Publications by authors named "Wenbo Luo"

110 Publications

Sound gaps boost emotional audiovisual integration independent of attention: Evidence from an ERP study.

Biol Psychol 2021 Dec 28;168:108246. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Dalian 116029, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address:

The emotion discrimination paradigm was adopted to study the effect of interrupted sound on visual emotional processing under different attentional states. There were two experiments: Experiment 1: judging facial expressions (explicit task), Experiment 2: judging the position of a bar (implicit task). In Experiment 1, ERP results showed that there was a sound gap accelerating the effect of P1 present only under neutral faces. In Experiment 2, the accelerating effect (P1) existed regardless of the emotional condition. Combining two experiments, P1 findings suggest that sound gap enhances bottom-up attention. The N170 and late positive component (LPC) were found to be regulated by emotion face in both experiments, with fear over the neutral. Comparing the two experiments, the explicit task induced a larger LPC than the implicit task. Overall, sound gaps boosted the audiovisual integration by bottom-up attention in early integration, while cognitive expectations led to top-down attention in late stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2021.108246DOI Listing
December 2021

Characteristic Tearing Energy and Fatigue Crack Propagation of Filled Natural Rubber.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Nov 10;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China.

Below the incipient characteristic tearing energy (), cracks will not grow in rubber under fatigue loading. Hence, determination of the characteristic tearing energy is very important in the rubber industry. A rubber cutting experiment was conducted to determine the , using the cutting method proposed originally by Lake and Yeoh. Then, a fatigue crack propagation experiment on a edge-notched pure shear specimen under variable amplitude loading was studied. A method to obtain the crack propagation rate d/d from the relationship of the crack propagation length (Δ) with the number of cycles () is proposed. Finally, the obtained from the cutting method is compared with the value decided by the fatigue crack propagation experiment. The values of obtained from the two different methods are a little different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13223891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620932PMC
November 2021

Individualized Prediction of Females' Empathic Concern from Intrinsic Brain Activity within General Network of State Empathy.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China.

Empathy can be measured based on behavioral tasks and self-report scales, which have been used to characterize the state and trait empathy, respectively, in previous studies. The neural correlates of state empathy have been deeply investigated, whereas the association between trait empathy and brain activity remains unclear. Thus, this study employed multiple variate pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore whether intrinsic brain activity (IBA) within state-empathy-related regions was associated with trait empathy. Meta-analysis of empathy-related fMRI experiments identified a general network underlying state empathy, which is located in the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) extending to the middle cingulate cortex (MCC) and left anterior insula (AI) and extending to the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The subsequent MVPA found that empathic concern can be predicted through the IBA of the general network at the female individual level (i.e., the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity). Based on the resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), these results further support the involvement of SMA/MCC and AI/IFG in empathy. Meanwhile, the significant predictive association between IBA and trait empathy offers new insights into the general component of empathy, which may indicate the potential of using rs-fMRI to achieve the objective measurement of empathic ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00964-zDOI Listing
November 2021

Similar CNV Neurodynamic Patterns between Sub- and Supra-Second Time Perception.

Brain Sci 2021 Oct 16;11(10). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China.

In the field of time psychology, the functional significance of the contingent negative variation (CNV) component in time perception and whether the processing mechanisms of sub- and supra-second are similar or different still remain unclear. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) technology and classical temporal discrimination tasks were used to explore the neurodynamic patterns of sub- and supra-second time perception. In Experiment 1, the standard interval (SI) was fixed at 500 ms, and the comparison interval (CI) ranged from 200 ms to 800 ms. In Experiment 2, the SI was fixed at 2000 ms, and the CI ranged from 1400 ms to 2600 ms. Participants were required to judge whether the CI was longer or shorter than the SI. The ERP results showed similar CNV activity patterns in the two experiments. Specifically, CNV amplitude would be more negative when the CI was longer or closer to the memorized SI. CNV peak latency increased significantly until the CI reached the memorized SI. We propose that CNV amplitude might reflect the process of temporal comparison, and CNV peak latency might represent the process of temporal decision-making. To our knowledge, it is the first ERP task explicitly testing the two temporal scales, sub- and supra-second timing, in one study. Taken together, the present study reveals a similar functional significance of CNV between sub- and supra-second time perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11101362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8534208PMC
October 2021

Arithmetic performance is modulated by cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression: Evidence from behavioral and ERP findings.

Neuropsychologia 2021 11 12;162:108060. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China.

Previous studies have shown that negative emotional experiences are detrimental to individual's arithmetic performance, and no study has investigated whether such negative influence can be improved through emotional regulation. This study aimed to explore the relationship between emotion regulation and individual's performance in completing arithmetic problem verification task. Participants were asked to complete arithmetic problem verification task using the down-up strategy (e.g., doing 30 × 70 = 2100 for 34 × 67), under neutral, happy, and fear priming conditions, during which they were asked to regulate their emotional experience by using cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression. Behavioral results showed that, under happy priming condition, cognitive reappraisal (but not expression suppression) contributed to improving individual's estimation speed. Additionally, under happy and fear priming conditions, cognitive reappraisal (vs. expression suppression) reduced individuals' emotional experience intensity. The arithmetic problem verification task-related ERP results showed that the P1 amplitudes elicited by using cognitive reappraisal (vs. freely view) were larger under happy and fear priming conditions, but the P1 amplitudes elicited by using expression suppression were larger only under happy condition. Meanwhile, the corresponding N170 amplitudes were smaller when using cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression (vs. freely view). Additionally, using cognitive reappraisal (vs. expression suppression) cost less cognitive resource (smaller LPC amplitudes). The present study indicated that both cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression contributed to improving individual's arithmetic performance, and the regulation effect of cognitive reappraisal was better than that of expression suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.108060DOI Listing
November 2021

Separate neural networks of implicit emotional processing between pictures and words: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of brain imaging studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Dec 22;131:331-344. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Brain & Behaviour (INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

Both pictures and words are frequently employed as experimental stimuli to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms of emotional processing. However, it remains unclear whether emotional picture processing and emotional word processing share neural underpinnings. To address this issue, we focus on neuroimaging studies examining the implicit processing of affective words and pictures, which require participants to meet cognitive task demands under the implicit influence of emotional pictorial or verbal stimuli. A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was conducted on these studies, which revealed no common activation maximum between the picture and word conditions. Specifically, implicit negative picture processing (35 experiments, 393 foci, and 932 subjects) engages the bilateral amygdala, left hippocampus, fusiform gyri, and right insula, which are mainly located in the subcortical network and visual network associated with bottom-up emotional responses. In contrast, implicit negative word processing (34 experiments, 316 foci, and 799 subjects) engages the default mode network and fronto-parietal network including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, indicating the involvement of top-down semantic processing and emotion regulation. Our findings indicate that affective pictures (that intrinsically have an affective valence) and affective words (that inherit the affective valence from their object) modulate implicit emotional processing in different ways, and therefore recruit distinct brain systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.09.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8642299PMC
December 2021

An fMRI investigation of the intention-outcome interactions in second- and third-party punishment.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

Second-party punishment (SPP) and third-party punishment (TPP) are two basic forms of costly punishment that play an essential role in maintaining social orders. Despite scientific breakthroughs in understanding that costly punishment is driven by an integration of the wrongdoers' intention and the outcome of their actions, so far, few studies have compared the neurocognitive processes associated with the intention-outcome integration between SPP and TPP. Here, we combined economic exchange games measuring SPP and TPP with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neuropsychological architectures underlying the intention-outcome integration during one-shot interactions with anonymous partners across four types of norm violations (no norm, accidental, attempted, and intentional violations). Our behavioral findings showed that third-parties punished only attempted norm violations less frequently than second-parties. Our neuroimaging findings revealed higher activities in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for attempted norm violations during TPP relative to SPP; more activities in these regions with less punishment frequency; and enhancement of functional connectivity of the right TPJ with the right dlPFC and dorsomedial PFC. Our findings demonstrated specific psychological and neural mechanisms of intention-outcome interactions between SPP and TPP -helping to unravel the complex neurocognitive processes of costly punishment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00555-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Neurophysiological correlate of incubation of craving in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Nov 12;26(11):6198-6208. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Previous studies both in laboratory animals and humans have reported that abstinence induces incubation of cue-induced drug craving for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. However, current experimental procedures utilized to study incubation of methamphetamine craving do not incorporate the temporal dynamics of neuropsychological measures and electrophysiological activities associated with this incubation process. This study utilized the high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) signals as a rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive measure of cue-induced craving potential. A total of 156 male individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) enrolled in this multisite, cross-sectional study. Structured clinical interview data, self-report questionnaires (cued craving, quality of sleep, impulsivity, anxiety, and depression) and resting-state, eye-closed 128 high-density channel EEG signals were collected at 5 abstinence duration time points (<1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-12, and 12-24 months) to track the neuropsychological and neurophysiological signatures. Cue-induced craving was higher after 1-3 months than after the other time points. This incubation effect was also observed for sleep quality but not for anxiety, depression, and impulsivity symptoms, along with exhibited decreased power spectrum for theta (5.5-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz), and increased in beta (16.5-26.5 Hz) frequency band. Source reconstructed resting-state EEG analysis showed increased synchronization of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) for the beta frequency band in 1-3 months abstinent MUD group, and associated with the incubation of craving. Remarkably, the robust incubation-related abnormalities may be driven by beta-band source space connectivity between MPFC and bilateral orbital gyrus (ORB). Our findings suggest the enhancement of beta activity in the incubation period most likely originates from a dysfunction involving frontal brain regions. This neurophysiological signature of incubation of craving can be used to identify individuals who might be most susceptible to relapse, providing a potential insight into future therapeutic interventions for MUD via neuromodulation of beta activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01252-5DOI Listing
November 2021

High thermoelectric performance enabled by convergence of nested conduction bands in PbBiSe with low thermal conductivity.

Nat Commun 2021 Aug 9;12(1):4793. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Thermoelectrics enable waste heat recovery, holding promises in relieving energy and environmental crisis. Lillianite materials have been long-term ignored due to low thermoelectric efficiency. Herein we report the discovery of superior thermoelectric performance in PbBiSe based lillianites, with a peak figure of merit, zT of 1.35 at 800 K and a high average zT of 0.92 (450-800 K). A unique quality factor is established to predict and evaluate thermoelectric performances. It considers both band nonparabolicity and band gaps, commonly negligible in conventional quality factors. Such appealing performance is attributed to the convergence of effectively nested conduction bands, providing a high number of valley degeneracy, and a low thermal conductivity, stemming from large lattice anharmonicity, low-frequency localized Einstein modes and the coexistence of high-density moiré fringes and nanoscale defects. This work rekindles the vision that PbBiSe based lillianites are promising candidates for highly efficient thermoelectric energy conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25119-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352968PMC
August 2021

Hybrid System Combining Two-Dimensional Materials and Ferroelectrics and Its Application in Photodetection.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles 90024, California, United States.

Photodetectors are one of the most important components for a future "Internet-of-Things" information society. Compared to the mainstream semiconductor-based photodetectors, emerging devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials and ferroelectrics as well as their hybrid systems have been extensively studied in recent decades due to their outstanding performances and related interesting physical, electrical, and optoelectronic phenomena. In this paper, we review the photodetection based on 2D materials and ferroelectric hybrid systems. The fundamentals of 2D and ferroelectric materials as well as the interaction in the hybrid system will be introduced. Ferroelectricity modulated optoelectronic properties in the hybrid system will be discussed in detail. After the basics and figures of merit of photodetectors are summarized, the 2D-ferroelectrics devices with different structures including diodes, Schottky diodes, and field-effect transistors will be reviewed and compared. The polarization of ferroelectrics offers the possibility of the modulation and enhancement of the photodetection in the hybrid detectors, which will be discussed in depth. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of the photodetectors based on 2D ferroelectrics will be proposed. This Review outlines the important aspects of the recent development of the hybrid system of 2D and ferroelectric materials, which could interact with each other and thus lead to photodetectors with higher performances. Such a Review will be helpful for the research of emerging physical phenomena and for the design of multifunctional nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01735DOI Listing
June 2021

Intratracheal inoculation of AHc vaccine induces protection against aerosolized botulinum neurotoxin A challenge in mice.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Jun 22;6(1):87. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by Clostridium botulinum, is generally known to be the most poisonous of all biological toxins. In this study, we evaluate the protection conferred by intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation immunization with recombinant Hc subunit (AHc) vaccines against aerosolized BoNT/A intoxication. Three AHc vaccine formulations, i.e., conventional liquid, dry powder produced by spray freeze drying, and AHc dry powder reconstituted in water are prepared, and mice are immunized via i.t. inoculation or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Compared with s.c.-AHc-immunized mice, i.t.-AHc-immunized mice exhibit a slightly stronger protection against a challenge with 30,000× LD aerosolized BoNT/A. Of note, only i.t.-AHc induces a significantly higher level of toxin-neutralizing mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) production in the bronchoalveolar lavage of mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the immune protection conferred by the three formulations of AHc is comparable, while i.t. immunization of AHc is superior to s.c. immunization against aerosolized BoNT/A intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00349-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219734PMC
June 2021

A Nonlinear Fractional Viscoelastic-Plastic Creep Model of Asphalt Mixture.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China.

The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture under high stresses presents nonlinear viscoelasticity and permanent deformation. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional viscoelastic plastic (NFVEP) creep model for asphalt mixture is proposed based on the Nishihara model, with a Koeller spring-pot replacing the Newton dashpot. The NFVEP model considers the instantaneous elasticity, viscoelasticity with damage and time-hardening viscoplasticity with damage concurrently, and the viscoelastic response is modeled by fractional derivative viscoelasticity. To verify the model, uniaxial compressive creep tests under various stresses ranging from 0.4 MPa to 0.8 MPa were carried out at room temperature. The NFVEP model predictions are in good agreement with the experiments. The comparison with the modified Nishihara model and the Burgers model reveals the advantages of the NFVEP model. The results show that the NFVEP model, with the same set of parameters, can not only describe the primary and steady-state creep stages of asphalt mixture under low stress levels but also the whole creep process, including the tertiary creep stage, of asphalt mixture under high stress levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13081278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070944PMC
April 2021

A synaptic memristor based on two-dimensional layered WSe nanosheets with short- and long-term plasticity.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 29;13(13):6654-6660. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, 610066, China.

Neural synapses with diverse synaptic functions of short- and long-term plasticity are highly desired for developing complex neuromorphic systems. A memristor with its two terminals serving as pre- and post-neurons, respectively, can emulate two neuronal-based synaptic functions. In this work, multilayer two-dimensional (2D) layered WSe nanosheets are synthesized by a salt-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Two-terminal memristors with a planar structure are fabricated based on the CVD-grown triangular WSe nanosheets. The fabricated devices exhibit typical bipolar nonvolatile resistive switching behaviors with a high current ON/OFF ratio of up to 6 × 10 and good retention and endurance properties, suggesting good stability and reliability of the WSe-based memristors. Furthermore, the developed memristors demonstrate synaptic functions of short- and long-term plasticity (STP and LTP), as well as a transition from STP to LTP by applying consecutive pulse voltages. Moreover, the WSe-based memristors exhibits biological synaptic functions of long-term potentiation and depression, and paired-pulse facilitation. Thus, our 2D WSe nanosheet based memristors not only exhibit stable and reliable nonvolatile resistive switching behaviors, but also show potential applications in mimicking biological synapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08725dDOI Listing
April 2021

Low-spatial-frequency information facilitates threat detection in a response-specific manner.

J Vis 2021 04;21(4)

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, P. R. China.

The role of different spatial frequency bands in threat detection has been explored extensively. However, most studies use manual responses and the results are mixed. Here, we aimed to investigate the contribution of spatial frequency information to threat detection by using three response types, including manual responses, eye movements, and reaching movements, together with a priming paradigm. The results showed that both saccade and reaching responses were significantly faster to threatening stimuli than to nonthreatening stimuli when primed by low-spatial-frequency gratings rather than by high-spatial-frequency gratings. However, the manual response times to threatening stimuli were comparable to nonthreatening stimuli, irrespective of the spatial frequency content of the primes. The findings provide clear evidence that low-spatial-frequency information can facilitate threat detection in a response-specific manner, possibly through the subcortical magnocellular pathway dedicated to processing threat-related signals, which is automatically prioritized in the oculomotor system and biases behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/jov.21.4.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083122PMC
April 2021

A Solidly Mounted Resonator Fabricated by LiNbO Single-Crystalline Film on Flexible Polyimide Substrate.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Jul 29;68(7):2585-2589. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

A solidly mounted resonator on flexible polyimide (PI) substrate with high-effective coupling coefficient ( K ) of 14.06% is reported in this article. This high K is resulting from the LiNbO (LN) single-crystalline film and [SiO/Mo] Bragg reflector. The quality of LN film fabricated by the crystal-ion-slicing (CIS) technique using benzocyclobutene (BCB) bonding layer was close to the bulk crystalline LN. The interfaces of the Al/LN/Al/[SiO/Mo] Bragg reflector/BCB/PI multilayer are sharp, and the thickness of each layer is consistent with its design value. The resonant frequency and K keep stable when it is bent at different radii. These results demonstrate a feasible approach to realizing RF filters on flexible polymer substrates, which is an indispensable device for building integrated and multifunctional wireless flexible electronic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3066589DOI Listing
July 2021

Emotional valence modulates arithmetic strategy execution in priming paradigm: an event-related potential study.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Apr 8;239(4):1151-1163. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China.

Combined with the prime paradigm, the present study aimed to explore the influence of emotion (anger, fear, happiness, and neutral) on performing multiplication estimation. Participants were asked to complete a two-digit multiplication estimation task using the down-up strategy (e.g., doing 20 × 80 = 1600 for 24 × 79). Behavioral results showed that the reaction time for completing multiplication estimation tasks under happy conditions was shorter than for those under anger and fear, and it was shorter under neutral than under fearful conditions. The ERP results showed that about 100 ms after multiplication estimation task onset, multiplication estimation execution in the context of happiness (vs. neutral) elicited smaller P1 amplitudes; about 170 ms after multiplication estimation task onset, the N170 amplitudes elicited by multiplication estimation strategy execution under different emotional priming conditions showed no significant differences. The above results showed that the impact of emotion priming demonstrates the occurrence of a dynamic process when participants use a specified strategy to complete the multiplication estimation task. The present study revealed that emotional valence modulated arithmetic strategy execution, suggesting the role of different emotions should be fully considered in similar study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06048-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Context-based interpersonal relationship modulates social comparison between outcomes: an event-related potential study.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 03;16(4):439-452

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China.

Social comparison is a common behavior that largely determines people's experience of decision outcome. Previous research has showed that interpersonal relationship plays a pivotal role in social comparison. In the current study, we investigated whether the manipulation of context-based relationship would affect participants' comparison of self-outcome and other-outcome. Participants first finished a trust game with likeable (dislikeable) partner and then they were involved in a gambling task and observed the outcomes for themselves and for partners. According to self-reports, participants were more satisfied with likeable partner's gains than losses only when they received gains, but they were always more satisfied with dislikeable player's losses compared to gains. Event-related potentials including the feedback-related negativity (FRN), P3 and late positive component (LPC) were sensitive to context-based relationship. Specifically, the prediction error signal (indexed by the FRN) was largest when participants received losses but dislikeable player received gains. Meanwhile, the P3 indicates that participants had stronger motivation to outperform dislikeable player. Finally, the LPC was larger when participants received the same outcomes with dislikeable players. In general, our results support the key point of the self-evaluation maintenance model that personal closeness modulates subjective sensitivity when drawing a comparison of one's outcomes with other's outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990070PMC
March 2021

Categorical perception of color decreases in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 02 17;296:113657. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, Liaoning, China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Dalian, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113657DOI Listing
February 2021

Distraction and expressive suppression strategies in down-regulation of high- and low-intensity positive emotions.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 12 17;158:56-61. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Province, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Emotion intensity is important for emotional regulation process. The studies in this literature, however, have generally focused on the down-regulation of negative emotions. Few studies have examined the down-regulation of positive emotions. Distraction and expressive suppression belong to disengagement strategies, which direct coping efforts away from emotions. Participants are more likely to select distraction and expressive suppression when motivated to down-regulate their emotions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of emotional intensity on down-regulating positive emotions via distraction and expressive suppression. The event-related potentials (ERPs) of college students were recorded while they were instructed to down-regulate positive emotions using expressive suppression or distraction versus free viewing when exposed to high- and low-intensity pleasant stimuli. Subsequently, participants were instructed to rate their positive experience using a 9-point scale. Supporting our predictions, behavioral results showed that both strategies could dramatically reduce high-intensity positive experience relative to viewing, and distraction led to a larger reduction of high-intensity positive experience than expressive suppression. Both strategies could not decrease low-intensity positive experience relative to viewing. ERP results showed that distraction successfully attenuated the early (500-700 ms) and late (700-1500 ms) stage of late positive potential (LPP) in high-intensity, and in low-intensity it modulated the early (but not late) LPP relative to viewing. Unexpectedly, expressive suppression effectively attenuated the early and late LPP in high- and low-intensity relative to viewing. The findings suggest that expressive suppression and distraction can effectively down-regulate positive emotions; however, distraction is more susceptible to emotional intensity and time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.09.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Construction of a Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain of EV76-B-SHUΔ and Evaluation of Its Protection Efficacy in a Mouse Model by Aerosolized Intratracheal Inoculation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 8;10:473. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Plague, which is caused by , is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. No FDA-approved vaccine against plague is available for human use at present. To improve the immune safety of EV76 based live attenuated vaccine and to explore the feasibility of aerosolized intratracheal inoculation (i.t.) route for vaccine delivery, a plasminogen activator protease () gene deletion mutant of the attenuated strain EV76-B-SHU was constructed, and its residual virulence and protective efficacy were evaluated in a mouse model via aerosolized intratracheal inoculation (i.t.) or via subcutaneous injection (s.c.). The residual virulence of EV76-B-SHUΔ was significantly reduced compared to that of the parental strain EV76-B-SHU following i.t. and s.c. infection. The EV76-B-SHUΔ induced higher levels of mucosal antibody sIgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice immunized by i.t. but not by s.c.. Moreover, after lethal challenge with biovar Microtus strain 201 (avirulent in humans), the protective efficacy and bacterial clearance ability of the EV76-B-SHUΔ-i.t. group were comparable to those of the EV76-B-SHUΔ-s.c. and EV76-B-SHU immunized groups. Thus, the EV76-B-SHUΔ represents an excellent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague and aerosolized i.t. represents a promising immunization route in mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509399PMC
June 2021

Prediction of trust propensity from intrinsic brain morphology and functional connectome.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 01 1;42(1):175-191. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.

Trust forms the basis of virtually all interpersonal relationships. Although significant individual differences characterize trust, the driving neuropsychological signatures behind its heterogeneity remain obscure. Here, we applied a prediction framework in two independent samples of healthy participants to examine the relationship between trust propensity and multimodal brain measures. Our multivariate prediction analyses revealed that trust propensity was predicted by gray matter volume and node strength across multiple regions. The gray matter volume of identified regions further enabled the classification of individuals from an independent sample with the propensity to trust or distrust. Our modular and functional decoding analyses showed that the contributing regions were part of three large-scale networks implicated in calculus-based trust strategy, cost-benefit calculation, and trustworthiness inference. These findings do not only deepen our neuropsychological understanding of individual differences in trust propensity, but also provide potential biomarkers in predicting trust impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721234PMC
January 2021

The influence of the cross-modal emotional pre-preparation effect on audiovisual integration.

Neuroreport 2020 11;31(16):1161-1166

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University.

Previous studies have shown that the cross-modal pre-preparation effect is an important factor for audiovisual integration. However, the facilitating influence of the pre-preparation effect on the integration of emotional cues remains unclear. Therefore, this study examined the emotional pre-preparation effect during the multistage process of audiovisual integration. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a synchronous or asynchronous integration task with fearful or neutral stimuli. The results indicated that, compared with the sum of the unisensory presentation of visual (V) and auditory (A) stimuli (A+V), only fearful audiovisual stimuli induced a decreased N1 and an enhanced P2; this was not found for the neutral stimuli. Moreover, the fearful stimuli triggered a larger P2 than the neutral stimuli in the audiovisual condition, but not in the sum of the combined (A+V) waveforms. Our findings imply that, in the early perceptual processing stage and perceptual fine processing stage, fear improves the processing efficiency of the emotional audiovisual integration. In the last cognitively assessing stage, the fearful audiovisual induced a larger late positive component (LPC) than the neutral audiovisual. Moreover, the asynchronous-audiovisual induced a greater LPC than the synchronous-audiovisual during the 400-550 ms period. The different integration effects between the fearful and neutral stimuli may reflect the existence of distinct mechanisms of the pre-preparation in terms of the emotional dimension. In light of these results, we present a cross-modal emotional pre-preparation effect involving a three-phase emotional audiovisual integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001530DOI Listing
November 2020

Low-spatial-frequency priming potentiates the high-level mechanisms of contextual influence.

Vision Res 2020 12 6;177:1-5. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, PR China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Province, Dalian, PR China. Electronic address:

The context sensitivity of visual size perception can be enhanced by prior exposure to low-spatial-frequency (LSF) relative to high-spatial-frequency information. Whether LSF priming affects low- or high-level mechanisms of contextual influence remains to be clarified. By using the Ebbinghaus illusion, which is a classic example of context-dependent size perception, we reduced the lightness contrast of surrounding inducers relative to the background and the shape similarity of the central target and surrounding inducers to diminish or eliminate low-level contour interaction and high-level size contrast, respectively. The results showed that LSF-related enhancement of context influence was unaffected by a change to the surround elements' contrast but not by a change to the shape similarity between the target and surround. The findings provide evidence that LSF priming primarily affects high-level rather than low-level mechanisms of contextual influence, possibly by weakening the suppressive function of feedback connections from higher visual regions to the early visual cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2020.07.016DOI Listing
December 2020

Kinematic dataset of actors expressing emotions.

Sci Data 2020 09 8;7(1):292. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, Liaoning, China.

Human body movements can convey a variety of emotions and even create advantages in some special life situations. However, how emotion is encoded in body movements has remained unclear. One reason is that there is a lack of public human body kinematic dataset regarding the expressing of various emotions. Therefore, we aimed to produce a comprehensive dataset to assist in recognizing cues from all parts of the body that indicate six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise) and neutral expression. The present dataset was created using a portable wireless motion capture system. Twenty-two semi-professional actors (half male) completed performances according to the standardized guidance and preferred daily events. A total of 1402 recordings at 125 Hz were collected, consisting of the position and rotation data of 72 anatomical nodes. To our knowledge, this is now the largest emotional kinematic dataset of the human body. We hope this dataset will contribute to multiple fields of research and practice, including social neuroscience, psychiatry, computer vision, and biometric and information forensics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00635-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478954PMC
September 2020

Author Correction: Snow depths' impact on soil microbial activities and carbon dioxide fluxes from a temperate wetland in Northeast China.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 15;10(1):11962. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69047-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360546PMC
July 2020

Anodal tDCS of right temporo-parietal junction promotes threat detection in low-spatial-frequency channels.

Neuropsychologia 2020 09 3;146:107552. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, PR China; Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Province, Dalian, PR China. Electronic address:

Fast detection of threat is crucial for survival. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of low- and high-spatial-frequency (LSF and HSF) information in the process of threat detection. However, the specific contributions of LSF and HSF information to it are still controversial. Here we probed this issue by utilizing a prime procedure coupled with the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique. Specifically, in a single-blind design, participants were exposed to LSF or HSF faces prior to the presentation of looming or receding spheres. Meanwhile, tDCS was applied over the right or left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which has been found to be preferentially associated with the processing of LSF and HSF information, respectively. The results showed significant LSF-related facilitation of threat detection when anodal tDCS was applied to the right TPJ. However, HSF-related facilitation of threat detection was not observed when anodal tDCS was applied to the left TPJ. The findings support the idea that LSF information can facilitate threat detection, and provide direct evidence that the right TPJ is vital for LSF-related facilitation of threat detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107552DOI Listing
September 2020

The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cue-induced craving in male patients with heroin use disorder.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jun 5;56:102809. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Craving is a central feature of addiction. Early evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is effective in reducing cue induced craving for patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). However, trials in large populations of patients with OUDs are lacking.

Methods: We randomly assigned 118 male heroin patients into three groups (i.e., 10 Hz rTMS, 1 Hz rTMS and a wait-list control group) from two addiction rehabilitation centers. rTMS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 20 daily consecutive sessions.

Findings: Results showed that 10 Hz rTMS and 1 Hz rTMS were both effective in reducing cue-induced craving scores in heroin users when compared to the wait list group. The treatment effects lasted for up to 60 days after rTMS treatment cessation.

Interpretation: Our results suggest that rTMS applied to the DLPFC is effective in reducing craving severity in heroin use disorder patients. Our results also suggest that such treatment effects can last for up to 60 days after treatment cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276507PMC
June 2020

The effects of DLPFC-targeted repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on craving in male methamphetamine patients.

Clin Transl Med 2020 Jun 5;10(2):e48. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403828PMC
June 2020

Snow depths' impact on soil microbial activities and carbon dioxide fluxes from a temperate wetland in Northeast China.

Sci Rep 2020 05 26;10(1):8709. Epub 2020 May 26.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China, 130117.

Snow depth may have a complex influence on carbon cycling in winter. Here we set up a field experiment to investigate how different snow depths (0 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm) influenced carbon dioxide (CO) in a wetland. The mean ± standard error of CO emissions under snow addition treatments (60 cm and 90 cm snow depths) were 0.92 ± 0.16 g·cm·s and 0.53 ± 0.16 g·cm·s, respectively, compared with snow removal treatment (0 cm snow depth), 0.11 ± 0.05 g·cm·s. In general, snow addition increased CO fluxes significantly. As snow depths increased, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and bacterial diversities increased drastically. More important, the community of bacteria differed under different treatments. Firmicutes, which can resist dehydration and extremely low temperatures, was widely distributed in the snow removal treatment, where it sustained soil biochemical processes. Overall, our study indicates that snow cover counteracts the negative effects on soil microbial activities caused by low temperatures and could play a critical role in winter carbon cycling in wetlands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65569-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250892PMC
May 2020

Fatigue Life Assessment of Filled Rubber by Hysteresis Induced Self-Heating Temperature.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 7;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Engineering Safety, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China.

As a viscohyperelastic material, filled rubber is widely used as a damping element in mechanical engineering and vehicle engineering. Academic and industrial researchers commonly need to evaluate the fatigue life of these rubber components under cyclic load, quickly and efficiently. The currently used method for fatigue life evaluation is based on the S-N curve, which requires very long and costly fatigue tests. In this paper, fatigue-to-failure experiments were conducted using an hourglass rubber specimen; during testing, the surface temperature of the specimen was measured with a thermal imaging camera. Due to the hysteresis loss during cyclic deformation, the temperature of the material was found to first rise and then level off to a steady state temperature, and then it rose sharply again as failure approached. The S-N curve in the traditional sense was experimentally determined using the maximum principal strain as the fatigue parameter, and a relationship between the steady state temperature increase and the maximum principal strain was then established. Consequently, the steady state temperature increase was connected with the fatigue life. A couple of thousand cycles was sufficient for the temperature to reach its steady state value during fatigue testing, which was less than one tenth of the fatigue life, so the fatigue life of the rubber component could be efficiently assessed by the steady state temperature increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12040846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240466PMC
April 2020
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