Publications by authors named "Wen-Bin Guo"

52 Publications

Disrupted intrinsic functional brain topology in patients with major depressive disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

The Institute of Mental Health, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Aberrant topological organization of whole-brain networks has been inconsistently reported in studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), reflecting limited sample sizes. To address this issue, we utilized a big data sample of MDD patients from the REST-meta-MDD Project, including 821 MDD patients and 765 normal controls (NCs) from 16 sites. Using the Dosenbach 160 node atlas, we examined whole-brain functional networks and extracted topological features (e.g., global and local efficiency, nodal efficiency, and degree) using graph theory-based methods. Linear mixed-effect models were used for group comparisons to control for site variability; robustness of results was confirmed (e.g., multiple topological parameters, different node definitions, and several head motion control strategies were applied). We found decreased global and local efficiency in patients with MDD compared to NCs. At the nodal level, patients with MDD were characterized by decreased nodal degrees in the somatomotor network (SMN), dorsal attention network (DAN) and visual network (VN) and decreased nodal efficiency in the default mode network (DMN), SMN, DAN, and VN. These topological differences were mostly driven by recurrent MDD patients, rather than first-episode drug naive (FEDN) patients with MDD. In this highly powered multisite study, we observed disrupted topological architecture of functional brain networks in MDD, suggesting both locally and globally decreased efficiency in brain networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01247-2DOI Listing
August 2021

BMI1 activates P-glycoprotein via transcription repression of and enhances chemoresistance of bladder cancer cell.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 16;13(14):18310-18330. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Chemoresistance is the most significant reason for the failure of cancer treatment following radical cystectomy. The response rate to the first-line chemotherapy of cisplatin and gemcitabine does not exceed 50%. In our previous research, elevated BMI1 (B-cell specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration region 1) expression in bladder cancer conferred poor survival and was associated with chemoresistance. Herein, via analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database and validation of clinical samples, BMI1 was elevated in patients with bladder cancer resistant to cisplatin and gemcitabine, which conferred tumor relapse and progression. Consistently, BMI1 was markedly increased in the established cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant T24 cells (T24/DDP&GEM). Functionally, BMI1 overexpression dramatically promoted drug efflux, enhanced viability and decreased apoptosis of bladder cancer cells upon treatment with cisplatin or gemcitabine, whereas BMI1 downregulation reversed this effect. Mechanically, upon interaction with p53, BMI1 was recruited on the promoter of gene concomitant with an increase in the mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A lysine 119, leading to transcription repression of gene followed by derepression of (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1) gene. Moreover, suppression of P-glycoprotein by miR-3682-3p mimics or its inhibitor XR-9576, could significantly reverse chemoresistance of T24/DDP&GEM cells. These results provided a novel insight into a portion of the mechanism underlying BMI1-mediated chemoresistance in bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351696PMC
July 2021

Brain structural alterations in MDD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms: Evidence from the REST-meta-MDD project.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Dec 11;111:110386. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Objective: While gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are very common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), few studies have investigated the neural basis behind these symptoms. In this study, we sought to elucidate the neural basis of GI symptoms in MDD patients by analyzing the changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) and gray matter density (GMD) in brain structure.

Method: Subjects were recruited from 13 clinical centers and categorized into three groups, each of which is based on the presence or absence of GI symptoms: the GI symptoms group (MDD patients with at least one GI symptom), the non-GI symptoms group (MDD patients without any GI symptoms), and the healthy control group (HCs). Structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) were collected of 335 patients in the GI symptoms group, 149 patients in the non-GI symptoms group, and 446 patients in the healthy control group. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) was administered to all patients. Correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to determine if there was a correlation between the altered brain regions and the clinical symptoms.

Results: There were significantly higher HAMD-17 scores in the GI symptoms group than that of the non-GI symptoms group (P < 0.001). Both GMV and GMD were significant different among the three groups for the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left lingual gyrus, bilateral caudate nucleus, right Fusiform gyrus and bilateral Thalamus (GRF correction, cluster-P < 0.01, voxel-P < 0.001). Compared to the HC group, the GI symptoms group demonstrated increased GMV and GMD in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and the non-GI symptoms group demonstrated an increased GMV and GMD in the right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus and decreased GMV in the right Caudate nucleus (GRF correction, cluster-P < 0.01, voxel-P < 0.001). Compared to the non-GI symptoms group, the GI symptoms group demonstrated significantly increased GMV and GMD in the bilateral thalamus, as well as decreased GMV in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula lobe (GRF correction, cluster-P < 0.01, voxel-P < 0.001). While these changed brain areas had significantly association with GI symptoms (P < 0.001), they were not correlated with depressive symptoms (P > 0.05). Risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms in MDD patients (p < 0.05) included age, increased GMD in the right thalamus, and decreased GMV in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and left Insula lobe.

Conclusion: MDD patients with GI symptoms have more severe depressive symptoms. MDD patients with GI symptoms exhibited larger GMV and GMD in the bilateral thalamus, and smaller GMV in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula lobe that were correlated with GI symptoms, and some of them and age may contribute to the presence of GI symptoms in MDD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110386DOI Listing
December 2021

Distribution of and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 22;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, China.

is an obligate blood sucking arthropod and transmits various pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Recently several new viruses were detected in as an emerging disease threat. In this study, we aimed to analyze its geographical distribution and associated pathogens. Data were collected from multiple sources, including a field survey, reference book, and literature review. We searched various electronic databases with the terms "" OR "" for studies published since 1963 and the positive rates for -associated pathogens were estimated by meta-analysis. was found only in four countries in Eurasia, ranging from 22° N to 57° N latitude. At least 20 human pathogens were associated with , including five species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, three species in the family of Anaplasmataceae, three genospecies in the complex sensu lato, and five species of virus. Among them, was widely detected in , showing the highest pooled positive rate (25.15%; 95% CI 13.31-39.27). Our work presents the most comprehensive data and analysis (to our knowledge) for the geographical distribution of and associated pathogens, revealing an emerging threat to public health and stocking farming. Continued surveillance and further investigations should be enhanced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122522PMC
April 2021

Disrupted hemispheric connectivity specialization in patients with major depressive disorder: Evidence from the REST-meta-MDD Project.

J Affect Disord 2021 04 12;284:217-228. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Diagnostics, Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou Normal University Medical School, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China.

Background: Functional specialization is a feature of human brain for understanding the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The degree of human specialization refers to within and cross hemispheric interactions. However, most previous studies only focused on interhemispheric connectivity in MDD, and the results varied across studies. Hence, brain functional connectivity asymmetry in MDD should be further studied.

Methods: Resting-state fMRI data of 753 patients with MDD and 451 healthy controls were provided by REST-meta-MDD Project. Twenty-five project contributors preprocessed their data locally with the Data Processing Assistant State fMRI software and shared final indices. The parameter of asymmetry (PAS), a novel voxel-based whole-brain quantitative measure that reflects inter- and intrahemispheric asymmetry, was reported. We also examined the effects of age, sex and clinical variables (including symptom severity, illness duration and three depressive phenotypes).

Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed increased PAS scores (decreased hemispheric specialization) in most of the areas of default mode network, control network, attention network and some regions in the cerebellum and visual cortex. Demographic characteristics and clinical variables have significant effects on these abnormalities.

Limitations: Although a large sample size could improve statistical power, future independent efforts are needed to confirm our results.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the idea that many brain networks contribute to broad clinical pathophysiology of MDD, and indicate that a lateralized, efficient and economical brain information processing system is disrupted in MDD. These findings may help comprehensively clarify the pathophysiology of MDD in a new hemispheric specialization perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.030DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes against the reproductive toxicity of cyclophosphamide is associated with the p38MAPK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways.

Asian J Androl 2021 Jul-Aug;23(4):386-391

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Spermatogenic dysfunction caused by cyclophosphamide (CP) chemotherapy has seriously influenced the life quality of patients. Unfortunately, treatments for CP-induced testicular spermatogenic dysfunction are limited, and the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. For the first time, here, we explored the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-exos) on CP-induced testicular spermatogenic dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. BMSC-exos could be taken up by spermatogonia (GC1-spg cells). CP-injured GC1-spg cells and BMSC-exos were cocultured at various doses, and then, cell proliferation was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, photophosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and protein kinase B (AKT) proteins was evaluated by western blotting as well as apoptosis in GC1-spg cells measured using flow cytometry. Treatment with BMSC-exos enhanced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of CP-injured GCI-spg cells. Phosphorylated levels of ERK, AKT, and p38MAPK proteins were reduced in CP-injured spermatogonia when co-treated with BMSC-exos, indicating that BMSC-exos acted against the reproductive toxicity of CP via the p38MAPK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In experiments in vivo, CP-treated rats received BMSC-exos by injection into the tail vein, and testis morphology was compared between treated and control groups. Histology showed that transfusion of BMSC-exos inhibited the pathological changes in CP-injured testes. Thus, BMSC-exos could counteract the reproductive toxicity of CP via the p38MAPK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways. The findings provide a potential treatment for CP-induced male spermatogenic dysfunction using BMSC-exos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_98_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269825PMC
February 2021

A novel robust nomogram based on peripheral monocyte counts for predicting lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer.

Asian J Androl 2021 Jul-Aug;23(4):409-414

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Accurate methods for identifying pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) of prostate cancer (PCa) prior to surgery are still lacking. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of peripheral monocyte count (PMC) for LNM of PCa in this study. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients from three centers were divided into a training set (n = 125) and a validation set (n = 173). In the training set, the independent predictors of LNM were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the optimal cutoff value was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cutoff were authenticated in the validation cohort. Finally, a nomogram based on the PMC was constructed for predicting LNM. Multivariate analyses of the training cohort demonstrated that clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and PMC were independent risk factors for LNM. The subsequent ROC analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of PMC for diagnosing LNM was 0.405 × 109 l with a sensitivity of 60.0% and a specificity of 67.8%. In the validation set, the optimal cutoff value showed significantly higher sensitivity than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (0.619 vs 0.238, P < 0.001). The nomogram involving PMC, free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), clinical T stage, preoperative Gleason score, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) was generated, which showed a robust predictive capacity for predicting LNM before the operation. Our results indicated that PMC as a single agent, or combined with other clinical parameters, showed a robust predictive capacity for LNM in PCa. It can be employed as a complementary factor for the decision of whether to conduct pelvic lymph node dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_89_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269827PMC
February 2021

Detection of Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Southwestern China.

J Med Entomol 2021 05;58(3):1363-1369

School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China.

Spotted fever group rickettsiae, mainly maintained and transmitted by ticks, are important etiological agents of (re)emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is of great significance to investigate spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in different areas for the prevention and control of rickettsioses. In this study, a total of 305 ticks were collected from wild and domestic animals in Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces of southwestern China during 2017-2019 and examined for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR with primers targeting the partial gltA, ompA, rrs, and htrA genes. Results showed that two spotted fever group rickettsiae species, including the pathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and a potential novel species Rickettsia sp. sw (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), were identified. The Ca. R. jingxinensis sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks and phylogenetically clustered with previous Ca. R. jingxinensis, Ca. R. longicornii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Rickettsia sp. XY118 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains. Rickettsia sp. sw was detected in Amblyomma geoemydae (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Rh. microplus. Interestingly, as far as we know, this was the first report of Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in A. geoemydae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this potential novel species was closely related to R. aeschlimannii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with gltA and ompA genes and grouped in a cluster composed of R. montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and R. rhipicephali (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with htrA, while formed a separate clade with rrs. The pathogenicity of Rickettsia sp. sw should be further confirmed. These results expand the knowledge of the geographical distribution and vector distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in China and are useful for assessing the potential public health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa294DOI Listing
May 2021

Biotypes of major depressive disorder: Neuroimaging evidence from resting-state default mode network patterns.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 28;28:102514. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200240, China.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is heterogeneous disorder associated with aberrant functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). This study focused on data-driven identification and validation of potential DMN-pattern-based MDD subtypes to parse heterogeneity of the disorder.

Methods: The sample comprised 1397 participants including 690 patients with MDD and 707 healthy controls (HC) registered from multiple sites based on the REST-meta-MDD Project in China. Baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was recorded for each participant. Discriminative features were selected from DMN between patients and HC. Patient subgroups were defined by K-means and principle component analysis in the multi-site datasets and validated in an independent single-site dataset. Statistical significance of resultant clustering were confirmed. Demographic and clinical variables were compared between identified patient subgroups.

Results: Two MDD subgroups with differing functional connectivity profiles of DMN were identified in the multi-site datasets, and relatively stable in different validation samples. The predominant dysfunctional connectivity profiles were detected among superior frontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, whereas one subgroup exhibited increases of connectivity (hyperDMN MDD) and another subgroup showed decreases of connectivity (hypoDMN MDD). The hyperDMN subgroup in the discovery dataset had age-related severity of depressive symptoms. Patient subgroups had comparable demographic and clinical symptom variables.

Conclusions: Findings suggest the existence of two neural subtypes of MDD associated with different dysfunctional DMN connectivity patterns, which may provide useful evidence for parsing heterogeneity of depression and be valuable to inform the search for personalized treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724374PMC
June 2021

Prevalence of Multiple Tick-Borne Pathogens in Various Tick Vectors in Northeastern China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Mar 21;21(3):162-171. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China.

Tick-borne bacteria and protozoa can cause a variety of human and animal diseases in China. It is of great importance to monitor the prevalence and dynamic variation of these pathogens in ticks in ever-changing natural and social environment. Ticks were collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of northeastern China during 2018-2019 followed by morphological identification. The presence of spp., spp., spp., spp., spp., and spp. was examined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis through Mega 7.0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0. A total of 250 ticks from 5 species of 3 genera were collected. and ticks carried more species of pathogens than , and the pathogens detected in varied significantly among different sampling sites. The infection rates of spp., spp., spp., spp., spp., and spp. were 41.2%, 0, 2.0%, 7.2%, 1.2%, and 7.2%, respectively. Twelve pathogens were identified, among which (29.6%), (9.2%), and (4.4%) were the three most common ones. had its dominant vector, that is, had high infection rates in and , in , and in . Interestingly, unclassified species were observed, including a sp., an sp., a sp., and a sp. Coinfections with different pathogens were identified in 9.2% of all tested ticks, with most likely to be coinfected (23.8%) and spp. and spp. as the most common combination (16.7%). The results of this study reflect high diversity and complexity of pathogens in ticks, which are useful for designing more targeted and effective control measures for tick-borne diseases in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2020.2712DOI Listing
March 2021

Left atrial appendage amputation using a modified appendage clip: an experimental canine study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Nov;133(21):2644-2646

Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722599PMC
November 2020

Large-Scale Comparative Analyses of Tick Genomes Elucidate Their Genetic Diversity and Vector Capacities.

Cell 2020 09 18;182(5):1328-1340.e13. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, P.R. China.

Among arthropod vectors, ticks transmit the most diverse human and animal pathogens, leading to an increasing number of new challenges worldwide. Here we sequenced and assembled high-quality genomes of six ixodid tick species and further resequenced 678 tick specimens to understand three key aspects of ticks: genetic diversity, population structure, and pathogen distribution. We explored the genetic basis common to ticks, including heme and hemoglobin digestion, iron metabolism, and reactive oxygen species, and unveiled for the first time that genetic structure and pathogen composition in different tick species are mainly shaped by ecological and geographic factors. We further identified species-specific determinants associated with different host ranges, life cycles, and distributions. The findings of this study are an invaluable resource for research and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.07.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Down regulating PHGDH affects the lactate production of sertoli cells in varicocele.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2020 Jul 14;18(1):70. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Urology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Although varicocele is considered to be one of the leading causes of male infertility, the precise mechanism underlying how varicocele leads to male infertility is not completely understood. We found the lactate concentration on the varicocele side of the patients was decreased compare with peripheral venous blood. In the testicles, the lactate produced by the sertoli cells through the glycolysis pathway provides most of the energy needed for spermatogenesis, the reduction of lactate will affect spermatogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of this abnormal energy metabolism phenomenon in varicocele.

Methods: In this study, we collected the testicular tissue from patients with varicocele, the glycolysis related proteins PHGDH was identified by iTRAQ proteomics technology. Experimental rat varicocele model was constructed according to our new clip technique, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PHGDH were examined with qRT-PCR and Western blotting. We constructed a sertoli cell of PHGDH down-regulation model, and then detected the glucose consumption, LDH activities and lactate production in the sertoli cells. Western blot was conducted to investigate the effects of PHGDH on the expression of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH) and Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle in sertoli cells.

Results: The results showed that testicular protein PHGDH was down-regulated in patients with varicocele and in experimental rat varicocele model. Down-regulation of PHGDH in sertoli cells significantly decreased the glucose consumption, LDH activities and lactate production in the sertoli cells, indicating that the low expression of PHGDH ultimately led to a decrease in lactate production by affecting the glycolysis. The Western blot results showed that the down-regulation of PHGDH significantly reduced the expression of pathway protein PSPH and PKM2, leading to the reduction of lactate production. Moreover, PHGDH knockdown can promote apoptosis and inhibit cell cycle to affect cell growth.

Conclusions: Overall, we conformed that varicocele lead to the decreasing of testis lactate production. Down-regulation of PHGDH in sertoli cells may mediate the process of abnormal glucose metabolism. Our study provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying metabolism-associated male infertility and suggests a novel therapeutic target for male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-020-00625-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359552PMC
July 2020

The association between body mass index and varicocele: A meta-analysis.

Int Braz J Urol 2021 Jan-Feb;47(1):8-19

Department of Urology, The third affiliated hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, P.R. China.

Objective: Recently, several studies have found that obesity had a protective effect against varicocele, but no meta-analysis has confirmed this finding. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and varicocele.

Material And Methods: We searched for studies in PubMed, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library from inception until February 2018. The association between BMI and varicocele was assessed by pooling the odds ratios (ORs).

Results: Eleven eligible studies with a total study population of 1.376.658 participants were included in our analysis. According to BMI, the subjects were defined as belonging to the obese, overweight and underweight groups. Our results showed that the obese group had a lower risk of varicocele when compared with the normal weight group (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 0.37-0.58). Additionally, an overweight BMI had a protective effect against varicocele (OR 0.70, 95% CIs, 0.56-0.86). However, underweight patients had a more than 30% higher risk of varicocele (OR 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04-1.64). Furthermore, there was no publication bias in any of the analyses.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BMI is negatively associated with the presence of varicocele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2019.0210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712683PMC
April 2021

Increased frontal gray matter volume in individuals with prodromal psychosis.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2019 09 25;25(9):987-994. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Brain anatomical deficits associated with cognitive dysfunction have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unknown whether such anatomical deficits exist in individuals with prodromal psychosis. The present study is designed to investigate anatomical deficits in prodromal individuals and their associations with clinical/cognitive features.

Methods: Seventy-four prodromal individuals and seventy-six healthy controls were scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Support vector machines were applied to test whether anatomical deficits might be used to discriminate prodromal individuals from healthy controls.

Results: Prodromal individuals showed significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right rectus gyrus relative to healthy controls. No correlations were observed between increased GMV and clinical/cognitive characteristics. The combination of increased GMV in the right rectus gyrus and right IFG showed a sensitivity of 74.32%, a specificity of 67.11%, and an accuracy of 70.67% in differentiating prodromal individuals from healthy controls.

Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of increased frontal GMV in prodromal individuals. A combination of GMV values in the two frontal brain areas may serve as potential markers to discriminate prodromal individuals from healthy controls. The results thus highlight the importance of the frontal regions in the pathophysiology of psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698969PMC
September 2019

Reduced default mode network functional connectivity in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 12;116(18):9078-9083. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and disabling, but its neuropathophysiology remains unclear. Most studies of functional brain networks in MDD have had limited statistical power and data analysis approaches have varied widely. The REST-meta-MDD Project of resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) addresses these issues. Twenty-five research groups in China established the REST-meta-MDD Consortium by contributing R-fMRI data from 1,300 patients with MDD and 1,128 normal controls (NCs). Data were preprocessed locally with a standardized protocol before aggregated group analyses. We focused on functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN), frequently reported to be increased in MDD. Instead, we found decreased DMN FC when we compared 848 patients with MDD to 794 NCs from 17 sites after data exclusion. We found FC reduction only in recurrent MDD, not in first-episode drug-naïve MDD. Decreased DMN FC was associated with medication usage but not with MDD duration. DMN FC was also positively related to symptom severity but only in recurrent MDD. Exploratory analyses also revealed alterations in FC of visual, sensory-motor, and dorsal attention networks in MDD. We confirmed the key role of DMN in MDD but found reduced rather than increased FC within the DMN. Future studies should test whether decreased DMN FC mediates response to treatment. All R-fMRI indices of data contributed by the REST-meta-MDD consortium are being shared publicly via the R-fMRI Maps Project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900390116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500168PMC
April 2019

Two spin-canted antiferromagnetic orderings and a field-induced metamagnetic transition in SrMn(VO)(HO).

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec;48(1):65-71

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, P. R. China.

A new vanadate SrMn2(VO4)2(H2O)2 was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/m, and exhibits a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) structure. The Mn2+ ions form infinite linear-chains along the b-axis through edge-sharing oxygen atoms and further the linear-chains are connected by VO4 polyhedra into a layer in the ab-plane with Sr2+ ions residing in the space between the layers. Magnetic measurement results show that SrMn2(VO4)2(H2O)2 possesses two spin-canted antiferromagnetic orderings at ∼45 K and ∼7 K. The first ordering at ∼45 K possibly corresponds to a small deviation of spins from a strictly antiparallel arrangement. As the temperature decreases, further spin rotations occur leading to a steadier noncollinear antiferromagnetic phase, leading to the second ordering at ∼7 K. Also, a field-induced transition is observed at a critical field (0.4 T) below ∼7 K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt03860kDOI Listing
December 2018

With a new clip technique surgically inducing varicocele in Sprague-Dawley rats.

BMC Urol 2018 Jun 7;18(1):58. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Urology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, No. 183 West Zhongshan Road, Tianhe District, 510630, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: We introduced and recreated a more consistent and effective experimental varicocele rat model by a new clip technique.

Methods: A total of 40 rats were numbered and randomly assigned to 5 groups of 8 each, including sham surgery (Group I), conventional (Group II) and clip groups with 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 mm gap widths, respectively (Group III, IV, V). All of the rats in each group were sacrificed at 8 weeks after initial surgery, and the rats forming out with less than 1 mm diameter of left spermatic vein or no presence of the pampiniform plexus dilation were excluded from the experimental groups. The left spermatic vein (LSV) diameter, testicular weight, left kidney weight to body weight coefficients, kidney and testicular histology were determined.

Results: The baseline mean diameter of the LSV in Group I, II and III was 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.22 ± 0.03 mm, respectively (P = 0.7504). At 8 weeks after initial surgery, varicocele was successfully created in 6/8 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%), 3/8 (37.5%), 3/8 (37.5%) in GroupII-V, no varicocele was observed in Group I. In Group I, II and III, no pathological changes were observed and the left kidney weight to body weight coefficients showed no significant differences. The diameter of LSV was remarkably increased both in Group II and III compared to Group I (1.72 ± 0.13, 1.57 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.02, respectively), and Group II and III had a smaller testicular weight than the rats in Group I (1.67 ± 0.05, 1.62 ± 0.06, and 1.92 ± 0.12, respectively).

Conclusions: With a new clip technique, surgically inducing varicocele rat model becomes convenient and safe. This appears to improve the effectiveness of the model and this innovation may allow us to further understand the pathophysiology of varicocele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-018-0350-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992893PMC
June 2018

Altered functional connectivity strength and its correlations with cognitive function in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis at rest.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2018 12 24;24(12):1140-1148. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Aims: Evidence of altered structural and functional connectivity in the frontal-occipital network is associated with cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. However, the altered patterns of functional connectivity strength (FCS) in individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis remain unknown. In this study, whole-brain FCS was assessed to examine the altered patterns of FCS in UHR subjects.

Methods: A total of 34 UHR subjects and 37 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to undergo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The imaging data were analyzed using the graph theory method.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, UHR subjects showed significantly decreased FCS in the left middle frontal gyrus and significantly increased FCS in the left calcarine cortex. The FCS values in the left middle frontal gyrus were positively correlated to the scores of the Brief Assessments of Cognitionin Schizophrenia Symbol Coding Test (r = 0.366, P = 0.033) in the UHR subjects. A negative correlation was found between the FCS values in the left calcarine cortex and the scores of the Stroop color-naming test (r = -0.475, P = 0.016) in the UHR subjects. A combination of the FCS values in the 2 brain areas showed an accuracy of 87.32%, a sensitivity of 73.53%, and a specificity of 100% for distinguishing UHR subjects from healthy controls.

Conclusions: Significantly altered FCS in the frontal-occipital network is observed in the UHR subjects. Furthermore, decreased FCS in the left middle frontal gyrus and increased FCS in the left calcarine have significant correlations with the cognitive measures of the UHR subjects and thus improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Moreover, a combination of the FCS values in the 2 brain areas can serve as a potential image marker to distinguish UHR subjects from healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.12865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489739PMC
December 2018

[Changed percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients and its clinical implication].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2016 Nov;22(11):963-967

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes in the percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of prostate cancer (PCa) patients and explore the correlation of MDSCs and their subsets with the prognosis of PCa.

Methods: Using flow cytometry, we determined the percentage of MDSCs and the levels of Arg-1, iNOS and PD-L1 in the peripheral blood of 32 PCa patients and 25 healthy controls, detected the distribution of CD14+ Mo-MDSC and CD15+ PMN-MDSC subsets, and analyzed the correlation between the obtained parameters and the prognosis of PCa.

Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the PCa patients showed significant increases in the percentage of MDSCs (P<0.01) and levels of Arg-1, iNOS and PD-L1 in the peripheral blood. Statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of the CD14+ Mo-MDSC and CD15+ PMN-MDSC subsets between the two groups(60.4% vs 72.2%, 29.5% vs 18.8%) (P<0.05). The percentages of MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs were remarkably correlated with the total survival rate of the PCa patients (P=0.025 and 0.017).

Conclusions: The percentages of MDSCs and CD14+ Mo-MDSCs in the peripheral blood were correlated with the prognosis of PCa, which may provide a target or some evidence for the clinical treatment of PCa.
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November 2016

Auxin enhances grafting success in Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory).

Planta 2018 Mar 6;247(3):761-772. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

IFM, Linköping University, 581 83, Linköping, Sweden.

Main Conclusion: Application of auxin to root stock and scion increases the success rate of grafting in Chinese hickory. The nuts of the Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis) tree are considered both delicious and healthy. The popularity and high demand result is that the hickory nuts are of very high economical value for horticulture. This is particularly true for the Zhejiang province in eastern China where this tree is widely cultivated. However, there are several difficulties surrounding the hickory cultivation, such as for example long vegetative growth, tall trees, labour-intensive nut picking, and slow variety improvements. These complications form a great bottleneck in the expansion of the hickory industry. The development of an efficient grafting procedure could surpass at least some of these problems. In this study, we demonstrate that application of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid promotes the grafting process in hickory, whereas application of the auxin transport inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibits the grafting process. Furthermore, we have identified hickory genes in the PIN, ABCB, and AUX/LAX-families known to encode influx and efflux carriers in the polar transport of auxin. We show that increased expression of several of these genes, such as CcPIN1b and CcLAX3, is correlating with successful grafting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-017-2824-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809526PMC
March 2018

Serum Dickkopf-1 acts as a new biomarker in human breast cancer.

Minerva Med 2017 Aug 1;108(4):334-340. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Department of Breast Surgery, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, China.

Background: The serum levels of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a secreted Wnt family protein, are different in patients suffering various types of cancers. In the present study, we aim to explore the diagnostic value of DKK1 as a new biomarker in breast cancer.

Methods: Serum was collected from 38 patients with breast cancer and 23 healthy controls. Serological levels of DKK1 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significance and diagnostic performance including receiver operator characteristic (ROC) and areas under the curve were determined by SPSS software.

Results: Serum level of DKK1 was significantly increased in breast cancer patients compared to the healthy controls (P˂0.05). The expression levels of CA15-3 were also evaluated in patients suffering from breast cancer in comparison with healthy controls (P˂0.05). AUC for DKK1 and CA15-3 were 0.81 and 0.64 respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of DKK1 were more than CA15-3 in earlier stage of breast cancer. DKK1 expression in HER-2, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive patients was decreased compared with HER-2, ER and PR negative patients.

Conclusions: We found that the expression level of DKK1 in serum was increased in breast cancer patients, suggesting that serum expression level of DKK1 could be a useful biomarker in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.17.04807-8DOI Listing
August 2017

Layered Cu(TeO)(SO)(OH) with Diluted Kagomé Net Containing Frustrated Corner-Sharing Triangles.

Inorg Chem 2017 Feb 30;56(4):1830-1834. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, People's Republic of China.

The half-spin Kagomé antiferromagnet is one of the most promising candidates for the realization of a quantum spin liquid state because of its inherent frustration and quantum fluctuations. The search for candidates for quantum spin liquids with novel spin topologies is still a challenge. Herein, we report a new diluted Kagomé lattice in Cu(TeO)(SO)(OH), showing a 9/16-depleted triangle lattice, where the corner-sharing triangle units [Cu(OH)O] are separated by CuO(OH). Magnetic measurements show that the title compound does not exhibit long-range antiferromagnetic order down to 2 K, suggesting strong spin frustration with f > 19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02209DOI Listing
February 2017

[Extraction and identification of semen-derived exosomes using PEG6000].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2016 Nov;36(11):1531-1535

Department of Urology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.E-mail:

Objective: To extract and identify semen-derived exosome using PEG6000.

Methods: Exosomes were extracted from semen specimens from 6 healthy volunteers with step-by-step centrifugations and ultracentrifugation prior to 8% PEG6000 enrichment. The extracted exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and Western blotting.

Results: The pellets obtained were round or elliptic membrane vesicles 30 to 150 nm in diameter with intact double membranes and contained low electron density material. The pellets expressed CD63, ALIX and TSG101 molecules but not calnexin that was expressed in sperm cells.

Conclusion: The PEG6000-based method for extraction of exosomes from semen samples facilitates future studies of seminal exosomes.
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November 2016

MicroRNA-27a-mediated repression of cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 translation in asthenoteratozoospermic patients.

Asian J Androl 2017 Sep-Oct;19(5):591-595

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 (CRISP2) is an important protein in spermatozoa that plays roles in modulating sperm flagellar motility, the acrosome reaction, and gamete fusion. Spermatozoa lacking CRISP2 exhibit low sperm motility and abnormal morphology. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduction of CRISP2 in asthenoteratozoospermia (ATZ) remain unknown. In this study, low expression of CRISP2 protein rather than its mRNA was observed in the ejaculated spermatozoa from ATZ patients as compared with normozoospermic males. Subsequently, bioinformatic prediction, luciferase reporter assays, and microRNA-27a (miR-27a) transfection experiments revealed that miR-27a specifically targets CRISP2 by binding to its 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR), suppressing CRISP2 expression posttranscriptionally. Further evidence was provided by the clinical observation of high miR-27a expression in ejaculated spermatozoa from ATZ patients and a negative correlation between miR-27a expression and CRISP2 protein expression. Finally, a retrospective follow-up study supported that both high miR-27a expression and low CRISP2 protein expression were associated with low progressive sperm motility, abnormal morphology, and infertility. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism responsible for reduced CRISP2 expression in ATZ, which may offer a potential therapeutic target for treating male infertility, or for male contraception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.185001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566855PMC
May 2018

[Application value of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in transrectal prostate biopsy].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2016 Aug;22(8):698-703

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China.

Objective: To explore the application value of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (RTCEU) in improving the detection rate of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

Methods: This prospective study included 91 male patients with abnormally high PSA (4-20 μg/L) or abnormalities in DRE or MRI, who underwent 12+X prostate biopsy following conventional transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and RTCEU examination. We compared the numbers of suspected prostatic nodules before and after RTCEU as well as the detection rates of prostate cancer between conventional TRUS-guided 12PBx and 12PBx plus lesion-targeted biopsy procedures.

Results: Totally, 57 of the 86 suspected lesions on TRUS (66.3%), and 108 of the 118 abnormal nodules on RTCEU (91.5%) were confirmed to be prostate cancer. RTCEU achieved a significantly higher detection rate than TRUS (P<0.01). A total of 39 cases of prostate cancer (42.8%) were detected by RTCEU, while only 28 (30.7%) by TRUS, with statistically significant difference in the detection rate between the two procedures (P=0.033).

Conclusions: Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound can significantly improve the detection rate of prostate cancer and provide a valuable guide to targeted prostate biopsy.
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August 2016

Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 increases AKAP-9 expression by promoting SRPK1-catalyzed SRSF1 phosphorylation in colorectal cancer cells.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(10):11733-43

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Our earlier findings indicate that the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo by increasing expression of AKAP-9. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which MALAT1 enhances AKAP9 expression in CRC SW480 cells. We found that MALAT1 interacts with both SRPK1 and SRSF1. MALAT1 increases AKAP-9 expression by promoting SRPK1-catalyzed SRSF1 phosphorylation. Following MALAT1 knockdown, overexpression of SRPK1 was sufficient to restore SRSF1 phosphorylation and AKAP-9 expression to a level that promoted cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Conversely, SRPK1 knockdown after overexpression of MALAT1 in SW480 cells diminished SRSF1 phosphorylation and AKAP-9 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. These findings suggest MALAT1 increases AKAP-9 expression by promoting SRPK1-catalyzed SRSF1 phosphorylation in CRC cells. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which MALAT1 regulates AKAP-9 expression in CRC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905507PMC
March 2016

A frustrated ferrimagnet Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4 with a 1/5 magnetization plateau on a new spin-lattice of alternating triangular and honeycomb strips.

Dalton Trans 2015 Dec 9;44(47):20562-7. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, P. R. China.

Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4 (turanite) is a layered compound, exhibiting a copper(II) oxide layer in the [0 1 1] plane composed of edge-sharing CuO6 octahedra. Each Cu-O layer is further separated by VO4 tetrahedra. Closer scrutiny found that the copper(II) oxide layer in the compound represents a totally new geometrically-frustrated lattice, a 1/6 depleted triangular lattice. More specifically, the spin network in the [0 1 1] plane is formed by the alternate ranking of triangular and honeycomb strips. Magnetic measurements show that the Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4 behaves as a spin-1/2 ferrimagnet with a Tc = ∼4.5 K. It exhibits an unusual 1/5 magnetization plateau arising from the competition between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions caused by the strong frustration. The possible spin-arrangements are also suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5dt03534aDOI Listing
December 2015

Spin-frustration in a new spin-1/2 oxyfluoride system (Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4) constructed by alternatively distorted kagome-like and triangular lattices.

Dalton Trans 2015 Sep 6;44(35):15396-9. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, P. R. China.

A novel copper compound, Cu13(VO4)4(OH)10F4, featuring two types of two-dimensional extended kagome-like and triangular lattices, exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at ∼3 K, a strong spin-frustration effect with f = 21 and a spin-flop transition at 5 T.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5dt02752gDOI Listing
September 2015

Statin use and risk of gallstone disease: A meta-analysis.

Hepatol Res 2015 Sep 12;45(9):942-948. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Department of Hepatobilliary Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: There is emerging evidence from animal and human studies that current statins can decrease the formation of gallbladder cholesterol gallstones and subsequently decrease the risk of gallstone disease, but consistent results have not been reported. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an overview of the relevant studies.

Methods: Relevant studies published between January 1980 and February 2014 were identified by searching Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Studies were selected using a priori defined criteria. The strength of the relationship between statin use and risk of gallstone disease was assessed by adjusted odds ratio (OR).

Results: A total of 622 868 participants from six studies (four case-control studies, one cohort study and one cross-sectional study) were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided adjusted overall OR estimates for current statin use versus non-use, leading to a pooled OR of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.97; P < 0.001). The overall OR of population-based case-control studies and cholecystectomy due to gallstone disease were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.73-0.95; P = 0.0131) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74-0.82; P = 0.615), respectively.

Conclusion: There is evidence that current statin use lowers the risk of gallstone disease compared with non-use, especially for cholecystectomy due to gallstone disease. Low statin use (1-4 prescriptions) did not decrease the risk of gallstone disease, but moderate and high statin use significantly decreased the risk. Further multicenter and better controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hepr.12433DOI Listing
September 2015
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