Publications by authors named "Wendy Sandoval"

70 Publications

Serum Lysophosphatidic Acid Measurement by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in COPD Patients.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Lysophospholipids are bioactive signaling molecules derived from cell membrane glycerophospholipids or sphingolipids and are highly regulated under normal physiological conditions. Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) are a class of lysophospholipids that act on G-protein-coupled receptors to exert a variety of cellular functions. Dysregulation of phospholipase activity and consequently LPA synthesis in serum have been linked to inflammation, such as seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The accurate measurement of phospholipids is critical for evaluating their dysregulation in disease. In this study, we optimized experimental parameters for the sensitive measurement of LPAs. We validated the method based on matrix, linearity, accuracy, precision, and stability. An investigation into sample extraction processes emphasized that the common practice of including low concentration of hydrochloric acid in the extraction buffer causes an overestimation of lipid recovery. The liquid chromatography gradient was optimized to separate various lysophospholipid classes. After optimization, detection limits of LPA were sufficiently sensitive for subsequent analysis, ranging from 2 to 8 nM. The validated workflow was applied to a cohort of healthy donor and COPD patient sera. Eight LPA species were identified, and five unique species of LPA were quantified. Most LPA species increased significantly in COPD patients compared to healthy donors. The correlation between LPAs and other demographic parameters was further investigated in a sample set of over 200 baseline patient sera from a COPD clinical trial. For the first time, LPAs other than the two most abundant and readily detectable moieties are quantified in COPD patients using validated methods, opening the door to downstream biomarker evaluation in respiratory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.0c00429DOI Listing
March 2021

Ocular phenotypes in a mouse model of impaired glucocerebrosidase activity.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 16;11(1):6079. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Departments of Neuroscience, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Mutations in the GBA1 gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase) are linked to Gaucher (GD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Since some GD and PD patients develop ocular phenotypes, we determined whether ocular phenotypes might result from impaired GCase activity and the corresponding accumulation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph) in the Gba1 knock-in (Gba KI/KI; "KI") mouse. Gba KI mice developed age-dependent pupil dilation deficits to an anti-muscarinic agent; histologically, the iris covered the anterior part of the lens with adhesions between the iris and the anterior surface of the lens (posterior synechia). This may prevent pupil dilation in general, beyond an un-responsiveness of the iris to anti-muscarinics. Gba KI mice displayed atrophy and pigment dispersion of the iris, and occlusion of the iridocorneal angle by pigment-laden cells, reminiscent of secondary open angle glaucoma. Gba KI mice showed progressive thinning of the retina consistent with retinal degeneration. GluSph levels were increased in the anterior and posterior segments of the eye, suggesting that accumulation of lipids in the eye may contribute to degeneration in this compartment. We conclude that the Gba KI model provides robust and reproducible eye phenotypes which may be used to test for efficacy and establish biomarkers for GBA1-related therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85528-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971029PMC
March 2021

The lysosomal endopeptidases Cathepsin D and L are selective and effective proteases for the middle-down characterization of antibodies.

FEBS J 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research and Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Mass spectrometry is gaining momentum as a method of choice to de novo sequence antibodies (Abs). Adequate sequence coverage of the hypervariable regions remains one of the toughest identification challenges by either bottom-up or top-down workflows. Methods that efficiently generate mid-size Ab fragments would further facilitate top-down MS and decrease data complexity. Here, we explore the proteases Cathepsins L and D for forming protein fragments from three IgG1s, one IgG2, and one bispecific, knob-and-hole IgG1. We demonstrate that high-resolution native MS provides a sensitive method for the detection of clipping sites. Both Cathepsins produced multiple, albeit specific cleavages. The Abs were cleaved immediately after the CDR3 region, yielding ~ 12 kDa fragments, that is, ideal sequencing-sized. Cathepsin D, but not Cathepsin L, also cleaved directly below the Ab hinge, releasing the F(ab')2. When constrained by the different disulfide bonds found in the IgG2 subtype or by the tertiary structure of the hole-containing bispecific IgG1, the hinge region digest product was not produced. The Cathepsin L and Cathepsin D clipping motifs were related to sequences of neutral amino acids and the tertiary structure of the Ab. A single pot (L + D) digestion protocol was optimized to achieve 100% efficiency. Nine protein fragments, corresponding to the VL, VH, CL, CH1, CH2, CH3, CL + CH1, and F(ab')2, constituted ~ 70% of the summed intensities of all deconvolved proteolytic products. Cleavage sites were confirmed by the Edman degradation and validated with top-down sequencing. The described work offers a complementary method for middle-down analysis that may be applied to top-down Ab sequencing. ENZYMES: Cathepsin L-EC 3.4.22.15, Cathepsin D-EC 3.4.23.5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15813DOI Listing
March 2021

Fc galactosylation follows consecutive reaction kinetics and enhances immunoglobulin G hexamerization for complement activation.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1893427

Biological Technologies, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, United States.

Fc galactosylation is a critical quality attribute for anti-tumor recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics with complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) as the mechanism of action. Although the correlation between galactosylation and CDC has been known, the underlying structure-function relationship is unclear. Heterogeneity of the Fc N-glycosylation produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture biomanufacturing process leads to variable CDC potency. Here, we derived a kinetic model of galactose transfer reaction in the Golgi apparatus and used this model to determine the correlation between differently galactosylated species from CHO cell culture process. The model was validated by a retrospective data analysis of more than 800 historical samples from small-scale and large-scale CHO cell cultures. Furthermore, using various analytical technologies, we discovered the molecular basis for Fc glycan terminal galactosylation changing the three-dimensional conformation of the Fc, which facilitates the IgG1 hexamerization, thus enhancing C1q avidity and subsequent complement activation. Our study offers insight into the formation of galactosylated species, as well as a novel three-dimensional understanding of the structure-function relationship of terminal galactose to complement activation in mAb therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2021.1893427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946005PMC
March 2021

NINJ1 mediates plasma membrane rupture during lytic cell death.

Nature 2021 Mar 20;591(7848):131-136. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Plasma membrane rupture (PMR) is the final cataclysmic event in lytic cell death. PMR releases intracellular molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that propagate the inflammatory response. The underlying mechanism of PMR, however, is unknown. Here we show that the cell-surface NINJ1 protein, which contains two transmembrane regions, has an essential role in the induction of PMR. A forward-genetic screen of randomly mutagenized mice linked NINJ1 to PMR. Ninj1 macrophages exhibited impaired PMR in response to diverse inducers of pyroptotic, necrotic and apoptotic cell death, and were unable to release numerous intracellular proteins including HMGB1 (a known DAMP) and LDH (a standard measure of PMR). Ninj1 macrophages died, but with a distinctive and persistent ballooned morphology, attributable to defective disintegration of bubble-like herniations. Ninj1 mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to infection with Citrobacter rodentium, which suggests a role for PMR in anti-bacterial host defence. Mechanistically, NINJ1 used an evolutionarily conserved extracellular domain for oligomerization and subsequent PMR. The discovery of NINJ1 as a mediator of PMR overturns the long-held idea that cell death-related PMR is a passive event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03218-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Interlaboratory Study for Characterizing Monoclonal Antibodies by Top-Down and Middle-Down Mass Spectrometry.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2020 Sep 19;31(9):1783-1802. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States.

The Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics (www.topdownproteomics.org) launched the present study to assess the current state of top-down mass spectrometry (TD MS) and middle-down mass spectrometry (MD MS) for characterizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) primary structures, including their modifications. To meet the needs of the rapidly growing therapeutic antibody market, it is important to develop analytical strategies to characterize the heterogeneity of a therapeutic product's primary structure accurately and reproducibly. The major objective of the present study is to determine whether current TD/MD MS technologies and protocols can add value to the more commonly employed bottom-up (BU) approaches with regard to confirming protein integrity, sequencing variable domains, avoiding artifacts, and revealing modifications and their locations. We also aim to gather information on the common TD/MD MS methods and practices in the field. A panel of three mAbs was selected and centrally provided to 20 laboratories worldwide for the analysis: Sigma mAb standard (SiLuLite), NIST mAb standard, and the therapeutic mAb Herceptin (trastuzumab). Various MS instrument platforms and ion dissociation techniques were employed. The present study confirms that TD/MD MS tools are available in laboratories worldwide and provide complementary information to the BU approach that can be crucial for comprehensive mAb characterization. The current limitations, as well as possible solutions to overcome them, are also outlined. A primary limitation revealed by the results of the present study is that the expert knowledge in both experiment and data analysis is indispensable to practice TD/MD MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.0c00036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539639PMC
September 2020

Structure of the essential inner membrane lipopolysaccharide-PbgA complex.

Nature 2020 08 12;584(7821):479-483. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Infectious Diseases, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resides in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria where it is responsible for barrier function. LPS can cause death as a result of septic shock, and its lipid A core is the target of polymyxin antibiotics. Despite the clinical importance of polymyxins and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains, our understanding of the bacterial factors that regulate LPS biogenesis is incomplete. Here we characterize the inner membrane protein PbgA and report that its depletion attenuates the virulence of Escherichia coli by reducing levels of LPS and outer membrane integrity. In contrast to previous claims that PbgA functions as a cardiolipin transporter, our structural analyses and physiological studies identify a lipid A-binding motif along the periplasmic leaflet of the inner membrane. Synthetic PbgA-derived peptides selectively bind to LPS in vitro and inhibit the growth of diverse Gram-negative bacteria, including polymyxin-resistant strains. Proteomic, genetic and pharmacological experiments uncover a model in which direct periplasmic sensing of LPS by PbgA coordinates the biosynthesis of lipid A by regulating the stability of LpxC, a key cytoplasmic biosynthetic enzyme. In summary, we find that PbgA has an unexpected but essential role in the regulation of LPS biogenesis, presents a new structural basis for the selective recognition of lipids, and provides opportunities for future antibiotic discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2597-xDOI Listing
August 2020

UBR E3 ligases and the PDIA3 protease control degradation of unfolded antibody heavy chain by ERAD.

J Cell Biol 2020 07;219(7)

Cell Culture and Bioprocess Operations Department, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA.

Accumulation of unfolded antibody chains in the ER triggers ER stress that may lead to reduced productivity in therapeutic antibody manufacturing processes. We identified UBR4 and UBR5 as ubiquitin E3 ligases involved in HC ER-associated degradation. Knockdown of UBR4 and UBR5 resulted in intracellular accumulation, enhanced secretion, and reduced ubiquitination of HC. In concert with these E3 ligases, PDIA3 was shown to cleave ubiquitinated HC molecules to accelerate HC dislocation. Interestingly, UBR5, and to a lesser degree UBR4, were down-regulated as cellular demand for antibody expression increased in CHO cells during the production phase, or in plasma B cells. Reducing UBR4/UBR5 expression before the production phase increased antibody productivity in CHO cells, possibly by redirecting antibody molecules from degradation to secretion. Altogether we have characterized a novel proteolysis/proteasome-dependent pathway involved in degradation of unfolded antibody HC. Proteins characterized in this pathway may be novel targets for CHO cell engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201908087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337499PMC
July 2020

Data on charge separation of bispecific and mispaired IgGs using native charge-variant mass spectrometry.

Data Brief 2020 Jun 16;30:105435. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Departments of Microchemistry, Proteomics and Lipidomics, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

The data supplied in this work are related to the research article entitled "Characterization of Bispecific and Mispaired IgGs by Native Charge-Variant Mass Spectrometry" (Phung et al., 2019). This data article describes a powerful analytical platform using native weak cation exchange chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer, charge variant mass spectrometry (CV-MS), to characterize bispecific and mispaired antibody species. Elution order is investigated through analytical methods and molecular modeling in an effort to understand the intrinsic charge, size and shape differences of these molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132071PMC
June 2020

Endothelial intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 contributes to cell aggregate formation in CHO cells cultured in serum-free media.

Biotechnol Prog 2020 05 2;36(3):e2951. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Cell Culture Department, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California.

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been adapted to grow in serum-free media and in suspension culture to facilitate manufacturing needs. Some CHO cell lines, however, tend to form cell aggregates while being cultured in suspension. This can result in reduced viability and capacity for single cell cloning (SCC) via limiting dilution, and process steps to mitigate cell aggregate formation, for example, addition of anti-cell-aggregation agents. In this study, we have identified endothelial intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) as a key protein promoting cell aggregate formation in a production competent CHO cell line, which is prone to cell aggregate formation. Knocking out (KO) the ICAM-1 gene significantly decreased cell aggregate formation in the culture media without anti-cell-aggregation reagent. This trait can simplify the process of transfection, selection, automated clone isolation, and so on. Evaluation in standard cell line development of ICAM-1 KO and wild-type CHO hosts did not reveal any noticeable impacts on titer or product quality. Furthermore, analysis of a derived nonaggregating cell line showed significant reductions in expression of cell adhesion proteins. Overall, our data suggest that deletion of ICAM-1 and perhaps other cell adhesion proteins can reduce cell aggregate formation and improve clonality assurance during SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2951DOI Listing
May 2020

Native Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Monoclonal Antibody Minor Variants.

Anal Chem 2019 12 26;91(24):15360-15364. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Protein Analytical Chemistry , Genentech, Inc. , 1 DNA Way , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.

Conventionally, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses mobile phases with high salt concentration that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (MS). Here we describe development of an HIC method coupled with MS detection (HIC-MS) utilizing an aqueous mobile phase with a low concentration of a volatile salt for characterizing recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) post-translational modifications (PTMs). The ability of HIC to separate the oxidation and free thiol variants of the mAbs enables their isolation and rapid characterization of these attributes under native conditions, an important step toward understanding the role they play.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b04467DOI Listing
December 2019

The RIPK4-IRF6 signalling axis safeguards epidermal differentiation and barrier function.

Nature 2019 10 2;574(7777):249-253. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

The integrity of the mammalian epidermis depends on a balance of proliferation and differentiation in the resident population of stem cells. The kinase RIPK4 and the transcription factor IRF6 are mutated in severe developmental syndromes in humans, and mice lacking these genes display epidermal hyperproliferation and soft-tissue fusions that result in neonatal lethality. Our understanding of how these genes control epidermal differentiation is incomplete. Here we show that the role of RIPK4 in mouse development requires its kinase activity; that RIPK4 and IRF6 expressed in the epidermis regulate the same biological processes; and that the phosphorylation of IRF6 at Ser413 and Ser424 primes IRF6 for activation. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), histone chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) of skin in wild-type and IRF6-deficient mouse embryos, we define the transcriptional programs that are regulated by IRF6 during epidermal differentiation. IRF6 was enriched at bivalent promoters, and IRF6 deficiency caused defective expression of genes that are involved in the metabolism of lipids and the formation of tight junctions. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the stratum corneum of Irf6 skin was abnormal, culminating in a severe defect in the function of the epidermal barrier. Collectively, our results explain how RIPK4 and IRF6 function to ensure the integrity of the epidermis and provide mechanistic insights into why developmental syndromes that are characterized by orofacial, skin and genital abnormalities result when this axis goes awry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1615-3DOI Listing
October 2019

Denisovan, modern human and mouse TNFAIP3 alleles tune A20 phosphorylation and immunity.

Nat Immunol 2019 10 18;20(10):1299-1310. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Resisting and tolerating microbes are alternative strategies to survive infection, but little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms controlling this balance. Here genomic analyses of anatomically modern humans, extinct Denisovan hominins and mice revealed a TNFAIP3 allelic series with alterations in the encoded immune response inhibitor A20. Each TNFAIP3 allele encoded substitutions at non-catalytic residues of the ubiquitin protease OTU domain that diminished IκB kinase-dependent phosphorylation and activation of A20. Two TNFAIP3 alleles encoding A20 proteins with partial phosphorylation deficits seemed to be beneficial by increasing immunity without causing spontaneous inflammatory disease: A20 T108A;I207L, originating in Denisovans and introgressed in modern humans throughout Oceania, and A20 I325N, from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized mouse strain. By contrast, a rare human TNFAIP3 allele encoding an A20 protein with 95% loss of phosphorylation, C243Y, caused spontaneous inflammatory disease in humans and mice. Analysis of the partial-phosphorylation A20 I325N allele in mice revealed diminished tolerance of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and poxvirus inoculation as tradeoffs for enhanced immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-019-0492-0DOI Listing
October 2019

Disruption of IRE1α through its kinase domain attenuates multiple myeloma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 1;116(33):16420-16429. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Cancer Immunology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080;

Multiple myeloma (MM) arises from malignant immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells and remains an incurable, often lethal disease despite therapeutic advances. The unfolded-protein response sensor IRE1α supports protein secretion by deploying a kinase-endoribonuclease module to activate the transcription factor XBP1s. MM cells may co-opt the IRE1α-XBP1s pathway; however, the validity of IRE1α as a potential MM therapeutic target is controversial. Genetic disruption of IRE1α or XBP1s, or pharmacologic IRE1α kinase inhibition, attenuated subcutaneous or orthometastatic growth of MM tumors in mice and augmented efficacy of two established frontline antimyeloma agents, bortezomib and lenalidomide. Mechanistically, IRE1α perturbation inhibited expression of key components of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery, as well as secretion of Ig light chains and of cytokines and chemokines known to promote MM growth. Selective IRE1α kinase inhibition reduced viability of CD138 plasma cells while sparing CD138 cells derived from bone marrows of newly diagnosed or posttreatment-relapsed MM patients, in both US- and European Union-based cohorts. Effective IRE1α inhibition preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic microislets and viability of primary hepatocytes in vitro, as well as normal tissue homeostasis in mice. These results establish a strong rationale for developing kinase-directed inhibitors of IRE1α for MM therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906999116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697881PMC
August 2019

Elucidating heavy/light chain pairing preferences to facilitate the assembly of bispecific IgG in single cells.

MAbs 2019 10 26;11(7):1254-1265. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Antibody Engineering, Genentech, Inc ., South San Francisco , CA , USA.

Multiple strategies have been developed to facilitate the efficient production of bispecific IgG (BsIgG) in single host cells. For example, we previously demonstrated near quantitative (≥90%) formation of BsIgG of different species and isotypes by combining 'knob-into-hole' mutations for heavy chain heterodimerization with engineered antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) for preferential cognate heavy/light chain pairing. Surprisingly, in this study we found high yield (>65%) of BsIgG Fab engineering to be a common occurrence, i.e., observed for 33 of the 99 different antibody pairs evaluated. Installing charge mutations at both C1/C interfaces was sufficient for near quantitative yield (>90%) of BsIgG for most (9 of 11) antibody pairs tested with this inherent cognate chain pairing preference. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that a strong cognate pairing preference in one Fab arm can be sufficient for high BsIgG yield. These observed chain pairing preferences are apparently driven by variable domain sequences and can result from a few specific residues in the complementarity-determining region (CDR) L3 and H3. Transfer of these CDR residues into other antibodies increased BsIgG yield in most cases. Mutational analysis revealed that the disulfide bond between heavy and light chains did affect the yield of BsIgG. This study provides some mechanistic understanding of factors contributing to antibody heavy/light chain pairing preference and subsequently contributes to the efficient production of BsIgG in single host cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2019.1640549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748609PMC
October 2019

Identification and characterization of an octameric PEG-protein conjugate system for intravitreal long-acting delivery to the back of the eye.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(6):e0218613. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Drug Delivery, Genentech, South San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Innovative protein engineering and chemical conjugation technologies have yielded an impressive number of drug candidates in clinical development including >80 antibody drug conjugates, >60 bispecific antibodies, >35 Fc-fusion proteins and >10 immuno-cytokines. Despite these innovations, technological advances are needed to address unmet medical needs with new pharmacological mechanisms. Age-related eye diseases are among the most common causes of blindness and poor vision in the world. Many such diseases affect the back of the eye, where the inaccessibility of the site of action necessitates therapeutic delivery via intravitreal (IVT) injection. Treatments administered via this route typically have vitreal half-lives <10 days in humans, requiring frequent administration. Since IVT injection is burdensome to patients, there exists a strong need to develop therapeutics with prolonged residence time in the eye. We report here a strategy to increase retention of a therapeutic fragment antibody (Fab) in the eye, using an anti-complement factor D Fab previously optimized for ocular delivery. Polyethylene glycol structures, varying in length, geometry and degree of branching, were coupled to the Fab via maleimide-activated termini. A screening strategy was developed to allow for key determinants of ocular half-life to be measured in vitro. After compound selection, a scalable process was established to enable tolerability and pharmacokinetic studies in cynomolgus monkeys, demonstrating an increase in vitreal half-life with no associated adverse events. Further, we show that the technique for compound selection, analytical characterization, and scalable production is general for a range of antibody fragments. The application of the technology has broad impact in across many therapeutic areas with the first major advancement in the treatment of an important ocular disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218613PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599134PMC
February 2020

A Stromal Niche Defined by Expression of the Transcription Factor WT1 Mediates Programming and Homeostasis of Cavity-Resident Macrophages.

Immunity 2019 07 20;51(1):119-130.e5. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Cancer Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Tissue-resident macrophages require specific milieus for the maintenance of defining gene-expression programs. Expression of the transcription factor GATA6 is required for the homeostasis, function and localization of peritoneal cavity-resident macrophages. Gata6 expression is maintained in a non-cell autonomous manner and is elicited by the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid. Here, we found that the GATA6 transcriptional program is a common feature of macrophages residing in all visceral body cavities. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent hallmark genes of GATA6 macrophages were induced by mesothelial and fibroblastic stromal cells that express the transcription factor Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1), which drives the expression of two rate-limiting enzymes in retinol metabolism. Depletion of Wt1 stromal cells reduced the frequency of GATA6 macrophages in the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavities. Thus, Wt1 mesothelial and fibroblastic stromal cells constitute essential niche components supporting the tissue-specifying transcriptional landscape and homeostasis of cavity-resident macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814267PMC
July 2019

Production, characterization, and half-life extension of polymeric IgA molecules in mice.

MAbs 2019 Aug/Sep;11(6):1122-1138. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

a Department of Antibody Engineering, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco , CA , USA.

IgA antibodies have broad potential as a novel therapeutic platform based on their superior receptor-mediated cytotoxic activity, potent neutralization of pathogens, and ability to transcytose across mucosal barriers via polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR)-mediated transport, compared to traditional IgG-based drugs. However, the transition of IgA into clinical development has been challenged by complex expression and characterization, as well as rapid serum clearance that is thought to be mediated by glycan receptor scavenging of recombinantly produced IgA monomer bearing incompletely sialylated N-linked glycans. Here, we present a comprehensive biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of recombinantly produced monomeric, dimeric and polymeric human IgA. We further explore two strategies to overcome the rapid serum clearance of polymeric IgA: removal of all N-linked glycosylation sites creating an aglycosylated polymeric IgA and engineering in FcRn binding with the generation of a polymeric IgG-IgA Fc fusion. While previous reports and the results presented in this study indicate that glycan-mediated clearance plays a major role for monomeric IgA, systemic clearance of polymeric IgA in mice is predominantly controlled by mechanisms other than glycan receptor clearance, such as pIgR-mediated transcytosis. The developed IgA platform now provides the potential to specifically target pIgR expressing tissues, while maintaining low systemic exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2019.1622940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748581PMC
January 2020

Therapeutic resistance and susceptibility is shaped by cooperative multi-compartment tumor adaptation.

Cell Death Differ 2019 Nov 1;26(11):2416-2429. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Translational Oncology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Emerging research suggests that multiple tumor compartments can influence treatment responsiveness and relapse, yet the search for therapeutic resistance mechanisms remains largely focused on acquired genomic alterations in cancer cells. Here we show how treatment-induced changes occur in multiple tumor compartments during tumor relapse and can reduce benefit of follow-on therapies. By using serial biopsies, next-generation sequencing, and single-cell transcriptomics, we tracked the evolution of multiple cellular compartments within individual lesions during first-line treatment response, relapse, and second-line therapeutic interventions in an autochthonous model of melanoma. We discovered that although treatment-relapsed tumors remained genetically stable, they converged on a shared resistance phenotype characterized by dramatic changes in tumor cell differentiation state, immune infiltration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Similar alterations in tumor cell differentiation were also observed in more than half of our treatment-relapsed patient tumors. Tumor cell-state changes were coincident with ECM remodeling and increased tumor stiffness, which alone was sufficient to alter tumor cell fate and reduce treatment responses in melanoma cell lines in vitro. Despite the absence of acquired mutations in the targeted pathway, resistant tumors showed significantly decreased responsiveness to second-line therapy intervention within the same pathway. The ability to preclinically model relapse and refractory settings-while capturing dynamics within and crosstalk between all relevant tumor compartments-provides a unique opportunity to better design and sequence appropriate clinical interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-019-0310-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889278PMC
November 2019

Inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase DPP4 (CD26) reveals IL-33-dependent eosinophil-mediated control of tumor growth.

Nat Immunol 2019 03 18;20(3):257-264. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Cancer Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Post-translational modification of chemokines mediated by the dipeptidyl peptidase DPP4 (CD26) has been shown to negatively regulate lymphocyte trafficking, and its inhibition enhances T cell migration and tumor immunity by preserving functional chemokine CXCL10. By extending those initial findings to pre-clinical models of hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer, we discovered a distinct mechanism by which inhibition of DPP4 improves anti-tumor responses. Administration of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin resulted in higher concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 and increased migration of eosinophils into solid tumors. Enhanced tumor control was preserved in mice lacking lymphocytes and was ablated after depletion of eosinophils or treatment with degranulation inhibitors. We further demonstrated that tumor-cell expression of the alarmin IL-33 was necessary and sufficient for eosinophil-mediated anti-tumor responses and that this mechanism contributed to the efficacy of checkpoint-inhibitor therapy. These findings provide insight into IL-33- and eosinophil-mediated tumor control, revealed when endogenous mechanisms of DPP4 immunoregulation are inhibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-019-0321-5DOI Listing
March 2019

Interaction of cell culture process parameters for modulating mAb afucosylation.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2019 04 4;116(4):831-845. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Cell Culture, PTD, Genentech, South San Francisco, California.

The extent of afucosylation, which refers to the absence of core fucose on Fc glycans, can correlate positively with the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Therefore, it is important to maintain consistent afucosylation during cell culture process scale-up in bioreactors for a mAb with ADCC activity. However, there is currently a lack of understanding about the impact of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO )-a parameter that can vary with bioreactor scale-on afucosylation. Using a small-scale (3 L) bioreactor model that can modulate pCO levels through modified configurations and gassing strategies, we identified three cell culture process parameters that influence afucosylation of a mAb produced by a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line: pCO , media hold duration (at 37°C), and manganese. These three-independent parameters demonstrated a synergistic effect on mAb afucosylation; increase in pCO , media hold duration, and manganese consistently increased afucosylation. Our investigations into the underlying mechanisms through proteomic analysis indicated that the synergistic interactions downregulated pathways related to guanosine diphosphate-fucose synthesis and fucosylation, and upregulated manganese transport into the CHO cells. These new findings highlight the importance of considering potential differences in culture environment and operations across bioreactor scales, and understanding the impact of their interactions on product quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26908DOI Listing
April 2019

Development, Optimization, and Structural Characterization of an Efficient Peptide-Based Photoaffinity Cross-Linking Reaction for Generation of Homogeneous Conjugates from Wild-Type Antibodies.

Bioconjug Chem 2019 01 7;30(1):148-160. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Research & Early Development , Genentech, Inc. , 1 DNA Way , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.

Site-specific conjugation of small molecules to antibodies represents an attractive goal for the development of more homogeneous targeted therapies and diagnostics. Most site-specific conjugation strategies require modification or removal of antibody glycans or interchain disulfide bonds or engineering of an antibody mutant that bears a reactive handle. While such methods are effective, they complicate the process of preparing antibody conjugates and can negatively impact biological activity. Herein we report the development and detailed characterization of a robust photoaffinity cross-linking method for site-specific conjugation to fully glycosylated wild-type antibodies. The method employs a benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) mutant of a previously described 13-residue peptide derived from phage display to bind tightly to the Fc domain; upon UV irradiation, the Bpa residue forms a diradical that reacts with the bound antibody. After the initial discovery of an effective Bpa mutant peptide and optimization of the reaction conditions to enable efficient conjugation without concomitant UV-induced photodamage of the antibody, we assessed the scope of the photoconjugation reaction across different human and nonhuman antibodies and antibody mutants. Next, the specific site of conjugation on a human antibody was characterized in detail by mass spectrometry experiments and at atomic resolution by X-ray crystallography. Finally, we adapted the photoconjugation method to attach a cytotoxic payload site-specifically to a wild-type antibody and showed that the resulting conjugate is both stable in plasma and as potent as a conventional antibody-drug conjugate in cells, portending well for future biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.8b00809DOI Listing
January 2019

Discovery and Qualification of Candidate Urinary Biomarkers of Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

J Proteome Res 2019 03 3;18(3):1264-1277. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Assessment of severity and activity of renal involvement in SLE requires a kidney biopsy, an invasive procedure with limited prognostic value. Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to inform treatment decisions and to monitor disease activity. Proteinuria is associated with disease progression in LN; however, the composition of the LN urinary proteome remains incompletely characterized. To address this, we profiled LN urine samples using complementary mass spectrometry-based methods:  protein gel fractionation, chemical labeling using tandem mass tags, and data-independent acquisition. Combining results from these approaches yielded quantitative information on 2573 unique proteins in urine from LN patients. A multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method was established to confirm eight proteins in an independent cohort of LN patients, and seven proteins (transferrin, α-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, afamin, α-1-antitrypsin, vimentin, and ceruloplasmin) were confirmed to be elevated in LN urine compared to healthy controls. In this study, we demonstrate that deep mass spectrometry profiling of a small number of patient samples can identify high-quality biomarkers that replicate in an independent LN disease cohort. These biomarkers are being used to inform clinical biomarker strategies to support longitudinal and interventional studies focused on evaluating disease progression and treatment efficacy of novel LN therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00874DOI Listing
March 2019

Quantitative Determination of Protein-Ligand Affinity by Size Exclusion Chromatography Directly Coupled to High-Resolution Native Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2019 01 12;91(1):903-911. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Thermo Fisher Scientific , 355 River Oaks Parkway , San Jose , California 95134 , United States.

High throughput protein-ligand interaction screening assays employing mass spectrometric detection are widely used in early stage drug discovery. Mass spectrometry-based screening approaches employ a target protein added to a pool of small-molecule compounds, and binding is assessed by measuring ligands denatured from the complexes. Direct analysis of protein-ligand interactions using native mass spectrometry has been demonstrated but is not widely used due to the detection limit on protein size, the requirement of volatile buffers, and the necessity for specialized instrumentation to preserve weak interactions under native conditions. Here we present a robust, quantitative, and automated online size-exclusion chromatography-native mass spectrometry (SEC-nMS) platform for measuring affinities of noncovalent protein-small-molecule interactions on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, a catabolic enzyme, and inhibitory ligands were employed as a demonstration of the method. Efficient separation and elution enabled preservation of protein-ligand complexes and increased throughput. The high sensitivity and intra charge state resolution at high m/ z offered by the Exactive Plus EMR Orbitrap allowed for protein ligand affinity quantitation and resolved individual compounds close in mass. Vc values determined via collision-induced dissociation experiments enabled the evaluation of complex stability in the gas phase and were found to be independent of the extent of complex formation. For the first time, Vc determinations were achieved on an inline SEC-nMS platform. Systematic comparison of our method with optimized chip-based nanoelectrospray infusion served as a reference for ligand screening and affinity quantitation and further revealed the advantages of SEC-MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b03829DOI Listing
January 2019

In Vivo Stability Profiles of Anti-factor D Molecules Support Long-Acting Delivery Approaches.

Mol Pharm 2019 01 3;16(1):86-95. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Protein Chemistry , Genentech, Inc. , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.

The collection of aqueous humor (phase 1 b/2 Mahalo study) from patients dosed intravitreally with anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab), a humanized antibody fragment previously under investigation to treat geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration, presented a unique opportunity to examine AFD properties in clinical samples. We investigated AFD stability and target-binding characteristics to set up strategies for engineering and evaluating optimized molecules that enable less frequent dosing. Two variants, AFD.v8 and AFD.v14, were evaluated as alternatives to AFD for longer-acting treatments. Mass spectrometry, surface plasmon resonance, and immunoassay were used to assess AFD stability and binding activity in aqueous humor samples from Mahalo patients. In vitro stability and binding activity of AFD, AFD.v8, and AFD.v14 were assessed in human vitreous humor versus buffer at 37 °C over 16 weeks and in vivo in rabbits over 28 days along with pharmacokinetic determinations. In human aqueous humor, AFD specific binding was >85% through 30 days, and deamidation was <3% through 60 days, consistent with the AFD stability and binding activity in vitreous humor from humans in vitro and rabbits in vivo. Target binding, stability, and rabbit pharmacokinetic parameters of AFD.v8 and AFD.v14 were similar to those of AFD. Physiological stability and activity of AFD translated across in vitro and in vivo studies in humans and rabbits. The two variants AFD.v8 and AFD.v14 demonstrated comparable potency and pharmacokinetics. These findings, along with previously demonstrated improved solubility of AFD.v8 and AFD.v14, provide proof-of-concept for developing other similar long-acting therapeutic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00871DOI Listing
January 2019

Charge variant native mass spectrometry benefits mass precision and dynamic range of monoclonal antibody intact mass analysis.

MAbs 2018 Nov-Dec;10(8):1214-1225. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

b Department of Microchemistry, Proteomics and Lipidomics , Genentech, Inc , South San Francisco , CA , USA.

The preponderance and diversity of charge variants in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has implications for antibody efficacy and degradation. Understanding the extent and impact of minor antibody variants is of great interest, and it is also a critical regulatory requirement. Traditionally, a combination of approaches is used to characterize antibody charge heterogeneity, including ion exchange chromatography and independent mass spectrometric variant site mapping after proteolytic digestion. Here, we describe charge variant native mass spectrometry (CVMS), an integrated native ion exchange mass spectrometry-based charge variant analytical approach that delivers detailed molecular information in a single, semi-automated analysis. We utilized pure volatile salt mobile phases over a pH gradient that effectively separated variants based on minimal differences in isoelectric point. Characterization of variants such as deamidation, which are traditionally unattainable by intact mass due to their minimal molecular weight differences, were measured unambiguously by mass and retention time to allow confident MS1 identification. We demonstrate that efficient chromatographic separation allows introduction of the purified forms of the charge variant isoforms into the Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Our CVMS method allows confident assignment of intact monoclonal antibody isoforms of similar mass and relative abundance measurements across three orders of magnitude dynamic range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2018.1521131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284562PMC
June 2019

High-resolution glycosylation site-engineering method identifies MICA epitope critical for shedding inhibition activity of anti-MICA antibodies.

MAbs 2019 01 22;11(1):75-93. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

a Department of Antibody Engineering , Genentech Inc ., South San Francisco , USA.

As an immune evasion strategy, MICA and MICB, the major histocompatibility complex class I homologs, are proteolytically cleaved from the surface of cancer cells leading to impairment of CD8 + T cell- and natural killer cell-mediated immune responses. Antibodies that inhibit MICA/B shedding from tumors have therapeutic potential, but the optimal epitopes are unknown. Therefore, we developed a high-resolution, high-throughput glycosylation-engineered epitope mapping (GEM) method, which utilizes site-specific insertion of N-linked glycans onto the antigen surface to mask local regions. We apply GEM to the discovery of epitopes important for shedding inhibition of MICA/B and validate the epitopes at the residue level by alanine scanning and X-ray crystallography (Protein Data Bank accession numbers 6DDM (1D5 Fab-MICA*008), 6DDR (13A9 Fab-MICA*008), 6DDV (6E1 Fab-MICA*008). Furthermore, we show that potent inhibition of MICA shedding can be achieved by antibodies that bind GEM epitopes adjacent to previously reported cleavage sites, and that these anti-MICA/B antibodies can prevent tumor growth in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2018.1532767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343778PMC
January 2019

Pyruvate Kinase Muscle-1 Expression Appears to Drive Lactogenic Behavior in CHO Cell Lines, Triggering Lower Viability and Productivity: A Case Study.

Biotechnol J 2019 Apr 16;14(4):e1800332. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Cell Culture Department, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines are used to express a variety of therapeutic proteins. However, lactogenic behavior displayed by some CHO cell lines during manufacturing processes may result in a decline in viability, productivity, and possible alterations in product quality. In cultured cells, lactate is produced during glycolysis through irreversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate and then lactate via sequential function of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes. In the process of cell line development (CLD), two lactogenic cell lines expressing different antibody molecules are identified. The lactogenic behaviors of these cell lines can be differentially mitigated through optimization of either nutrient feeds or culture pH, depending on the cell line. Analysis of various proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway reveal a direct correlation between the pyruvate kinase muscle-1 (PKM-1) isoform levels and lactogenic behavior. CRISPR mediated knockout of the PKM-1 isoform abolishes lactate accumulation even under lactogenic conditions. Furthermore, a cell line lacking expression of both PKM-1 and PKM-2 enzymes capable of maintaining productivity, viability, and growth without displaying lactogenic behavior is identified. Targeted deletion of PKM in CHO cells may be tolerated due to expression of PKL (liver) and PKR (red blood cell) isoforms of pyruvate kinase. All together, these findings suggest that PKM-1 up-regulation during antibody production could trigger lactogenic behavior and that this enzyme is dispensable for CHO cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.201800332DOI Listing
April 2019

Coordination between Two Branches of the Unfolded Protein Response Determines Apoptotic Cell Fate.

Mol Cell 2018 08;71(4):629-636.e5

Cancer Immunology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

The kinases PERK and IRE1 alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by orchestrating the unfolded protein response (UPR). If stress mitigation fails, PERK promotes cell death by activating pro-apoptotic genes, including death receptor 5 (DR5). Conversely, IRE1-which harbors both kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) modules-blocks apoptosis through regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of DR5 mRNA. Under irresolvable ER stress, PERK activity persists, whereas IRE1 paradoxically attenuates, by mechanisms that remain obscure. Here, we report that PERK governs IRE1's attenuation through a phosphatase known as RPAP2 (RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2). RPAP2 reverses IRE1 phosphorylation, oligomerization, and RNase activation. This inhibits IRE1-mediated adaptive events, including activation of the cytoprotective transcription factor XBP1s, and ER-associated degradation of unfolded proteins. Furthermore, RIDD termination by RPAP2 unleashes DR5-mediated caspase activation and drives cell death. Thus, PERK attenuates IRE1 via RPAP2 to abort failed ER-stress adaptation and trigger apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2018.06.038DOI Listing
August 2018

Pan-Cancer Metabolic Signature Predicts Co-Dependency on Glutaminase and De Novo Glutathione Synthesis Linked to a High-Mesenchymal Cell State.

Cell Metab 2018 09 28;28(3):383-399.e9. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Translational Oncology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

The enzyme glutaminase (GLS1) is currently in clinical trials for oncology, yet there are no clear diagnostic criteria to identify responders. The evaluation of 25 basal breast lines expressing GLS1, predominantly through its splice isoform GAC, demonstrated that only GLS1-dependent basal B lines required it for maintaining de novo glutathione synthesis in addition to mitochondrial bioenergetics. Drug sensitivity profiling of 407 tumor lines with GLS1 and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) inhibitors revealed a high degree of co-dependency on both enzymes across indications, suggesting that redox balance is a key function of GLS1 in tumors. To leverage these findings, we derived a pan-cancer metabolic signature predictive of GLS1/GCS co-dependency and validated it in vivo using four lung patient-derived xenograft models, revealing the additional requirement for expression of GAC above a threshold (logRPKM + 1 ≥ 4.5, where RPKM is reads per kilobase per million mapped reads). Analysis of the pan-TCGA dataset with our signature identified multiple indications, including mesenchymal tumors, as putative responders to GLS1 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018