Publications by authors named "Wen-Bin Zheng"

55 Publications

-Derived Excretory-Secretory Products Alter the Expression of mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs Involved in the Immune Response and Metabolism in Goat Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:653755. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

produces excretory-secretory products (ESPs) with immune-modulating effects to promote its own survival. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to gain a comprehensive global understanding of changes in the expression of mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with ESPs. A total of 1,544 differently expressed mRNAs (790 upregulated and 754 downregulated genes), 30 differently expressed miRNAs (24 upregulated and 6 downregulated genes), 136 differently expressed circRNAs (83 upregulated and 53 downregulated genes), and 1,194 differently expressed lncRNAs (215 upregulated and 979 downregulated genes) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that ESPs altered the expression of genes associated with the host immune response, receptor signaling, disease and metabolism. Results from RNA-seq were validated by qRT-PCR. These findings provide an important resource for future investigation of the role of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs in mediating the immune-modulating effects of . ESPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.653755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072156PMC
April 2021

First report of Eimeria and Entamoeba infection in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Shanxi Province, northern China.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province, 030801, People's Republic of China.

Intestinal protozoa Eimeria and Entamoeba can infect many animal species including alpacas. However, data on the prevalence and pathogenicity of species of the two genera Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in China is scarce. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in two cities (Taiyuan and Xinzhou) in Shanxi Province, northern China, using PCR-based approaches. Eimeria spp. were only found in Taiyuan city, and the overall prevalence was 1.64%. All samples collected from male alpacas were PCR-negative for Eimeria. Four Eimeria-positive samples were tested positive as Eimeria lamae. The molecular prevalence of Entamoeba in alpacas was 18.03% (66/366), including 16.39% (50/305) in alpacas from Taiyuan city and 26.23% (16/61) from Xinzhou city, respectively. The Entamoeba prevalence in male alpacas (25.00%) was significantly higher than that in female alpacas (15.69%). Entamoeba bovis was the predominant species, and no Entamoeba histolytica infection was detected. Nine unique SSU rRNA gene sequences of Entamoeba were obtained which formed a new cluster. The results showed that sex and location might be the risk factors associated with prevalence of Eimeria spp., and sex might be the risk factor associated with prevalence of Entamoeba spp.. This is the first report of Entamoeba in alpacas worldwide. These findings expand our understanding of the prevalence and genetic diversity of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07157-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 22;120(4):1281-1289. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of single-celled protozoa, infecting a wide range of animals and humans. Although Cryptosporidium infections of cattle have been reported in some provinces in China, there is no available information on the prevalence and predominant species of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province. To investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province of China, 556 fecal samples were collected from eight farms in four cities and the SSU rRNA locus of Cryptosporidium was amplified from the DNA of each fecal sample by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 12.8% (71/556) in cattle in Jiangxi province, with 24.3% (54/222) in Nanchang city, 7.8% (13/166) in Gao'an city, 3.7% (4/108) in Xinyu city, and 0.0% (0/60) in Ji'an city. The differences of the prevalence rates by region, breed, and age groups were statistically significant. All positive PCR products of Cryptosporidium were successfully sequenced and identified as three Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (1/556, 0.18%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (7/556, 1.3%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (63/556, 11.3%). Furthermore, 36 C. andersoni isolates were successfully classified into three MLST (multilocus sequence typing) subtypes based on four genetic loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16). The predominant MLST subtype was A4, A4, A4, A1 (n = 30). These findings not only revealed the prevalence and predominant species of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province, but also provided a baseline for studying the genetic structure of C. andersoni, offering a novel resource for better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Jiangxi province, southeastern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07047-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteoporosis Induced by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Prospective Study.

Endocr Pract 2020 Dec;26(12):1477-1485

From the (1)Department of Endocrinology, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, and the. Electronic address:

Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked progressive neuromuscular disease that brings a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. We prospectively evaluated the effects of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates on the bones of children with DMD.

Methods: This study included a total of 52 children with DMD. They were divided into zoledronic acid (ZOL), alendronate (ALN), and control groups according to bone mineral density (BMD) and history of fragility fractures. For 2 years, all patients took calcium, vitamin D, and calcitriol. Meanwhile, 17 patients received infusions of ZOL, and 18 patients received ALN. BMD, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) were evaluated.

Results: After 24 months of treatment, the percentage changes in lumbar spine BMD were 23.2 ± 9.7% and 23.6 ± 8.8% in the ZOL and ALN groups (all P<.01 vs. baseline). The increases did not differ between the ZOL and ALN groups, but were significantly larger than those of the control group (P<.01). Serum β-CTX and ALP levels, respectively, were decreased by 44.4 ± 18.0% and 31.9 ± 26.7% in the ZOL group and by 36.0 ± 20.3% and 25.8 ± 14.4% in the ALN group (all P<.01 vs. baseline).

Conclusion: Zoledronic acid and alendronate had similar protective effects to increase bone mineral density and reduce bone resorption in children with DMD, which were superior to treatment of calcium, vitamin D, and calcitriol.

Abbreviations: 25OHD = 25 hydroxyvitamin D; ALN = alendro-nate; ALP = alkaline phosphatase; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; BMD = bone mineral density; BP = bisphosphonate; Ca = calcium; β-CTX = cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen; DMD = Duchenne muscular dystrophy; FN = femoral neck; GC = glucocorticoid; LS = lumbar spine; ZOL = zoledronic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2020-0073DOI Listing
December 2020

Differentially Affects Hepatic MicroRNA Expression in Beagle Dogs at Different Stages of Infection.

Front Vet Sci 2020 12;7:587273. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

is a neglected zoonotic parasite, which threatens the health of dogs and humans worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of infection remain mostly unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified in ; however, the regulation and role of miRNAs in the host during infection remain incompletely understood. In this study, we determined hepatic miRNA expression at different stages of infection in beagle dogs. Individual dogs were infected by 300 embryonated eggs, and their livers were collected at 12 hpi (hours post-infection), 24 hpi, and 36 dpi (days post-infection). The expression profiles of liver miRNAs were determined using RNA-sequencing. Compared to the control groups, 9, 16, and 34 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were detected in the livers of infected dogs at the three infection stages, respectively. Among those DEmiRNAs, the novel-294 and cfa-miR-885 were predicted to regulate inflammation-related genes at the initial stage of infection (12 hpi). The cfa-miR-1839 was predicted to regulate the target gene TRIM71, which may influence the development of larvae at 24 hpi. Moreover, cfa-miR-370 and cfa-miR-133c were associated with immune response at the final stage of infection (36 dpi). Some immunity-related Gene Ontology terms were enriched particularly at 24 hpi. Likewise, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that many significantly enriched pathways were involved in inflammation and immune responses. The expression level of nine DEmiRNAs was validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results show that miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of during the hepatic phase of parasite development. Our data provide fundamental information for further investigation of the roles of miRNAs in the innate/adaptive immune response of dogs infected by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.587273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689213PMC
November 2020

Proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by Toxocara canis infection.

J Proteomics 2021 02 17;232:104049. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxocara canis causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA). 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection (dpi), including 6, 5 and 23 proteins with differential abundance, respectively. At 24 hpi, the altered proteins, retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1), moesin and filamin-A, may participate in pro-inflammatory reaction or promote larvae migration. At 96 hpi, the altered protein C and fibroleukin may maintain the stability of the coagulation system to protect the lung. At 36 dpi, the alterations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ficolin (FCN), complement factor H-related protein 5 (CFHR5) and other complements can affect the three traditional complement system, including the classic pathway, lectin pathway and alternative pathway. These proteins may play important roles in the interaction between T. canis and its definitive hosts. Further study on these altered proteins triggered by T. canis infection may discovery novel therapeutic or diagnostic targets for toxocariasis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Toxocara canis is one of the globally distributed soil-transmitted helminths, which causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans and a wide range of warm-blooded animals. T. canis adapts to different microenvironments by resisting and adjusting various biological processes of the hosts. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. Plasma proteins are good marker for monitoring the occurrence and development of diseases. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA) in this study. A total of 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection, respectively. Ten protein with differential abundances were validated by using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Collectively, our deep proteomic analysis of plasma revealed that proteins alterations were affected by disease development, and proteomic analysis is an ideal method for quantifying changes in circulating factors on a global scale in response to pathophysiological perturbations such as T. canis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.104049DOI Listing
February 2021

A novel mutation in PLS3 causes extremely rare X-linked osteogenesis imperfecta.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 12 9;8(12):e1525. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Endocrinology, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous bone disease characterized by bone fragility and recurrent fractures. X-linked inherited OI with mutation in PLS3 is so rare that its genotype-phenotype characteristics are not available.

Methods: We designed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel with the candidate genes of OI to detect pathogenic mutations and confirmed them by Sanger sequencing. The phenotypes of the patients were also investigated.

Results: The proband, a 12-year-old boy from a nonconsanguineous family, experienced multiple fractures of long bones and vertebrae and had low bone mineral density (BMD Z-score of -3.2 to -2.0). His younger brother also had extremity fractures. A novel frameshift mutation (c.1106_1107insGAAA; p.Phe369Leufs*5) in exon 10 of PLS3 was identified in the two patients, which was inherited from their mother who had normal BMD. Blue sclerae were the only extraskeletal symptom in all affected individuals. Zoledronic acid was beneficial for increasing BMD and reshaping the compressed vertebral bodies of the proband.

Conclusion: We first identify a novel mutation in PLS3 that led to rare X-linked OI and provide practical information for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767536PMC
December 2020

Global profiling of lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs reveals differential expression of coding genes and non-coding RNAs in the lung of beagle dogs at different stages of Toxocara canis infection.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jan 28;51(1):49-61. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, China. Electronic address:

The roundworm Toxocara canis causes toxocariasis in dogs and larval migrans in humans. Better understanding of the lung response to T. canis infection could explain why T. canis must migrate to and undergoes part of its development inside the lung of the definitive host. In this study, we profiled the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs in the lungs of Beagle dogs infected by T. canis, using high throughput RNA sequencing. At 24 h p.i., 1,012 lncRNAs, 393 mRNAs and 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). We also identified 883 DElncRNAs, 264 DEmRNAs and 20 DEmiRNAs at 96 h p.i., and 996 DElncRNAs, 342 DEmRNAs and eight DEmiRNAs at 36 days p.i., between infected and control dogs. Significant changes in the levels of expression of transcripts related to immune response and inflammation were associated with the antiparasitic response of the lung to T. canis. The remarkable increase in the expression of scgb1a1 at all time points after infection suggests the need for consistent moderation of the excessive inflammatory response. Also, upregulation of foxj1 at 24 h p.i., and downregulation of IL-1β and IL-21 at 96 h p.i., suggest an attenuation of the humoral immunity of infected dogs. These results indicate that T. canis pathogenesis in the lung is mediated through contributions from both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network analysis revealed significant interactions between DElncRNAs, DEmiRNAs and DEmRNAs, and improved our understanding of the ceRNA regulatory mechanisms in the context of T. canis infection. These data provide comprehensive understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the lung response to T. canis infection and reveal new mechanistic insights into the interaction between the host and parasite during the course of T. canis infection in the canine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.07.014DOI Listing
January 2021

A novel variant in AIRE causing a rare, non‑classical autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Aug 12;22(2):1285-1294. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Endocrinology, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS‑1) is a rare inherited autoimmune disease, characterized by a classic triad, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, primary adrenocortical insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism. The present study investigated phenotypes and pathogenic variants in a Chinese woman with non‑classical APS‑1. Disease‑associated variants in a patient with APS‑1 were identified via targeted next generation sequencing and the variant was confirmed via Sanger sequencing. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and urinary levels of calcium were measured. Blood count assays and bone marrow morphology were investigated. The patient was a 32‑year‑old woman who had suffered from typical carpopedal spasms since she was 7 years old. She developed syncope, primary amenorrhea, intermittent diarrhea and general fatigue in subsequent years. Hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low levels of PTH and estradiol, elevated levels of FSH and LH, and absence of erythroblasts were observed, which indicated hypoparathyroidism, primary ovarian insufficiency and pure red cell aplasia. A novel heterozygous missense variant (NM_000383.2: c.623G>T, NP_000374.1: p.Gly208Val) in exon 5 of autoimmune regulator and a reported variant (NM_000383.2: c.371C>T, NP_000374.1: p.Pro124Leu) in exon 3 were detected, of which the c.623G>T variant may be a pathogenic variation that induces APS‑1. Under a regular follow‑up and therapeutic adjustment of calcium, calcitriol, hormone replacement therapy and methylprednisolone, the endocrine function and clinical symptoms of the patient were notably improved. The results of the present study expand the known genetic and phenotypical spectra of APS‑1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339480PMC
August 2020

Toxocara "omics" and the promises it holds for medicine and veterinary medicine.

Adv Parasitol 2020 1;109:89-108. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Toxocariasis is one of the most neglected worldwide zoonoses that is caused by larval nematode parasites of the genus Toxocara, Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent, Toxocara cati, whose migration mechanism is still largely unknown. Fortunately, some advanced tools have been employed, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, to better understand the molecular biology and regulatory mechanisms of Toxocara. Using genomics and transcriptomics, we can identify a large number of genes that participate in the development of Toxocara and the interaction of parasites and their hosts and can predict the functions of unknown genes by comparing them with other relevant species. Using proteomics, we can identify somatic proteins and excretory and secretory (ES) proteins that perform specific biological functions in tissue degradation, pathogen invasion, immune evasion or modulation. These "omics" techniques also can contribute enormously to the development of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tools for toxocariasis. In a word, by utilizing "omics", we can better understand the Toxocara and toxocariasis. In this review, we summarized the representative achievements in Toxocara and the interaction between Toxocara spp. and their hosts based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs), microarray gene expression, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), hoping to better understand the molecular biology of Toxocara, and contribute to new progress in the application areas of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tool for toxocariasis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Epidemiology of Toxocara spp. in dogs and cats in mainland China, 2000-2019.

Adv Parasitol 2020 3;109:843-860. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis. Although some studies have reported the Toxocara prevalence in dogs and cats in mainland China, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of these data. Here, we conducted the first systematic review based on relevant literatures published in Web of Science, PubMed and CNKI from January 2000 to July 2019 to assess the prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs and cats in mainland China. A total of 68 eligible papers were retrieved, including 24,490 dogs and 844 cats, with 17.34% (4246/24,490) Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs and 22.04% (186/844) Toxocara cati prevalence in cats by faecal floatation method. The prevalence and risk factors of T. canis and T. cati infection in different geographical regions, years, breeds, ages and genders were estimated in this review. This review indicates that there was high prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs and cats in China. This finding calls for measures to reduce the potential risk of Toxocara infection and toxocariasis in humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.031DOI Listing
May 2021

Novel variants in COL2A1 causing rare spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 03 23;8(3):e1139. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an extremely rare inherited chondrodysplasia characterized by abnormal epiphyses, short stature, and flattened vertebral bodies. We investigate the phenotypes and the disease-associated variants of SEDC in two unrelated Chinese families.

Methods: We identified disease-associated variants in two nonconsanguineous families with SEDC using targeted next-generation sequencing and confirmed the variants using Sanger sequencing. We investigated the phenotypes of the patients, including clinical manifestations, bone turnover biomarkers, bone mineral density and skeletal radiographic features.

Results: Two probands were diagnosed as SEDC according to the phenotypes of disproportionately short-trunk stature, kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and adduction deformity of hips. Radiographs revealed kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, flattened vertebral bodies, compressed femoral heads and shortening of the femurs. Bone mineral density of the probands was lower than that of age- and gender-matched normal children, but bone turnover biomarker levels were within normal range. Two novel heterozygous missense variants (NM_001844.5: c.1654 G>A, NP_001835.3: p.Gly552Arg; NM_001844.5: c.3518G>T, NP_001835.3: p.Gly1173Val) in collagen type II alpha 1 chain (COL2A1) were detected in the two families, which would impair the formation of stable triple-helical type II collagen.

Conclusions: We identified two novel disease-associated variants in COL2A1, which led to severe SEDC. Our findings expanded the gene variant spectrum and phenotypic spectrum of extremely rare type II collagenopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057085PMC
March 2020

Novel genotypes and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in two wild rat species in China: potential for zoonotic transmission.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 6;119(1):283-290. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic pathogen in immunodeficient patients. Although this pathogen has been reported in many domestic animals, few data are available about the occurrence of E. bieneusi in wild rats. In the current study, a total of 228 fecal samples from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in China were examined by a nested PCR-based sequencing approach employing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in wild rats was 33.3% (76/228), with 35.1% (39/111) in L. edwardsi and 31.6% (37/117) in B. bowersi. Ten E. bieneusi genotypes (including four known and six novel genotypes) were identified, with the novel CQR-2 (n = 15) as the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ten genotypes in the present study belong to zoonotic group 1, which contains many genotypes in humans. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that 19 ITS-positive samples were successfully amplified at three microsatellites and one minisatellite, forming 18 multilocus genotypes (MLGs). This is the first report of E. bieneusi infection in the wild rats L. edwardsi and B. bowersi. Our findings suggest that wild rats could be a significant source of human infection, including contaminated food and water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06491-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Identification of Cryptosporidium viatorum XVa subtype family in two wild rat species in China.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Oct 28;12(1):502. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cryptosporidium viatorum is a minor Cryptosporidium pathogen in humans. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and genotypes of C. viatorum in animals in China.

Methods: In this study, 228 faecal samples were collected from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in Chongqing Municipality and Guangdong Province, China. These specimens were analyzed for C. viatorum and then subtyped it using PCR and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and 60-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively.

Results: A total of 25 (11.0%) faecal samples were tested positive for C. viatorum by SSU rRNA assay. Of these samples, 4 (3.6%) came from L. edwardsi and 21 (18.0%) from B. bowersi. Of the 25 C. viatorum-positive samples, 17 were successfully amplified at the gp60 gene locus, which represented four subtypes belonging to two subtype families, including XVa (XVaA6, XVaA3g, XVaA3h) and XVc (XVcA2G1). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gp60 amino acid sequences indicated that all of the C. viatorum isolates grouped together, supporting the conclusion that C. viatorum from the wild rats represent two subtype families.

Conclusions: These results indicate an occurrence of C. viatorum XVa subtype family from rats which is genetically identical to those found in humans. Our findings suggest that wild rats may be a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3763-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819409PMC
October 2019

Complex and dynamic transcriptional changes allow the helminth Fasciola gigantica to adjust to its intermediate snail and definitive mammalian hosts.

BMC Genomics 2019 Oct 12;20(1):729. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Background: The tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica causes fasciolosis, an important disease of humans and livestock. We characterized dynamic transcriptional changes associated with the development of the parasite in its two hosts, the snail intermediate host and the mammalian definitive host.

Results: Differential gene transcription analysis revealed 7445 unigenes transcribed by all F. gigantica lifecycle stages, while the majority (n = 50,977) exhibited stage-specific expression. Miracidia that hatch from eggs are highly transcriptionally active, expressing a myriad of genes involved in pheromone activity and metallopeptidase activity, consistent with snail host finding and invasion. Clonal expansion of rediae within the snail correlates with increased expression of genes associated with transcription, translation and repair. All intra-snail stages (miracidia, rediae and cercariae) require abundant cathepsin L peptidases for migration and feeding and, as indicated by their annotation, express genes putatively involved in the manipulation of snail innate immune responses. Cercariae emerge from the snail, settle on vegetation and become encysted metacercariae that are infectious to mammals; these remain metabolically active, transcribing genes involved in regulation of metabolism, synthesis of nucleotides, pH and endopeptidase activity to assure their longevity and survival on pasture. Dramatic growth and development following infection of the mammalian host are associated with high gene transcription of cell motility pathways, and transport and catabolism pathways. The intra-mammalian stages temporally regulate key families of genes including the cathepsin L and B proteases and their trans-activating peptidases, the legumains, during intense feeding and migration through the intestine, liver and bile ducts. While 70% of the F. gigantica transcripts share homology with genes expressed by the temperate liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, gene expression profiles of the most abundantly expressed transcripts within the comparable lifecycle stages implies significant species-specific gene regulation.

Conclusions: Transcriptional profiling of the F. gigantica lifecycle identified key metabolic, growth and developmental processes the parasite undergoes as it encounters vastly different environments within two very different hosts. Comparative analysis with F. hepatica provides insight into the similarities and differences of these parasites that diverged > 20 million years ago, crucial for the future development of novel control strategies against both species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6103-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790025PMC
October 2019

Serum metabolomic alterations in Beagle dogs experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Sep 11;12(1):447. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, Hunan Engineering Technology Research Center of Veterinary Drugs, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Toxocara canis, a globally distributed roundworm, can cause debilitating disease in dogs and humans; however, little is known about the metabolomic response of the hosts to T. canis infection. There is an increasing need to understand the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of T. canis infection in dogs. Here, we examined the metabolomic changes in Beagle dogs' serum following T. canis infection using LC-MS/MS.

Results: The metabolic profiles of Beagle dogs' serum were determined at 12 h, 24 h, 10 d and 36 d after oral infection with 300 infectious T. canis eggs by LC-MS/MS. We tested whether the T. canis-associated differentially abundant metabolites could distinguish the serum of infected dogs from controls, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The differentially expressed metabolites were further evaluated by principal components analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 5756 and 5299 ions were detected in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively. ROC curve analysis revealed nine and five metabolite markers, at 12 hpi and 24 hpi to 36 dpi, respectively, with potential diagnostic value for toxocariasis. The levels of taurocholate, estradiol, prostaglandins and leukotriene were significantly changed. Primary bile acid biosynthesis pathway, steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathway were significantly altered by T. canis infection.

Conclusions: These findings show that T. canis infection can induce several changes in the dog serum metabolome and that the metabolic signature associated with T. canis infection in dogs has potential for toxocariasis diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3703-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737696PMC
September 2019

Prevalence and genetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 11 27;75:104019. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis are important opportunistic enteric zoonotic pathogens that cause diarrhoea and intestinal diseases in animals and humans. China is the largest producer of pigs, but whether Tibetan pigs, a unique pig breed in Tibet, are infected with E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and identified the genotypes of these causative agents. A total of 345 faecal specimens were collected from Tibetan pigs from three Tibet counties (Milin, Cuona and Gongbujiangda), examined by nested PCR and sequenced utilizing genetic markers in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene for E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis, respectively. Moreover, using multilocus sequence typing, the subtypes of E. bieneusi were identified based on four loci (MS1, MS3, MS4 and MS7). A total of 41 (11.88%) faecal samples from Tibetan pigs were E. bieneusi-positive, and 2 (0.58%) were G. duodenalis-positive. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was considered a risk factor for Tibetan pig infection of E. bieneusi. Two novel (GB11, GB31) and four known E. bieneusi genotypes (EbpC, EbpD, PigEBITS5 and CHS12) were identified and were all classified as zoonotic group 1 according to the phylogenetic analysis. Two MLGs (MLGI and MLGII) were further identified in the E. bieneusi EbpC genotype by multilocus sequence typing analysis. In addition, two G. duodenalis assemblages (D and E) were found in the present study. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to detect the prevalence and perform genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. The results could provide essential data for controlling E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis infections in Tibetan pigs that are in contact with other animals and humans, as Tibetan pigs could be a potential source for human infection by these pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104019DOI Listing
November 2019

Molecular Detection and Genotyping of in Edward's Long-Tailed Rats ().

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2019 08 28;16(8):539-542. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

1Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

is an important zoonotic parasite infecting humans and various animals with a worldwide distribution. However, limited information is available on infection in wild rats. The present study aimed to examine the prevalence and characterize the genotypes of in wild rats in two regions of China. Brain tissues were collected from 111 Edward's long-tailed rats () and 117 Bower's white-toothed rats () between November 2017 and January 2018. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR targeting the B1 gene. B1 gene-positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 [5', 3'] and [alternative], SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Six (5.41%, 6/111) Edward's long-tailed rats from Chongqing Municipality were positive for B1 gene, whereas no infection was detected in Bower's white-toothed rats ( = 117) from Guangdong province. prevalence in female and male rats was 1.77% (2/113) and 3.48 (4/115), respectively. Four of the six positive DNA samples were completely genotyped at 10 genetic loci and were identified as ToxoDB#20. The present study revealed the occurrence of infection in Edward's long-tailed rats. These findings raised public health concerning about infection in wild rats. These results provide reference data for understanding the distribution of genotypes in wild rats in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2018.2605DOI Listing
August 2019

Effects of zoledronic acid on vertebral shape of children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Bone 2019 10 16;127:164-171. Epub 2019 Jun 16.

Department of Endocrinology, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a common and severe complication of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We prospectively observe the changes of vertebral shape during zoledronic acid (ZOL) treatment and assess influence factors of VCF in OI children. 32 children with VCF and 10 children without VCF (NVCF) were included and given ZOL treatment for 2 years, who were matched in age and gender. Control group included 17 treatment naïve OI patients with VCF who were matched in age, gender and clinical severity to 17 patients in VCF group received ZOL treatment for 1 year (as ZOL treated group). We performed quantitative vertebral morphometry and calculated concavity index (mh/ph), height-length ratio (ah/LL, mh/LL, ph/LL) and projection area (PA) of vertebrae from T4 to L4 before and after treatment. At baseline, patients in VCF group had significantly lower PA, mh/ph, ah/LL, mh/LL and ph/LL than patients in NVCF group (P < 0.01). PA, mh/ph, ah/LL, mh/ LL and ph/LL of patients with VCF were raised by (35.2 ± 19.5)%, (22.9 ± 15.1)%, (19.6 ± 13.9)%, (33.6 ± 25.5)%, and (8.1 ± 8.8)% (P < 0.01) after 1-year treatment of ZOL, and were increased by (71.8 ± 28.2)%, (42.8 ± 21.8)%, (35.1 ± 20.6)%, (65.4 ± 43.2)%, and (12.5 ± 11.4)% after 2-year treatment of ZOL (P < 0.01). Compared to control group, mh/ph, ah/LL and mh/LL were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in ZOL treated group. LS-BMD and its increase were positively correlated to vertebral height and PA at baseline and the improvement of vertebral height and PA after ZOL treatment, respectively. In conclusion, the compressive vertebrae of OI children could be effectively reshaped during ZOL treatment. Low LS-BMD was an independent risk factor for VCF and its increase was positively correlated to the improvement in vertebral shape after ZOL treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.06.011DOI Listing
October 2019

Molecular detection of Neospora caninum from naturally infected four passeriforme birds in China.

Acta Trop 2019 Sep 4;197:105044. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan province, 410128, China. Electronic address:

Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the brain tissues of wild birds collected in Hunan province of China were examined by N. caninum specific nested PCR, targeting the Nc-5 gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The prevalence of N. caninum was detected in 15.5% (37/239) of wild birds, including 20.5% (9/44) of the examined olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni, 18.3% (24/131) of the examined tree sparrows Passer montanus, 7.9% (3/38) of the examined chestnut bunting Emberiza rutila and 3.8% (1/26) of the examined yellow-breasted bunting E. aureola. Phylogenetic analyses showed that N. caninum from different hosts and geographical origins are genetically diverse and can be further classified into two distinct groups. Our findings indicated that wild birds are potential source of N. caninum for other animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum infection in wild birds in China, which provides a foundation for the prevention and control of this parasite in China and elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105044DOI Listing
September 2019

Global serum proteomic changes in water buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jun 3;12(1):281. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Background: The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica modulates several signaling pathways in infected buffaloes to facilitate its survival and establishment of persistent infection. In response to the parasite invasion, buffaloes activate innate and adaptive immune responses to counter the parasite infection. To detect new proteins that might be involved in the interaction between F. gigantica and the buffaloes, and that also might serve as biomarkers for fasciolosis, we used proteomic techniques to study the serum proteome of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection. Here, we used an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify serum proteins that are differentially expressed in infected buffaloes compared to uninfected control buffaloes. Additionally, we applied a parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay to validate specific proteins identified by the iTRAQ method.

Results: A total of 313, 459 and 399 proteins were identified at 3, 42 and 70 days post-infection, respectively; of these 92, 93 and 138 were differentially abundant proteins. Some of the identified differentially abundant proteins, including complement factor H related 5, complement component C6, complement component C7, amine oxidase, plasma serine protease inhibitor and lysozyme, are known to be involved in complement system activation, blood coagulation, platelet activation, lymphocyte's adhesion and lysozyme hydrolysis. Analysis of data for all three time points after infection identified six significantly upregulated proteins in infected serum that separated infected and uninfected buffaloes into distinct clusters. Further PRM analysis confirmed the expression of five proteins, namely MHC class I antigen, Beta-2-microglobulin, NID2 protein, Fetuin-B and Fibrinogen gamma-B chain.

Conclusions: These findings provide novel insights into the serum proteomics signature of buffaloes during F. gigantica infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3533-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547537PMC
June 2019

Molecular Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of in Wild Birds in Hunan Province, China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 05 12;19(5):378-383. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals and humans. However, limited information is available about infection in wild birds. In this study, 239 wild birds were collected from Hunan province of China, including 38 chestnut bunting, 44 olive-backed pipit, 26 yellow-breasted bunting, and 131 tree sparrows. Genomic DNA of brain tissues were extracted and assayed by B1 gene, and the positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers [SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico] using multilocus nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. The results showed that 13 (5.51%) of the 239 wild birds were positive for . Among them, three samples have completely genotyped at all loci, and were identified as ToxoDB #10. Our results have indicated that wild birds can carry and potentially disseminate the . This is the first report of the molecular prevalence and genetic characterization of in wild birds in Hunan province, China. Further research should be investigated to understand weather can be transmitted from wild birds to other animals or humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2371DOI Listing
May 2019

Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Pigs for Human Consumption in Hunan Province, China.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha, China .

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important sources of foodborne diseases. In this study, the molecular prevalence and genotypes of T. gondii were investigated in pigs in Hunan province, China. A total of 339 brain tissue samples of pigs were collected from April 2015 to December 2017 in Hunan province and were used to detect the T. gondii B1 gene. Of these, 34 (10%; 95% confidence interval: 8.7-12.6) samples were tested positive for the T. gondii B1 gene. Positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 [5' + 3' SAG2, alter. SAG2], SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Moreover, one sample was identified as genotype ToxoDB#10 (Type I), and another sample was suspected to be unusual genotype ToxoDB#61 that has never been reported in China. This study showed that T. gondii is prevalent in pigs in Hunan province, posing a food safety threat to the public health in the investigated areas. Our result has implications for better understanding the genetic diversity of T. gondii infections in animals in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2018.2517DOI Listing
November 2018

First report of bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) in Tibetan Plateau, China.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Mar 30;51(3):719-722. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are important pathogens, which cause serious disease in animals. However, information about BVDV and MAP infection in Tibetan sheep in China is limited. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-seven blood samples were collected from Tibetan sheep between April 2013 and March 2014 from the Tibetan Plateau and tested for BVDV and MAP antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of BVDV and MAP in Tibetan sheep was 36.7 and 11.29%, respectively. Furthermore, risk factor analysis indicated that the age of sheep was statistically significant associated with BVDV infection and the region was considered as the risk factor of MAP infection in sheep (P < 0.05), gender and season were not considered as risk factors. This is the first report of seroprevalence and risk factors associated with BVDV and MAP infection in Tibetan Sheep in China, which will provide baseline information for controlling BVDV and MAP infection in ruminants in the Tibetan Plateau, western China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1718-0DOI Listing
March 2019

First Report of Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Infection in Tibetan Sheep in China.

Biomed Res Int 2018 29;2018:2098908. Epub 2018 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China.

is an intracellular protozoan parasite which can cause abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. However, there is no information on Tibetan sheep infection in China. A total of 2187 serum samples were collected from Tibetan sheep in the major production areas of Luqu, Maqu, and Tianzhu in Gansu province, and Nyingchi in southeast Tibet, China. All samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to using a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay. Of the 2187 serum samples, 184 (8.4%, 95% CI 7.3-9.6) were tested seropositive. The seroprevalence ranged from 4.4% (95% CI 1.4-7.4) to 11.3% (95% CI 8.2-14.4) among different regions, seasons, ages, and pregnancies, and there was no statistical significance among those groups ( > 0.05). Seroprevalence in male (10.8% 69/638) (95% CI 8.4-13.2) was significantly higher than in female (7.4% 115/1549) (OR =1.51, 95% CI 6.1-8.7) ( < 0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report of seroprevalence in Tibetan sheep in China, which provides baseline data for the prevention and control of infection in Tibetan sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2098908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996427PMC
January 2019

Toxocariasis: a silent threat with a progressive public health impact.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jun 13;7(1):59. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK.

Background: Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that afflicts millions of the pediatric and adolescent populations worldwide, especially in impoverished communities. This disease is caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati, the most ubiquitous intestinal nematode parasite in dogs and cats, respectively. In this article, recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of toxocariasis are reviewed.

Main Text: Over the past two decades, we have come far in our understanding of the biology and epidemiology of toxocariasis. However, lack of laboratory infrastructure in some countries, lack of uniform case definitions and limited surveillance infrastructure are some of the challenges that hindered the estimation of global disease burden. Toxocariasis encompasses four clinical forms: visceral, ocular, covert and neural. Incorrect or misdiagnosis of any of these disabling conditions can result in severe health consequences and considerable medical care spending. Fortunately, multiple diagnostic modalities are available, which if effectively used together with the administration of appropriate pharmacologic therapies, can minimize any unnecessary patient morbidity.

Conclusions: Although progress has been made in the management of toxocariasis patients, there remains much work to be done. Implementation of new technologies and better understanding of the pathogenesis of toxocariasis can identify new diagnostic biomarkers, which may help in increasing diagnostic accuracy. Also, further clinical research breakthroughs are needed to develop better ways to effectively control and prevent this serious disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0437-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998503PMC
June 2018

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Goats in Hunan Province, Subtropical China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 09 23;18(9):500-503. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha, Hunan Province, The People's Republic of China .

Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78.57%) goat herds with seroprevalence ranging from 0.00% to 29.94% in individual herds. Overall, the seroprevalence of C. abortus infection was different among regions (southern Hunan: 1.78%; northeast Hunan: 5.47%; and west Hunan: 15.29%), gender (male: 4.58% and female: 9.10%), seasons (spring: 5.97%; summer: 2.61%; autumn: 16.88%; and winter: 10.94%), and ages (year ≤1: 2.39%; 1 < year ≤2: 9.58%; 2 < year ≤3: 9.16%; and year >3: 17.57%). Risk factors for C. abortus infection were associated with region, season, and age in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first document to demonstrate the existence of C. abortus infection in goats, and the seroprevalence was 8.45% out of 911 goats in Hunan province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2183DOI Listing
September 2018

Expression profiles of genes involved in TLRs and NLRs signaling pathways of water buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica.

Mol Immunol 2018 02 11;94:18-26. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi). Then, the levels of 12 cytokines in serum samples were evaluated by ELISA. Also, the levels of expression of 42 genes, related to TLRs and NLRs signaling, in liver and PBMCs were determined using custom RT Profiler PCR Arrays. At 3 dpi, modest activation of TLR4 and TLR8 and the adaptor protein (TICAM1) was detected. At 10 dpi, NF-κB1 and Interferon Regulatory Factor signaling pathways were upregulated along with activation of TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, TLR10, TRAF6, IRF3, TBK1, CASP1, CD80, and IFNA1 in the liver, and inflammatory response with activated TLR4, TLR9, TICAM1, NF-κB1, NLRP3, CD86, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-8 in PBMCs. At 28 dpi, there was increase in the levels of cytokines along with induction of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes-dependent immune responses in the liver and PBMCs. At 70 dpi, F. gigantica activated TLRs and NLRs, and their downstream interacting molecules. The activation of TLR7/9 signaling (perhaps due to increased B-cell maturation and activation) and upregulation of NLRP3 gene were also detected. These findings indicate that F. gigantica alters the expression of TLRs and NLRs genes to evade host immune defenses. Elucidation of the roles of the downstream effectors interacting with these genes may aid in the development of new interventions to control disease caused by F. gigantica infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2017.12.007DOI Listing
February 2018

Paralysis Resulting from Calcific Discitis with Acute Herniation.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 11;130(21):2643-2644

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.217088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678269PMC
November 2017

Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Infection in Java Sparrows () in Northern China.

Biomed Res Int 2017 4;2017:2318476. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China.

Cryptosporidiosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis that affects a wide range of hosts including birds. As information concerning in birds is limited, the present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of in Java sparrows in Beijing and Shangqiu, northern China. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples were collected from Java sparrows (, 225 white Java sparrows and 125 gray Java sparrows) in Beijing and Shangqiu in October 2015, and the samples were examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The overall prevalence is 13.42% (47/350), with 16.44% (37/225) in white Java sparrows and 8.00% (10/125) in gray Java sparrows. prevalence was 9.82% (16/163) in Java sparrows from Beijing and 16.58% (31/187) in Java sparrows from Shangqiu. The prevalence of in females and males was 40.63% (26/64) and 7.34% (21/286), respectively. The prevalence in Java sparrows of different ages varied from 10.47% to 16.33%. Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that all the samples represented . This is the first report of in gray Java sparrows in China, which extend the host range for . These results provide baseline information for further studies of molecular epidemiology and control of infection in poultry in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2318476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5514319PMC
April 2018