Publications by authors named "Wendy Roosen"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exacerbation of Background Nuclear Cataracts in Sprague-Dawley Rats in Embryo-Fetal Development Studies With JNJ-42165279, a Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jun 15:1926233211010444. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.

Fetal examinations in embryo-fetal developmental (EFD) studies are based on macroscopic and dissecting microscopic evaluations, and histopathology is rarely performed other than to confirm macroscopic findings. Fetal lens examination is therefore generally limited to the presence, size, shape, and color of any abnormality. In a Sprague-Dawley rat EFD study with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor JNJ-42165279, an unusually high incidence of macroscopic granular foci was noted within the lens of gestation day 21 fetuses across all groups including controls, with higher incidence in the high-dose group. On histological evaluation of the lenses from fetuses with/without gross findings, primary lens fiber hypertrophy (swelling) and degeneration were observed across vehicle- and JNJ-42165279-exposed fetuses. In a follow-up study to investigate the progression or resolution of the fetal lens changes, animals exposed to suprapharmacological doses of JNJ-42165279 in utero had higher incidence of nuclear cataracts as detected via slit-lamp ophthalmic examinations on postnatal days 18 to 21 and 35 to 41. No histologic correlates for these cataracts were identified. We conclude that fetal primary lens fiber hypertrophy and nuclear cataracts at ophthalmology, are common background changes in this rat strain that are exacerbated by in utero exposure to the FAAH inhibitor JNJ-42165279.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01926233211010444DOI Listing
June 2021

Opportunities for use of one species for longer-term toxicology testing during drug development: A cross-industry evaluation.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Jun 29;113:104624. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Cytokinetics, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

An international expert working group representing 37 organisations (pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies, contract research organisations, academic institutions and regulatory bodies) collaborated in a data sharing exercise to evaluate the utility of two species within regulatory general toxicology studies. Anonymised data on 172 drug candidates (92 small molecules, 46 monoclonal antibodies, 15 recombinant proteins, 13 synthetic peptides and 6 antibody-drug conjugates) were submitted by 18 organisations. The use of one or two species across molecule types, the frequency for reduction to a single species within the package of general toxicology studies, and a comparison of target organ toxicities identified in each species in both short and longer-term studies were determined. Reduction to a single species for longer-term toxicity studies, as used for the development of biologicals (ICHS6(R1) guideline) was only applied for 8/133 drug candidates, but might have been possible for more, regardless of drug modality, as similar target organ toxicity profiles were identified in the short-term studies. However, definition and harmonisation around the criteria for similarity of toxicity profiles is needed to enable wider consideration of these principles. Analysis of a more robust dataset would be required to provide clear, evidence-based recommendations for expansion of these principles to small molecules or other modalities where two species toxicity testing is currently recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104624DOI Listing
June 2020

A global pharmaceutical company initiative: an evidence-based approach to define the upper limit of body weight loss in short term toxicity studies.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2013 Oct 19;67(1):27-38. Epub 2013 Apr 19.

UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK. Electronic address:

Short term toxicity studies are conducted in animals to provide information on major adverse effects typically at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies are important from a scientific and ethical perspective as they are used to make decisions on progression of potential candidate drugs, and to set dose levels for subsequent regulatory studies. The MTD is usually determined by parameters such as clinical signs, reductions in body weight and food consumption. However, these assessments are often subjective and there are no published criteria to guide the selection of an appropriate MTD. Even where an objective measurement exists, such as body weight loss (BWL), there is no agreement on what level constitutes an MTD. A global initiative including 15 companies, led by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), has shared data on BWL in toxicity studies to assess the impact on the animal and the study outcome. Information on 151 studies has been used to develop an alert/warning system for BWL in short term toxicity studies. The data analysis supports BWL limits for short term dosing (up to 7days) of 10% for rat and dog and 6% for non-human primates (NHPs).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.04.003DOI Listing
October 2013

Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal(®) Consta(®)-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats.

Toxicology 2012 Sep 14;299(2-3):90-8. Epub 2012 May 14.

Janssen Research & Development, A Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Drug Safety Sciences, Department of Preclinical Project Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium.

RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as "osteodystrophy" were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®)-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2012.05.007DOI Listing
September 2012
-->