Publications by authors named "Wenbin Guo"

247 Publications

Wearable Antifreezing Fiber-Shaped Zn/PANI Batteries with Suppressed Zn Dendrites and Operation in Sweat Electrolytes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 6;13(15):17608-17617. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.

Fiber-shaped Zn batteries are promising candidates for wearable electronics owing to their high energy and low cost, but further studies are still required to address the issues related to detrimental Zn dendrite growth and limited low-temperature performances. Here, we report an antifreeze, long-life, and dendrite-free fiber-shaped Zn battery using both nanoporous Zn and polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposited on carbon nanofibers (CFs) as the cathode and anode, respectively. The fiber-shaped Zn anode achieves stable plating/stripping for 1000 mAh cm accumulative capacity with low polarization (30 mV) at a current density of 2 mA cm. The dendrite-free Zn electrodes also enable the stable cycling of the fiber battery with 75.1% capacity retention after 1000 cycles. With an antifreeze agent added in the gel electrolyte, the fiber battery maintains excellent performance at temperatures as low as -30 °C. Lastly, by utilizing the doping/dedoping mechanism of Cl in the PANI electrode, we achieve, for the first time, a Zn battery using human sweat as a harmless electrolyte. Our work provides a long-life and antifreeze fiber-shaped battery that is highly promising for future wearable energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02065DOI Listing
April 2021

Peratrial Balloon Pulmonary Valvotomy in Infants: Right ventricular wall None-Touch Technique.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No.16766, Jingshi Road Jinan 250014, China.

Peratrial balloon pulmonary valvotomy, an alternative technique for severe pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) in infants, performed exclusively under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance is hereby described. The technique is performed using a hollow-probe via a right mini-thoracotomy in the fourth-intercostal space. The hollow- probe introduces a guidewire through PVS without touching the right ventricular wall, therefore, avoiding eliciting ventricular arrhythmias, spasm of right ventricular outflow tract, and subsequent hemodynamic instability. Unlike conventional approaches, peratrial technique permits quicker orientation, dilatation, and allows quick conversion to open-heart surgery when needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.066DOI Listing
April 2021

Mental health of medical staff during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychosom Med 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

1National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China.

Objective: To quantify the prevalence of the adverse mental health outcomes in medical staff working in the hospital settings during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the relative distribution of anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, were searched for papers published from January 1, 2019 to April 19, 2020. The prevalence estimates of adverse mental health symptoms in medical staff were pooled using the random-effects model.

Results: A total of 35 articles and data of 25,343 medical staff were used in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence estimates in medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic were as follows (ordered from high to low): fear-related symptoms 67% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61%-73%), high levels of perceived stress 56% (95% CI: 32%-79%), anxiety symptoms 41% (95%CI: 35%-47%), insomnia 41% (95% CI: 33%-50%), post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 38% (95% CI: 34%-43%), depressive symptoms 27% (95% CI: 20%-34%), and somatic symptoms 16% (95% CI: 3%-36%). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence estimates of fear-related symptoms were consistently high.

Conclusions: Medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic have high prevalence of adverse mental health symptoms. Data-based strategies are needed to optimize mental health of medical staff and other health care professionals during times of high demand such as the COVID-19 and other epidemics.PROSPERO registration: CRD42020182433.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000922DOI Listing
February 2021

Editorial: Emotional Disturbance and Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 17;12:632244. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.632244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009964PMC
March 2021

Shared and distinct homotopic connectivity changes in melancholic and non-melancholic depression.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 19;287:268-275. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Previous studies have revealed different neuroimaging features between melancholic and non-melancholic major depressive disorder (MDD). However, homotopic connectivity of melancholic and non-melancholic MDD remains unknown. The present study aimed to explore common and distinct homotopic connectivity patterns of melancholic and non-melancholic MDD and their associations with clinical characteristics.

Methods: Sixty-four patients with MDD and thirty-two healthy controls were scanned by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and pattern classification were applied to analyze the imaging data.

Results: Relative to healthy controls, melancholic patients displayed decreased VMHC in the fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), postcentral gyrus and precentral/postcentral gyrus, and non-melancholic patients displayed decreased VMHC in the PCC. Compared with non-melancholic patients, melancholic patients displayed reduced VMHC in the precentral gyrus and precentral/postcentral gyrus. Support vector machine (SVM) results exhibited VMHC in the precentral gyrus could distinguish melancholic patients from non-melancholic patients with more than 0.6 for specificity, sensitivity and accuracy.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated common and distinct homotopic connectivity patterns in melancholic and non-melancholic patients. Decreased VMHC in the PCC may be a state-related change for depression, and reduced VMHC in the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus may be a distinctive neurobiological feature for melancholic MDD. VMHC in precentral gyrus might be served as potential imaging markers to discriminate melancholic patients from non-melancholic MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.038DOI Listing
March 2021

Disrupted Regional Homogeneity in Melancholic and Non-melancholic Major Depressive Disorder at Rest.

Front Psychiatry 2021 16;12:618805. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Melancholic depression has been viewed as one severe subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether melancholic depression has distinct changes in brain imaging. We aimed to explore specific or distinctive alterations in melancholic MDD and whether the alterations could be used to separate melancholic MDD from non-melancholic MDD or healthy controls. Thirty-one outpatients with melancholic MDD and thirty-three outpatients with non-melancholic MDD and thirty-two age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants were scanned by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Imaging data were analyzed with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and support vector machine (SVM) methods. Melancholic MDD patients exhibited lower ReHo in the right superior occipital gyrus/middle occipital gyrus than non-melancholic MDD patients and healthy controls. Merely for non-melancholic MDD patients, decreased ReHo in the right middle frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with the total HRSD-17 scores. SVM analysis results showed that a combination of abnormal ReHo in the right fusiform gyrus/cerebellum Crus I and the right superior occipital gyrus/middle occipital gyrus exhibited the highest accuracy of 83.05% (49/59), with a sensitivity of 90.32% (28/31), and a specificity of 75.00% (21/28) for discriminating patients with melancholic MDD from patients with non-melancholic MDD. And a combination of abnormal ReHo in the right fusiform gyrus/cerebellum VI and left postcentral gyrus/precentral gyrus exhibited the highest accuracy of 98.41% (62/63), with a sensitivity of 96.77% (30/31), and a specificity of 100.00%(32/32) for separating patients with melancholic MDD from healthy controls. Our findings showed the distinctive ReHo pattern in patients with melancholic MDD and found brain area that may be associated with the pathophysiology of non-melancholic MDD. Potential imaging markers for discriminating melancholic MDD from non-melancholic MDD or healthy controls were reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.618805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928375PMC
February 2021

Restoring both continence and micturition after chronic spinal cord injury by pudendal neuromodulation.

Exp Neurol 2021 Feb 24;340:113658. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Neurogenic bladder management after spinal cord injury (SCI) is very challenging. Daily urethral catheterization is most commonly used to empty the bladder, which causes frequent infections of the lower urinary tract. This study reports a novel idea to restore both continence and micturition after SCI by an implantable pudendal nerve stimulator (PNS). The PNS was surgically implanted in four cats with complete SCI at T9-T10 spinal level and tested weekly for 13-14 weeks under awake conditions. These chronic SCI cats consistently exhibited large residual bladder volumes (average 40-50 ml) due to their inability to void efficiently, while urine leakage also occurred frequently. The PNS which consisted of stimulating the pudendal nerve at 20-30 Hz to trigger a spinal reflex bladder contraction and at the same time blocking the pudendal nerves bilaterally with 10 kHz stimulation to relax the external urethral sphincter and reduce the urethral outlet resistance successfully induced highly efficient (average 80-100%), low pressure (<50 cmHO) voiding. The PNS at 5 Hz also promoted urine storage by inhibiting reflex bladder activity and increasing bladder capacity. At the end of 14-week chronic testing, low pressure efficient voiding induced by PNS was further confirmed under anesthesia by directly measuring voiding pressure using a bladder catheter inserted through the bladder dome. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the PNS in awake chronic SCI cats, suggesting that a novel neuroprosthesis can be developed for humans to restore bladder function after SCI by stimulating and/or blocking the pudendal nerves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113658DOI Listing
February 2021

Complete genome sequence of a marine-derived bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SXM-1 and characterization of its siderophore through antiSMASH analysis and with mass spectroscopic method.

Mar Genomics 2021 Feb 30;55:100802. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, 184 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas sp. SXM-1, isolated from coastal sea water of Xiamen Bay, could produce extracellular pyoverdine. Here, we present the complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. SXM-1, which will facilitate the genome mining of the pyoverdine synthetase coding gene cluster. The sequenced genome, a circular chromosome, is 7,226,716 bp in length, which contains 60.78% of GC bases, 6549 proteins, 67 tRNAs, and 16 rRNA encoding genes. The structure of pyoverdine produced by Pseudomonas sp. SXM-1 was predicted by using the antiSMASH 5.1.2 tool and further characterized with mass spectroscopic method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2020.100802DOI Listing
February 2021

Voxel-Wise Brain-Wide Functional Connectivity Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Blepharospasm at Rest.

Neural Plast 2021 6;2021:6611703. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.

Background: Primary blepharospasm (BSP) is one of the most common focal dystonia and its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. An unbiased method was used in patients with BSP at rest to observe voxel-wise brain-wide functional connectivity (FC) changes.

Method: A total of 48 subjects, including 24 untreated patients with BSP and 24 healthy controls, were recruited to undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The method of global-brain FC (GFC) was adopted to analyze the resting-state fMRI data. We designed the support vector machine (SVM) method to determine whether GFC abnormalities could be utilized to distinguish the patients from the controls.

Results: Relative to healthy controls, patients with BSP showed significantly decreased GFC in the bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex (MPFC/ACC) and increased GFC in the right postcentral gyrus/precentral gyrus/paracentral lobule, right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and left paracentral lobule/supplement motor area (SMA), which were included in the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network. SVM analysis showed that increased GFC values in the right postcentral gyrus/precentral gyrus/paracentral lobule could discriminate patients from controls with optimal accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 83.33%, 83.33%, and 83.33%, respectively.

Conclusion: This study suggested that abnormal GFC in the brain areas associated with sensorimotor network and DMN might underlie the pathophysiology of BSP, which provided a new perspective to understand BSP. GFC in the right postcentral gyrus/precentral gyrus/paracentral lobule might be utilized as a latent biomarker to differentiate patients with BSP from controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6611703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808842PMC
January 2021

Percardiac closure of large apical ventricular septal defects in infants: Novel modifications and mid-term results.

J Card Surg 2021 Mar 27;36(3):928-938. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Background/aim: Both open heart surgery and percutaneous approaches retain several limitations in closing large apical muscular ventricular septal defects (AmVSD) in infants. We present probe-assisted percardiac device closure (PDC), an exclusively transoesophageal-echocardiography guided technique, as an alternative with midterm results.

Methods: Thirty-six infants with large AmVSDs (single or multiple-holed) underwent PDC in our department. Mean AmVSD for single and multiple-holed measured 7.2 ± 2.4 mm and 6.3 ± 3.4 mm, respectively. Subjects presented with a spectrum of cardiopulmonary sequelae and growth retardation, either alone or combined. Some were ventilator dependent and re-do cases. In addition, AmVSDs were categorized: cylindrical, tunnel and cave-like shaped as per color Doppler interrogation. Pursuant to cardiac access and deployment technique, subjects were apportioned: group A; inferior median sternotomy (perventricular), B; right mini-thoracotomy (peratrial) and C; complete median sternotomy (perventricular). Under exclusive echocardiography, the Z- or J probe-assisted delivery system was utilized to access AmVSDs and implant device(s) via aforementioned techniques.

Results: Forty-two muscular ventricular septal devices (8.4 ± 2.6 mm) were implanted in 36 subjects uneventfully. Seventeen "complex," and 10 cylindrical or straight tunnel-shapedAmVSDs (including 2 re-do patients) suited perventricular and peratrial techniques respectively. Comparatively, group B exhibited shorter procedural indices than A (p < .01). Five of 15 multiple-holed AmVSDs (four Swiss cheese) required two or three devices for a satisfactory occlusion. Nevertheless, post occlusion insignificant residual shunts( ≤ 2 mm) seldom achieved spontaneous closure, and at 36-month follow-up complete closure was 67%. Residual shunt persisted amongst multiple-holed. All patients improved during follow up.

Conclusion: PDC is feasible, safe and effective alternative technique for AmVSD in infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898510PMC
March 2021

The Effect of Drought on Transcriptome and Hormonal Profiles in Barley Genotypes With Contrasting Drought Tolerance.

Front Plant Sci 2020 23;11:618491. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States.

Like many cereal crops, barley is also negatively affected by drought stress. However, due to its simple genome as well as enhanced stress resilient nature compared to rice and wheat, barley has been considered as a model to decipher drought tolerance in cereals. In the present study, transcriptomic and hormonal profiles along with several biochemical features were compared between drought-tolerant (Otis) and drought-sensitive (Baronesse) barley genotypes subjected to drought to identify molecular and biochemical differences between the genotypes. The drought-induced decrease in the leaf relative water content, net photosynthesis, and biomass accumulation was relatively low in Otis compared to Baronesse. The hormonal profiles did not reveal significant differences for majority of the compounds other than the GA20 and the cis-zeatin-o-glucoside (c-ZOG), whose levels were greatly increased in Otis compared to Baronesse under drought. The major differences that emerged from the transcriptome analysis are; (1), the overall number of differentially expressed genes was relatively low in drought-tolerant Otis compared to drought-sensitive Baronesse; (2), a wax biosynthesis gene (CER1), and NAC transcription factors were specifically induced in Otis but not in Baronesse; (3), the degree of upregulation of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and a homeobox transcription factor (genes with proven roles in imparting drought tolerance), was greater in Otis compared to Baronesse; (4) the extent of downregulation of gene expression profiles for proteins of the reaction center photosystem II (PSII) (D1 and D2) was low in Otis compared to Baronesse; and, (5), alternative splicing (AS) was also found to differ between the genotypes under drought. Taken together, the overall transcriptional responses were low in drought-tolerant Otis but the genes that could confer drought tolerance were either specifically induced or greatly upregulated in the tolerant genotype and these differences could be important for drought tolerance in barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.618491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786106PMC
December 2020

3D RNA-seq: a powerful and flexible tool for rapid and accurate differential expression and alternative splicing analysis of RNA-seq data for biologists.

RNA Biol 2020 Dec 19:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Information and Computational Sciences, The James Hutton Institute , Dundee, UK.

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of gene expression and alternative splicing should be routine and robust but is often a bottleneck for biologists because of different and complex analysis programs and reliance on specialized bioinformatics skills. We have developed the '3D RNA-seq' App, an R shiny App and web-based pipeline for the comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data from any organism. It represents an easy-to-use, flexible and powerful tool for analysis of both gene and transcript-level gene expression to identify differential gene/transcript expression, differential alternative splicing and differential transcript usage (3D) as well as isoform switching from RNA-seq data. 3D RNA-seq integrates state-of-the-art differential expression analysis tools and adopts best practice for RNA-seq analysis. The program is designed to be run by biologists with minimal bioinformatics experience (or by bioinformaticians) allowing lab scientists to analyse their RNA-seq data. It achieves this by operating through a user-friendly graphical interface which automates the data flow through the programs in the pipeline. The comprehensive analysis performed by 3D RNA-seq is extremely rapid and accurate, can handle complex experimental designs, allows user setting of statistical parameters, visualizes the results through graphics and tables, and generates publication quality figures such as heat-maps, expression profiles and GO enrichment plots. The utility of 3D RNA-seq is illustrated by analysis of data from a time-series of cold-treated Arabidopsis plants and from dexamethasone-treated male and female mouse cortex and hypothalamus data identifying dexamethasone-induced sex- and brain region-specific differential gene expression and alternative splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2020.1858253DOI Listing
December 2020

Mental Health of Pregnant and Postpartum Women During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychol 2020 25;11:617001. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Prenatal and postnatal mental disorders can exert severe adverse influences on mothers, fetuses, and children. However, the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women remains unclear. Relevant studies that were published from January 1, 2019 to September 19, 2020 were identified through the systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Quality assessment of included studies, random-effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, and planned subgroup analysis were performed. A total of 23 studies conducted with 20,569 participants during the COVID-19 pandemic and with 3,677 pregnant women before the COVID-19 pandemic were included. The prevalence rates of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, and insomnia among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic were 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25-49%), 31% (95% CI 20-42%), 70% (95% CI 60-79%), and 49% (95% CI 46-52%), respectively. The prevalence of postpartum depression was 22% (95% CI 15-29%). Multigravida women and women in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy were more vulnerable than other pregnant women. The assessment of the associations between the COVID-19 pandemic and mental health problems revealed that the pooled relative risks of anxiety and depression in pregnant women were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.25-2.19) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.80-1.46), respectively. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic were high. Timely and tailored interventions should be applied to mitigate mental problems among this population of women, especially multigravida women and women in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.617001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723850PMC
November 2020

Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activities of Limbic-Cortical Circuits in Patients With Dry Eye Disease.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 9;14:574758. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Whether brain function is altered in patients with dry eye disease (DED) remains unclear. Twenty patients with DED and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were scanned using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to analyze the imaging data. Relative to the HCs, the patients with DED showed significantly increased ReHo values in the left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior medial prefrontal cortex, and significantly decreased ReHo values in the right superior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle cingulum (MC). SVM results indicated that the combination of ReHo values in the left MC and the left IOG in distinguishing patients with DED from HCs had a sensitivity of 95.00%, a specificity of 91.30%, and an accuracy of 93.02%. The present study found that the patients with DED had abnormal ReHo values in the limbic-cortical circuits. A combination of ReHo values in the left MC and the left IOG could be applied as a potential imaging biomarker to distinguish patients with DED from HCs. The dysfunction of limbic-cortical circuits may play an important role in the pathophysiology of DED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.574758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693447PMC
November 2020

Frequency-specific alterations of the frontal-cerebellar circuit in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

J Affect Disord 2021 02 12;280(Pt A):319-325. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Mental Health Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University; Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China; Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Background: With the development of imaging techniques, evidence of abnormal neural activity has been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). It remains unclear whether abnormal spontaneous neural activities are related to specific frequency bands. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the frequency-specific amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach was applied to investigate changes in spontaneous neural activity in different frequency bands in patients with SD.

Methods: Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex-, education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The ALFF method with the classical low-frequency (0.01 - 0.08 Hz), slow-5 (0.01 - 0.027 Hz) and slow-4 (0.027 - 0.08 Hz) bands was employed to analyze the data.

Results: With the classical low-frequency and slow-5 bands, patients with SD showed significantly increased ALFF in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and reduced ALFF in the right cerebellum compared with HCs. With the slow-4 band, patients with SD exhibited significantly reduced ALFF in the right cerebellum compared with HCs. However, no significant correlation was observed between the ALFF value in the left OFC or right cerebellum and clinical/cognitive variables.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that there are abnormal regional activities of the left OFC and right cerebellum in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, suggesting that these alterations occur early in the course of the disease and are independent of medication status. Our study provides novel evidence that different regional activities of the frontal-cerebellar circuit may be involved in the pathophysiology of SD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.090DOI Listing
February 2021

Differential nucleosome occupancy modulates alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana.

New Phytol 2021 02 2;229(4):1937-1945. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, CT1 1QU, UK.

Alternative splicing (AS) is a major gene regulatory mechanism in plants. Recent evidence supports co-transcriptional splicing in plants, hence the chromatin state can impact AS. However, how dynamic changes in the chromatin state such as nucleosome occupancy influence the cold-induced AS remains poorly understood. Here, we generated transcriptome (RNA-Seq) and nucleosome positioning (MNase-Seq) data for Arabidopsis thaliana to understand how nucleosome positioning modulates cold-induced AS. Our results show that characteristic nucleosome occupancy levels are strongly associated with the type and abundance of various AS events under normal and cold temperature conditions in Arabidopsis. Intriguingly, exitrons, alternatively spliced internal regions of protein-coding exons, exhibit distinctive nucleosome positioning pattern compared to other alternatively spliced regions. Likewise, nucleosome patterns differ between exitrons and retained introns, pointing to their distinct regulation. Collectively, our data show that characteristic changes in nucleosome positioning modulate AS in plants in response to cold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17062DOI Listing
February 2021

Decreased Resting-State Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Medication-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 15;11:559729. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: Decreased homotopic connectivity of brain networks such as the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits may contribute to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) at rest in OCD. In this study, the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to explore interhemispheric coordination at rest in OCD.

Methods: Forty medication-free patients with OCD and 38 sex-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The VMHC and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to analyze the data.

Results: Patients with OCD had remarkably decreased VMHC values in the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, middle occipital gyrus, and precentral and postcentral gyri compared with HCs. A combination of the VMHC values in the thalamus and postcentral gyrus could optimally distinguish patients with OCD from HCs.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the contribution of decreased interhemispheric FC within and outside the CSTC circuits in OCD and provide evidence to the pathophysiology of OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.559729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522198PMC
September 2020

Reduced Global-Brain Functional Connectivity of the Cerebello-Thalamo-Cortical Network in Patients With Dry Eye Disease.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 25;14:572693. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

The pathophysiology of patients with dry eye disease (DED) is associated with abnormal functional connectivity (FC). The present study aims to probe alterations of voxel-wise brain-wide FC in patient with DED at rest in an unbiased way. A total of 20 patients with DED and 23 controls matched by age, sex, and years of education underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Global-brain FC (GFC) was adopted to analyze the images. Support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to differentiate the patients from the controls. Compared with the controls, patients with DED exhibited decreased GFC in the right cerebellum lobule VIII/inferior semi-lunar lobule and left thalamus that belonged to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. The GFC values in the left thalamus were positively correlated to the illness duration ( = 0.589, = 0.006) in the patients. Decreased GFC values in the left thalamus could be used to discriminate the patients from the controls with optimal accuracy, sensitivity and specificity (88.37, 85.00, and 91.30%). Our findings indicate that decreased GFC in the brain regions associated with cerebello-thalamo-cortical network may provide a new insight for understanding the pathological changes of FC in DED. GFC values in the left thalamus may be utilized as a potential biomarker to identify the patients from the controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.572693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546321PMC
September 2020

Recent Progress of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells with a Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 22;12(44):49297-49322. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China.

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has achieved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.2% in the last 10 years, and the PCE of inverted PSCs has reached >22%. The rapid enhancement has partly benefited from the employment of suitable hole transport layers. Especially, poly(3,4-ethenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the most widely used polymer hole transport materials in inverted PSCs, because of its high optical transparency in the visible region and low-temperature processing condition. However, the PCE and stability of PSCs based on pristine PEDOT:PSS are far from satisfactory, which are ascribed to low fitness between PEDOT:PSS and perovskite materials, in terms of work function, conductivity, film growth, and hydrophobicity. This paper summaries recent progress regarding to modifying/remedy the drawbacks of PEDOT:PSS to improve the PCE and stability. The systematically understanding of the mechanism of modified PEDOT:PSS and various characteristic methods are summarized here. This Review has the potential to guide the development of PSCs based on commercial PEDOT:PSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13576DOI Listing
November 2020

Enhanced Connectivity of Thalamo-Cortical Networks in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Somatization Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 11;11:555836. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Dysfunctions of the thalamus and its projections to cortical cortices have been implicated in patient with somatization disorder (SD). However, changes in the anatomical specificity of thalamo-cortical functional connectivity (FC) in SD remain unclear.

Methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were collected in 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD, as well as 28 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls. We parcellated the thalamus with seven predefined regions of interest (ROIs) and used them as seeds to map whole-brain FC. Correlation analysis was conducted in the patients.

Results: We found an increased pattern of thalamic ROI-cortex connectivity in patients with SD. Patients with SD demonstrated enhanced thalamic connectivity to the bilateral anterior/middle cingulum, motor/sensory cortex, visual cortex, and auditory cortex. A significantly negative correlation was found between the right occipital thalamic ROI to the anterior cingulum and EPQ extraversion scores (=0.404, =0.045) after the Benjamini-Hochberg correction.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that anatomical specificity of enhanced thalamo-cortical FCs exists in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD. These findings further highlight the importance of the thalamic subregions in the pathophysiology of SD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.555836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518236PMC
September 2020

Less reduced gray matter volume in the subregions of superior temporal gyrus predicts better treatment efficacy in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Psychaitry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China.

Decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) has been implicated in the neurophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether volumetric reduction in the subregions of the STG can predict treatment efficacy for schizophrenia. Our cohort included 44 drug-naive, first-episode patients, 42 unaffected siblings and 44 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry and pattern classification were utilized to analyze the acquired imaging data as per the anatomical subdivision by a well-defined brainnetome atlas. The patients presented lower GMV values in left TE1.0/1.2 (TE, anterior temporal visual association area) than the siblings, and lower GMV values in the left/right TE1.0/1.2 and left A22r (rostral area 22) than the controls. A positive correlation is observed between the GMV values in the right A38l (lateral area 38) and baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores in the patients. Support vector regression (SVR) results exhibited a significant association between predicted (based on the GMV values in the right A38l) and actual symptomatic improvement based on the reduction ratio of the PANSS total scores (r = 0.498, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that normal structure in the right A38l of the STG may be an important factor indicative of the effects of antipsychotic drugs, which can be potentially used to monitor drug effects for first-episode patients at an early stage in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-020-00393-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Reduced regional homogeneity and neurocognitive impairment in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea.

Sleep Med 2020 11 15;75:418-427. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China; Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China; Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neurocognitive dysfunction and abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) have been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, little is known about whether brain functional alteration could be used to differentiate from healthy controls (HCs) and its correlation with neurocognitive impairment.

Methods: Thirty-three treatment-naive patients with moderate-to-severe OSA and 22 HCs with matched age, sex and education underwent the evaluation of Epworth sleepiness scale, neurocognitive function, full night polysomnography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. ReHo, support vector machine, and correlation with neurocognitive function were administrated to analyze the data.

Results: Compared with HCs, patients with OSA showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (FG), bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortex (PFC)/right supplementary motor area (SMA), left middle FG, and right precentral/postcentral gyrus. Negative correlations were observed between the ReHo values in the left superior FG/middle FG and apnea hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index in the OSA group. The scores of Stroop word test, Stroop color-word test, symbol coding test were all negatively correlated with the ReHo values in the right precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus in patients. Scores of the animal naming fluency test were positively correlated with the ReHo values in the left superior FG/middle FG in patients. Moreover, support vector machine analysis showed the ReHo values in the left superior FG/middle FG or bilateral superior medial PFC/right SMA both could discriminate patients from HCs with good accuracies, sensitivities, and specificities (85.45%, 87.88%, 81.82% and 81.82%, 84.85%, 77.27%, respectively).

Conclusion: Dysfunction in the frontal lobe is a potentially pivotal neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of neurocognitive impairment in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. And significantly lower ReHo values in the left superior FG/middle FG and/or superior medial PFC/SMA are promising imaging biomarkers to discriminate moderate-to-severe patients with OSA from HCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.09.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Disrupted Regional Homogeneity in Drug-Naive Patients With Bipolar Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 14;11:825. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: Studies on alterations in the regional neural activity in the brain of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have provided conflicting results because of different medications used and study designs. A low bone mineral density (BMD) is also observed in patients with BD. This study aimed to further explore regional neural activities in unmedicated patients with BD and their association with BMD.

Methods: In this study, 40 patients with BD and 42 healthy controls were scanned through resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Imaging data were analyzed with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and pattern classification. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to explore the correlations between abnormal ReHo and BMD.

Results: A significant increase in ReHo values in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/temporal pole, left cerebellum vermis I/vermis II/parahippocampal gyrus/brainstem, and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and a decrease in ReHo in the occipital gyrus (OG; left middle OG/superior OG/bilateral cuneus) were found in the patients with BD (p < 0.05) compared with those in the healthy controls. No significant correlation was observed between the abnormal ReHo values in any of the brain regions of the patients with BMD.Support vector machine (SVM) analyses revealed that the ReHo values in the right STG for distinguishing patients from healthy controls showed an accuracy of 91.89%, a sensitivity of 75.68%, and a specificity of 83.78%. The ReHo values in the left cerebellum vermis I/vermis II/parahippocampal gyrus/brainstem indicated an accuracy of 78.38%, a sensitivity of 75.68%, and a specificity of 81.08%.

Conclusion: This study further confirms the abnormal brain activities in extensive regions, and these brain regions are primarily located in the fronto-temporal-occipital circuit and the cerebellum vermis of patients with BD. The regional neural activity in the right STG and the left cerebellum vermis I/vermis II/parahippocampal gyrus/brainstem may serve as potential imaging markers to distinguish patients with BD from healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456987PMC
August 2020

LncRNA SNHG3 promotes autophagy-induced neuronal cell apoptosis by acting as a ceRNA for miR-485 to up-regulate ATG7 expression.

Metab Brain Dis 2020 12 29;35(8):1361-1369. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo college of Medicine, Shandong University, No.758 Hefei Road, Qingdao, 266035, Shandong Province, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are bound up with various human diseases. However, their roles in brain ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remain largely unknown. This study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism of LncRNA SNHG3 on autophagy-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the brain I/R injury. LncRNA SNHG3 and miR-485 or autophagy markers LC3II/I and Beclin-1 expressions were detected by qRT-PCR or Western blot and the apoptosis of N2a cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Besides, the interactions between LncRNA SNHG3 and miR-485, miR-485 and ATG7 were validated by RNA pull-down and dual-luciferase reporter system assays. After the Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation (OGD) treatment of N2a cells transfected with pcDNA-SNHG3, pcDNA-SNHG3 + miR-485 mimic for 6 h, 1 mM autophagy inhibitor 3-MA was added and reoxygenated for 24 h, the effect of LncRNA SNHG3 on the autophagy-induced neuronal cell apoptosis was measured by Western blot and flow cytometry. LncRNA SNHG3 was highly expressed in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and cell model of Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion, while miR-485 was lowly expressed. Furthermore, miR-485 negatively regulated the luciferase activities of LncRNA SNHG3 and ATG7. After the OGD treatment of N2a cells transfected with pcDNA-SNHG3, pcDNA-SNHG3 + miR-485 mimic for 6 h, 1 mM 3-MA was added and reoxygenated for 24 h, the overexpression of LncRNA SNHG3 raised the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1 expression and boosted the apoptosis of N2a cells, while these effects were reversed after the transfection of miR-485 mimic. In general, our data expounded that the interference with LncRNA SNHG3 improved brain I/R injury by up-regulating miR-485 and down-regulating ATG7 to restrain autophagy and neuronal cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00607-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Value of echocardiography for mini-invasive per-atrial closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan 14;37(1):117-124. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Hospital No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of echocardiography for intraoperative guidance during closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSD) and to assess outcomes of these patients. We identified and assessed 78 patients who underwent 2- and 3-dimensional echocardiography-guided mini-invasive per-atrial closure of pmVSD in the cardiac surgery department of our institution, from February 2016 to August 2018, and 76 patients who underwent transcatheter closure of VSD guided by fluoroscopy at the pediatric department (percutaneous control group). All the patients underwent echocardiography. Their clinical data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. All patients were followed up using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for a maximum of 24 months after the closure. All patients underwent successful device implantation. Echocardiography showed that the major immediate complications included residual shunt, pericardial effusion, and tricuspid regurgitation in the per-atrial group. During the mid-term follow-up period, TTE revealed that the most common complication was tricuspid regurgitation (non-preexisting). There were no cases of VSD recurrence, device displacement, valvular injury, malignant arrhythmias, hemolysis, or death. Moreover, according to the TTE data, the intracardiac structure of the patients were improved. Compared to the control group, the intracardiac manipulation time was shorter and the number of patients with residual shunts, redeployment of devices, or immediate new tricuspid regurgitations was fewer when using 2- and 3-dimensional echocardiography. However, the procedure time in the per-atrial group was slightly longer than that in the control group. Two- and 3-dimensional echocardiography are feasible monitoring tools during mini-invasive per-atrial VSD closure. The short- and mid-term follow-up showed satisfactory results compared to fluoroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01967-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Downy Mildew effector HaRxL21 interacts with the transcriptional repressor TOPLESS to promote pathogen susceptibility.

PLoS Pathog 2020 08 12;16(8):e1008835. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Institut für Phytopathologie, Universität Gießen, Gießen, Germany.

Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is an oomycete pathogen causing Arabidopsis downy mildew. Effector proteins secreted from the pathogen into the plant play key roles in promoting infection by suppressing plant immunity and manipulating the host to the pathogen's advantage. One class of oomycete effectors share a conserved 'RxLR' motif critical for their translocation into the host cell. Here we characterize the interaction between an RxLR effector, HaRxL21 (RxL21), and the Arabidopsis transcriptional co-repressor Topless (TPL). We establish that RxL21 and TPL interact via an EAR motif at the C-terminus of the effector, mimicking the host plant mechanism for recruiting TPL to sites of transcriptional repression. We show that this motif, and hence interaction with TPL, is necessary for the virulence function of the effector. Furthermore, we provide evidence that RxL21 uses the interaction with TPL, and its close relative TPL-related 1, to repress plant immunity and enhance host susceptibility to both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446885PMC
August 2020

Pudendal Nerve Block by Low-Frequency (≤1 kHz) Biphasic Electrical Stimulation.

Neuromodulation 2020 Aug 6. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that poststimulation block of nerve conduction can be achieved by low-frequency (≤1 kHz) biphasic stimulation (LFBS).

Materials And Methods: A tripolar cuff electrode was placed around the pudendal nerve in cats to deliver LFBS (1 kHz, 500 Hz, and 100 Hz). Two bipolar hook electrodes were placed central and distal to the cuff electrode to induce external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions. A catheter was inserted into the urethra to record EUS contraction pressure. Pudendal nerve block by LFBS was confirmed by the failure of the central hook electrode stimulation to induce EUS contractions, while the distal hook electrode stimulation still induced contractions.

Results: Pudendal nerve conduction was completely blocked by LFBS at different frequencies (1 kHz, 500 Hz, and 100 Hz) after terminating LFBS. The post-LFBS block induced at the minimal stimulation intensity and duration was fully reversible within the same time period (10-15 min on average) for the three frequencies. However, the stimulation duration to induce block significantly (p < 0.05) increased from 23 ± 8 sec to 95 ± 14 sec when frequency increased from 100 Hz to 1 kHz.

Conclusion: This study discovered that LFBS (≤1 kHz), like high-frequency (≥5 kHz) biphasic stimulation (HFBS), can induce poststimulation block. The result provides support for the theory that biphasic stimulation waveforms block axonal conduction by changing intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. The post-LFBS block provides the opportunity to develop new neuromodulation devices for clinical applications where initial nerve firing is acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.13241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921907PMC
August 2020

Abnormal Functional Asymmetry in the Salience and Auditory Networks in First-episode, Drug-naive Somatization Disorder.

Neuroscience 2020 09 30;444:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Mental Health Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China; National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychaitry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Evidence of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) has been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). Although the importance of damage to the functional asymmetry has been established, it remains unclear as to whether abnormal intra- and inter-hemispheric FCs are related to patients with SD. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 28). The data were analyzed using parameter of asymmetry (PAS) and support vector machine (SVM). Patients with SD showed significantly lower PAS values in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and higher PAS values in the right insula compared to HCs. A negative correlation was observed between the higher PAS values in the right insula and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) sleep subscale scores (r = -0.502, p = 0.011), and positive correlations were found between the lower PAS values in the left ITG and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) somatic anxiety subscale scores (r = 0.443, p = 0.027) and the HAMA total scores (r = 0.456, p = 0.022). Moreover, the increased PAS values in the right insula could distinguish patients with SD from HCs with acceptable accuracy (77.36%). First-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD show disrupted asymmetry of inter- and intra-hemispheric FCs. The pattern of disrupted functional asymmetry occurs early in the course of the disease and is independent of medication status, which suggests that disrupted functional asymmetry of salience and auditory networks may be applied as early biological markers for SD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.043DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical Characteristics of Children With COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2020 3;8:431. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

With the global spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), health care systems are facing formidable challenges. Scientists are conducting studies to explore this new disease, and numerous studies have been shared. However, the number of studies on children with COVID-19 is limited, and no meta-analysis of this group has been performed. A random-effect meta-analysis was conducted to determine the characteristics of children with COVID-19, including their demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes. Four databases and reference lists were screened. Percentages were calculated, and pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 195 studies, 33 were selected, and 14 (371 patients) of them were included in the meta-analysis. Then, 19 case reports (25 patients) were summarized separately. Our meta-analysis revealed that 17.4% (95% CI = 9.1-27.3) of children had asymptomatic infection. Fever (51.2%, 95% CI = 40.2-62.2) and cough (37.0%, 95% CI = 25.9-48.8) were the most frequent symptoms. The prevalence of severe or critical illness was almost 0% (95% CI = 0-1.0). The most frequent abnormal laboratory findings, in pediatric patients, were leukopenia/lymphopenia (28.9%, 95% CI = 19.5-39.2) and increased creatine kinase (20.1%, 95% CI = 1.3-49.9). Ground-glass opacity was observed in the CT scan of 53.9% (95% CI = 38.4-68.7) of children diagnosed with pneumonia. Children are at a lower risk of developing COVID-19 and have a milder disease than adults. However, the evidence presented in this study is not satisfactory. Further investigations are urgently needed, and our data will be continuously updated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350605PMC
July 2020

Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Factor UPF1 Is Critical for Posttranscriptional and Translational Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2020 09 14;32(9):2725-2741. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an RNA control mechanism that has also been implicated in the broader regulation of gene expression. Nevertheless, a role for NMD in genome regulation has not yet been fully assessed, partially because NMD inactivation is lethal in many organisms. Here, we performed an in-depth comparative analysis of Arabidopsis () mutants lacking the NMD-related proteins UPF3, UPF1, and SMG7. We found different impacts of these proteins on NMD and the Arabidopsis transcriptome, with UPF1 having the biggest effect. Transcriptome assembly in UPF1-null plants revealed genome-wide changes in alternative splicing, suggesting that UPF1 functions in splicing. The inactivation of UPF1 led to translational repression, as manifested by a global shift in mRNAs from polysomes to monosomes and the downregulation of genes involved in translation and ribosome biogenesis. Despite these global changes, NMD targets and mRNAs expressed at low levels with short half-lives were enriched in the polysomes of mutants, indicating that UPF1/NMD suppresses the translation of aberrant RNAs. Particularly striking was an increase in the translation of TIR domain-containing, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (TNL) immune receptors. The regulation of TNLs via UPF1/NMD-mediated mRNA stability and translational derepression offers a dynamic mechanism for the rapid activation of TNLs in response to pathogen attack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.20.00244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474300PMC
September 2020