Publications by authors named "Wen-Qing Li"

159 Publications

Proteomic profiling identifies signatures associated with progression of precancerous gastric lesions and risk of early gastric cancer.

EBioMedicine 2021 Nov 21;74:103714. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Background: Molecular features underlining the multistage progression of gastric lesions and development of early gastric cancer (GC) are poorly understood, restricting the ability to GC prevention and management.

Methods: We portrayed proteomic landscape and explored proteomic signatures associated with progression of gastric lesions and risk of early GC. Tissue proteomic profiling was conducted for a total of 324 subjects. A case-control study was performed in the discovery stage (n=169) based on populations from Linqu, a known high-risk area for GC in China. We then conducted two-stage validation, including a cohort study from Linqu (n = 56), with prospective follow-up for progression of gastric lesions (280-473 days), and an independent case-control study from Beijing (n = 99).

Findings: There was a clear distinction in proteomic features for precancerous gastric lesions and GC. We derived four molecular subtypes of gastric lesions and identified subtype-S4 with the highest progression risk. We found 104 positively-associated and 113 inversely-associated proteins for early GC, with APOA1BP, PGC, HPX and DDT associated with the risk of gastric lesion progression. Integrating these proteomic signatures, the ability to predict progression of gastric lesions was significantly strengthened (areas-under-the-curve=0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.99) vs. 0.56 (0.36-0.76), Delong's P = 0.002). Immunohistochemistry assays and examination at mRNA level validated the findings for four proteins.

Interpretation: We defined proteomic signatures for progression of gastric lesions and risk of early GC, which may have translational significance for identifying particularly high-risk population and detecting GC at an early stage, improving potential for targeted GC prevention.

Funding: The funders are listed in the Acknowledgement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103714DOI Listing
November 2021

Eye color and the risk of skin cancer.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common skin cancers. The incidence rates of all three types of skin cancers have increased in the past three decades. Light pigmentary traits have been recognized as one of the host risk factors for skin cancer, but findings on associations between eye colors and risk of skin cancers have been inconsistent.We performed a prospective analysis to examine the association between eye colors and risk of skin cancers using the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect modifications due to hair color and skin reaction to sun were also examined.The HPFS included 35,662 males. During a median follow-up of 19 years (1988-2012), 445 melanoma, 1123 SCC, and 7198 BCC cases were documented. Compared to those whose eye colors were dark or brown, participants with hazel/green/medium and blue/light colors had a 24% (RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45) and a 19% (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.41) higher risk of SCC, respectively. Similarly, a higher risk of BCC was observed in participants with hazel/green/medium eye colors (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09-1.23) and blue/light eye colors (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25). We did not find significant associations between eye color and risk of melanoma. Lighter eye color was associated with increased risks of SCC and BCC among those with dark hair colors (p for interaction ≤ 0.02).In conclusion, in this large prospective study of men, we found that light eye colors were associated with higher risks of SCC and BCC, but not melanoma. Further studies are needed to confirm this association in other populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-021-01508-zDOI Listing
October 2021

The origin of the particle-size-dependent selectivity in 1-butene isomerization and hydrogenation on Pd/AlO catalysts.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 20;12(1):6098. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute of Materials Chemistry, Technische Universität Wien, Getreidemarkt 9/BC, A-1060, Vienna, Austria.

The selectivity of 1-butene hydrogenation/isomerization on Pd catalysts is known to be particle size dependent. Here we show that combining well-defined model catalysts, atmospheric pressure reaction kinetics, DFT calculations and microkinetic modeling enables to rationalize the particle size effect based on the abundance and the specific properties of the contributing surface facets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26411-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528898PMC
October 2021

Reproductive and hormonal factors and risk of incident rosacea among US White women.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China; Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.06.865DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification and Validation of Plasma Metabolomic Signatures in Precancerous Gastric Lesions That Progress to Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2114186. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Importance: Metabolic deregulation plays an important role in gastric cancer (GC) development. To date, no studies have comprehensively explored the metabolomic profiles along the cascade of gastric lesions toward GC.

Objective: To draw a metabolic landscape and define metabolomic signatures associated with the progression of gastric lesions and risk of early GC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A 2-stage, population-based cohort study was initiated in 2017 in Linqu County, Shandong Province, China, a high-risk area for GC. Prospective follow-up was conducted during the validation stage (June 20, 2017, to May 27, 2020). A total of 400 individuals were included based on the National Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Early Detection Program in China. The discovery stage involved 200 individuals with different gastric lesions or GC (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive GC). The validation stage prospectively enrolled 152 individuals with gastric lesions who were followed up for 118 to 1063 days and 48 individuals with GC.

Exposures: Metabolomic profiles and metabolite signatures were examined based on untargeted plasma metabolomics assay.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The risk of GC overall and early GC (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia), and progression of gastric lesions.

Results: Of the 400 participants, 124 of 200 (62.0%) in the discovery set were men; mean (SD) age was 56.8 (7.5) years. In the validation set, 136 of 200 (68.0%) were men; mean (SD) age was 57.5 (8.1) years. Distinct metabolomic profiles were noted for gastric lesions and GC. Six metabolites, including α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, sn-1 lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC)(18:3), and sn-2 LysoPC(20:3) were significantly inversely associated with risk of GC overall and early GC (high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia). Among these metabolites, the first 3 were significantly inversely associated with gastric lesion progression, especially for the progression of intestinal metaplasia (α-linolenic acid: OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.98; linoleic acid: OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-1.00; and palmitic acid: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.13-0.78). Compared with models including only age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastric histopathologic findings, integrating these metabolites significantly improved the performance for predicting the progression of gastric lesions (area under the curve [AUC], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.00 vs AUC, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88; P = .02) and risk of early GC (AUC, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.58-1.00 vs AUC, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.31-0.91; P = .03).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study defined metabolite signatures that might serve as meaningful biomarkers for assessing high-risk populations and early diagnosis of GC, possibly advancing targeted GC prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.14186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220475PMC
June 2021

DNA methylation signatures associated with prognosis of gastric cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 25;21(1):610. Epub 2021 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, 52 Fucheng Rd, Haidian District, Beijing, 100142, People's Republic of China.

Background: Few studies have examined prognostic outcomes-associated molecular signatures other than overall survival (OS) for gastric cancer (GC). We aimed to identify DNA methylation biomarkers associated with multiple prognostic outcomes of GC in an epigenome-wide association study.

Methods: Based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), DNA methylation loci associated with OS (n = 381), disease-specific survival (DSS, n = 372), and progression-free interval (PFI, n = 383) were discovered in training set subjects (false discovery rates < 0.05) randomly selected for each prognostic outcome and were then validated in remaining subjects (P-values < 0.05). Key CpGs simultaneously validated for OS, DSS, and PFI were further assessed for disease-free interval (DFI, n = 247). Gene set enrichment analyses were conducted to explore the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways simultaneously enriched for multiple GC prognostic outcomes. Methylation correlated blocks (MCBs) were identified for co-methylation patterns associated with GC prognosis. Based on key CpGs, risk score models were established to predict four prognostic outcomes. Spearman correlation analyses were performed between key CpG sites and their host gene mRNA expression.

Results: We newly identified DNA methylation of seven CpGs significantly associated with OS, DSS, and PFI of GC, including cg10399824 (GRK5), cg05275153 (RGS12), cg24406668 (MMP9), cg14719951(DSC3), and cg25117092 (MED12L), and two in intergenic regions (cg11348188 and cg11671115). Except cg10399824 and cg24406668, five of them were also significantly associated with DFI of GC. Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was suggested to play a key role in the effect of DNA methylation on GC prognosis. Consistent with individual CpG-level association, three MCBs involving cg11671115, cg14719951, and cg24406668 were significantly associated with multiple prognostic outcomes of GC. Integrating key CpG loci, two risk score models performed well in predicting GC prognosis. Gene body DNA methylation of cg14719951, cg10399824, and cg25117092 was associated with their host gene expression, whereas no significant associations between their host gene expression and four clinical prognostic outcomes of GC were observed.

Conclusions: We newly identified seven CpGs associated with OS, DSS, and PFI of GC, with five of them also associated with DFI, which might inform patient stratification in clinical practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08389-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152126PMC
May 2021

COVID-19 Quarantine Reveals That Behavioral Changes Have an Effect on Myopia Progression.

Ophthalmology 2021 11 14;128(11):1652-1654. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Optometry and Visual Science, Wenzhou, China; National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463956PMC
November 2021

Association between antihypertensive medications and risk of skin cancer in people older than 65 years: a population-based study.

CMAJ 2021 04;193(15):E508-E516

Divisions of Dermatology (Drucker, Chan) and Cardiology (Abdel-Qadir), Department of Medicine, University of Toronto; Department of Medicine and Women's College Research Institute (Drucker, Abdel-Qadir, Chan), Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ont.; Department of Dermatology (Drucker, Weinstock, Li), Brown University, Providence, RI; Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (Hollestein), Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Research (Hollestein), Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Center (IKNL), Utrecht, The Netherlands; ICES Central (Drucker, Abdel-Qadir) and ICES University of Toronto (Na, Chan), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Cancer Epidemiology (Li), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, China

Background: The risk of skin cancer associated with antihypertensive medication use is unclear, although thiazides have been implicated in regulatory safety warnings. We aimed to assess whether use of thiazides and other antihypertensives is associated with increased rates of keratinocyte carcinoma and melanoma.

Methods: We conducted a population-based inception cohort study using linked administrative health data from Ontario, 1998-2017. We matched adults aged ≥ 66 years with a first prescription for an antihypertensive medication (thiazides, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers) by age and sex to 2 unexposed adults who were prescribed a non-antihypertensive medication within 30 days of the index date. We evaluated each antihypertensive class in a separate cohort study. Our primary exposure was the cumulative dose within each class, standardized according to the World Health Organization's Defined Daily Dose. Outcomes were time to first keratinocyte carcinoma, advanced keratinocyte carcinoma and melanoma.

Results: The inception cohorts included a total of 302 634 adults prescribed an antihypertensive medication and 605 268 unexposed adults. Increasing thiazide exposure was associated with an increased rate of incident keratinocyte carcinoma (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] per 1 Defined Annual Dose unit 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.14), advanced keratinocyte carcinoma (adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93-1.23) and melanoma (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78). We found no consistent evidence of association between other antihypertensive classes and keratinocyte carcinoma or melanoma.

Interpretation: Higher cumulative exposure to thiazides was associated with increased rates of incident skin cancer in people aged 66 years and older. Consideration of other antihypertensive treatments in patients at high risk of skin cancer may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.201971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087333PMC
April 2021

Chloroplast genome features and phylogenomic placement of var. (Rosaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 18;6(3):1068-1070. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Shandong Forest Germplasm Resources Center, Ji'nan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

The complete chloroplast genome of var. was sequenced with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. It was a typical quadruple structure as other plants of with 160,050 bp in length, including a large single-copy (LSC: 87,905 bp) region and a small single-copy (SSC: 19,325 bp) which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRa, b: 26,410 bp) region. The overall GC content is 36.5%. A total of 130 genes was annotated which contained 85 protein-coding genes including the Trans splicing gene of 12, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. ML phylogenetic analysis compared with 7 expressed chloroplast genomes of Rosaceae revealed that var. was a sister to other species. Six species of were divided into two groups, the species of group one is distributed in Asia and the species of group two distributed in Europe. Among group one, var. had the closest genetic relationship with which is a New Endemic Species on Ulleung Island of Korea, and followed by which is only distributed in Sichuan and Guizhou of China. var. has a relatively close relationship with the other three species of in the group two. And, it has a relatively distant from other genera of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995867PMC
March 2021

The first complete chloroplast genome of Thunb. (Rhamnaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 17;6(3):916-917. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Shandong Forest Germplasm Resources Center, Ji'nan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

The complete chloroplast genome of was sequenced with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. It was a typical quadruple structure as other plants of with 162,962 bp in length, including a large single-copy (LSC: 90,900 bp) region and a small single-copy (SSC: 18,920 bp) which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRa, b: 26,571 bp) region. The overall GC content is 36.6%. A total of 130 genes was annotated which contained 85 protein-coding genes including the Trans splicing gene of 12, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. ML phylogenetic analysis compared with 6 expressed chloroplast genomes of Rhamnaceae revealed that was closely related to the species of , and which were clustered into a group with and was relatively distant to other species of and , which were clustered into another group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1887772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971194PMC
March 2021

Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Mill. (Fagaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 15;6(3):868-869. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The complete chloroplast genome of was sequenced with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. It was a typical quadruple structure as other plants of with 161,221 bp in length, including a large single-copy (LSC: 90,553 bp) region and a small single-copy (SSC: 19,016 bp) which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRa, b: 25,826 bp) region. The overall GC content is 36.9%. A total of 131 genes was annotated which contained 86 protein-coding genes including the Trans splicing gene of 12, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. ML phylogenetic analysis compared with 17 expressed chloroplast genomes revealed that was a sister to other species of , which were grouped together with five species of Section and another 12 species of were divided into another group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1886004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971197PMC
March 2021

Hair color and risk of keratinocyte carcinoma in US women and men.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China; Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.01.099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433260PMC
March 2021

Microbiota alteration at different stages in gastric lesion progression: a population-based study in Linqu, China.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 1;11(2):561-575. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute Beijing, China.

In addition to Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), gastric microbiota may be involved in carcinogenesis process. However, the longitudinal study to assess changes in the gastric microbiota associated with the development of gastric carcinogenesis is still limited. The aim of this study is to explore dynamic microbial alterations in gastric cancer (GC) development based on a 4-year endoscopic follow-up cohort in Linqu County, China. Microbial alterations were investigated by deep sequencing of the microbial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in 179 subjects with various gastric lesions, and validated in paired gastric biopsies prospectively collected before and after lesion progression and in non-progression controls. Significant differences were found in microbial diversity and community structure across various gastric lesions, with 62 candidate differential taxa between at least two lesion groups. Further validations identified Helicobacter, Bacillus, Capnocytophaga and Prevotella to be associated with lesion progression-to-dysplasia (DYS)/GC (all P < 0.05), especially for subjects progressing from intestinal metaplasia (IM) to DYS/GC. The combination of the four genera in a microbial dysbiosis index showed a significant difference after lesion progression-to-DYS/GC compared to controls (P = 0.027). The panel including the four genera identified subjects after progression-to-DYS/GC with an area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.941. Predictive significance was found before lesion progression-to-DYS/GC with an AUC = 0.776 and an even better AUC (0.927) for subjects progressing from IM to DYS/GC. Microbiota may play different roles at different stages in gastric carcinogenesis. A panel of bacterial genera associated with gastric lesions may help to assess gastric microbial dysbiosis and show potential predictive values for lesion progression. Our findings provide new clues for the microbial mechanism of H.pylori-associated carcinogenesis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868750PMC
February 2021

The complete chloroplast genome of 'Bairihua', a hybrid variety with multi season flowering.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 11;5(3):2760-2762. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Shandong Provincial Center of Forest Tree Germplasm Resources, Jinan, China.

The complete chloroplast genome of 'Bairihua' a hybrid variety with multi season flowering obtained from hybrid progeny of Luoqiu Sihao' ( '01' ×  'Changguo Qiu') and f. was first sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Which was 158,210 bp in length with a typical quadruple structure and contained a large single copy (LSC: 84,928 bp) region and a small single copy (SSC: 12,664 bp) region that were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRa, b: 30,309 bp) region. The GC content of the whole chloroplast genome is 38.1%. A total of 130 genes was annotated in the complete chloroplast genome, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 8rRNA genes. ML phylogenetic analysis by comparing with 39 chloroplast genomes of the Bignoniaceae indicated that 'Bairihua' was close to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1788445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782214PMC
July 2020

Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of S. B. Liang (Tiliaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 9;5(3):2719-2720. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Shandong Academy of Forest, Jinan, China.

The complete chloroplast genome of an endangered endemic species in China was sequenced with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. It was a typical quadruple structure as other plants of with 162,803 bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC: 91,114 bp) region and a small single copy (SSC: 20,379 bp) which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRa, b: 25,655 bp) region. The overall GC content is 36.5%. A total of 129 genes was annotated which contained 84 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. ML Phylogenetic analysis compared with 33 expressed chloroplast genomes revealed that was a sister to other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1788430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781993PMC
July 2020

[Transport Influence and Potential Sources of Ozone Pollution for Nanjing During Spring and Summer in 2017].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jan;42(1):88-96

Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

In this study, the 24-hour backward trajectories of air mass at ground level(10 m)in Nanjing were calculated by using the HYSPLIT model with the NCEP global reanalysis data from April 1st to October 31st, 2017. The backward trajectories were then combined with the hourly concentration data of O in Nanjing for trajectories clustering analysis and potential pollution sources analysis. The results show that in 2017, the maximum daily 8 h running average O level in Nanjing was around 12-261 μg·m with 58 days of O pollution in Nanjing, mainly in the spring and summer. The monthly variation of O showed a single peak, with the highest O concentration, as well as the most days exceeding the standard, occurring in June; the diurnal variation of O was unimodal and reached its peak around 14:00. A total number of 5136 trajectories were obtained by simulation, among which the exceeded trajectories accounted for approximately 10%. The exceedance trajectories in May and June were significantly higher, accounting for 60% of the total exceedance trajectories. Six ground-level air mass transporting pathways were identified through clustering analysis, from the NNE, NW, SW, SSE, SE, and NE directions. The SE and SSE directions with higher O levels were the dominant transport routes of O pollution, contributing to 23.33% and 20.76% of backward trajectories, respectively. As for the potential pollution source analysis, the area with high WCWT value distribution matched the WPSCF result, indicating that the potential sources of O pollution were mainly distributed in Changzhou, Wuxi, Suzhou, Huzhou, and other cities around Taihu Lake. Additionally, cities located around Nanjing, such as Taizhou, Ma'anshan, Wuhu, Chuzhou, Nantong, and Lianyungang, were considered the secondary potential sources. The results indicate that O pollution in Nanjing is a regional issue and its control requires joint prevention and control strategies in the Yangtze River Delta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202005077DOI Listing
January 2021

The complete chloroplast genome of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Dec 9;5(1):81-82. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

College of Landscape Architecture and Forestry, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

is a shrub with high economic values. Here, complete chloroplast (cp) genomes were reported using high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The size of the chloroplast genome is 157,940 bp long, with an average AT content of 63.05%, containing a pair of inverted repeats of 24,047 bp, separated by a large single copy and a small single copy region of 87,562 bp and 22,284 bp, respectively. It contains 125 genes, including79 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA genes, and eight ribosomal RNA genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree supported the fact that the chloroplast genome of is closely related to that of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1676175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720720PMC
December 2019

Efficacy of inhaled budesonide on serum inflammatory factors and quality of life among children with acute infectious laryngitis.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Jan - Feb;42(1):102820. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Acute infectious laryngitis is commonly occurred among children. Our study sought to investigate the effect of inhaled budesonide on among children with acute infectious laryngitis.

Methods: A total of 92 children with acute infectious laryngitis were randomly allocated to either the study (46 cases, treated with inhaled budesonide) and control group (46 cases, treated with dexamethasone). The disappearance time of symptoms, therapeutic effect and adverse reactions were observed in the two groups.

Results: The therapeutic effect was significantly better in the study group than in the control group (97.83% vs 82.61%). After 3 days of treatment, the disappearance time of symptoms, such as hoarseness/barking cough, singing sound in the throat, three-concave sign and dyspnea in the study group was significantly less than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The levels of IL-4, IL-17, MMP-9, IL-33, IFN-γ and IgE in the two groups decreased, and evidently lower levels were found in the study group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Inhaled budesonide exerted obvious better effect in terms of reducing serum inflammatory factors and improving the quality of life with safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102820DOI Listing
April 2021

Cavitation Suppression of Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2020 12 11;11(6):783-794. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Institute of Process Equipment, College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are widely used to replace diseased heart valves, but it may suffer from cavitation due to the rapid closing velocity of the leaflets, resulting in the damage of red blood cells and platelets. The aim of this study is to apply computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to investigate the cavitation in bileaflets mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) and discuss the effects of the conduit and leaflet geometries on cavitation intensity.

Methods: Firstly, CFD method together with moving-grid technology were applied and validated by comparing with experimental results obtained from other literature. Then the leaflets movement and the flow rate of BMHVs with different conduit geometries and leaflet geometries are compared. At last, the duration time of the saturated vapor pressure and the closing velocity of leaflets at the instant of valve closure were used to represent the cavitation intensity.

Results: Larger closing velocity of leaflets at the instant of valve closure means higher cavitation intensity. For BMHVs with different conduit geometries, the conduit with Valsalva sinuses has the maximum cavitation intensity and the straight conduit has the minimum cavitation intensity, but the leaflets cannot reach the fully opened state in a straight conduit. For BMHVs with different leaflet geometries, in order to minimize the cavitation intensity, the leaflets are better to have a large thickness and a small rotational radius.

Conclusion: CFD method is a promising method to deal with cavitation in BMHVs, and the closing velocity of leaflets has the same trend with the cavitation intensity. By using CFD method, the effects of the conduit geometry and the leaflet geometry on cavitaion in BMHVs are found out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-020-00484-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection by daily cranberry intake: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 23;36(4):927-935. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background And Aim: Dietary strategies that contribute to reducing incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection without negative side effects are highly desirable owing to worldwide bacterial prevalence and carcinogenesis potential. The aim of this study was to determine dosage effect of daily cranberry consumption on H. pylori suppression over time in infected adults to assess the potential of this complementary management strategy in a region with high gastric cancer risk and high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on 522 H. pylori-positive adults evaluated dose-response effects of proanthocyanidin-standardized cranberry juice, cranberry powder, or their placebos on suppression of H. pylori at 2 and 8 weeks by C-urea breath testing and eradication at 45 days post-intervention.

Results: H. pylori-negative rates in placebo, low-proanthocyanidin, medium-proanthocyanidin, and high-proanthocyanidin cranberry juice groups at week 2 were 13.24%, 7.58%, 1.49%, and 13.85% and at week 8 were 7.35%, 7.58%, 4.48%, and 20.00%, respectively. Consumption of high-proanthocyanidin juice twice daily (44 mg proanthocyanidin/240-mL serving) for 8 weeks resulted in decreased H. pylori infection rate by 20% as compared with other dosages and placebo (P < 0.05). Percentage of H. pylori-negative participants increased from 2 to 8 weeks in subjects who consumed 44 mg proanthocyanidin/day juice once or twice daily, showing a statistically significant positive trend over time. Encapsulated cranberry powder doses were not significantly effective at either time point. Overall trial compliance was 94.25%. Cranberry juice and powder were well-tolerated.

Conclusions: Twice-daily consumption of proanthocyanidin-standardized cranberry juice may help potentiate suppression of H. pylori infection.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR1800017522, per WHO ICTRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246812PMC
April 2021

Association Between Lifestyle Factors, Vitamin and Garlic Supplementation, and Gastric Cancer Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 06 1;3(6):e206628. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education-Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Importance: The associations of lifestyle factors with gastric cancer (GC) are still underexplored in populations in China. Long-term nutritional supplementation may prevent GC in high-risk populations, but the possible effect modification by lifestyle factors remains unknown.

Objective: To evaluate how lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol intake, and diet, may change the risk of GC incidence and mortality and whether the effects of vitamin and garlic supplementation on GC are associated with major lifestyle factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a secondary analysis of the Shandong Intervention Trial, a masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that aimed to assess the effect of vitamin and garlic supplementations and Helicobacter pylori treatment on GC in a factorial design with 22.3 years of follow-up. The study took place in Linqu County, Shandong province, China, a high-risk area for GC. Data were collected from Jully 1995 to December 2017. Overall, 3365 participants aged 35 to 64 years identified in 13 randomly selected villages who agreed to undergo gastroscopy were invited to participate in the trial and were included in the analysis. Data analysis was conducted from March to May 2019.

Interventions: Participants received vitamin and garlic supplementation for 7.3 years, H pylori treatment for 2 weeks (among participants with H pylori ), or placebo.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were GC incidence and GC mortality (1995-2017). We also examined the progression of gastric lesions (1995-2003) as a secondary outcome.

Results: Of the 3365 participants (mean [SD] age, 47.1 [9.2] years; 1639 [48.7%] women), 1677 (49.8%) were randomized to receive active vitamin supplementation, with 1688 (50.2%) receiving placebo, and 1678 (49.9%) receiving active garlic supplementation, with 1687 (50.1%) receiving placebo. Overall, 151 GC cases (4.5%) and 94 GC deaths (2.8%) were identified. Smoking was associated with increased risk of GC incidence (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.003-2.93) and mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-3.98). Smoking was not associated with changes to the effects of vitamin or garlic supplementation. The protective effect on GC mortality associated with garlic supplementation was observed only among those not drinking alcohol (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.75; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54; P for interaction = .03), and significant interactions were only seen among participants with H pylori (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.78; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.52-1.60; P for interaction = .04). No significant interactions between vitamin supplementation and lifestyle factors were found.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, smoking was associated with an increased risk of GC incidence and mortality. Not drinking alcohol was associated with a stronger beneficial effect of garlic supplementation on GC prevention. Our findings provide new insights into lifestyle intervention for GC prevention, suggesting that mass GC prevention strategies may need to be tailored to specific population subgroups to maximize the potential beneficial effect.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00339768.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.6628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320300PMC
June 2020

Intake of Furocoumarins and Risk of Skin Cancer in 2 Prospective US Cohort Studies.

J Nutr 2020 06;150(6):1535-1544

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: In prior studies, higher citrus consumption was associated with higher risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Furocoumarins, compounds with phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity in citrus, may be responsible for the association.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between furocoumarin intake and skin cancer risk.

Methods: A total of 47,453 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and 75,291 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) with diet data collected every 2-4 y in the 2 prospective cohort studies were included. A furocoumarin food composition database for 7 common furocoumarins [bergaptol, psoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (6'7'-DHB), epoxybergamottin, and bergamottin] was developed and used to calculate participants' cumulative average and energy-adjusted furocoumarin intake. Multivariate HRs and 95% CIs of the associations between furocoumarin intake and skin cancer risk were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were performed separately in each cohort as well as pooled using a fixed-effects model.

Results: Throughout follow-up (1984-2012 in the NHS and 1986-2012 in the HPFS), we identified 1593 melanoma, 4066 SCC, and 28,630 BCC cases. Higher intake of total furocoumarins was associated with an increased risk of BCC; the pooled HR comparing the top with the bottom quintile was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.21; P-trend = 0.002). Higher intakes of bergaptol, bergapten, 6'7'-DHB, and bergamottin were also significantly associated with increased BCC risk. No significant associations were found between intake of total furocoumarins and the risks of SCC or melanoma.

Conclusions: Intakes of total furocoumarins as well as some individual furocoumarins were associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, especially BCC, in 2 cohorts of US health professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269730PMC
June 2020

Telomere Length of Circulating Cell-Free DNA and Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population at High-Risk.

Front Oncol 2019 17;9:1434. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Telomeres have long been found to be involved in cancer development, while little was known about the dynamic changes of telomere length in carcinogenesis process. The present study longitudinally investigated telomere alterations of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in 86 gastric cancer (GC) subjects recruited through a 16-year prospective cohort with 2-4 serums collected before each GC-diagnosis from baseline and three follow-up time-points (a total of 276 samples). As the control, 86 individual-matched cancer-free subjects were enrolled with 276 serums from the matched calendar year. In the 73 pairs of baseline serums from GC and control subjects, shortened telomeres showed increased subsequent GC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 9.17, 95% CI: 2.72-31.25 for 1 unit shortening]. In each baseline gastric lesion category, higher risks of GC progression were also found with shortened cfDNA telomeres; ORs per 1 unit shortening were 6.99 (95% CI: 1.63-30.30) for mild gastric lesions, 6.06 (95% CI: 1.89-19.61) for intestinal metaplasia and 15.63 (95% CI: 1.91-125.00) for dysplasia. With all measurements from baseline and follow-up time-points, shortened telomeres also showed significant association with GC risk (OR = 7.37, 95% CI: 2.06-26.32 for 1 unit shortening). In temporal trend analysis, shortened telomeres were found in GC subjects compared to corresponding controls more than 3 years ahead of GC-diagnosis (most < 0.05), while no significant difference was found between two groups within 3 years approaching to GC-diagnosis. Our findings suggest that telomere shortening may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, which supports further etiological study and potential biomarker for risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928050PMC
December 2019

Effect of on gastrointestinal microbiota: a population-based study in Linqu, a high-risk area of gastric cancer.

Gut 2020 09 19;69(9):1598-1607. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China

Objective: Gastrointestinal microbiota may be involved in associated gastric cancer development. The aim of this study was to explore the possible microbial mechanisms in gastric carcinogenesis and potential dysbiosis arising from infection.

Design: Deep sequencing of the microbial 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to investigate alterations in paired gastric biopsies and stool samples in 58 subjects with successful and 57 subjects with failed anti- treatment, relative to 49 negative subjects.

Results: In positive subjects, richness and Shannon indexes increased significantly (both p<0.001) after successful eradication and showed no difference to those of negative subjects (p=0.493 for richness and p=0.420 for Shannon index). Differential taxa analysis identified 18 significantly altered gastric genera after eradication. The combination of these genera into a Microbial Dysbiosis Index revealed that the dysbiotic microbiota in positive mucosa was associated with advanced gastric lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia/dysplasia) and could be reversed by eradication. Strong coexcluding interactions between and , , , , were found only in advanced gastric lesion patients, and were absent in normal/superficial gastritis group. Changes in faecal microbiota included increased after successful eradication and more upregulated drug-resistant functional orthologs after failed treatment.

Conclusion: infection contributes significantly to gastric microbial dysbiosis that may be involved in carcinogenesis. Successful eradication potentially restores gastric microbiota to a similar status as found in uninfected individuals, and shows beneficial effects on gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456744PMC
September 2020

Genome-wide analysis of Cushion willow provides insights into alpine plant divergence in a biodiversity hotspot.

Nat Commun 2019 11 19;10(1):5230. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650201, Kunming, Yunnan, P. R. China.

The Hengduan Mountains (HDM) biodiversity hotspot exhibits exceptional alpine plant diversity. Here, we investigate factors driving intraspecific divergence within a HDM alpine species Salix brachista (Cushion willow), a common component of subnival assemblages. We produce a high-quality genome assembly for this species and characterize its genetic diversity, population structure and pattern of evolution by resequencing individuals collected across its distribution. We detect population divergence that has been shaped by a landscape of isolated sky island-like habitats displaying strong environmental heterogeneity across elevational gradients, combined with population size fluctuations that have occurred since approximately the late Miocene. These factors are likely important drivers of intraspecific divergence within Cushion willow and possibly other alpine plants with a similar distribution. Since intraspecific divergence is often the first step toward speciation, the same factors can be important contributors to the high alpine species diversity in the HDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13128-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864086PMC
November 2019

Clinical and epidemiologic factors associated with breast cancer and its subtypes among Northeast Chinese women.

Cancer Med 2019 12 23;8(17):7431-7445. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, P. R. China.

The incidence of breast cancer has increased dramatically in China. We evaluated the clinical and epidemiologic factors associated with breast cancer, and its stage in a case-control study of Northeast Chinese women. We also examined whether these factors were differentially distributed among molecular subtypes of breast cancer in a case-only analysis. We identified 1118 breast cancer patients and 2284 healthy women from Cancer Hospital of Medical University between January 2014 and December 2017. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that postmenopausal women had a decreased risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR = 0.33, 95% CI:0.25-0.43), and tended to have breast cancer of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.49-5.97) and triple-negative (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.02-4.56) subtypes, compared with the luminal B subtype. Women with history of abortion had an increased risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR = 4.70, 95% CI: 3.60-6.14). Women with high breast density and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) scores of lesions tended to have breast cancer of advanced stage, but were not differentially distributed among its molecular subtypes. In conclusion, postmenopausal women had decreased risk of breast cancer, and tended to have nonluminal subtype, while women with history of abortion had increased risk of breast cancer. Women with high breast density and BIRADS scores of lesions tended to have advanced stage breast cancer. We provide evidence on the epidemiologic factors for breast cancer and its subtypes, which may help with breast cancer risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885867PMC
December 2019

Effects of treatment and vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and mortality: follow-up of a randomized intervention trial.

BMJ 2019 Sep 11;366:l5016. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Haidian District, Beijing 100142, China.

Objective: To assess the effects of treatment, vitamin supplementation, and garlic supplementation in the prevention of gastric cancer.

Design: Blinded randomized placebo controlled trial.

Setting: Linqu County, Shandong province, China.

Participants: 3365 residents of a high risk region for gastric cancer. 2258 participants seropositive for antibodies to were randomly assigned to treatment, vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2×2 factorial design, and 1107 seronegative participants were randomly assigned to vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2 factorial design.

Interventions: treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole for two weeks; vitamin (C, E, and selenium) and garlic (extract and oil) supplementation for 7.3 years (1995-2003).

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes were cumulative incidence of gastric cancer identified through scheduled gastroscopies and active clinical follow-up through 2017, and deaths due to gastric cancer ascertained from death certificates and hospital records. Secondary outcomes were associations with other cause specific deaths, including cancers or cardiovascular disease.

Results: 151 incident cases of gastric cancer and 94 deaths from gastric cancer were identified during 1995-2017. A protective effect of treatment on gastric cancer incidence persisted 22 years post-intervention (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.71). Incidence decreased significantly with vitamin supplementation but not with garlic supplementation (0.64, 0.46 to 0.91 and 0.81, 0.57 to 1.13, respectively). All three interventions showed significant reductions in gastric cancer mortality: fully adjusted hazard ratio for treatment was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.99), for vitamin supplementation was 0.48 (0.31 to 0.75), and for garlic supplementation was 0.66 (0.43 to 1.00). Effects of treatment on both gastric cancer incidence and mortality and of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer mortality appeared early, but the effects of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and of garlic supplementation only appeared later. No statistically significant associations were found between interventions and other cancers or cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: treatment for two weeks and vitamin or garlic supplementation for seven years were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of death due to gastric cancer for more than 22 years. treatment and vitamin supplementation were also associated with a statistically significantly reduced incidence of gastric cancer.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339768.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l5016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737461PMC
September 2019

Association of Vitamin A Intake With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk in the United States.

JAMA Dermatol 2019 Nov;155(11):1260-1268

Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Importance: Retinoids are bioactive forms of vitamin A that are essential in the maintenance of epithelial maturation and differentiation. Synthetic retinoids are used in chemoprevention of skin cancer among high-risk populations with potential adverse effects. Epidemiologic data on vitamin A intake and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are limited.

Objective: To examine whether vitamin A intake is associated with a reduction in SCC risk.

Design, Settings, And Participants: This cohort study prospectively examined intake of vitamin A and carotenoids and SCC risk in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012). Diet was assessed repeatedly. Incident SCC was confirmed by pathologic reports. Data analysis was performed from June 21, 2017, to December 4, 2018.

Exposures: Intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and carotenoids.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incident SCC. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Pooled HRs of the cohort-specific results were calculated.

Results: A total of 3978 SCC cases in 75 170 women in the Nurses' Health Study (mean [SD] age, 50.4 [7.2] years) and 48 400 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (mean [SD] age, 54.3 [9.9] years) were documented. Higher total vitamin A was associated with a reduction in SCC risk; with quintile 1 as the reference, the pooled multivariate HRs for the increasing quintiles of vitamin A intake were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.87-1.07) for quintile 2, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.80-1.17) for quintile 3, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.03) for quintile 4, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93) for quintile 5 (P < .001 for trend). Higher intakes of retinol and some carotenoids were also associated with a reduction in SCC risk; the pooled HRs for the highest quintiles of intake compared with the lowest quintiles were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.79-0.97; P = .001 for trend) for total retinol, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P = .001 for trend) for beta cryptoxanthin, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.96; P < .001 for trend) for lycopene, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P = .02 for trend) for lutein and zeaxanthin. The results were generally consistent by sex and other SCC risk factors.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that increased intake of dietary vitamin A is associated with decreased risk of incident SCC. Future studies are needed to determine whether vitamin A supplementation has a role in chemoprevention of SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.1937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669777PMC
November 2019

Citrus Consumption and Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in the Women's Health Initiative.

Nutr Cancer 2020 23;72(4):568-575. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Citrus products are rich sources of furocoumarins, a class of photoactive compounds. Certain furocoumarins combined with ultraviolet radiation can induce skin cancer. We examined the relationship between citrus consumption and cutaneous melanoma risk among 56,205 Caucasian postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of melanoma by citrus intake level. During a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 956 incident melanoma cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models, the HR (95% CI) for melanoma was 1.12 (0.91, 1.37) among the highest citrus consumers (1.5+ servings/day of fruit or juice) versus the lowest (<2 servings/week), 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) among the highest citrus fruit consumers (5+ servings/week) versus non-consumers, and was 1.13 (0.96, 1.32) for the highest citrus juice consumers (1+ servings/day) versus the lowest (<1 serving/week). In stratified analyses, an increased melanoma risk associated with citrus juice intake was observed among women who spent the most time outdoors in summer as adults; the HR for the highest versus lowest intake was 1.22 (1.02, 1.46) ( trend = 0.03). Further research is needed to explore the association of melanoma with citrus juices among women with high sun exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1644353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980945PMC
January 2021

A Prospective Study of Toenail Trace Element Levels and Risk of Skin Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 09 19;28(9):1534-1543. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background: Few epidemiologic studies have investigated trace element exposure and skin cancer risk.

Methods: Toenail levels of mercury, selenium, chromium, iron, and zinc were measured from 6,708 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 3,730 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012) with data from prior nested case-control studies. Participants were free of skin cancer at toenail collection and followed for incident basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of skin cancer associated with the elements in each study. We calculated pooled multivariable HRs using a fixed-effects model. During 26 to 28 years of follow-up, 2,433 BCC, 334 SCC, and 130 melanoma cases were documented.

Results: Higher toenail mercury levels were associated with risk of BCC [pooled HR for top vs. bottom quintiles = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.52), < 0.0001]. Similar direct associations were found with risks of SCC [pooled HR for top vs. bottom quartiles = 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03-1.94), = 0.04] and melanoma [pooled HR for top vs. bottom quartiles = 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.16), = 0.02]. Chromium was positively associated with BCC in women only. No associations were found between other metals and skin cancer risk.

Conclusions: Our prospective data found that increased toenail mercury concentrations were associated with increased skin cancer risk.

Impact: If our novel findings are confirmed, mercury may play a role in skin carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726507PMC
September 2019
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