Publications by authors named "Wendy Stock"

212 Publications

SOHO State of the Art Updates and Next Questions: Management of Asparaginase Toxicity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands.

A wider use of L-asparaginase in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved cure rates during recent decades and hence led to introduction of pediatric-inspired treatment protocols for adolescents and young adults. In parallel, a range of burdensome, often severe and occasionally life-threatening toxicities have become frequent, including hypersensitivity, hepatotoxicity, hypertriglyceridemia, thromboembolism, pancreatitis, and osteonecrosis. This often leads to truncation of asparaginase therapy, which at least in the pediatric population has been clearly associated with a higher risk of leukemic relapse. Many of the asparaginase induced toxicities are far more common in older patients, but since their relapse rate is still unsatisfactory, the decision to discontinue asparaginase therapy should balance the risk of toxicity with continued asparaginase therapy against the risk of relapse in the individual patient. The underlying mechanisms of most of the asparaginase induced side effects are still unclear. In this review we address the individual toxicities, known risk factors, and their clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.07.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Dasatinib and dexamethasone followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation for adults with Ph-positive ALL.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Post-remission strategies after dasatinib-corticosteroid induction in adults with Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are not well studied. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of dasatinib and dexamethasone induction then protocol-defined post-remission therapies, including hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Adults (N=65) with Ph-positive ALL received dasatinib and dexamethasone induction, methotrexate-based central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic HCT, autologous HCT, or chemotherapy alone based on age and donor availability, and dasatinib-based maintenance. Key efficacy endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The median age was 60 years (range, 22-87). The complete remission rate was 98.5%. With a median follow up of 59 months, 5-year DFS and OS were 37% (median, 30 months) and 48% (median, 56 months), respectively. For patients receiving RIC allogeneic HCT, autologous HCT, or chemotherapy, 5-year DFSs were 49%, 29%, and 34% and 5-year OSs were 62%, 57%, and 46%, respectively. Complete molecular response rate after CNS prophylaxis was 40%. Relative to the p190 isoform, p210 had shorter DFS (median 10 vs 34 months, P=0.002) and OS (median 16 months vs not reached, P=0.05). Relapse occurred in 25% of allogeneic HCT, 57% of autologous HCT, and 36% of chemotherapy patients. T315I mutation was detected in 6 of 8 marrow relapses. Dasatinib CNS concentrations were low. Dasatinib and dexamethasone followed by RIC allogeneic HCT, autologous HCT, or chemotherapy was feasible and efficacious, especially with RIC allogeneic HCT. Future studies should address the major causes of treatment failure: T315I mutation, the p210 BCR-ABL1 isoform, and CNS relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004813DOI Listing
September 2021

Racial and Ethnic Enrollment Disparities and Demographic Reporting Requirements in Acute Leukemia Clinical Trials.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Data regarding racial and ethnic enrollment diversity for acute myeloid (AML) and lymphoid leukemia (ALL) clinical trials in the United States (US) are limited, and little is known about the effect of federal reporting requirements instituted in the late 2000s. We examined demographic data reporting and enrollment diversity for US ALL and AML trials from 2002-2017 as well as changes in reporting and diversity after reporting requirements were instituted. Of 223 AML and 97 ALL trials with results, 68 (30.5%) and 51 (52.6%) reported enrollment by both race and ethnicity. Among trials that reported race and ethnicity (AML N=6,554; ALL N=4,149), non-Hispanic (NH)-Black, NH-Native American, NH-Asian, and Hispanic patients had significantly lower enrollment compared to NH-white patients after adjusting for race-ethnic disease incidence (AML odds: 0.68, 0.31, 0.75, and 0.83; ALL: 0.74, 0.27, 0.67, and 0.64; all p≤0.01). The proportion of trials reporting race increased significantly after the reporting requirements (44.2 to 60.2%; p=0.02), but race-ethnicity reporting did not (34.8 to 38.6%; p=0.57). Reporting proportions by number of patients enrolled increased significantly after the reporting requirements (race: 51.7 to 72.7%, race-ethnicity: 39.5 to 45.4%; both p<0.001), and relative enrollment of NH-Black and Hispanic patients decreased (AML odds: 0.79 and 0.77; ALL: 0.35 and 0.25; both p≤0.01). These data suggest that demographic enrollment reporting for acute leukemia trials is suboptimal, changes in diversity after the reporting requirements may be due to additional enrollment disparities that were previously unreported, and enrollment diversification strategies specific to acute leukemia care delivery are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005148DOI Listing
September 2021

The age of the bone marrow microenvironment influences B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression via CXCR5-CXCL13.

Blood 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Georg-Speyer-Haus and Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) occurs most commonly in children, while chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is more frequent in adults. The myeloid bias of hematopoiesis in elderly individuals has been considered causative, but the age of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (BMM) may be contributory. Using various murine models of B-ALL in young versus old mice, we recapitulated B-ALL preponderance in children versus adults. We showed differential effects of young versus old BM macrophages on B-ALL cell function. Molecular profiling using RNA- and ATAC-seq revealed pronounced differences in young versus old BMM-derived macrophages and enrichment for gene sets associated with inflammation. In concordance with the role of C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) 13 for disease-associated B cell chemoattraction, we found CXCL13 to be highly expressed in young macrophages on a translational compared to a transcriptional level. Inhibition of CXCL13 in BM macrophages impaired leukemia cell migration and decreased the proliferation of cocultured B-ALL cells, while recombinant CXCL13 increased pAKT and B-ALL cell expansion. Pretreatment of B-ALL-initiating cells with CXCL13 accelerated B-ALL progression. Deficiency of Cxcr5, the receptor for CXCL13, on B-ALL-initiating cells prolonged murine survival, while high expression of CXCR5 in pediatric B-ALL may predict central nervous system relapse. CXCL13 staining was increased in bone sections from pediatric compared to adult B-ALL patients. Taken together, our study shows that the age of the BMM and, in particular, BM macrophages influence the leukemia phenotype. The CXCR5-CXCL13-axis may act as prognostic marker and an attractive novel target for the treatment of B-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011557DOI Listing
August 2021

Self-reported positive impact of mentored clinical research training is associated with academic success in hematology.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2919-2924

Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The American Society of Hematology Clinical Research Training Institute (CRTI) is a mentored training program for hematology fellows and junior faculty. Our objective was to determine whether the self-reported impact of CRTI on research retention, career development, and connectedness to hematology investigators was associated with academic success. A survey was distributed in January 2020 to alumni who participated in the program from 2003 to 2019. It focused on the impact of CRTI on retention in research, facilitation of career development, understanding of requirements to succeed, and feelings of connectedness to investigators. These questions were scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Outcomes were grants, publications, and invited lectures; these were abstracted from a submitted curriculum vitae. Of 334 eligible alumni, 321 responded (response rate of 96.1%). Of these, 250 (77.9%) agreed that CRTI was instrumental to research retention, 268 (83.5%) agreed that CRTI facilitated career development, 296 (92.2%) agreed that CRTI allowed a better understanding of requirements to succeed in research, and 289 (90.0%) agreed that CRTI increased connectedness to hematology investigators. Those who agreed with these CRTI impacts had significantly more first-author publications. Those who agreed that CRTI was instrumental to retention, facilitated career development, and increased connectedness had significantly more protected time for research. Self-reported perception that CRTI had an impact on research retention, career development, and connectedness to hematology investigators was significantly associated with more publications and percent effort in research. Clinical research training programs should identify and implement approaches to enhance these characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341353PMC
July 2021

Lysine acetylation restricts mutant IDH2 activity to optimize transformation in AML cells.

Mol Cell 2021 09 20;81(18):3833-3847.e11. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Section of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 play a pathogenic role in cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), by producing oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). We recently reported that tyrosine phosphorylation activates IDH1 R132H mutant in AML cells. Here, we show that mutant IDH2 (mIDH2) R140Q commonly has K413 acetylation, which negatively regulates mIDH2 activity in human AML cells by attenuating dimerization and blocking binding of substrate (α-ketoglutarate) and cofactor (NADPH). Mechanistically, K413 acetylation of mitochondrial mIDH2 is achieved through a series of hierarchical phosphorylation events mediated by tyrosine kinase FLT3, which phosphorylates mIDH2 to recruit upstream mitochondrial acetyltransferase ACAT1 and simultaneously activates ACAT1 and inhibits upstream mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 through tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, we found that the intrinsic enzyme activity of mIDH2 is much higher than mIDH1, thus the inhibitory K413 acetylation optimizes leukemogenic ability of mIDH2 in AML cells by both producing sufficient 2-HG for transformation and avoiding cytotoxic accumulation of intracellular 2-HG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455438PMC
September 2021

Phase 3 randomized trial of chemotherapy with or without oblimersen in older AML patients: CALGB 10201 (Alliance).

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(13):2775-2787

University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL.

Overexpression of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) renders acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells resistant to chemotherapy and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. Oblimersen (G3139) is a phosphorothioate 18-mer antisense oligonucleotide directed against the first 6 BCL2 codons. In a phase 1 study of AML patients treated with G3139, cytarabine, and daunorubicin induction with cytarabine consolidation, no antisense-related toxicity was reported, and BCL2 downregulation occurred in patients achieving complete remission. In this phase 3 trial, untreated older AML patients were randomized to cytarabine (100 mg/m2 per day on days 4-10) and daunorubicin (60 mg/m2 per day on days 4-6) followed by cytarabine consolidation (2000 mg/m2 per day on days 4-8) with (arm A) or without (arm B) G3139 (7 mg/m2 per day on days 1-10 [induction] or days 1-8 [consolidation]). A total of 506 patients were enrolled. No differences in toxicity were observed between arms. Estimated overall survival (OS) at 1 year was 43% for arm A and 40% for arm B (1-sided log rank P = .13), with no differences in disease-free (DFS; P = .26) or event-free survival (P = .80). Subgroup analyses showed patients age <70 years in arm A had improved OS by 1 month vs those in arm B (P = .04), and patients with secondary AML in arm A had better DFS vs those in arm B (P = .04). We conclude that addition of G3139 to chemotherapy failed to improve outcomes of older AML patients. However, more effective means of inhibiting BCL2 are showing promising results in combination with chemotherapy in AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00085124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288671PMC
July 2021

Open-Label Phase II Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study of Romyelocel-L Myeloid Progenitor Cells to Reduce Infection During Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 22;39(29):3261-3272. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Cellerant Therapeutics, San Carlos, CA.

Purpose: Standard cytotoxic induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results in prolonged neutropenia and risk of infection. Romyelocel-L is a universal, allogeneic myeloid progenitor cell product being studied to reduce infection during induction chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: One hundred sixty-three patients with de novo AML (age ≥ 55 years) receiving induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned on day 0 (d0), of whom 120 were evaluable. Subjects received either romyelocel-L infusion on d9 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) starting daily d14 (treatment group) or G-CSF daily alone on d14 (control) until absolute neutrophil count recovery to 500/µL. End points included days in febrile episode, microbiologically defined infections, clinically diagnosed infection, and days in hospital.

Results: Mean days in febrile episode was shorter in the treatment arm from d15 through d28 (2.36 3.90; = .02). Similarly, a trend toward decreased microbiologically defined infections and clinically diagnosed infection in the treatment arm was observed from d9 to d28 (35.6% 47.5%; = .09), reaching a statistically significant difference from d15 to d28 (6.8% 27.9%; = .002). Because of this, antibacterial or antifungal use for treatment of an infection was significantly less in the treatment group (d9-d28: 44.1% 63.9%; = .01). Significantly fewer patients in the treatment arm received empiric antifungals from d9 tod28 (42.4% 63.9%; = .02) and d15-d28 (42.4% 62.3%; = .02). Patients in the treatment arm also had 3.2 fewer hospital days compared with control (25.5 28.7; = .001). Remission rates and days to absolute neutrophil count recovery were similar in the two groups. No patients in the romyelocel-L plus G-CSF group died because of infection compared with two patients in the control arm. No graft-versus-host disease was observed.

Conclusion: Subjects receiving romyelocel-L showed a decreased incidence of infections, antimicrobial use, and hospitalization, suggesting that romyelocel-L may provide a new option to reduce infections in patients with AML undergoing induction therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500663PMC
October 2021

Network-based systems pharmacology reveals heterogeneity in LCK and BCL2 signaling and therapeutic sensitivity of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nat Cancer 2021 Mar 21;2(3):284-299. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Computational Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy, and novel therapeutics are much needed. Profiling patient leukemia' drug sensitivities , we discovered that 44.4% of childhood and 16.7% of adult T-ALL cases exquisitely respond to dasatinib. Applying network-based systems pharmacology analyses to examine signal circuitry, we identified preTCR-LCK activation as the driver of dasatinib sensitivity, and T-ALL-specific LCK dependency was confirmed in genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens. Dasatinib-sensitive T-ALLs exhibited high BCL-XL and low BCL2 activity and venetoclax resistance. Discordant sensitivity of T-ALL to dasatinib and venetoclax is strongly correlated with T-cell differentiation, particularly with the dynamic shift in LCK vs. BCL2 activation. Finally, single-cell analysis identified leukemia heterogeneity in LCK and BCL2 signaling and T-cell maturation stage, consistent with dasatinib response. In conclusion, our results indicate that developmental arrest in T-ALL drives differential activation of preTCR-LCK and BCL2 signaling in this leukemia, providing unique opportunities for targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-00167-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208590PMC
March 2021

Enhancer Hijacking Drives Oncogenic Expression in Lineage-Ambiguous Stem Cell Leukemia.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Data Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Lineage-ambiguous leukemias are high-risk malignancies of poorly understood genetic basis. Here, we describe a distinct subgroup of acute leukemia with expression of myeloid, T lymphoid, and stem cell markers driven by aberrant allele-specific deregulation of , a master transcription factor responsible for thymic T-lineage commitment and specification. Mechanistically, this deregulation was driven by chromosomal rearrangements that juxtapose to superenhancers active in hematopoietic progenitors, or focal amplifications that generate a superenhancer from a noncoding element distal to . Chromatin conformation analyses demonstrated long-range interactions of rearranged enhancers with the expressed allele and association of with activated hematopoietic progenitor cell -regulatory elements, suggesting BCL11B is aberrantly co-opted into a gene regulatory network that drives transformation by maintaining a progenitor state. These data support a role for ectopic expression in primitive hematopoietic cells mediated by enhancer hijacking as an oncogenic driver of human lineage-ambiguous leukemia. SIGNIFICANCE: Lineage-ambiguous leukemias pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to a poorly understood molecular and cellular basis. We identify oncogenic deregulation of driven by diverse structural alterations, including superenhancer generation, as the driving feature of a subset of lineage-ambiguous leukemias that transcend current diagnostic boundaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-21-0145DOI Listing
June 2021

Superior survival with pediatric-style chemotherapy compared to myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in older adolescents and young adults with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: analysis from CALGB 10403 and the CIBMTR.

Leukemia 2021 07 30;35(7):2076-2085. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Optimal post-remission therapy for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission (CR1) is not established. We compared overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), relapse, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) for patients receiving post-remission therapy on CALGB 10403 to a cohort undergoing myeloablative (MA) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in CR1. In univariate analysis, OS was superior with chemotherapy compared to MA allogeneic HCT (3-year OS 77% vs. 53%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, allogeneic HCT showed inferior OS (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.5-2.66, P < 0.001), inferior DFS (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.25-2.12, P < 0.001), and increased NRM (HR 5.41, 95% CI 3.23-9.06, P < 0.001) compared to chemotherapy. A higher 5-year relapse incidence was seen with chemotherapy compared to allogeneic HCT (34% vs. 23%, P = 0.011). Obesity was independently associated with inferior OS (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.63-2.89, P < 0.001), inferior DFS (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.51-2.57, P < 0.001), increased relapse (1.84, 95% CI 1.31-2.59, P < 0.001), and increased NRM (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.37-3.23, P < 0.001). For AYA ALL patients in CR1, post-remission therapy with pediatric-style chemotherapy is superior to MA allogeneic HCT for OS, DFS, and NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01213-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257494PMC
July 2021

OTS167 blocks FLT3 translation and synergizes with FLT3 inhibitors in FLT3 mutant acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Cancer J 2021 03 3;11(3):48. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Internal tandem duplication (-ITD) mutations of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) provide growth and pro-survival signals in the context of established driver mutations in FLT3 mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is an aberrantly expressed gene identified as a target in AML. The MELK inhibitor OTS167 induces cell death in AML including cells with FLT3 mutations, yet the role of MELK and mechanisms of OTS167 function are not understood. OTS167 alone or in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were used to investigate the effect of OTS167 on FLT3 signaling and expression in human FLT3 mutant AML cell lines and primary cells. We describe a mechanism whereby OTS167 blocks FLT3 expression by blocking FLT3 translation and inhibiting phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B). OTS167 in combination with TKIs results in synergistic induction of FLT3 mutant cell death in FLT3 mutant cell lines and prolonged survival in a FLT3 mutant AML xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest signaling through MELK is necessary for the translation and expression of FLT3-ITD, and blocking MELK with OTS167 represents a viable therapeutic strategy for patients with FLT3 mutant AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00433-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930094PMC
March 2021

Distinct genetic pathways define pre-malignant versus compensatory clonal hematopoiesis in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Nat Commun 2021 02 26;12(1):1334. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, NH, USA.

To understand the mechanisms that mediate germline genetic leukemia predisposition, we studied the inherited ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a bone marrow failure disorder with high risk of myeloid malignancies at an early age. To define the mechanistic basis of clonal hematopoiesis in SDS, we investigate somatic mutations acquired by patients with SDS followed longitudinally. Here we report that multiple independent somatic hematopoietic clones arise early in life, most commonly harboring heterozygous mutations in EIF6 or TP53. We show that germline SBDS deficiency establishes a fitness constraint that drives selection of somatic clones via two distinct mechanisms with different clinical consequences. EIF6 inactivation mediates a compensatory pathway with limited leukemic potential by ameliorating the underlying SDS ribosome defect and enhancing clone fitness. TP53 mutations define a maladaptive pathway with enhanced leukemic potential by inactivating tumor suppressor checkpoints without correcting the ribosome defect. Subsequent development of leukemia was associated with acquisition of biallelic TP53 alterations. These results mechanistically link leukemia predisposition to germline genetic constraints on cellular fitness, and provide a rational framework for clinical surveillance strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21588-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910481PMC
February 2021

Inotuzumab Ozogamicin for Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the INO-VATE Trial: CD22 Pharmacodynamics, Efficacy, and Safety by Baseline CD22.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 18;27(10):2742-2754. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: We assessed the relationship between cluster of differentiation-22 (CD22) expression and outcomes of inotuzumab ozogamicin versus standard of care (SC) in INO-VATE (NCT01564784).

Patients And Methods: Adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor CD22-positive (by local or central laboratory) acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized to inotuzumab ozogamicin ( = 164) or SC ( = 162). Outcomes were analyzed by baseline CD22 positivity (percentage of leukemic blasts CD22 positive, ≥90% vs. <90%) and CD22 receptor density [molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF), quartile analysis].

Results: Most patients had high (≥90%) CD22 positivity per central laboratory. The response rate was significantly higher with inotuzumab ozogamicin versus SC. Minimal/measurable residual disease negativity, duration of remission (DoR), progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were significantly better with inotuzumab ozogamicin versus SC in patients with CD22 positivity ≥90%. Fewer patients had CD22 positivity <90%; for whom, response rates were higher with inotuzumab ozogamicin versus SC, but DoR and OS appeared similar. Similar trends were evident in quartile analyses of CD22 MESF and CD22 positivity per local laboratory. Among inotuzumab ozogamicin-responding patients with subsequent relapse, decrease in CD22 positivity and receptor density was evident, but not the emergence of CD22 negativity. Rates of grade ≥3 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were similar and hepatobiliary AEs rate was higher for inotuzumab ozogamicin versus SC. No apparent relationship was observed between the rates of hematologic and hepatic AEs and CD22 expression.

Conclusions: Inotuzumab ozogamicin demonstrated a favorable benefit-risk profile versus SC in patients with higher and lower CD22 expression. Patients with high CD22 expression and normal cytogenetics benefited the most from inotuzumab ozogamicin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2399DOI Listing
May 2021

Venetoclax and Navitoclax in Combination with Chemotherapy in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Lymphoblastic Lymphoma.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 16;11(6):1440-1453. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Combining venetoclax, a selective BCL2 inhibitor, with low-dose navitoclax, a BCL-X/BCL2 inhibitor, may allow targeting of both BCL2 and BCL-X without dose-limiting thrombocytopenia associated with navitoclax monotherapy. The safety and preliminary efficacy of venetoclax with low-dose navitoclax and chemotherapy was assessed in this phase I dose-escalation study (NCT03181126) in pediatric and adult patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Forty-seven patients received treatment. A recommended phase II dose of 50 mg navitoclax for adults and 25 mg for patients <45 kg with 400 mg adult-equivalent venetoclax was identified. Delayed hematopoietic recovery was the primary safety finding. The complete remission rate was 60%, including responses in patients who had previously received hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunotherapy. Thirteen patients (28%) proceeded to transplantation or CAR T-cell therapy on study. Venetoclax with navitoclax and chemotherapy was well tolerated and had promising efficacy in this heavily pretreated patient population. SIGNIFICANCE: In this phase I study, venetoclax with low-dose navitoclax and chemotherapy was well tolerated and had promising efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Responses were observed in patients across histologic and genomic subtypes and in those who failed available therapies including stem cell transplant...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1465DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of CALGB 10403 (Alliance) and COG AALL0232 toxicity results in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):504-512

University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL.

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-inspired regimens. CALGB 10403 was the largest prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of using a pediatric regimen in AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia up to 40 years of age. This article presents the toxicity events observed in the CALGB 10403 study and compares these toxicities vs those observed among AYAs treated on the same arm of the companion Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0232 study. Toxicities in CALGB 10403 were similar to those observed in COG AALL0232. Some grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more often reported in CALGB 10403 compared with COG AALL0232 (hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, transaminase elevation, and febrile neutropenia). Adverse events correlated with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and some with increasing age. The mortality rate in CALGB 10403 was low (4%) and similar to that in the COG AALL0232 trial. A caveat to this analysis is that only 39% of CALGB 10403 patients completed all planned protocol treatment. In COG AALL0232, although 74% of patients aged <18 years completed treatment, only 57% of patients aged ≥18 years completed treatment. This scenario suggests that issues associated with age and treating physician may be a factor. Due to its improved survival rates compared with historical controls, the CALGB 10403 regimen is now a standard of care. The hope is that the rate of protocol completion will increase as more familiarity is gained with this regimen. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00558519 (CALGB 10403) and #NCT00075725 (COG AALL0232).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839367PMC
January 2021

Editorial.

Semin Hematol 2020 07;57(3):101

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2020.11.002DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficacy of inotuzumab ozogamicin in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer 2021 03 24;127(6):905-913. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options.

Methods: The efficacy of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), a humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the cytotoxic antibiotic calicheamicin, was evaluated in R/R ALL patients in the phase 1/2 study 1010 (NCT01363297) and open-label, randomized, phase 3 study 1022 (INO-VATE; NCT01564784). This analysis focused specifically on Ph+ R/R ALL patients. In study 1022, Ph+ patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to InO (n = 22) or standard intensive chemotherapy (SC) (n = 27) and 16 Ph+ patients in study 1010 received InO.

Results: In study 1022, rates of complete remission/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CR/CRi) and minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity (patients achieving CR/CRi) were higher with InO (CR/CRi = 73%; MRD = 81%) versus SC (CR/CRi = 56%; MRD = 33%). The corresponding rates in study 1010 were 56% (CR/CRi) and 100% (MRD). The hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rate in study 1022 was 41% versus 19% for InO versus SC; however, there was no benefit in overall survival (median OS: 8.7 vs 8.4 months; hazard ratio, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.64-2.14]). The probability of being event-free (progression-free survival) at 12 months was greater with InO versus SC (20.1% vs 4.8%).

Conclusion: Given the substantial improvement in responses and rates of HSCT, InO is an important treatment option for patients with R/R Ph+ ALL. Future studies need to consider better characterization of disease characteristics, more sensitive MRD measurements, MRD-directed therapy before HSCT, and potentially combination therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983935PMC
March 2021

Precision medicine treatment in acute myeloid leukemia using prospective genomic profiling: feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Beat AML Master Trial.

Nat Med 2020 12 26;26(12):1852-1858. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common diagnosed leukemia. In older adults, AML confers an adverse outcome. AML originates from a dominant mutation, then acquires collaborative transformative mutations leading to myeloid transformation and clinical/biological heterogeneity. Currently, AML treatment is initiated rapidly, precluding the ability to consider the mutational profile of a patient's leukemia for treatment decisions. Untreated patients with AML ≥ 60 years were prospectively enrolled on the ongoing Beat AML trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03013998 ), which aims to provide cytogenetic and mutational data within 7 days (d) from sample receipt and before treatment selection, followed by treatment assignment to a sub-study based on the dominant clone. A total of 487 patients with suspected AML were enrolled; 395 were eligible. Median age was 72 years (range 60-92 years; 38% ≥75 years); 374 patients (94.7%) had genetic and cytogenetic analysis completed within 7 d and were centrally assigned to a Beat AML sub-study; 224 (56.7%) were enrolled on a Beat AML sub-study. The remaining 171 patients elected standard of care (SOC) (103), investigational therapy (28) or palliative care (40); 9 died before treatment assignment. Demographic, laboratory and molecular characteristics were not significantly different between patients on the Beat AML sub-studies and those receiving SOC (induction with cytarabine + daunorubicin (7 + 3 or equivalent) or hypomethylation agent). Thirty-day mortality was less frequent and overall survival was significantly longer for patients enrolled on the Beat AML sub-studies versus those who elected SOC. A precision medicine therapy strategy in AML is feasible within 7 d, allowing patients and physicians to rapidly incorporate genomic data into treatment decisions without increasing early death or adversely impacting overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1089-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Treatment decision-making in acute myeloid leukemia: a qualitative study of older adults and community oncologists.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 02 11;62(2):387-398. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Little is known about the characteristics of patients, physicians, and organizations that influence treatment decisions in older patients with AML. We conducted qualitative interviews with community oncologists and older patients with AML to elicit factors that influence their treatment decision-making. Recruitment was done purposive sampling and continued until theoretical saturation was reached, resulting in the inclusion of 15 patients and 15 oncologists. Participants' responses were analyzed using directed content analysis. Oncologists and patients considered comorbidities, functional status, emotional health, cognition, and social factors when deciding treatment; most oncologists evaluated these using clinical gestalt. Sixty-seven percent of patients perceived that treatment was their only option and that they had not been offered a choice. In conclusion, treatment decision-making is complex and influenced by patient-related factors. These factors can be assessed as part of a geriatric assessment which can help oncologists better determine fitness and guide treatment decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1832662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878016PMC
February 2021

Prophylaxis of thromboembolism during therapy with asparaginase in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 10 10;10:CD013399. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The risk of venous thromboembolism is increased in adults and enhanced by asparaginase-based chemotherapy, and venous thromboembolism introduces a secondary risk of treatment delay and premature discontinuation of key anti-leukaemic agents, potentially compromising survival. Yet, the trade-off between benefits and harms of primary thromboprophylaxis in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated according to asparaginase-based regimens is uncertain.  OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to assess the benefits and harms of primary thromboprophylaxis for first-time symptomatic venous thromboembolism in adults with ALL receiving asparaginase-based therapy compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis. The secondary objectives were to compare the benefits and harms of different groups of primary systemic thromboprophylaxis by stratifying the main results per type of drug (heparins, vitamin K antagonists, synthetic pentasaccharides, parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors, direct oral anticoagulants, and blood-derived products for antithrombin substitution).

Search Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search on 02 June 2020, with no language restrictions, including (1) electronic searches of Pubmed/MEDLINE; Embase/Ovid; Scopus/Elsevier; Web of Science Core Collection/Clarivate Analytics; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and (2) handsearches of (i) reference lists of identified studies and related reviews; (ii) clinical trials registries (ClinicalTrials.gov registry; the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry; the World Health Organisation's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP); and pharmaceutical manufacturers of asparaginase including Servier, Takeda, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Ohara Pharmaceuticals, and Kyowa Pharmaceuticals), and (iii) conference proceedings (from the annual meetings of the American Society of Hematology (ASH); the European Haematology Association (EHA); the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO); and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)). We conducted all searches from 1970 (the time of introduction of asparaginase in ALL treatment). We contacted the authors of relevant studies to identify any unpublished material, missing data, or information regarding ongoing studies.

Selection Criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs); including quasi-randomised, controlled clinical, cross-over, and cluster-randomised trial designs) comparing any parenteral/oral preemptive anticoagulant or mechanical intervention with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis, or comparing two different pre-emptive anticoagulant interventions in adults aged at least 18 years with ALL treated according to asparaginase-based chemotherapy regimens. For the description of harms, non-randomised observational studies with a control group were eligible for inclusion.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using a standardised data collection form, two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, assessed risk of bias for each outcome using standardised tools (RoB 2.0 tool for RCTs and ROBINS-I tool for non-randomised studies) and the certainty of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. Primary outcomes included first-time symptomatic venous thromboembolism, all-cause mortality, and major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included asymptomatic venous thromboembolism, venous thromboembolism-related mortality, adverse events (i.e. clinically relevant non-major bleeding and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia for trials using heparins), and quality of life. Analyses were performed according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. For non-randomised studies, we evaluated all studies (including studies judged to be at critical risk of bias in at least one of the ROBINS-I domains) in a sensitivity analysis exploring confounding.  MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23 non-randomised studies that met the inclusion criteria of this review, of which 10 studies provided no outcome data for adults with ALL. We included the remaining 13 studies in the 'Risk of bias' assessment, in which we identified invalid control group definition in two studies and judged outcomes of nine studies to be at critical risk of bias in at least one of the ROBINS-I domains and outcomes of two studies at serious risk of bias. We did not assess the benefits of thromboprophylaxis, as no RCTs were included. In the main descriptive analysis of harms, we included two retrospective non-randomised studies with outcomes judged to be at serious risk of bias. One study evaluated antithrombin concentrates compared to no antithrombin concentrates. We are uncertain whether antithrombin concentrates have an effect on all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 1.19 (intention-to-treat analysis); one study, 40 participants; very low certainty of evidence). We are uncertain whether antithrombin concentrates have an effect on venous thromboembolism-related mortality (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.94 (intention-to-treat analysis); one study, 40 participants; very low certainty of evidence). We do not know whether antithrombin concentrates have an effect on major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and quality of life in adults with ALL treated with asparaginase-based chemotherapy, as data were insufficient. The remaining study (224 participants) evaluated prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin versus no prophylaxis. However, this study reported insufficient data regarding harms including all-cause mortality, major bleeding, venous thromboembolism-related mortality, clinically relevant non-major bleeding, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and quality of life. In the sensitivity analysis of harms, exploring the effect of confounding, we also included nine non-randomised studies with outcomes judged to be at critical risk of bias primarily due to uncontrolled confounding. Three studies (179 participants) evaluated the effect of antithrombin concentrates and six studies (1224 participants) evaluated the effect of prophylaxis with different types of heparins. When analysing all-cause mortality; venous thromboembolism-related mortality; and major bleeding (studies of heparin only) including all studies with extractable outcomes for each comparison (antithrombin and low-molecular-weight heparin), we observed small study sizes; few events; wide CIs crossing the line of no effect; and substantial heterogeneity by visual inspection of the forest plots. Although the observed heterogeneity could arise through the inclusion of a small number of studies with differences in participants; interventions; and outcome assessments, the likelihood that bias due to uncontrolled confounding was the cause of heterogeneity is inevitable. Subgroup analyses were not possible due to insufficient data.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We do not know from the currently available evidence, if thromboprophylaxis used for adults with ALL treated according to asparaginase-based regimens is associated with clinically appreciable benefits and acceptable harms. The existing research on this question is solely of non-randomised design, seriously to critically confounded, and underpowered with substantial imprecision. Any estimates of effect based on the existing insufficient evidence is very uncertain and is likely to change with future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013399.pub2DOI Listing
October 2020

Barriers to Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adults in the United States: A Systematic Review with a Focus on Age.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 20;26(12):2335-2345. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment for many hematologic malignancies, and its utilization continues to rise. However, due to the difficult logistics and high cost of HCT, there are significant barriers to accessing the procedure; these barriers are likely greater for older patients. Although numerous factors may influence HCT access, no formal analysis has detailed the cumulative barriers that have been studied thus far. We conducted a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to better categorize the barriers to access and referral to HCT, with a focus on the subgroup of older patients. We searched for articles published in English from PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials between the database inception and January 31, 2020. We selected articles that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) study design: qualitative, cross-sectional, observational cohort, or mixed-method study designs; (2) outcomes: barriers related to patient and physician access to HCT; and (3) population: adults aged ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies within the United States. Abstracts without full text were excluded. QUALSYST methodology was used to determine article quality. Data on the barriers to access and referral for HCT were extracted, along with other study characteristics. We summarized the findings using descriptive statistics. We included 26 of 3859 studies screened for inclusion criteria. Twenty studies were retrospective cohorts and 4 were cross-sectional. There was 1 prospective cohort study and 1 mixed-method study. Only 1 study was rated as high quality, and 16 were rated as fair. Seventeen studies analyzed age as a potential barrier to HCT referral and access, with 16 finding older age to be a barrier. Other consistent barriers to HCT referral and access included nonwhite race (n = 16/20 studies), insurance status (n = 13/14 studies), comorbidities (n = 10/11 studies), and lower socioeconomic status (n = 7/8 studies). High-quality studies are lacking related to HCT barriers. Older age and nonwhite race were consistently linked to reduced access to HCT. To produce a more just health care system, strategies to overcome these barriers for vulnerable populations should be prioritized. Examples include patient and physician education, as well as geriatric assessment guided care models that can be readily incorporated into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686105PMC
December 2020

New Approaches to Treating Challenging Subtypes of ALL in AYA Patients.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2020 12;15(6):424-435

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, 900 E. 57th Street, 8th Floor, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients has markedly improved with the adoption of pediatric-inspired protocols. However, there remain several subtypes of ALL that represent significant therapeutic challenges. Here, we review the current evidence guiding treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+), Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-L), and early T-precursor (ETP) ALL in the AYA population.

Recent Findings: Clinical trials in Ph + ALL have demonstrated the superior efficacy of second- and third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to induce and maintain remission. Current efforts now focus on determining the durability of these remissions and which patients will benefit from transplant. For Ph-like and ETP ALL, recent studies are investigating the addition of novel agents to standard treatment. The treatment of Ph + ALL has significantly improved with the addition of potent TKIs. However, the treatment of Ph-like and ETP ALL remains a challenge. At this time, the judicious use of allogenic transplant is the only current approach to modify this increased risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11899-020-00597-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279222PMC
December 2020

Integrative genomic analyses reveal mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Nat Cancer 2020 Mar 9;1(3):329-344. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Division of Hematology and Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic., Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Identification of genomic and epigenomic determinants of drug resistance provides important insights for improving cancer treatment. Using agnostic genome-wide interrogation of mRNA and miRNA expression, DNA methylation, SNPs, CNAs and SNVs/Indels in primary human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, we identified 463 genomic features associated with glucocorticoid resistance. Gene-level aggregation identified 118 overlapping genes, 15 of which were confirmed by genome-wide CRISPR screen. Collectively, this identified 30 of 38 (79%) known glucocorticoid-resistance genes/miRNAs and all 38 known resistance pathways, while revealing 14 genes not previously associated with glucocorticoid-resistance. Single cell RNAseq and network-based transcriptomic modelling corroborated the top previously undiscovered gene, CELSR2. Manipulation of CELSR2 recapitulated glucocorticoid resistance in human leukemia cell lines and revealed a synergistic drug combination (prednisolone and venetoclax) that mitigated resistance in mouse xenograft models. These findings illustrate the power of an integrative genomic strategy for elucidating genes and pathways conferring drug resistance in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-0037-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467080PMC
March 2020

Inotuzumab ozogamicin for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: outcomes by disease burden.

Blood Cancer J 2020 08 7;10(8):81. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, 92697, USA.

Adults with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) have a poor prognosis, especially if disease burden is high. This post hoc analysis of the phase 3 INO-VATE trial examined the efficacy and safety of inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) vs. standard of care chemotherapy (SC) among R/R ALL patients with low, moderate, or high disease burden, respectively, defined as bone marrow blasts (BMB) < 50% (n = 53 vs. 48), 50-90% (n = 79 vs. 83), and >90% (n = 30 vs. 30). Patients in the InO vs. SC arm with low, moderate, and high BMB%, respectively, had improved rates of complete remission/complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (74% vs. 46% [p = 0.0022], 75 vs. 27% [p < 0.0001], and 70 vs. 17% [p < 0.0001]), and improved overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.64 [p = 0.0260], 0.81 [p = 0.1109], and 0.60 [p = 0.0335]). Irrespective of BMB%, cytopenias were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events, and post-transplant veno-occlusive disease was more common with InO vs. SC. Patients with extramedullary disease or lymphoblastic lymphoma showed similar efficacy and safety outcomes. This favorable benefit-to-risk ratio of InO treatment irrespective of disease burden supports its use in challenging and high disease burden subpopulations. INO-VATE is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov : #NCT01564784.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00345-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414105PMC
August 2020

Thrombosis in ALL: a risk without clear mitigation.

Authors:
Wendy Stock

Blood 2020 07;136(3):264-265

University of Chicago.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006243DOI Listing
July 2020

Camidanlumab tesirine, an antibody-drug conjugate, in relapsed/refractory CD25-positive acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A phase I study.

Leuk Res 2020 08 7;95:106385. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Northside Hospital, Atlanta, GA, USA.

There is a significant need for improved therapeutics in older patients with acute leukemia. Camidanlumab tesirine is an antibody-drug conjugate against CD25, an antigen expressed in several malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This open-label, dose-escalation and -expansion study (NCT02588092) assessed the safety, activity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of camidanlumab tesirine in patients with relapsed/refractory ALL/AML. A total of 35 patients (34 AML and 1 ALL) were enrolled and received camidanlumab tesirine intravenously at 3-92 μg/kg once every three weeks (Q3W, n = 26) or 30 or 37.5 μg/kg every week (QW, n = 9). One dose-limiting toxicity of maculopapular rash occurred in the 30 μg/kg QW group; the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. No additional safety concerns or adverse events (AEs) of interest were identified. The most common (>10 % of patients) Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent AEs were febrile neutropenia (25.7 %), lymphopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or fatigue (all 14.3 %), pneumonia, increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, and hypophosphatemia (each 11.4 %). No signal for serious immune-related AEs such as Guillain-Barré syndrome/polyradiculopathy was observed and there was no evidence of immunogenicity. PK showed rapid clearance with apparent half-life <2 days for conjugated and total antibody, suggesting that Q3W dosing may be insufficient for therapeutic efficacy, and prompting exploration of a QW schedule. Two patients achieved complete responses with incomplete hematologic recovery; one each at 30 and 37.5 μg/kg QW. The trial was terminated during dose escalation due to programmatic reasons other than safety. Hence, recommended dose was not determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106385DOI Listing
August 2020
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