Publications by authors named "Wendy S Post"

271 Publications

Intermediate Markers Underlying Electrocardiographic Predictors of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: the MESA.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Nov 30:CIRCEP121009805. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. (B.A.-V.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.121.009805DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of DNA methylation on the association between physical activity and cardiovascular diseases: results from the longitudinal multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort.

BMC Genomics 2021 Nov 3;22(1):790. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Clinical and Translational Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642-0708, USA.

Background: The complexity of physical activity (PA) and DNA methylation interaction in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rarely simultaneously investigated in one study. We examined the role of DNA methylation on the association between PA and CVD.

Results: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort Exam 5 data with 1065 participants free of CVD were used for final analysis. The quartile categorical total PA variable was created by activity intensity (METs/week). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 69 participants developed CVD. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in purified human monocytes (CD14+). We identified 23 candidate DNA methylation loci to be associated with both PA and CVD. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test the complex relationships among multiple variables and the roles of mediators. Three of the 23 identified loci (corresponding to genes VPS13D, PIK3CD and VPS45) remained as significant mediators in the final SEM model along with other covariates. Bridged by the three genes, the 2nd PA quartile (β = - 0.959; 95%CI: - 1.554 to - 0.449) and the 3rd PA quartile (β = - 0.944; 95%CI: - 1.628 to - 0.413) showed the greatest inverse associations with CVD development, while the 4th PA quartile had a relatively weaker inverse association (β = - 0.355; 95%CI: - 0.713 to - 0.124).

Conclusions: The current study is among the first to simultaneously examine the relationships among PA, DNA methylation, and CVD in a large cohort with long-term exposure. We identified three DNA methylation loci bridged the association between PA and CVD. The function of the identified genes warrants further investigation in the pathogenesis of CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-08108-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8567593PMC
November 2021

Comparison of Methods to Estimate Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients With High Triglyceride Levels.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2128817. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is typically estimated with the Friedewald or Martin/Hopkins equation; however, if triglyceride levels are 400 mg/dL or greater, laboratories reflexively perform direct LDL-C (dLDL-C) measurement. The use of direct chemical LDL-C assays and estimation of LDL-C via the National Institutes of Health Sampson equation are not well validated, and data on the accuracy of LDL-C estimation at higher triglyceride levels are limited.

Objective: To compare an extended Martin/Hopkins equation for triglyceride values of 400 to 799 mg/dL with the Friedewald and Sampson equations.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study evaluated consecutive patients at clinical sites across the US with patient lipid distributions representative of the US population in the Very Large Database of Lipids from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, with triglyceride levels of 400 to 799 mg/dL. Data analysis was performed from November 9, 2020, to March 23, 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Accuracy in LDL-C classification according to guideline-based categories and absolute errors between estimated LDL-C and dLDL-C levels. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to derivation and validation data sets. Levels of dLDL-C were measured by vertical spin-density gradient ultracentrifugation. The LDL-C levels were estimated using the Friedewald method, with a fixed ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C ratio of 5:1), extended Martin/Hopkins equation with a flexible ratio, and Sampson equation with VLDL-C estimation by multiple least-squares regression.

Results: A total of 111 939 patients (mean [SD] age, 52 [13] years; 65.0% male) with triglyceride levels of 400 to 799 mg/dL were included, representing 2.2% of 5 081 680 patients in the database. Across all individual guideline LDL-C classes (<40, 40-69, 70-99, 100-129, 130-159, 160-189, and ≥190), estimation of LDL-C by the extended Martin/Hopkins equation was most accurate (62.1%) compared with the Friedewald (19.3%) and Sampson (40.4%) equations. In classifying LDL-C levels less than 70 mg/dL across all triglyceride strata, the extended Martin/Hopkins equation was most accurate (67.3%) compared with Friedewald (5.1%) and Sampson (26.4%) equations. In addition, for classifying LDL-C levels less than 40 mg/dL across all triglyceride strata, the extended Martin/Hopkins equation was most accurate (57.2%) compared with the Friedewald (4.3%) and Sampson (14.4%) equations. However, considerable underclassification of LDL-C occurred. The magnitude of error between the Martin/Hopkins equation estimation and dLDL-C was also smaller: at LDL-C levels less than 40 mg/dL, 2.7% of patients had 30 mg/dL or greater differences between dLDL-C and estimated LDL-C using the Martin/Hopkins equation compared with the Friedewald (92.5%) and Sampson (38.7%) equations.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the extended Martin/Hopkins equation offered greater LDL-C accuracy compared with the Friedewald and Sampson equations in patients with triglyceride levels of 400 to 799 mg/dL. However, regardless of method used, caution is advised with LDL-C estimation in this triglyceride range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8554644PMC
October 2021

Coronary artery plaque progression and cardiovascular risk scores in men with and without HIV-infection.

AIDS 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Lundquist Institute of Biomedical Research at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiology, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Contributed equally.

Objective: To assess the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and coronary artery plaque (CAP) progression in HIV-infected participants.

Methods: We studied men with and without HIV-infection enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) CVD study. Coronary artery plaque (CAP) at baseline and follow-up was assessed with cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We examined the association between baseline risk scores including pooled cohort equation (PCE), Framingham risk score (FRS) and Data collect of Adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs equation (D:A:D) and CAP progression.

Results: We studied 495 men (211 HIV-uninfected, 284 HIV-infected). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of total plaque volume (TPV) and non-calcified plaque volume (NCPV) progression in the highest relative to lowest tertile was 9.4 (95% CI 2.4, 12.1, p < 0.001) and 7.7 (3.1,19.1, p < 0.001) times greater, respectively, among HIV-uninfected men in the PCE atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) high vs. low risk category. Among HIV-infected men, the association for TPV and NCPV progression for the same PCE risk categories, OR 2.8 (1.4, 5.8, p < 0.01) and OR 2.4 (1.2, 4.8, p < 0.05) respectively (p-values for interaction by HIV = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively). Similar results were seen for the FRS risk scores. Among HIV-uninfected men, PCE high risk category identified the highest proportion of men with plaque progression in the highest tertile. While, in HIV-infected men, high risk category by D:A:D identified the greatest percentage of men with plaque progression albeit with lower specificity than FRS and PCE.

Conclusions: PCE and FRS categories predict CAP progression better in HIV-uninfected compared to HIV-infected men. Improved CVD risk scores are needed to identify high risk HIV-infected men for more aggressive CVD risk prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000003093DOI Listing
October 2021

High-value laboratory testing for hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a review.

Future Virol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

We present here an evidence-based review of the utility, timing, and indications for laboratory test use in the domains of inflammation, cardiology, hematology, nephrology and co-infection for clinicians managing the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Levels of IL-6, CRP, absolute lymphocyte count, neutrophils and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio obtained upon admission may help predict the severity of COVID-19. Elevated LDH, ferritin, AST, and d-dimer are associated with severe illness and mortality. Elevated cardiac troponin at hospital admission can alert clinicians to patients at risk for cardiac complications. Elevated proBNP may help distinguish a cardiac complication from noncardiac etiologies. Evaluation for co-infection is typically unnecessary in nonsevere cases but is essential in severe COVID-19, intensive care unit patients, and immunocompromised patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2020-0316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457535PMC
September 2021

Short Communication: Plasma Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Chronic inflammation, including among people with HIV (PWH), elevates immune cell expression of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3); however, low plasma LAG3 predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population. The associations among LAG3 plasma levels, subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation, and HIV infection have not been well described. We measured plasma LAG3 in 704 men with and without HIV from the multicenter AIDS cohort study, who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. HIV serostatus was not independently associated with LAG3 after adjustment for sociodemographic and CVD risk factors. Current smoking status and African American race were associated with lower LAG3, and age and sTNFαRI concentration were associated with greater LAG3. LAG3 was not associated with coronary artery stenosis. Thus, no difference was found in plasma LAG3 concentration by HIV serostatus, and no association between LAG3 and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in men with and without HIV was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2021.0035DOI Listing
September 2021

Left Atrioventricular Coupling Index to Predict Incident Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 1;8:704611. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Although left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) structural and functional parameters have independent prognostic value as predictors of heart failure (HF), the close physiological relationship between the LA and LV suggest that the assessment of LA/LV coupling could better reflect left atrioventricular dysfunction and be a better predictor of HF. We investigated the prognostic value of a left atrioventricular coupling index (LACI), measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), as well as change in LACI to predict incident HF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In the MESA, 2,250 study participants, free of clinically recognized HF and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline, had LACI assessed by CMR imaging at baseline (Exam 1, 2000-2002), and 10 years later (Exam 5, 2010-2012). Left atrioventricular coupling index was defined as the ratio of LA to LV end-diastolic volumes. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations of LACI and average annualized change in LACI (ΔLACI) with incident HF after adjustment for traditional MESA-HF risk factors. The incremental risk prediction was calculated using C-statistic, categorical net reclassification index (NRI) and integrative discrimination index (IDI). Among the 2,250 participants (mean age 59.3 ± 9.3 years and 47.6% male participants), 50 incident HF events occurred over 6.8 ± 1.3 years after the second CMR exam. After adjustment, greater LACI and ΔLACI were independently associated with HF (adjusted HR 1.44, 95% CI [1.25-1.66] and adjusted HR 1.55, 95% CI [1.30-1.85], respectively; both < 0.0001). Adjusted models for LACI showed significant improvement in model discrimination and reclassification compared to currently used HF risk score model for predicting HF incidence (C-statistic: 0.81 vs. 0.77; NRI = 0.411; IDI = 0.043). After adjustment, ΔLACI showed also significant improvement in model discrimination compared to the multivariable model with traditional MESA-HF risk factors for predicting incident HF (C-statistic: 0.82 vs. 0.77; NRI = 0.491; IDI = 0.058). In a multi-ethnic population, atrioventricular coupling (LACI), and coupling change (ΔLACI) are independently associated with incident HF. Both have incremental prognostic value for predicting HF events over traditional HF risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.704611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442844PMC
September 2021

Atherothrombotic factors and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Aims: Traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors fail to address the full spectrum of the complex interplay of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic factors integral to ASCVD events. This study sought to examine the association between atherothrombotic biomarkers and ASCVD events.

Methods And Results: The association between atherothrombotic biomarkers and 877 ASCVD events with and without adjustment for traditional risk factors was evaluated via Cox proportional hazards models and factor analysis in 5789 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants over a median follow-up of 14.7 years. Factor analysis accounted for multidimensional relationship and shared variance among study biomarkers, which identified two new variables: a thrombotic factor (Factor 1), principally defined by shared variance in fibrinogen, plasmin-antiplasmin complex, factor VIII, D-dimer, and lipoprotein(a), and a fibrinolytic factor (Factor 2), principally defined by shared variance of plasminogen and oxidized phospholipids on plasminogen. In a model including both factors, the thrombotic factor was associated with the higher risk of ASCVD events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45, 1.70], while the fibrinolytic factor was associated with the lower risk of ASCVD events (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70, 0.82), with estimated ASCVD free survival highest for low atherothrombotic Factor 1 and high atherothrombotic Factor 2.

Conclusion: Two atherothrombotic factors, one representative of thrombotic propensity and the other representative of fibrinolytic propensity, were significantly and complementarily associated with incident ASCVD events, remained significantly associated with incident ASCVD after controlling for traditional risk factors, and have promise for identifying patients at high ASCVD event risk specifically due to their atherothrombotic profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab600DOI Listing
September 2021

Association between human immunodeficiency virus serostatus and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(29):e26663

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) leads to increased risk for stroke. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), although it is unclear if HIV is associated with AF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between HIV serostatus and the prevalence of AF in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.A cross sectional study was conducted among 1674 HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) men who completed resting 12-lead electrocardiograms, and/or ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between AF, defined as the presence of either AF or atrial flutter, and HIV+ serostatus. Associations were adjusted for demographic variables, and then also for CVD risk factors.HIV+ men were younger than HIV- men (median 55.5 vs 61.7 years, P < .001) and were more frequently African-American (30.5% vs 17.8%, P < .001). Most HIV+ men (81%) had undetectable viral load. The age and race adjusted prevalence of AF was 3.0% in HIV+ and 3.3% in HIV- men. There was only 1 case of AF among African-American men. There were no associations between AF and HIV serostatus after adjusting for demographic factors (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.37 to -1.58; P = .47) or after further adjustment for CVD risk factors (odds ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.39 to -1.81; P = .66).We found no association between HIV and AF in this cohort in which viral replication among the HIV+ men is generally suppressed. The overall prevalence of AF was low and was rare in African-American men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294896PMC
July 2021

Short Communication: Plasma Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 11 20;37(11):842-845. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Chronic inflammation, including among people with HIV (PWH), elevates immune cell expression of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3); however, low plasma LAG3 predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population. The associations among LAG3 plasma levels, subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation, and HIV infection have not been well described. We measured plasma LAG3 in 704 men with and without HIV from the multicenter AIDS cohort study, who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. HIV serostatus was not independently associated with LAG3 after adjustment for sociodemographic and CVD risk factors. Current smoking status and African American race were associated with lower LAG3, and age and sTNFαRI concentration were associated with greater LAG3. LAG3 was not associated with coronary artery stenosis. Thus, no difference was found in plasma LAG3 concentration by HIV serostatus, and no association between LAG3 and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in men with and without HIV was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2021.0035DOI Listing
November 2021

Duration of Diabetes and Incident Heart Failure: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 08;9(8):594-603

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: This study assessed the association of diabetes duration with incident heart failure (HF).

Background: Diabetes increases HF risk. However, the independent effect of diabetes duration on incident HF is unknown.

Methods: We included 9,734 participants (mean age 63 years, 58% women, 22% Black) at ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Visit 4 (1996-1998) without HF or coronary heart disease. We calculated diabetes duration at Visit 4 (baseline), utilizing diabetes status at the first 4 ARIC visits spaced 3 years apart, and self-reported diagnosis date for those with diabetes diagnosed before Visit 1. We used Cox regression to estimate associations of diabetes duration with incident HF, accounting for intercurrent coronary heart disease and other risk factors. We performed analyses stratified by age (<65 years or ≥65 years), race, sex, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A [HbA] consistently <7%, vs HbA ≥7%), with tests for interaction.

Results: Over 22.5 years of follow-up, there were 1,968 HF events. Compared to those without diabetes, HF risk rose with longer diabetes duration, with the highest risk among those with ≥15 y diabetes duration (HR: 2.82; 95% CI: 2.25-3.63). Each 5-year increase in diabetes duration was associated with a 17% (95% CI: 11-22) relative increase in HF risk. Similar results were observed across HF subtypes. The HF and diabetes duration associations were stronger among those aged <65 years, those with HbA ≥7%, those with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m, women, and Blacks (all P interactions <0.05).

Conclusions: Delaying diabetes onset may augment HF prevention efforts, and therapies to improve HF outcomes might target those with long diabetes duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8629143PMC
August 2021

Risk Markers for Limited Coronary Artery Calcium in Persons With Significant Aortic Valve Calcium (From the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

Am J Cardiol 2021 10 27;156:58-64. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

The early stages of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) include shared ASCVD risk factors, yet there is considerable heterogeneity between the burden of AVC, and CAC. We sought to identify the markers associated with limited CAC among persons with significant AVC. There were 325 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis without clinical ASCVD and with AVC ≥100 Agatston units (AU) at Visit 1. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios for limited CAC (0 to 99 AU) were calculated using modified Poisson regression. Participants had a mean age of 72.1 years, median AVC score of 209, and 34% were women. A total of 133 (41%) participants had CAC <100, of whom 46/133 had CAC = 0. Younger age (PR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.62, per 10-years), female gender (PR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.20), and low 10-year ASCVD risk (PR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.85 to 2.85) were most strongly associated with limited CAC. Neither a normal lipoprotein(a) nor normal measures of inflammation were significantly associated with limited CAC. Lower serum phosphate (PR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.31; per 0.5 mg/dl lower) and calcium-phosphate product (PR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.34; per SD lower) were associated with an approximately 15% higher prevalence of limited CAC. In conclusion, more than 40% of persons with significant AVC had CAC. Beyond traditional risk factors, lower serum phosphate, and lower calcium-phosphate product were associated with a higher prevalence of limited CAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.06.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429123PMC
October 2021

Inequities in Aortic Stenosis and Aortic Valve Replacement Between Black/African-American, White, and Hispanic Residents of Maryland.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 15;10(14):e017487. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Cardiology School of Medicine Johns Hopkins University Baltimore MD.

Background Racial and ethnic inequities exist in surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS), and early studies have suggested similar inequities in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective analysis of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission inpatient data set from 2016 to 2018. Black patients had half the incidence of any inpatient AS diagnosis compared with White patients (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.48-0.52; <0.001) and Hispanic patients had one fourth the incidence compared with White patients (IRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.29; <0.001). Conversely, the incidence of any inpatient mitral regurgitation diagnosis did not differ between White and Black patients (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03; =0.97) but was significantly lower in Hispanic compared with White patients (IRR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.33-0.40; <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, Black race was associated with a lower incidence of surgical aortic valve replacement (IRR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55-0.82 <0.001 relative to White race) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90; =0.002) among those with any inpatient diagnosis of AS. Hispanic patients had a similar rate of surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement compared with White patients. Conclusions Hospitalization with any diagnosis of AS is less common in Black and Hispanic patients than in White patients. In hospitalized patients with AS, Black race is associated with a lower incidence of both surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement compared with White patients, whereas Hispanic patients have a similar incidence of both. The reasons for these inequities are likely multifactorial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483496PMC
July 2021

Adipose tissue biomarkers and type 2 diabetes incidence in normoglycemic participants in the MESArthritis Ancillary Study: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 07 9;18(7):e1003700. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Given the central role of skeletal muscles in glucose homeostasis, deposition of adipose depots beneath the fascia of muscles (versus subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT]) may precede insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence. This study was aimed to investigate the associations between computed tomography (CT)-derived biomarkers for adipose tissue and T2D incidence in normoglycemic adults.

Methods And Findings: This study was a population-based multiethnic retrospective cohort of 1,744 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with normoglycemia (baseline fasting plasma glucose [FPG] less than 100 mg/dL) from 6 United States of America communities. Participants were followed from April 2010 and January 2012 to December 2017, for a median of 7 years. The intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and SAT areas were measured in baseline chest CT exams and were corrected by height squared (SAT and IMAT indices) using a predefined measurement protocol. T2D incidence, as the main outcome, was based on follow-up FPG, review of hospital records, or self-reported physician diagnoses. Participants' mean age was 69 ± 9 years at baseline, and 977 (56.0%) were women. Over a median of 7 years, 103 (5.9%) participants were diagnosed with T2D, and 147 (8.4%) participants died. The IMAT index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.41] per 1-standard deviation [SD] increment) and the SAT index (HR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.16-1.77] per 1-SD increment) at baseline were associated with T2D incidence over the follow-up. The associations of the IMAT and SAT indices with T2D incidence were attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, with HRs of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09-1.38) and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.96-1.74) per 1-SD increment, respectively. The limitations of this study include unmeasured residual confounders and one-time measurement of adipose tissue biomarkers.

Conclusions: In this study, we observed an association between IMAT at baseline and T2D incidence over the follow-up. This study suggests the potential role of intermuscular adipose depots in the pathophysiology of T2D.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00005487.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8337053PMC
July 2021

Left Atrioventricular Coupling Index as a Prognostic Marker of Cardiovascular Events: The MESA Study.

Hypertension 2021 Sep 6;78(3):661-671. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

From the Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (T.P., B.A.V., H.D.D.V., Y.K., M.S., E.X., W.S.P., C.O.W., J.A.C.L.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363553PMC
September 2021

Long-term trajectories of C-reactive protein among men living with and without HIV infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker associated with all-cause mortality and morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. CRP is increased with HIV infection and thought to increase with age, though trajectories of CRP with aging have not been well characterized. We investigated trajectories of CRP in men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, according to HIV infection and HIV viral load status.

Methods: CRP measurements from 12,250 serum samples, provided by 2,132 men over a span of 30 years, were categorized by HIV status at sample collection: HIV-uninfected (HIV-, n=1,717), HIV-infected, HIV+, undetectable RNA (HIV+ suppressed, n=4,075), and detectable HIV RNA (HIV+ detectable, n=6,458). Age-related trajectories of CRP were fit to multivariable linear mixed models; we tested for differences in trajectories by HIV status.

Results: CRP increased with age in all sample groups. HIV+ detectable and HIV+ suppressed samples had higher CRP than HIV- samples throughout the observed age range of 20-70 years (p<0.05). CRP concentrations at age 45 years were 38% (95% CI: 26%-50%) and 26% (15%-38%) higher in HIV+ detectable and HIV+ suppressed samples, respectively, relative to HIV- samples. HIV+ detectable samples showed more rapid linear increases with age (8% higher/decade, 0.3%-16%) than HIV- samples.

Conclusions: We observed higher concentrations of CRP across five decades of age in men living with HIV, and steeper increases with age in men with detectable HIV RNA, relative to HIV- men. These results are consistent with a contribution of inflammation to the higher risk of age-related comorbidities with HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab190DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of Vascular Risk Scores and Cognitive Performance in a Diverse Cohort: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine.

Background: Vascular risk scores are associated with incident dementia. Information regarding their association with cognitive performance and decline in racially/ethnically diverse cohorts is lacking.

Methods: In 4392 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants (aged 60.1±9.4 years; 53% women; 41% white, 11% Chinese-American, 26% African-American, 21% Hispanic), we compared associations of Exam 1 (2000-02) Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE), Framingham stroke (FSRP), and atherosclerotic disease pooled cohort equation (ASCVD-PCE) risk scores with Exam 5 (2010-12) Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), Digit Symbol Coding (DSC), and Digit Span (DS) cognitive test performance using multivariable linear regression, and examined racial/ethnic interactions. In 1838 participants with repeat CASI data at Exam 6 (2016-18), we related risk scores to odds of a 1-standard deviation (SD) decline in CASI performance using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: SD increments in each risk score were associated with worse cognitive performance. CAIDE had stronger associations with CASI performance than the FSRP and ASCVD-PCE, but associations of ASCVD-PCE with the DSC and DS were similar to CAIDE (difference in β [95% CI] = -0.57 [-1.48, 0.34] and -0.21 [-0.43, 0.01], respectively). Race/ethnicity modified associations. For example, associations between CAIDE and CASI were greater in African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (difference in β = 0.69 [0.02, 1.36] and 1.67 [0.95, 2.39], respectively). Risk scores were comparably associated with decline in CASI performance.

Conclusions: Antecedent vascular risk scores are associated with cognitive performance and decline in the four most common US racial/ethnic groups, but associations differ among risk scores and by race/ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab189DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations between menopause, cardiac remodeling, and diastolic function: the CARDIA study.

Menopause 2021 06 14;28(10):1166-1175. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objectives: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) affects more women than men. Menopause may influence HFpEF development in women. We assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between menopause and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) function and cardiac remodeling.

Methods: We studied 1,723 women with available echo data from at least two of: year 5 (Y5) (1990-1991), Y25 (2010-2011), or Y30 (2015-2016) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Cardiac structure and function were measured using 2D and Doppler echocardiography. Cross-sectional associations between menopausal status and repeated echo measures at Y25 and Y30 were analyzed using linear mixed models. Two-segmented models were used to compare longitudinal changes in echocardiographic measures in the premenopausal period to changes in the postmenopausal period.

Results: Mean ± SD age (years) at enrollment was 27 ± 3 in those with menopause by Y25, 25 ± 3 in those with menopause between Y25 and Y30, and 21 ± 3 in those premenopausal at Y30. There were no significant differences in race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, or diabetes between the groups. Postmenopausal women had higher early diastolic mitral inflow (E) to annular (e') velocity ratio than premenopausal after adjusting for demographics and risk factors (P < 0.05). Menopause was associated with relative increases in the rates of change in LV mass and left atrial volume, even after adjustment. Change in E/e' ratio was similar before and after menopause.

Conclusions: Menopause is associated cross-sectionally with worse diastolic function and longitudinally with adverse LV and left atrial remodeling. This may contribute to the increased HFpEF risk in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001815DOI Listing
June 2021

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3505. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23556-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190084PMC
June 2021

Associations of time-varying obesity and metabolic syndrome with risk of incident heart failure and its subtypes: Findings from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Int J Cardiol 2021 09 2;338:127-135. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Objective: Most previous studies have examined associations between metabolic disorders measured at a single point in time and risk of heart failure (HF). However, there are many situations where the values of exposures vary over time before HF occurs. We aimed to examine the associations of time-varying obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) measured at multiple points in time with HF.

Methods: A total of 6750 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from 2000 were included in the study. Follow-up was completed through December 2015. MetSyn was defined using the American Heart Association criteria. Incident HF was diagnosed by clinical criteria. Subtypes HF (reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) were classified by left ventricular EF.

Results: A total of 331 HF cases were identified during 82,609 person-years of observation. The incidence (95%CI) of total HF was 4.0 (3.4-4.4) per 1000 person-years. Of the total HF cases, 45.6% were HFrEF (n = 151), 40.8% HFpEF (n = 135), and 13.6% were unclassified HF subtypes (n = 45). After adjusting for key covariates, time-varying obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m) and MetSyn were significantly associated with HF, with a stronger association for HFpEF than for HFrEF. The corresponding hazards ratios (HR, 95%CI) were 1.97 (1.43-2.72) and 1.86 (1.43-2.42) for HFpEF, and 1.46 (1.07-1.98), and 1.39 (1.06-1.82) for HFrEF respectively. Time-varying large waist circumference was significantly associated with for HFpEF, but not with HFrEF.

Conclusion: Time-varying obesity and MetSyn were significantly associated with HF risk, with a stronger association with HFpEF than with HFrEF. Continued effort to control these risk factors is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.051DOI Listing
September 2021

Cardiac Involvement in Athletes Recovering From COVID-19: A Reason for Hope.

Circulation 2021 07 18;144(4):267-270. Epub 2021 May 18.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (W.S.P.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300147PMC
July 2021

Associations of Cardiac Mechanics With Exercise Capacity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 07 13;78(3):245-257. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lower exercise capacity, as measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), is associated with incident heart failure (HF). Among those without HF, the associations of measures of cardiac function with 6MWD are unclear, and may provide insight regarding the risk of incident HF.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand the relationships between cardiac function and exercise capacity.

Methods: This study evaluated the associations of cardiac mechanics with 6MWD in the sixth examination of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Echocardiography (2-dimensional, Doppler, and speckle-tracking) was performed at rest and after passive leg raise to evaluate functional reserve after intravascular volume challenge.

Results: Of 2,096 participants without HF (mean age 73 years, 48% men, 58% non-White), individuals with lower (worse) left atrial (LA) reservoir strain were older and had higher blood pressure. Lower resting LA reservoir strain (β coefficient per SD decrease: -5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.8 to -1.3 m; p = 0.009), inability to augment LA reservoir strain after passive leg raise (β coefficient per SD decrease: -5.8; 95% CI: -9.1 to -2.5 m; p < 0.001), and lower right atrial reservoir strain (β coefficient per SD decrease: -4.4; 95% CI: -7.8 to -1.1 m; p = 0.01) were associated with shorter 6MWD. Worse left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was also associated with lower 6MWD. There were no independent associations of measures of LV systolic function (global longitudinal strain, circumferential strain, ejection fraction) with 6MWD.

Conclusions: Among individuals without HF, worse biatrial function, lack of LA functional reserve, and worse LV diastolic function were associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity. Therapies aimed to improve these functional domains may increase exercise capacity and prevent HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299435PMC
July 2021

Quantitative Analysis of Adipose Depots by Using Chest CT and Associations with All-Cause Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Longitudinal Analysis from MESArthritis Ancillary Study.

Radiology 2021 06 6;299(3):703-711. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 3171c, Baltimore, MD 21287 (F.P., S.D.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (M.S., T.Q.A.C.S., W.S.P., J.A.C.L.); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wis (D.A.B.); Lundquist Institute at Harbor-University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Torrance, Calif (M.B.); Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (R.G.B.); and Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Calif San Diego, La Jolla, Calif (M.A.A.).

Background Obesity and sarcopenia are associated with mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Routine chest CT examinations may allow assessment of obesity and sarcopenia by soft-tissue markers for predicting risks of mortality. Purpose To investigate associations between soft-tissue markers subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and pectoralis muscle (PM) index from chest CT with mortality in participants with COPD. Materials and Methods In this secondary analysis of a prospectively enrolled cohort from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, participants with available chest CT in 2010-2012 were included. CT examinations were analyzed to determine SAT, IMAT (within PM), and PM areas. The spirometry evaluations were used to establish COPD diagnosis. Mortality data were extracted from the National Death Index (April 2010 to December 2017). The correlations of the soft-tissue markers with fat mass index were studied. The associations of these markers and risks of mortality in participants with COPD were assessed by using Cox proportional-hazard models adjusted for confounders. Results Among 2994 participants who were included (mean age, 69 years ± 9 [standard deviation]; 1551 women), 265 had COPD (9%; mean age, 72 years ± 9; 162 men) and 49 participants with COPD (18%) died during follow-up. The SAT, IMAT, and PM areas had moderate-to-excellent reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.88-0.99). In the 2994 participants, the SAT (ρ = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.81; < .001) and IMAT indexes (ρ = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.41; < .001) were correlated with fat mass index. Those with COPD and higher SAT index had lower risks of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4; < .001, per doubling), whereas a higher IMAT index was associated with a higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9; = .04, per doubling). Conclusion Soft-tissue markers were reliably obtained by using chest CT performed for lung assessment. In participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a high intermuscular adipose tissue index was associated with a higher risk of mortality than was a high subcutaneous adipose tissue index. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Sverzellati and Cademartiri in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021203959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165946PMC
June 2021

Associations Between HIV Serostatus and Cardiac Structure and Function Evaluated by 2-Dimensional Echocardiography in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 20;10(7):e019709. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD.

Background We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in cardiac structure and systolic and diastolic function evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography among men living with versus without HIV in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods and Results We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1195 men from MACS (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study) who completed a transthoracic echocardiogram examination between 2017 and 2019. Associations between HIV serostatus and echocardiographic indices were assessed by multivariable regression analyses, adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. Among men who are HIV+, associations between HIV disease severity markers and echocardiographic parameters were also investigated. Average age was 57.1±11.9 years; 29% of the participants were Black, and 55% were HIV+. Most men who were HIV+ (77%) were virally suppressed; 92% received combination antiretroviral therapy. Prevalent left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%) was low and HIV serostatus was not associated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariable adjustment models showed that men who were HIV+ versus those who were HIV- had greater LV mass index and larger left atrial diameter and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic area; lower RV function; and higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction. Higher current CD4+ T cell count ≥400 cell/mm versus <400 was associated with smaller LV diastolic volume and RV area. Virally suppressed men who were HIV+ versus those who were HIV- had higher indexed LV mass and left atrial areas and greater diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions HIV seropositivity was independently associated with greater LV mass index, left atrial and RV sizes, lower RV function and diastolic abnormalities, but not left ventricular ejection fraction, which may herald a future predisposition to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction among men living with HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174316PMC
April 2021

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate and 10-year change in left ventricular mass: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Biomarkers 2021 Jun 9;26(4):309-317. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger for natriuretic peptide (NP) and nitric oxide pathways; its enhancement a target for heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated whether plasma cGMP was associated with change in left ventricular mass (LVM) among individuals free of CVD and if this differed by sex. In 611 men and 612 women aged 45-84 years with plasma cGMP measured at baseline and cardiac MRI performed at baseline and 10 years later, we tested associations of cGMP [log-transformed, per 1 SD increment] with LVM, adjusting for CVD risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type-NP (NT-proBNP). Participants had mean (SD) age of 63.1(8.5) years and cGMP 4.8(2.6) pmol/mL. Cross-sectionally, higher cGMP was associated with lesser LVM, non-lin- early. In contrast, longitudinally, higher cGMP was associated with increase in LVM [1.70g (0.61, 2.78)] over 10 years. Higher cGMP was associated with greater LVM change in men [2.68g (1.57, 3.79)] but not women [0.24g ((-0.92, 1.39); p-interaction < 0.001]. In conclusion, in a community-based cohort, higher cGMP levels were associated with increase in LVM over 10 years independent of CVD risk factors and NT-proBNP in men, perhaps reflecting compensatory changes. Further studies are needed to understand mechanistic roles of cGMP in LV remodelling and associated sex differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2021.1893811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281442PMC
June 2021

Human immunodeficiency viral infection and differences in interstitial ventricular fibrosis and left atrial size.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 07;22(8):888-895

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Blalock 559, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Aims: The extent to which human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection is independently associated with myocardial disease in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains understudied. We assessed differences in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) metrics among people living with HIV (PLWH) and without HIV (PWOH).

Methods And Results: Among 436 participants (aged 54.7 ± 6.0 years, 29% women) from three cohorts, we acquired CMR cines, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and T1 mapping. Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between HIV serostatus and CMR metrics. Baseline characteristics were similar by HIV serostatus; 63% were PLWH of whom 88% received cART and 73% were virally suppressed. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was normal and similar by HIV serostatus (73%, PWOH vs. 72%, PLWH, P = 0.43) as were right ventricular function, biventricular volumes, and masses. LGE prevalence was similar (32%, PWOH vs. 36%, PLWH, P = 0.46) with low scar extents (4.1, PWOH vs. 4.9 g, PLWH, P = 0.51) and few ischaemic scars (3%, PWOH vs. 4%, PLWH, P = 0.70). Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was higher among PLWH (29.2 ± 4.1% vs. 28.3 ± 3.7%, P = 0.04) as was indexed maximum left atrial (LA) volume (LAVI, 29.7 ± 10.3 vs. 27.8 ± 8.7 mL/m2, P = 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, ECV was 0.84% higher among PLWH (P = 0.05) and LAVI was 2.45 mL/m2 larger (P = 0.01). HIV seropositivity and higher ECV contributed to higher LAVI (P < 0.02). There were no associations between HIV disease severity and CMR metrics among PLWH.

Conclusion: HIV seropositivity was independently associated with greater diffuse non-ischaemic fibrosis and larger LA volume but no other differences in CMR metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291675PMC
July 2021
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