019

Monolithic Structure-Optical Fiber Sensor with Temperature Compensation for Pressure Measurement.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;12(4). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

In this paper, an optical fiber pressure sensor cascading a diaphragm-assisted Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor comprises an optical fiber, a fused-silica ferrule, and a fused-silica diaphragm. We use a femtosecond laser firstly to fabricate a pit on the end face of the ferrule and then investigate the laser heat conduction welding and deep penetration welding technology for manufacturing the seepage pressure sensor of the all-fused-silica material. We develop a sensor based on a monolithic structured FPI without adhesive bonding by means of all-laser-welding. The pressure characteristics of the sensor have good linearity at different temperatures. Also, the monolithic structured sensor possesses excellent resolution, hysteresis, and long-term stability. The environmental temperature obtained by the FBG is employed to compensate for the difference in seepage pressure at different temperatures, and the difference in seepage pressure responses at different temperatures is shown to be very small after temperature compensation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12040552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416734PMC
February 2019

Anti-parasitic effect on Toxoplasma gondii induced by a spider peptide lycosin-I.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Mar 22;198:17-25. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Parasitology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed parasitic protozoan disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). High prevalence of toxoplasmosis and limitations of conventional treatments lead to a search for new therapeutic drugs. Lycosin-I is a linear peptide, derived from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-parasitic effect of lycosin-Ι against T. gondii. In vitro, the anti-T. gondii activities of lycosin-Ι were evaluated by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, cell counting assay and plaque assay. Cytokines of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured by quantitative PCR. In addition, the structures of tachyzoites treated with lycosin-Ι were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, mice were challenged with parasites treated by lycosin-I. The results revealed that lycosin-Ι had shown a significant ability to inhibit T. gondii invasion and proliferation. Cytokines of IL-6 and IL-8 were reduced by lycosin-Ι at transcription level in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells infected with T. gondii tachyzoites, but they were increased compared to non-infected cells. For tachyzoites, lycosin-Ι induced their cell membrane alterations with formation of invaginations, some of them appeared to be vacuolated in their cytoplasm. Moreover, lycosin-Ι had prolonged the survival time of mice by controlling T. gondii proliferation. In conclusion, our present study provides the first evidence for anti-T. gondii by using the spider peptide lycosin-Ι. These findings suggest that lycosin-Ι is a potential alternative agent for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.01.009DOI Listing
March 2019