Publications by authors named "Wenbin Liu"

490 Publications

Efficiency and safety of eltrombopag for multi-line failed Chinese patients with immune thrombocytopenia: cases with decreased megakaryocyte response well from single-center experience.

Immunol Res 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

The First School of Clinical Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was defined using the International Consensus Guidelines as a platelet count <100×10/L in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia. For patients without response to first-line treatment or refractory, TPO receptor agonist (RA) is an ideal choice. This study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of eltrombopag for multi-line failed Chinese patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and analyze the possible factors that may contribute to the differences based on personal characteristics. Thirty-five multi-line failed ITP patients who received eltrombopag treatment were enrolled retrospectively at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University from January 2018 to August 2020. The general information, peripheral hemogram changes, count of bone marrow megakaryocyte (MK), peripheral T cell subsets were recorded, the response, and adverse effects, was evaluated. Results showed that the overall, complete, and partial response rates were 54.3% (n=19), 48.6% (n=17), and 5.7% (n=2) respectively to eltrombopag in our center. The overall response rate of patients with decreased MK was 70%, which was unexpectedly higher than that of the patient with increased or normal MK count (52.9% and 40%, respectively). For patients with poorer eltrombopag response group, more NK cells were found in peripheral blood, and the patient with decreased MK have a higher level of T helper (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Nine eltrombopag-related adverse events were reported, and most commonly were upper respiratory tract infection (8.6%), elevated alanine transaminase (ALT, 5.7%), and venous thrombosis (5.7%). In conclusion, this study revealed that ITP patients with decreased megakaryocyte respond well to eltrombopag, and the abnormality of NK cells may play a role in patients with a poor eltrombopag response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-021-09245-wDOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of functional polymorphism on renal cell carcinoma is influenced by tumor necrosis factor-α and transcriptional repressor ETS1.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(9):4347-4363. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University Shanghai 200433, China.

Human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) 3 cytidine deaminases are the prominent drivers of somatic mutations in cancers. However, the effect of functional polymorphisms on the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown. Five genetic polymorphisms affecting the expression of APOBEC3A (A3A), APOBEC3B, and APOBEC4 and uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) were genotyped in 728 RCC patients and 1500 healthy controls. The effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 on the activity of the promoter with rs12157810-A or -C in four RCC cell lines (786-O, A498, Caki2, ACHN) and two colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW620) were evaluated using dual-luciferase assays. Transcriptional repressors to the promoter were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR. The proapoptotic effect of on RCC cells was evaluated using cytometry. The prognostic values of A3A and ETS1 were evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. The expressions of A3A and ETS1 were evaluated in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) specimens with different polymorphic genotypes using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Of those functional polymorphisms, CC genotype at rs12157810 in the promoter was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ccRCC, compared to the AA genotype (odds ratio adjusted for age and gender, 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.57). Other polymorphic genotypes were not associated with the risk of RCC. The activity of the promoter with rs12157810-C was significantly higher than that with rs12157810-A in the four RCC cell lines and two colorectal cancer cell lines. The activity of the promoter with rs12157810-C was greatly up-regulated by TNFα and predominantly inhibited by a transcriptional repressor ETS1. The binding of ETS1 to the promoter with rs12157810-C was looser than that with rs12157810-A. Ectopic expression of significantly promoted apoptosis in ccRCC cells, rather than in colorectal cancer cells. Higher ETS1 expression predicted a favorable prognosis in ccRCC, with a hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.78). Rs121567810-C up-regulates the promoter activity, possibly due to higher response to TNFα and looser transcriptional repression by ETS1. Up-regulation of A3A increases apoptosis, thus decreasing ccRCC risk in those carrying rs121567810-C.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493372PMC
September 2021

Occurrence, spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters in water, soil and sediment from Yangtze River Delta, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 14:150966. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310000, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430056, China; College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

A total of 96 water, soil, and sediment samples, collected from 32 sampling sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, were analyzed for 9 phthalate esters (PAEs). The sum concentrations of 9 PAEs (∑PAEs) in the water, soil, and sediment samples were 2.23-6.30 μg L (mean: 4.11 μg L), 155-1410 μg kg (408 μg kg), and 30.1-16,000 μg kg (1200 μg kg), respectively. Among the 9 PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) are the predominant congeners in the YRD region. DBP was the dominant PAE congener in water, accounting for 50.6% of the ΣPAEs, while DEHP was the predominant one in soil and sediment (accounting for 69.6% and 83.1% of the ΣPAEs, respectively). Soil and sediment samples collected from Wuxi city manifested relatively higher PAE concentrations. The partitioning of PAEs between water and sediment was attributed to the fact that low molecular weight PAEs (e.g., dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate) were dominant in water, medium molecular weight PAEs (e.g., BzBP) were close to the equilibrium between sediment-water, and high molecular weight PAEs (e.g., DEHP) were more prevalent in sediment. The ecological risk assessment of PAEs in the surface water showed that the potential environmental risks followed the order of DEHP > DIBP > DBP > DMP > DEP. Comparatively, DEHP posed high ecological risk to sensitive algae, crustaceans and fish, while DMP and DEP exhibited low risk. In the sediment, DIBP exhibited a high risk to the sensitive fish, whereas DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP displayed no risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150966DOI Listing
October 2021

Occurrence of Phthalates in Bottled Drinks in the Chinese Market and Its Implications for Dietary Exposure.

Molecules 2021 Oct 6;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Ubiquitous occurrences of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) or phthalates in a variety of consumer products have been demonstrated. Nevertheless, studies on their occurrence in various types of bottled drinks are limited. In this study, fifteen PAEs were analyzed in six categories of bottled drinks ( = 105) collected from the Chinese market, including mineral water, tea drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, soft drinks, and beer. Among the 15 PAEs measured, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate with concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 41,000 ng/L at a detection rate (DR) of 96%, followed by DIBP (DR: 88%) and DBP (DR: 84%) with respective concentration ranges of below LOQ to 16,000 and to 4900 ng/L. At least one PAE was detected in each drink sample, and the sum concentrations of 15 PAEs ranged from 770 to 48,004 ng/L (median: 6286 ng/L). Significant differences with respect to both PAE concentrations and composition profiles were observed between different types of bottled drinks. The median sum concentration of 15 PAEs in soft drinks was over five times higher than that detected in mineral water; different from other drink types. Besides DEHP, DBIP, and DBP, a high concentration of BMEP was also detected in a tea drink. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI) through the consumption of bottled drinks was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of bottled drink items. The EDI values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BMEP, DAP, BEEP, BBP, DCP, DHP, BMPP, BBEP, DEHP, DOP, and DNP through the consumption of bottled mineral water (based on mean concentrations) were 0.45, 0.33, 12.5, 3.67, 2.10, 0.06, 0.32, 0.16, 0.10, 0.09, 0.05, 0.81, 112, 0.13, and 0.20 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. Overall, the EDI values calculated for phthalates through the consumption of bottled drinks were below the oral reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511988PMC
October 2021

Investigation on Distribution and Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil in a Chemical Industrial Park and Adjacent Area.

Molecules 2021 Oct 2;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The occurrences, distributions, and risks of 55 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water, sediment, sludge, and soil samples taken from a chemical industrial park and the adjacent area were investigated in this study. The Σ-VOCs concentrations in the water, sediment, sludge, and soil samples were 1.22-5449.21 μg L, ND-52.20 ng g, 21.53 ng g, and ND-11.58 ng g, respectively. The main products in this park are medicines, pesticides, and novel materials. As for the species of VOCs, aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant VOCs in the soil samples, whereas halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons were the dominant VOCs in the water samples. The VOCs concentrations in water samples collected at different locations varied by 1-3 orders of magnitude, and the average concentration in river water inside the park was obviously higher than that in river water outside the park. However, the risk quotients for most of the VOCs indicated a low risk to the relevant, sensitive aquatic organisms in the river water. The average VOCs concentration in soil from the park was slightly higher than that from the adjacent area. This result showed that the chemical industrial park had a limited impact on the surrounding soil, while the use of pesticides, incomplete combustion of coal and biomass, and automobile exhaust emissions are all potential sources of the VOCs in the environmental soil. The results of this study could be used to evaluate the effects of VOCs emitted from chemical production and transportation in the park on the surrounding environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512396PMC
October 2021

Protective effects of dietary icariin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatopancreas injury in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 29;251:109192. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Nutrition and Feed Science of Jiangsu Province, National Experimental Teaching Center for Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang Road, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

To investigate the effects of dietary icariin (ICA) supplementation on acute oxidative stress and hepatopancreatic injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in Eriocheir sinensis, an 8-week feeding trial of crabs was conducted using 4 diets with different supplementation levels of ICA (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg diet weight, respectively), and then challenged with LPS of 400 μg/kg body weight for 6 h. Results showed that 100 mg/kg ICA supplementation increased the antioxidant capacity, reduced the stress-related indicators in haemolymph, strengthen the mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduce apoptosis compared to the single LPS-treated crabs. The expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins were also evaluated to further understand the effects of dietary ICA pretreatment on LPS-induced cell apoptosis. As a result, dietary 100 mg/kg diet weight ICA pre-addition significantly down-regulated the expression of HSP60, HSP70, Caspase 3c, Caspase 8, Caspase 3, Caspase 9, P38, and Bax (P < 0.05), and alleviated the suppressed expression of PI3K, AKT, MEK, and Bcl-2 (P < 0.05) in crabs challenged with LPS. Overall, this research reveals that ICA supplementation of 100 mg/kg diet weight could enhance the resistance to oxidative damage and apoptosis in E. sinensis facing LPS challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109192DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting Norovirus in the United States Using Google Trends: Infodemiology Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 09 29;23(9):e24554. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Digital Medicine Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Norovirus is a contagious disease. The transmission of norovirus spreads quickly and easily in various ways. Because effective methods to prevent or treat norovirus have not been discovered, it is important to rapidly recognize and report norovirus outbreaks in the early phase. Internet search has been a useful method for people to access information immediately. With the precise record of internet search trends, internet search has been a useful tool to manifest infectious disease outbreaks.

Objective: In this study, we tried to discover the correlation between internet search terms and norovirus infection.

Methods: The internet search trend data of norovirus were obtained from Google Trends. We used cross-correlation analysis to discover the temporal correlation between norovirus and other terms. We also used multiple linear regression with the stepwise method to recognize the most important predictors of internet search trends and norovirus. In addition, we evaluated the temporal correlation between actual norovirus cases and internet search terms in New York, California, and the United States as a whole.

Results: Some Google search terms such as gastroenteritis, watery diarrhea, and stomach bug coincided with norovirus Google Trends. Some Google search terms such as contagious, travel, and party presented earlier than norovirus Google Trends. Some Google search terms such as dehydration, bar, and coronavirus presented several months later than norovirus Google Trends. We found that fever, gastroenteritis, poison, cruise, wedding, and watery diarrhea were important factors correlated with norovirus Google Trends. In actual norovirus cases from New York, California, and the United States as a whole, some Google search terms presented with, earlier, or later than actual norovirus cases.

Conclusions: Our study provides novel strategy-based internet search evidence regarding the epidemiology of norovirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24554DOI Listing
September 2021

Partitioning and potential sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes in water-sediment system from the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 15;287(Pt 3):132265. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Spatial trends, partitioning behavior, and potential sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in water-sediment system from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were investigated in this study. The total concentrations of 75 PCNs in water and sediment samples were 0.022-0.310 ng/L and 0.01-1.59 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The homolog patterns in the sediment and water samples were somewhat different. Di-to tetra-CNs made larger contributions in the sediment, while the mono-to tri-CNs were dominant homologs in the water. Overall, the low-chlorinated naphthalenes (mono-to tetra-CNs) were found to be the dominant homologs in the YRD water and sediment samples, and the homolog group contributions to the total PCNs concentrations decreased as the number of chlorine atoms increased. CN-5/7 and CN-24/14 were found at high concentrations in both the water and sediment. Partitioning and transfer of PCNs between water and sediment were assessed by calculating the partition coefficients and fugacity fractions. The partition coefficients showed that PCNs were not in equilibrium status in the water-sediment system, and hydrophobicity played an important role in PCNs partitioning. The fugacity fractions indicated that mono- to tri-CNs had stronger tendencies to escape from the sediment into the water, while the high-chlorinated naphthalenes close to equilibrium. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis indicated that industrial thermal processes and the use and disposal of products containing PCNs industrial products are sources of PCNs in the YRD water-sediment system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132265DOI Listing
September 2021

Glucose Intolerance and Cancer Risk: A Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Shanghai, China.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:726672. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cancer becomes the leading cause of premature death in China. Primary objective of this study was to determine the major risk factors especially glucose intolerance for cancer prophylaxis.

Methods: A cluster sampling method was applied to enroll 10,657 community-based adults aged 15-92 years in Shanghai, China in 2013. A structured questionnaire and physical examination were applied in baseline survey. Prediabetes was diagnosed using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. After excluding 1433 subjects including 224 diagnosed with cancer before and 1 year after baseline survey, the remaining 9,224 subjects were followed-up to December 31, 2020.

Results: A total of 502 new cancer cases were diagnosed. The cancer incidence was 10.29, 9.20, and 5.95/1,000 person-years in diabetes patients, those with prediabetes, and healthy participants, respectively (<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that age, prediabetes and diabetes, were associated with an increased risk of cancer in those <65 years, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes and diabetes were, 1.49(1.09-2.02) and 1.51(1.12-2.02), respectively. Glucose intolerance (prediabetes and diabetes) were associated with increased risks of stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, and kidney cancer in those <65 years. Anti-diabetic medications reduced the risk of cancer caused by diabetes. The multivariate Cox analysis showed that age, male, <9 years of education, and current smoking were associated with increased risks of cancer in those ≥65 years independently.

Conclusions: Glucose intolerance is the prominent cancer risk factor in adults <65 years. Lifestyle intervention and medications to treat glucose intolerance help prevent cancer in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.726672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435720PMC
August 2021

Implementation efficiency of the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system in China: A case study of primary medical and health institutions in Fujian province.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

The hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system is at the core of China's new round of medical reforms. We evaluated the operational efficiency of the hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system in primary medical and health institutions in Fujian Province. We used the data envelopment analysis algorithm to calculate 'input-output' data from 2016 to 2018 and established an index system. Regarding results for efficiency value, the implementation efficiency of Xiamen was 1.15, Fuzhou was 1.10, Zhangzhou was 1.09, Ningde was 1.06, Quanzhou was 0.98, Nanping was 0.96, Putian was 0.94, Longyan was 0.92, Sanming was 0.86, and Pingtan was 0.82. There were few and insufficient doctors providing services; in 2018, the number of practicing (assistant) doctors per 1000 permanent residents in primary medical institutions in Fujian was only 0.799. Outpatient and emergency service visits were increasing yearly; in Fujian, they increased by 8.39% from 2016 to 2018. From the incentive system of hierarchical diagnosis and treatment, the redundancy rate of each city was generally high, with only that of Nanping (3.28%) and Longyan (0.00%) being lower. In general, for the hierarchical medical system to succeed, we should start with innovative management policy and explore ways to adapt to local circumstances (such as population, economy, etc.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3333DOI Listing
September 2021

PTPN18 promotes colorectal cancer progression by regulating the c-MYC-CDK4 axis.

Genes Dis 2021 Nov 25;8(6):838-848. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430072, PR China.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 18 (PTPN18) is often highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but its role in this disease remains unclear. We demonstrated that PTPN18 overexpression promotes growth and tumorigenesis in CRC cells and that PTPN18 deficiency yields the opposite results . Moreover, a xenograft assay showed that PTPN18 deficiency significantly inhibited tumorigenesis . PTPN18 activated the MYC signaling pathway and enhanced CDK4 expression, which is tightly associated with the cell cycle and proliferation in cancer cells. Finally, we found that MYC interacted with PTPN18 and increased the protein level of MYC. In conclusion, our results suggest that PTPN18 promotes CRC development by stabilizing the MYC protein level, which in turn activates the MYC-CDK4 axis. Thus, PTPN18 could be a novel therapeutic target in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2020.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427258PMC
November 2021

Distributions of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes in Sediments of the Yangtze River, China.

Molecules 2021 Aug 31;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The pollution status of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the sediment of the Yangtze River Basin, Asia's largest river basin, was estimated. The total concentrations of PCNs (mono- to octa-CNs) ranged from 0.103 to 1.631 ng/g. Mono-, di-, and tri-PCNs-consisting of CN-1, CN-5/7, and CN-24/14, respectively, as the main congeners-were the dominant homolog groups. Combustion indicators and principal component analysis showed that the emissions from halowax mixtures were the main contributor to PCNs in sediment, among most of the sampling sites. The mean total toxic equivalent (TEQ) was calculated to be 0.045 ± 0.077 pg TEQ/g, which indicates that the PCNs in sediments were of low toxicity to aquatic organisms. This work will expand the database on the distribution and characteristics of PCNs in the river sediment of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434358PMC
August 2021

The dependence of CuO morphology on different surfactants and its application for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Aug 30;208:112087. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110819, China. Electronic address:

Herein, the CuO yolk-shell nanospheres, nanocubes and microcubes were successfully prepared by a simple seed-medium process. The formation of the CuO yolk-shell nanospheres can be attributed to the self-assembly process caused by the introduction of the seed medium. The formation mechanism of our obtained CuO yolk-shell nanospheres and the dependence of CuO morphology on different surfactants have been studied. The obtained samples were applied in the field of non-enzymatic glucose detection. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrodes toward glucose were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The electrode modified with C-CuO (obtained by using CTAB as surfactant) shared the highest sensitivity of 3123 μAmM cm, whereas, the electrode modified with S-CuO (obtained by using SDBS as surfactant) exhibited the lowest LOD of 0.87 μM and the widest linear range of 0.05-10.65 mM. All obtained sensors showed fast response to the addition of glucose. The obtained electrodes showed better responses to glucose than other coexisting interferences, indicating that the obtained electrodes had the acceptable selectivity to glucose. In addition, the stability for 5 consecutive weeks had also been studied and exhibited satisfactory results. The obtained electrode was also used to detect the glucose content in real serum. The acceptable selectivity, stability together with the excellent sensing ability in real serum make the obtained electrodes a potential for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.112087DOI Listing
August 2021

First derivative synchronous fluorometric method to continuously measure monophenolase activity.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Oct 27;150:109884. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China. Electronic address:

Tyrosinase plays an essential role in melanin biosynthesis and inherently exhibits both monophenolase and diphenolase activity. A first derivative synchronous fluorometric assay was established for directly monitoring monophenolase activity. The zero-crossing point at 322 nm for the first-derivative under synchronous fluorescence with Δλ = 67 nm was utilized to selectively quantify tyrosine in the presence of the reaction product dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). The limit of detection (LOD) for tyrosine was 0.54 μM. The fluorescence intensity of tyrosine was monitored at intervals of 30 s to establish the time course of tyrosine consumption. The LOD for the monophenolase activity was 0.0706 U⋅ mL. The Michaelis-Menten e constant and maximum speed were 21.83 μM and 1.12 μM min, respectively. Zinc ions competitively inhibited the monophenolase activity, with an IC value of 14.36 μM. This assay is easily and rapidly executed and is of great significance for analyzing the kinetics of enzymatic reactions and in fundamental research on monophenolase. This approach has potential applications in the discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors for medicine and cosmetics, as well as in the industrial synthesis of substituted o-diphenol intermediates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2021.109884DOI Listing
October 2021

A Hierarchical Error Correction Strategy for Text DNA Storage.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institution of Computational Science and Technology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

DNA storage has been a thriving interdisciplinary research area because of its high density, low maintenance cost, and long durability for information storage. However, the complexity of errors in DNA sequences including substitutions, insertions and deletions hinders its application for massive data storage. Motivated by the divide-and-conquer algorithm, we propose a hierarchical error correction strategy for text DNA storage. The basic idea is to design robust codes for common characters which have one-base error correction ability including insertion and/or deletion. The errors are gradually corrected by the codes in DNA reads, multiple alignment of character lines, and finally word spelling. On one hand, the proposed encoding method provides a systematic way to design storage friendly codes, such as 50% GC content, no more than 2-base homopolymers, and robustness against secondary structures. On the other hand, the proposed error correction method not only corrects single insertion or deletion, but also deals with multiple insertions or deletions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can correct more than 98% errors when error rate is less than or equal to 0.05. Thus, it is more powerful and adaptable to the complicated DNA storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-021-00476-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Genome-wide analyses of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter gene family and its expression profile related to deltamethrin tolerance in non-biting midge Propsilocerus akamusi.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Oct 19;239:105940. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Animal Diversity, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Non-biting midges are dominant species in aquatic systems and often used for studying the toxicological researches of insecticides. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent the largest known members in detoxification genes but is little known about their function in non-biting midges. Here, we selected Propsilocerus akamusi, widespread in urban streams, to first uncover the gene structure, location, characteristics, and phylogenetics of chironomid ABC transporters at genome-scale. Fifty-seven ABC transporter genes are located on four chromosomes, including eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). The ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies experienced the duplication events to different degrees. The study showed that expression of the PaABCG17 gene is uniquely significantly elevated, with deltamethrin concentration increasing (1, 4, and 20 ug/L) both in RNA-seq and qPCR results. Additionally, the ABC transporter members of other six chironomids with assembled genomes are first described and used to investigate the characteristic of those living in the different adverse habitats. The ABC transporter frame for Propsilocerus akamusi and its transcriptomic results lay an important foundation for providing valuable resources for understanding the ABC transporter function in insecticide toxification of this species as well as those of other non-biting midges. The PaABCG17 gene is shown to play an important role in deltamethrin detoxification, and it functions need to be further investigated and might be used in the management of insecticide-resistance in chironomid adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105940DOI Listing
October 2021

Systemic contact dermatitis caused by a surgical glue.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2021 Apr 22;38(2):338-339. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ada.2021.106215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362753PMC
April 2021

Isolation, Structural Characterization and Antidiabetic Activity of New Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus sp. 16-5c.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jul 20;19(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biomedicine, School of Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Six new DIKETOPIPERAZINE alkaloids aspergiamides A-F (-), together with ten known alkaloids (-), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus sp. 16-5c. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic and HR-ESIMS data analyses. The absolute configurations of aspergiamides A-F were established based on the experimental and calculated ECD data. All the compounds were evaluated for the antidiabetic activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B enzyme. The bioassay results disclosed compounds and exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibitory with IC values of 18.2 and 7.6 μM, respectively; compounds , , and exhibited moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC values ranging from 40.7 to 83.9 μM; while no compounds showed obvious PTP1B enzyme inhibition activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19070402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304462PMC
July 2021

Antimicrobial compounds were isolated from the secondary metabolites of Gordonia, a resident of intestinal tract of Periplaneta americana.

AMB Express 2021 Jul 30;11(1):111. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Gordonia sp. are members of the actinomycete family, their contribution to the environment improvement and environmental protection by their biological degradation ability, but there are few studies on the antimicrobial activity of their secondary metabolites. Our team isolated and purified an actinomycete WA 4-31 from the intestinal tract of Periplaneta americana, firstly identified the strain WA 4-31 by the morphological characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses, and found it was completely homologous to the strain of Gordonia terrae from the Indian desert. Meanwhile, actinomycin D (1), actinomycin X2 (2), mojavensin A (3) and cyclic (leucine-leucne) dipeptide (4) were obtained from the EtOAc extract from the broth of WA 4-31. Compounds 1-4 showed anti-fungus activities against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum, also anti-MRSA and inhibited Escherichia coli in different degree. Interestingly, we found when 3 was mixed with 4 with ratio of 1:1, the activity of the mixture on anti-Candida albicans was better than the single. Besides, compounds 1-3 had varying degrees of antiproliferative activities on CNE-2 and HepG-2 cell lines. These indicated that Gordonia rare actinomycete from the intestinal tract of Periplaneta americana possessed a potential as a source of active secondary metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01272-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324697PMC
July 2021

Ion mobility-based sterolomics reveals spatially and temporally distinctive sterol lipids in the mouse brain.

Nat Commun 2021 07 15;12(1):4343. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Aberrant sterol lipid metabolism is associated with physiological dysfunctions in the aging brain and aging-dependent disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases. There is an unmet demand to comprehensively profile sterol lipids spatially and temporally in different brain regions during aging. Here, we develop an ion mobility-mass spectrometry based four-dimensional sterolomics technology leveraged by a machine learning-empowered high-coverage library (>2000 sterol lipids) for accurate identification. We apply this four-dimensional technology to profile the spatially resolved landscapes of sterol lipids in ten functional regions of the mouse brain, and quantitatively uncover ~200 sterol lipids uniquely distributed in specific regions with concentrations spanning up to 8 orders of magnitude. Further spatial analysis pinpoints age-associated differences in region-specific sterol lipid metabolism, revealing changes in the numbers of altered sterol lipids, concentration variations, and age-dependent coregulation networks. These findings will contribute to our understanding of abnormal sterol lipid metabolism and its role in brain diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24672-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282640PMC
July 2021

Trends in cancer mortality in China from 2004 to 2018: A nationwide longitudinal study.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 10 12;41(10):1024-1036. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Shanghai East Hospital, Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias, Ministry of Education, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200120, P. R. China.

Background: The long-term trend in cancer death in a rapidly developing country provides information for cancer prophylaxis. Here, we aimed to identify the trends in cancer mortality in China during the 2004-2018 period.

Methods: Using raw data from the national mortality surveillance system of China, we assessed the mortalities of all cancer and site-specific cancers during the 2004-2018 period. The participants were divided into three age groups: ≥65 years, 40-64 years, and ≤39 years. Changing trends in cancer death by gender, residency, and tumor location were estimated using fitting joinpoint models to log-transformed crude mortality rates (CMRs) and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs).

Results: Cancer death accounted for 24% of all-cause of death in China during 2014-2018. The CMR of all cancer was 150.0 per 100,000 persons. Cancer was the leading cause of death in the population <65 years. The six major cancer types (lung/bronchus cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreas cancer) accounted for 75.85% of all cancer deaths. The CMR of all cancer increased while the ASMR decreased during 2014-2018 (P < 0.001). Lung/bronchus cancer and liver cancer were the leading causes of cancer death in the population <65 years, accounting for 45.31% (CMR) and 44.35% (ASMR) of all cancer death, respectively. The ASMR of liver cancer was higher in the 40-64 years population than in the ≥65 years population, in contrast to the other five major cancers. The ASMRs of liver cancer, stomach cancer, and esophagus cancer decreased although they were higher in rural residents than in urban residents; the ASMRs of lung/bronchus cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreas cancer increased in rural residents although they were higher in urban residents than in rural residents during 2014-2018.

Conclusion: Although the ASMR of all cancer decreased in China during 2004-2018, lung/bronchus cancer and liver cancer remained the leading causes of cancer-related premature death. Lung/bronchus cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreas cancer increased in rural residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12195DOI Listing
October 2021

Implementation and data processing of a five-channel microwave interferometer with high temporal resolution and low noise on Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Apr;92(4):043538

Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

A five-channel microwave interferometer with high temporal resolution and high phase resolution has been developed for measuring electron density profiles and fluctuations on the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak. A correction algorithm, based on the low signal amplitude detection, is proposed to eliminate the fringe jump errors. The correction algorithm achieves an accuracy of 92%. The density profile is reconstructed through the Park-matrix method, with the geometry of magnetic surfaces calculated by the equilibrium fitting. The reconstructed density profiles for discharges with supersonic molecular beam injection are in good agreement with the results of another 94 GHz single-channel horizontal interferometer and the Langmuir probes. The temporal resolution of the system is 0.5 µs and the line-integrated electron density resolution is 1 × 10 m, which benefits from the single sideband modulation technique. Therefore, the multichannel interferometer system is capable of studying the details of the high-frequency (up to 200 kHz) density fluctuation such as that in the minor disruption event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0043667DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of a thin high-frequency and high-precision magnetic probe array in Sino-United Spherical Tokamak.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):053518

Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, People's Republic of China.

Since the major/minor radius of the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) is 0.3/0.23 m, respectively, the space left for magnetic diagnostics in the high field side (HFS) is quite limited. At the same time, a good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-frequency response (up to 1 MHz) are required for equilibrium reconstruction (ER) and Alfven eigenmode studies. Such a magnetic probe array must be extremely thin and tightly close to the central column, not exceeding the inner limiter and leaving the aspect ratio of the spherical tokamak unchanged. Therefore, the turn number and the shape of windings should be highly optimized to enable both a high-frequency response and an enough effective area. A 32-channel magnetic probe array fulfilling these requirements on the central column is designed, calibrated, and installed in the SUNIST. The array consists of 16 probes. Each of them consists of two perpendicular windings, which can measure toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields simultaneously. The effective area and frequency response of each probe are calibrated using a Helmholtz coil and an LCR bridge based on an equivalent probe-and-cable circuit model. After that, an expression of the magnetic diagnostic response to the field coil currents is used to calibrate the installation error. With the full coverage of magnetic probes in the poloidal direction, more reliable ER can be obtained, and the features of magnetohydrodynamic activities in the HFS can be studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0043631DOI Listing
May 2021

Recommendations for proficiency testing criteria for hemoglobin A based on the Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory's study.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Sep 6;59(10):1728-1734. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Objectives: The US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services proposed in 2019 that glycated hemoglobin A (HbA) be a CLIA'88 regulated analyte. People who commented expressed concerns that the proposed acceptance limit (AL, HbA in NGSP unit) ±10% for proficiency testing (PT) would be unable to maintain already improved analytical performance and guarantee the clinical utility of HbA testing. Assessing impact of various ALs on PT performance is needed to provide scientific evidence for adopting an appropriate AL.

Methods: Ten patient EDTA-whole blood specimens were distributed to 318 and 336 laboratories in the 2018 and 2019 PT events organized by Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory (SCCL). HbA concentrations were measured by participants using various methodologies commonly used in the USA and China. Targets were determined using secondary reference measurement procedures (SRM) at SCCL. "Failed Results" were those outside the SRM-defined target ± AL (5% through 10%). Laboratories with Failed Results ≥2 out of five samples per PT event obtained Event Unsatisfactory Status.

Results: HbA target values ranged 33.3 mmol/mol (5.2 NGSP%) -102.2 mmol/mol (11.5 NGSP%) for 2018 event, and 33.3 mmol/mol (5.2 NGSP%) -84.7 mmol/mol (9.9 NGSP%) for 2019 event. Overall Laboratory Event Unsatisfactory Rates were 11.3-12.2%, 4.8-5.3%, 0.9-3.1%, 0.6-2.2%, 0.6-1.4% and 0.6-1.4%, at AL of ±5, ±6, ±7, ±8, ±9 and ±10%, respectively.

Conclusions: The AL (in NGSP unit) of ±6% or ±7% for PT evaluation of HbA results would be appropriate, with satisfactory event scores for about 95% of participant laboratories in a PT event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-1311DOI Listing
September 2021

SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT OF EXTERNAL ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT OF TOKAMAK DEVICE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Aug;194(4):187-195

Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion is an important way to realize controllable nuclear fusion. Due to the large current and complicated coil arrangement, there is a complicated electromagnetic environment around the fusion device. In this paper, the B-dot sensor is used to measure the magnetic field, the D-dot sensor is used to measure the electric field, the MAXWELL electromagnetic simulation software is used to simulate the electromagnetic field strength; the simulation and measurement of the spherical Tokamak SUNIST device and the measurement of MARX generator are carried out, then we give corresponding electromagnetic protection suggestions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncab101DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictors of physicians' intentions to use clinical practice guidelines on antimicrobial in tertiary general hospitals of China: a structural equation modeling approach.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 06 30;10(1):97. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Room 108 in the Building for School of Public Health, No.1 Xuefubei Road, Minhou District, Fuzhou, 350122, China.

Background: With inappropriate use of antimicrobials becoming a great public health concern globally, the issue of applying clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to regulate the rational use of antimicrobials has attracted increasing attention. Taking tertiary general hospitals in China for example, this study aimed to identify factors to investigate the comprehensive influencing mechanism for physicians' intention to use CPGs on antimicrobials.

Methods: Based on the integration of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and Technology-Organization-Environment framework (TOE), a questionnaire survey was conducted covering potential determinants of affecting physicians' intentions to use CPGs on antimicrobials at the individual level (attitude, subjective norms and perceived risk), technical level (relative advantage and ease of use), and organizational level (top management support and organizational implementation). Data were collected from 644 physicians in tertiary general hospitals in eastern, central and western China, which were obtained by multi-stage random sampling. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to link three-level factors with physicians' behavioral intentions.

Results: The majority of the participants (94.57%) showed a positive tendency toward intention to use CPGs on antimicrobials. The reliability and validity analysis showed the questionnaire developed from the theoretical model was acceptable. SEM results revealed physicians' intentions to use CPGs on antimicrobials was associated with attitude (β = 0.166, p < 0.05), subjective norms (β = 0.244, p < 0.05), perceived risk (β = - 0.113, p < 0.05), relative advantage (β = 0.307, p < 0.01), top management support (β = 0.200, p < 0.05) and organizational implementation (β = 0.176, p < 0.05). Besides, subjective norms, perceived risk, relative advantage, ease of use, and top management support showed their mediating effects from large to small on the intentions, which were 0.215, 0.140, 0.103, 0.088, - 0.020, respectively.

Conclusions: This study revealed the significance of multifaceted factors to enhance the intention to use CPGs on antimicrobials. These findings will not only contribute to the development of targeted intervention strategies on promoting the use of CPGs on antimicrobials, but also provide insights for future studies about physicians' adoption behaviors on certain health services or products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-021-00966-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244238PMC
June 2021

Outstanding thermal neutrons shields based on epoxy, UHMWPE fibers and boron carbide particles.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Oct 19;176:109837. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China.

Aiming the development of advanced and lightweight thermal neutrons shields, a new hybrid composite was developed from UHMWPE fibers, epoxy and boron carbide (BC) particles. The UHMWPE fibres were chosen because of their high hydrogen contents and exceptional mechanical properties. The neutrons shielding tests were performed using an optimized experimental setup at NUR research reactor, Algiers. Overall, the developed materials displayed remarkable neutrons screening performances. Meanwhile, the best performance was recorded at BC amount of 20 wt% with a macroscopic cross-section (Σ) of with a 0.313 cm equivalent to a mean free path (λ) of 2.2 cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109837DOI Listing
October 2021

Poly-ε-caprolactone/Whitlockite Electrospun Bionic Membrane with an Osteogenic-Angiogenic Coupling Effect for Periosteal Regeneration.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 07 20;7(7):3321-3331. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

The periosteum is rich in vascular networks, osteoprogenitor cells, and stem cells and plays an important role in bone defect repair. However, existing artificial periosteum materials still have difficulty in meeting clinical requirements, such as good mechanical properties and bionic structure construction, osteogenic differentiation, and vascularization capabilities. Here, a poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/whitlockite (WH, 5, 10, 15 wt %) artificial periosteum with different doping amounts was prepared by electrospinning technology. According to the results of mineralization experiments, the rapid ion release from WH promotes the deposition of mineralized hydroxyapatite. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, angiogenesis, and cell migration experiments showed that the bionic periosteum of the 15% WH group had the best release rate of Mg and the best ability to promote the human umbilical vein endothelial cell angiogenesis and migration. In addition, this group promoted collagen formation and calcium deposition. Finally, the subcutaneous implantation model was used to verify the biocompatibility and angiogenesis ability of the proposed membrane . Overall, this biomimetic PCL/WH nanofiber membrane combines the positive osteogenic differentiation ability and angiogenic ability of calcium phosphate materials and thus has good application prospects in the field of periosteal repair in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00426DOI Listing
July 2021

Technical framework for wastewater-based epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 12;791:148271. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical & Biological Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is expected to become a powerful tool to monitor the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 at the community level, which has attracted the attention of scholars all over the world. However, there is not yet a standard protocol to guide its implementation. In this paper, we proposed a comprehensive technical and theoretical framework of relative quantification via qPCR for determining the virus abundance in wastewater and estimating the infection ratio in corresponding communities, which is expected to achieve horizontal and vertical comparability of the data using a human-specific biomarker as the internal reference. Critical factors affecting the virus detectability and the estimation of infection ratio include virus concentration methods, lag-period, per capita virus shedding amount, sewage generation rate, temperature-related decay kinetics of virus/biomarker in wastewater, and hydraulic retention time (HRT), etc. Theoretical simulation shows that the main factors affecting the detectability of virus in sewage are per capita virus shedding amount and sewage generation rate. While the decay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in sewage is a relatively slow process, which may have limited impact on its detection. Under the ideal condition of high per capita virus shedding amount and low sewage generation rate, it is expected to detect a single infected person within 400,000 people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195746PMC
October 2021

Sustainable and Ecofriendly Chemical Design of High Performance Bio-Based Thermosets for Advanced Applications.

Front Chem 2021 28;9:691117. Epub 2021 May 28.

DICAM Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

High performance thermosetting resins are targeted in many exigent applications, such as aerospace and marine fields, for the development of lightweight structural composites. Till now, these industries only rely on petroleum-based materials for their supposedly better performances. However, the latest developments in the field suggest otherwise. In fact, many reports confirmed that sustainable and ecofriendly thermosetting polymers can display similar or even better performances. Additionally, exploring alternative renewable feedstock's to meet the ever increasing demands of these industries is an essential step towards sustainable development. Aiming to unravel the potential of these materials, the present review summarizes the most relevant chemical routes allowing the preparation of fully or partially bio-based thermosetting resins. Meanwhile, the overall performances of these exceptional materials are also compared with their petroleum-based counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.691117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193924PMC
May 2021
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