Publications by authors named "Wen Xu"

1,267 Publications

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Comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activities of the supernatant and cream from black tea infusion.

Food Funct 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Tea cream is a kind of turbid substance commonly existing in tea infusion and tea beverage upon cooling. Herein, a comparative study was conducted on the supernatant and cream from black tea infusion in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities, and chemical composition. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the contents of protein, polyphenols, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownins, and caffeine in cream were significantly higher than those in the supernatant. The contents of Al, Ca, Cu, and Fe elements in cream were higher than those in the supernatant. However, higher levels of monosaccharides and free amino acids were detected in the supernatant compared with cream. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) based metabolomics analysis revealed that the main marker compounds between the supernatant and the cream were organic acids, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols and their oxidation products, flavonol glycosides and amino acids. The cream showed better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activities than the supernatant, because it contained higher contents of polyphenols than the supernatant. The present study expanded the new vision towards the cream of black tea infusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fo00707jDOI Listing
May 2022

Expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

J Med Virol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology, and Epidemiology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by novel bunyavirus (SFTSV) is a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate of over 10%. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (gMDSC) might affect arginine metabolism which was associated with decreased platelet count and T lymphocyte dysfunction in this disease.

Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the expression of the gMDSCs subsets in SFTS patients, and to evaluate its association with disease severity.

Methods: A prospective study was performed on 166 confirmed SFTSV infected patients. Sequential blood samples were collected during hospitalization and after recovery. SFTSV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The gMDSCs and NK cells were determined by Flow cytometry analysis, which were associated with disease severity.

Results: Elevation of the activated gMDSC was observed in SFTS patients at acute phase, with a significantly higher level of gMDSC attained in 79 severe and 29 fatal SFTS patients than in the mild patients. The NK cells were depleted at the early infection and not restored to normal level until four months after disease. The expansion of gMDSC was accompanied by the elevated expressions of CD3-ζ of NK and Arginase-1, in contrast with the decreased ROS in gMDSC. The levels of NK, CD3-ζ of NK, viral load and platelet count were significantly associated with the level of gMDSC.

Conclusions: Expansion of gMDSC was demonstrated in SFTS, which was associated with severe disease and suppressed antiviral NK cell via other mechanism than Arginase-1 or ROS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27854DOI Listing
May 2022

Transformation of Stilbene Glucosides From During Processing.

Front Pharmacol 2022 25;13:757490. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

The root of Thunb. Moldenke (RM, syn.: Thunb.) has been widely used in TCM clinical practice for centuries. The raw (RRM) should be processed before use, in order to reduce toxicity and increase efficiency. However, the content of trans-2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (trans-THSG), which is considered to be the main medicinal ingredient, decreases in this process. In order to understand the changes of stilbene glycosides raw (RRM) and processed (PRM), a simple and effective method was developed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive plus orbitrap MS/MS). The content and quantity of stilbene glycosideshave undergone tremendous changes during the process. Seven parent nucleus of stilbene glycosides and 55 substituents, including 5-HMF and a series of derivatives, were identified in PM. 146 stilbene glycosides were detected in RRM, The number of detected compounds increased from 198 to 219 as the processing time increased from 4 to 32 h. Among the detected compounds, 102 stilbene glycosides may be potential new compounds. And the changing trend of the compounds can be summarized in 3 forms: gradually increased, gradually decreased, first increased and then decreased or decreased first. The content of trans-THSG was indeed decreased during processing, as it was converted into a series of derivatives through the esterification reaction with small molecular compounds. The clarification of secondary metabolite group can provide a basis for the follow-up study on the mechanism of pharmacodynamics and toxicity of PM, and for screening of relevant quality markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.757490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9082504PMC
April 2022

Identification of the probable structure of the sAPPα-GABAR1a complex and theoretical solutions for such cases.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, P. R. China.

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the core of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing studies have shown that the soluble secreted APP (sAPPα) fragment obtained from the hydrolysis of APP by α-secretase has a synaptic function. Thereinto, a nine-residue fragment (APP9mer) of the extension domain region of sAPPα can bind directly and selectively to the N-terminal sushi1 domain (SD1) of the γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1a (GABAR1a) protein, which can influence synaptic transmission and plasticity by changing the GABAR1a conformation. APP9mer is a highly flexible, disordered region, and as such it is difficult to experimentally determine the optimal APPmer-SD1 binding complex. In this study we constructed two types of APP9mer-SD1 complexes through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, aiming to explore the recognition function and mechanism of the specific binding of APP9mer with SD1, from which the most probable APPmer-SD1 model conformation is predicted. All the data from the analyses of RMSD, RMSF, PCA, DCCM and MM/PBSA binding energy as well as comparison with the experimental dissociation constant suggest that 2NC is the most likely conformation to restore the crystal structure of the experimental APP9mer-SD1 complex. Of note, the key recognition residues of APP9mer are D24, D25, D27, W29 and W30, which mainly act on the 9-45 residue domain of SD1 (consisting of two loops and three short β-chains at the N-terminus of SD1). The mini-model with key residues identified establishes the molecular basis with deep insight into the interaction between APP and GABAR1a and provides a target for the development of therapeutic strategies for modulating GABAR1a-specific signaling in neurological and psychiatric disorders. More importantly, the study offers a theoretical solution for how to determine a biomolecular structure with a highly flexible, disordered fragment embedded within. The flexible fragment involved in a protein structure has to be deserted usually during the structural determination with experimental methods ( X-ray crystallography, ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00569gDOI Listing
May 2022

Opportunity Costs of Internal Promotions in Plastic Surgery: Are Women Given a Fair Shot?

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 May 6;10(5):e4302. Epub 2022 May 6.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Background: Academic advancement in plastic surgery necessitates creation of opportunities for rising faculty, which are pivotal for women in their efforts to close prominent gender gaps in higher ranks. We study positions of academic prestige that benefit from internal nomination as surrogates for opportunities afforded to men and women seeking leadership roles.

Methods: We collected the following datapoints: authors of invited discussions published in from 2010 to 2019; current editorial board members of representative plastic surgery journals; recipients of society-sponsored traveling fellowships; and directors of the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Public profiles for all authors and surgeons were referenced to confirm gender identification.

Results: Seven-hundred ninety-seven plastic and reconstructive surgery discussions were included, 18% of which included female first or senior authorship. Seventy-one (9%) discussions listed a female senior author. Male and female senior authors were equally as likely to collaborate with a female first co-author (25% and 26%, respectively). Only 17% of invited authors contributed to 55% of discussion articles. Women occupied 19% of journal editorial board positions, though none were editors-in-chief. American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery, American Society of Maxiliofacial Surgeons, American Society for Surgery of the Hand, and Plastic Surgery Foundation traveling fellowships were awarded to one (3%), four (7%), five (13%), and 141 (15%) female plastic surgeons, respectively. Women comprise 26% of directors of American Board of Plastic Surgery.

Conclusions: Female representation in plastic surgery is rising, but it is not mirrored across appointed positions in academia. We should strive to support advancements that allow selected prestigious positions to more accurately reflect the gender distribution within the plastic surgery community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000004302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076437PMC
May 2022

Investigating Patient-Level Radiation Exposure in Hand and Wrist Fracture Surgery.

Ann Plast Surg 2022 05;88(3 Suppl 3):S309-S313

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania.

Background: Although occupational exposure to radiation has been previously studied in the hand surgery literature, there is a paucity of studies looking at radiation exposure to the patient during fluoroscopy-guided hand surgery. We aimed to describe the level of radiation experienced by patients undergoing common hand and wrist fracture fixation and to identify risk factors for increased radiation exposure.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients at a single institution who underwent fracture fixation of the hand, wrist, or forearm requiring mini c-arm fluoroscopic guidance from 2016 to 2020. Data points collected included patient demographics, procedural details, and indicators of radiation exposure including dose-area product (DAP), total intraoperative images, and total fluoroscopy time. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using DAP, field size, and a previously established conversion factor.

Results: The final sample included 361 patients with an average age of 46 years. Procedures included fixation of forearm fractures (3.3%), distal radius fractures (35.7%), metacarpal fractures (30.8%), and phalangeal fractures (30.2%). The median number of intraoperative images acquired was 36, median total fluoroscopy time was 43 seconds, median DAP was 4.8 cGycm2, and median ED was 0.13 μSv. Distal (metacarpal and phalangeal) fractures required more intraoperative images and longer total fluoroscopy time (49 images, 61 seconds) compared with proximal (forearm and distal radius) fractures (39 images, 47 seconds) (images, P = 0.004; exposure time, P = 0.004). However, distal fractures had a lower average ED compared with proximal fractures (0.15 vs 0.19 μSv, P = 0.020). When compared with open procedures, percutaneous procedures had higher DAPs (8.8 vs 4.9 cGycm2, P < 0.001), higher ED (0.22 vs 0.15 μSv, P < 0.001), more intraoperative images (65 vs 36 images, P < 0.001), and longer total fluoroscopy time (81.9 vs 44.4 seconds, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Patient-level radiation exposure during fluoroscopy-guided hand and wrist procedures is low relative to other common imaging modalities, such as dental radiographs, chest x-rays, and computed tomography scans, and is comparable with less than a few hours of natural background radiation exposure, highlighting the overall safety of this important technology. Further study should be performed to establish reference ranges, which could lead to improved patient counseling and evidence-based guidelines on patient shielding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000003204DOI Listing
May 2022

In vitro study on non-thermal argon plasma in improving the bonding efficacy between dentin and self-etch adhesive systems.

Dent Mater J 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

The School Hospital, Xi'an Medical University.

Self-etch adhesive systems have the advantages of simple operating steps and low technique sensitivity. However, some deficiencies of self-etch adhesive result that the immediate bonding strength between self-etch adhesive and dentine is not so high. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) can be used for surface modification. Previous studies of our research group have proven that NTAPP can improve bonding durability between dentine and etch-and-rinse adhesive. However, it is still unknown whether NTAPP can improve bonding strength between dentine and self-etch adhesive. The study observed the contact angle on dentine surface, the adhesive permeability and MTBS. The study proved that NTAPP can improve dentine surface wettability, clear up smear layer, and enhanced the self-etch adhesive permeability in dentine bonding interface. In conclusion, NTAPP could improve the bonding strength between dentine and self-etch adhesive systems. The most optimum treating time was 15 s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2021-215DOI Listing
April 2022

ITGA9: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Different Tumors.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 May 1. Epub 2022 May 1.

Third-grade Pharmacological Laboratory on Traditional Chinese Medicine,State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China.

Integrins are a class of a cell surface adhesion molecule which composed of α subunit (ITGA) and β subunit (ITGB). They belong to heterodimer transmembrane glycoproteins. Its main function in organisms is as the receptor of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and extracellular matrix (ECM). According to the current research integration analysis, integrin α9 (ITGA9) is one of the integrin subunits, and there are few studies on ITGA9 among integrins. ITGA9 can improve cell migration and regulate various cellular biological functions, such as tumor cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis. But its abnormal expression mechanism in cancer and its specific role in tumor growth and metastasis are still unknown to a great extent. This review reveals the role of ITGA9 in the complex pathogenesis of many tumors and cancers, providing a new direction for the treatment of tumors and cancers. Relevant studies were retrieved and collected through the PubMed system. After determining ITGA9 as the research object, we found the close relationship between ITGA9 and tumorigenesis through the analysis of the research articles on ITGA9 in the PubMed system in the last 15 years, and further determined the references mainly based on the influencing factors of the articles. Thus, the role of ITGA9 in tumor and cancer genesis, proliferation, and metastasis was reviewed and analyzed. ITGA9 is an integrin subunit, which has been proved to be abnormally expressed in many tumors. After sorting and analyzing the research data, it was found that the abnormal expression of ITGA9 in a variety of tumors, including glioblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, multiple myeloma, non-small cell lung cancer, and prostate cancer, was closely related to the proliferation, metastasis, adhesion, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. These results suggest that ITGA9 plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tumors. The integrin subunit ITGA9 may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of tumors and a potential therapeutic target for anti-tumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220501165644DOI Listing
May 2022

Guang Chen Pi (the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco's cultivars 'Chachi') inhibits macrophage-derived foam cell formation.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 27;293:115328. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine of the Guangdong Provincial Medical Products Administration, The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Chirality Research on Active Components of Traditional Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The dried pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco (CP) occupies an important position in the history of clinical applications of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In traditional use, CP is used to treat diseases related to the digestive, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems, as well as to regulate Qi and promote blood circulation throughout the body. In China, a special cultivar of CP named Guang Chen Pi (GCP) which is collected exclusively from Citrus reticulata Blanco's cultivars 'Chachi', is considered to be the best CP with high medicinal and dietary value. Modern pharmacology shows that CP has high effect on regulating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular systems diseases. Atherosclerosis (AS) is not only an inflammatory disease but also cardiovascular lipid metabolism disorder. Foam cells formation is the hallmark of AS. Several reports indicated that CP can mitigate the development of AS, but involved signaling pathway and its role in foam cell formation is unclear. Since the main components of GCP has protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, we evaluated its effect of inhibiting foam cell formation to support the traditional usage of GCP.

Aim Of The Study: The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of GCP on suppressing RAW264.7 foam cell formation and anti-inflammatory in vitro.

Materials And Methods: To evaluate the anti-foam cell formation and anti-inflammatory activity of GCP, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced RAW264.7 macrophages model was involved. Meantime, foam cell developing status was also closely monitored. RT-qPCR and Western blot were then applied to further investigate receptors in associated signaling pathways.

Results: GCP shown inhibitory effect on macrophage-derived foam cell formation in Oil Red O staining analysis, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry of Dil-ox-LDL staining and TG and TC analysis. The HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was also promoted by GCP. Mechanistic studies showed that GCP significantly down-regulate SRA1 and CD36 protein expression, while significantly increasing the expression of PPARγ, LXRα, SRB1 and ABCG1. Also, GCP reduced ox-LDL-induced inflammatory factors level, and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK1/2, NF-κB p65 and IKKα/β.

Conclusions: GCP exhibited anti-atherogenic ability by interfering RAW264.7 foam cell formation, through inhibiting lipid uptake and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol. PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1/SRB1 pathway and its anti-inflammatory effect may involve. This proposed anti-foam cell formation activity is expected to provide new insight on comprehensive utilization of GCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115328DOI Listing
July 2022

[Correlation between nasal mucosal temperature change and nasal airflow perception].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 May;36(5):401-406

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Beijing Tongren Hospital and Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Ministry of Education,Capital Medical University,Beijing,100730,China.

The mechanism of nasal airflow perception remains little known. It is currently believed that the main mechanism for perceiving nasal patency is to activate transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8. Computer fluent dynamics show that increased airflow and heat flux are associated with higher subjective scores. Similarly, physical measurements of the nasal cavity using a temperature probe show a correlation between the lower nasal mucosa temperature and better results. Trigeminal function detection also indirectly confirms this. This literature review aimed to explore the role of nasal mucosal temperature change in the subjective perception of nasal patency and the secondary aim was to appraise the relevant evidence about the mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2022.05.017DOI Listing
May 2022

Study on water resources carrying capacity in Zhuanglang River Basin.

Environ Monit Assess 2022 Apr 22;194(5):390. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

School of Accounting, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

With the rapid development of China's social economy, the phenomenon of unbalanced regional economic development is increasingly obvious. The shortage of water resources in northwest China is an important constraint to local development. The study on the water resources carrying capacity of the Zhuanglang River Basin plays an important role in the development of local economy; thus, we evaluate the water resources situation of Zhuanglang River Basin by using hydrology-related calculation method, combining with field investigation, visiting relevant departments, and referring to relevant data. Meanwhile, the water resources carrying capacity of 3 counties and 12 townships in the Zhuanglang River Basin in the current year are studied and analyzed based on methods such as fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model and quantitative calculation. Results indicate that the carrying capacity of water resources in Zhuanglang river basin can mostly meet the needs of township, but it is necessary to further optimize the water resources carrying capacity of the Zhuanglang River Basin from the four systems of water resources, society, economy, and ecology in the future. Besides, the results of quantitative calculation show that the maximum economic scale that water resources can withstand in most areas of the Zhuanglang River Basin is the overall well-off level, that is, the per capita domestic water is 80L/(d· person), and the per capita GDP is 10000 yuan/person. But there is still a certain gap to achieve the level, when the people are well-off in an all-round way, the two indexes are correspondently raised to 120L/(d· person), and the per capita GDP is 30,000 yuan/person.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10027-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9023428PMC
April 2022

Mental disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2022 Apr 19;31:e23. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

College of Business, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR97331, USA.

Aims: There is a lack of evidence related to the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as their heterogeneities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Latin America, a large area spanning the equator. The current study aims to provide meta-analytical evidence on mental health symptoms during COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, the general population and university students in Latin America.

Methods: Bibliographical databases, such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and medRxiv, were systematically searched to identify pertinent studies up to August 13, 2021. Two coders performed the screening using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies were assigned quality scores using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The double data extraction method was used to minimise data entry errors.

Results: A total of 62 studies with 196 950 participants in Latin America were identified. The pooled prevalence of anxiety, depression, distress and insomnia was 35%, 35%, 32% and 35%, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of mental health symptoms in South America compared to Central America (36% v. 28%, p < 0.001), in countries speaking Portuguese (40%) v. Spanish (30%). The pooled prevalence of mental health symptoms in the general population, general healthcare workers, frontline healthcare workers and students in Latin America was 37%, 34%, 33% and 45%, respectively.

Conclusions: The high yet heterogenous level of prevalence of mental health symptoms emphasises the need for appropriate identification of psychological interventions in Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2045796021000767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9069590PMC
April 2022

The predominance of endothelium-derived relaxing factors and beta-adrenergic receptor pathways in strong vasorelaxation induced by 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the rat aorta.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Apr 11;150:112905. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

College of Pharmacy, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Qiuyang Road, Shangjie, Minhou, Fuzhou 350122, Fujian, China; Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HB), known as ρ-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is commonly present in traditional Chinese medicine herb, most frequently used for hypertension treatment. This research aims to determine the potency of 4HB's vasorelaxant action. In the study, the vasodilation effect of 4HB was evaluated using in vitro isolated rat aortic rings assay. The aortic rings were pre-incubated with respective antagonists before being pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) and challenged with various concentrations of 4HB for mechanistic action studies. R (maximal vasodilation) and pEC (negative logarithm of half-maximal effective concentration) values of each experiment were determined for comparison purposes. 4HB caused vasodilation on endothelium-intact aortic rings which pre-contracted with PE (pEC = 3.53 ± 0.05, R = 100.95 ± 4.25%) or potassium chloride (pEC = 2.96 ± 0.13, R = 72.13 ± 4.93%). The vasodilation effect of 4HB was significantly decreased in the absence of an endothelium (pEC = 2.21 ± 0.25, R = 47.96 ± 4.16%). The atropine, 4-aminopyridine, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, glibenclamide, and propranolol significantly reduced the vasorelaxation effect of 4HB. Besides that, 4HB blocked the voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) and regulated the intracellular Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the aortic ring. Thus, the results indicated that 4HB exerted its vasodilatory effect via cGMP and β pathways, M-dependent PLC/IP pathways, and potassium and calcium channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112905DOI Listing
April 2022

A novel approach for designing efficient broadband photodetectors expanding from deep ultraviolet to near infrared.

Light Sci Appl 2022 Apr 11;11(1):91. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Broadband photodetection (PD) covering the deep ultraviolet to near-infrared (200-1000 nm) range is significant and desirable for various optoelectronic designs. Herein, we employ ultraviolet (UV) luminescent concentrators (LC), iodine-based perovskite quantum dots (PQDs), and organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) as the UV, visible, and near-infrared (NIR) photosensitive layers, respectively, to construct a broadband heterojunction PD. Firstly, experimental and theoretical results reveal that optoelectronic properties and stability of CsPbI PQDs are significantly improved through Er doping, owing to the reduced defect density, improved charge mobility, increased formation energy, tolerance factor, etc. The narrow bandgap of CsPbI:Er PQDs serves as a visible photosensitive layer of PD. Secondly, considering the matchable energy bandgap, the BHJ (BTP-4Cl: PBDB-TF) is selected as to NIR absorption layer to fabricate the hybrid structure with CsPbI:Er PQDs. Thirdly, UV LC converts the UV light (200-400 nm) to visible light (400-700 nm), which is further absorbed by CsPbI:Er PQDs. In contrast with other perovskites PDs and commercial Si PDs, our PD presents a relatively wide response range and high detectivity especially in UV and NIR regions (two orders of magnitude increase that of commercial Si PDs). Furthermore, the PD also demonstrates significantly enhanced air- and UV- stability, and the photocurrent of the device maintains 81.5% of the original one after 5000 cycles. This work highlights a new attempt for designing broadband PDs, which has application potential in optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-022-00777-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001727PMC
April 2022

Numerical Investigation of Interlaminar Stress of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track Induced by Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 27;15(7). Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Railway Group 5 Mechanization of Engineering Co., Ltd., 32 HongtangCong Road, Hengyang 421002, China.

The secondary development of ABAQUS was carried out to calculate the shrinkage and creep of concrete, and a finite element model of the China Railway Track System (CRTS) II slab ballastless track was established. Then, the interlaminar stress of CRTS II slab ballastless track at different ages of the track slab during laying (AOTSL) caused by concrete shrinkage and creep was studied. The obtained results showed that the stress redistribution occurred in the sliding layer, which resulted in the generation of a gap. Although the gap length was slightly reduced due to the shear cogging, the sliding layer at the slab edge is more prone to produce gaps. Under the effect of shrinkage and creep of the ballastless track, large additional shear stress, up to 0.676 MPa, was induced at the interface between CA mortar and the track slab. Meanwhile, the appearance of additional vertical and lateral forces of the shear cogging was caused by the shrinkage and creep of the ballastless track. Additionally, by further analysis, the recommended AOTSL ranges from 120 days to 180 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15072480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000011PMC
March 2022

C20orf24 promotes colorectal cancer progression by recruiting Rin1 to activate Rab5-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling.

Clin Transl Med 2022 04;12(4):e796

MOE Key Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Biology and Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Institute of Life and Health Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8989078PMC
April 2022

An insight, at the atomic level, into the intramolecular metallophilic interaction in nanoclusters.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Apr 21;58(33):5092-5095. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Atomic Engineering of Advanced Materials, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Materials of Ministry of Education, Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology and Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Functionalized Materials, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China.

The intermolecular metallophilic interaction has been exploited to orderly aggregate nanocluster compounds into multidimensional assemblies, while the intramolecular metallophilic interaction was rarely reported. Herein, based on an AuCu nanocluster template, the presence of the intracluster Au-Cu metallophilic interaction was beneficial to achieving enhanced near-infrared emission intensity and thermal stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc00987kDOI Listing
April 2022

Effect of dendrobium mixture in alleviating diabetic cognitive impairment associated with regulating gut microbiota.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 31;149:112891. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

College of Pharmacy, Fujian Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Dendrobium mixture (DM) is a patent Chinese herbal formulation consisting of Dendrobii Caulis, Astragali Radix, Rehmanniae Radix as the main ingredients. DM has been shown to alleviate diabetic related symptoms attributed to its anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect on diabetic induced cognitive dysfunction has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the effect of DM in improving diabetic cognitive impairment and associated mechanisms. Our study confirmed the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of DM and showed its capacity to restore the cognitive and memory function in high fat/high glucose and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The neuroprotective effect was manifested as improved learning and memory behaviours, restored blood-brain barrier tight junction, and enhanced expressions of neuronal survival related biomarkers. DM protected the colon tight junction, and effectively lowered the circulated proinflammatory mediators including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharides. In the gut microbiota, DM corrected the increase in the abundance of Firmicutes, the increase in the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, and the decrease in the abundance of Bacteroidetes in diabetic rats. It also reversed the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Allobaculum genera. Short chain fatty acids, isobutyric acid and ethylmethylacetic acid, were negatively and significantly correlated to Ruminococcus and Allobaculum. Isovaleric acid was positively and significantly correlated with Lactobacillus, which all contributing to the improvement in glucose level, systemic inflammation and cognitive function in diabetic rats. Our results demonstrated the potential of DM as a promising therapeutic agent in treating diabetic cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanism may be associated with regulating gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112891DOI Listing
May 2022

Leucine alters blood parameters and regulates hepatic protein synthesis via mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin activation in intrauterine growth-restricted piglets.

J Anim Sci 2022 Apr;100(4)

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Neonatal piglets often suffer low birth weights and poor growth performance accompanied by the disruption of protein metabolism, when intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) takes place during pregnancy, leading to a higher mortality and bigger economic loss than expected. Leucine has been proposed to function as a nutritional signal-regulating protein synthesis in numerous studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary leucine supplementation on the blood parameters and hepatic protein metabolism in IUGR piglets. Weaned piglets were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1) piglets fed a basal diet with normal birth weight, 2) piglets fed a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine with normal birth weight, 3) IUGR piglets fed a basal diet with low birth weight, and 4) IUGR piglets fed a basal diet plus 0.35% l-leucine with low birth weight. The results showed that IUGR decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and increased serum cortisol and prostaglandin E2 levels at 35 d of age (P < 0.05), suggesting the occurrence of liver dysfunction and stress response. Leucine supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum cortisol levels at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). IUGR decreased the lysozyme activity and complement 3 level in serum (P < 0.05), which were prevented by dietary leucine supplementation. IUGR piglets showed increased hepatic DNA contents while showing a reduced RNA/DNA ratio (P < 0.05). Piglets supplied with leucine had decreased RNA/DNA ratio in the liver (P < 0.05). Leucine supplementation stimulated hepatic protein anabolism through upregulating protein synthesis-related genes expression and activating the phosphorylation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (P < 0.05). Moreover, IUGR inhibited the mRNA expression of hepatic protein degradation-related genes, indicating a compensatory mechanism for the metabolic response. Dietary leucine supplementation attenuated the suppression of the protein catabolism induced by IUGR in the liver. These results demonstrate that dietary leucine supplementation could alter the blood parameters and alleviated the disrupted protein metabolism induced by IUGR via enhanced mTOR phosphorylation to promote protein synthesis in weaned piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9053099PMC
April 2022

The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin combined with oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2022 Mar;11(3):1028-1037

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: There were reports that many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could not maintain the normal level of glycemic, who were treated with the antidiabetic agents. The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could improve patients' blood glucose level by inducing glycosuria, improving insulin sensitivity and the function of β-cell and decreasing glucose toxicity. Which was unlike with other agents, indicating that the SGLT2 inhibitors might be effective alone or in combination with any other drugs. As a SGLT2 inhibitor, Dapagliflozin could be used in patients with T2DM.

Methods: Studies' identification were conducted with the literature search, and we searched studies published between 1950 and 2021 in PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Continuous data are presented as the means and standard deviations of differences in performance before and after active or control interventions. Adverse events were also assessed.

Results: Fifteen studies that provided individual data were included. Treatment with dapagliflozin was compared with treatment with placebo and resulted in a significantly greater change in HbA1c levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and weight. In terms of the incidence of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of hypoglycemic events was not significantly different between the experimental and control groups. However, the incidences of genital infection and urinary tract infection were higher in the experimental group than in the control group.

Discussion: According to the available data, dapagliflozin combined with oral hypoglycemic agents can effectively reduce the level of HbA1c and body weight; however, it does not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia but can cause urinary tract infection and genital infection. Due to the limited literature included, the above conclusions need to be verified through more high-quality studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-22-121DOI Listing
March 2022

Statistically robust estimation of source bearing via minimizing the Bhattacharyya distance.

J Acoust Soc Am 2022 Mar;151(3):1695

School of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Source bearing estimation is a common technique in acoustic array processing. Many methods have been developed and most of them exploit some underlying statistical model. When applied to a practical system, the robustness to model mismatch is of major concern. Traditional adaptive methods, such as the minimum power distortionless response processor, are notoriously known for their sensitivity to model mismatch. In this paper, a parameter estimator is developed via the minimum Bhattacharyya distance estimator (MBDE), which provides a measure of the divergence between the assumed and true probability distributions and is, thus, capable of statistically matching. Under a Gaussian random signal model typical of source bearing estimation, the MBDE is derived in terms of the data-based and modeled covariance matrices without involving matrix inversion. The performance of the MBDE, regarding the robustness and resolution, is analyzed in comparison with some of the existing methods. A connection with the Weiss-Weinstein bound is also discussed, which gives the MBDE an interpretation of closely approaching a large-error performance bound. Theoretical analysis and simulations of bearing estimation using a uniform linear array show that the proposed method owns a considerable resolution comparable to an adaptive method while being robust against statistical mismatch, including covariance mismatch caused by snapshot deficiency and/or noise model mismatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0009677DOI Listing
March 2022

Effects of Medical Masks on Voice Quality in Patients With Voice Disorders.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2022 May 1;65(5):1742-1750. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of medical masks on the voice quality of patients with voice disorders.

Method: We included 106 patients diagnosed with voice disorders. Among them, 59 were diagnosed with vocal-fold benign lesions, 27 with insufficient glottis closure, and 20 with precancerous lesions/early-stage glottic carcinoma. Perceptual parameters (GRBAS [grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain] scale), acoustic parameters ( , sound pressure level [SPL], jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio [NHR], and cepstral peak prominence [CPP]), and maximum phonation time (MPT) without and with medical masks were analyzed. Changes in the GRBAS scale after wearing medical masks were also evaluated.

Results: With medical mask wearing, the G, R, and B scales in the vocal-fold benign lesion and insufficient glottic closure groups decreased, with a statistical significance seen in the G and R scales of the vocal-fold benign lesion group (G 1.07 ± 0.59, 0.95 ± 0.68, < .01; R 1.07 ± 0.59, 0.95 ± 0.68, < .01). The B scale in the precancerous lesions/early-stage glottic carcinoma (95%) and vocal-fold benign lesion groups (83%) and R scale in the insufficient glottic closure group (77.8%) were stable with mask wearing. and SPL in the vocal-fold benign lesion group and and jitter in the insufficient glottic closure group increased significantly with medical masks. The NHR and CPP in each group changed little, and all the parameters in the precancerous lesions/early-stage glottic carcinoma group showed no significant change.

Conclusions: The effects of medical masks on the voice quality of patients with voice disorders were associated with the type of the disease, degree of hoarseness, and subjective scale influencing specific voice disorder. When wearing medical masks, the pitch and loudness of patients increased as compensation. Medical masks had the least impact on the precancerous lesions/early-stage glottic carcinoma group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2022_JSLHR-21-00428DOI Listing
May 2022

Molecular functions and therapeutic applications of exosomal noncoding RNAs in cancer.

Exp Mol Med 2022 Mar 29;54(3):216-225. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Institute of Biomedicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Cancer is one of the most difficult diseases in human society. Therefore, it is urgent for us to understand its pathogenesis and improve the cure rate. Exosomes are nanoscale membrane vesicles formed by a variety of cells through endocytosis. As a new means of intercellular information exchange, exosomes have attracted much attention. Noncoding RNAs exist in various cell compartments and participate in a variety of cellular reactions; in particular, they can be detected in exosomes bound to lipoproteins and free circulating molecules. Increasing evidence has suggested the potential roles of exosomal noncoding RNAs in the progression of tumors. Herein, we present a comprehensive update on the biological functions of exosomal noncoding RNAs in the development of cancer. Specifically, we mainly focus on the effects of exosomal noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs, circular RNAs, long noncoding RNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs, on tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance. Moreover, we outline the current clinical implications concerning exosomal noncoding RNAs in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-022-00744-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8980040PMC
March 2022

Downregulation of Kcnq1ot1 attenuates β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion via the miR-15b-5p/Ccnd1 and Ccnd2 axis.

Acta Diabetol 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Diabetology of Guangdong Province, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Aim: To examine the effect of lncRNA Kcnq1ot1 on pancreatic β cells in the development of diabetes.

Methods: The expression levels of Kcnq1ot1 were detected in the islets of diabetes mouse models and the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes by qRT-PCR. CCK8, Ki67 staining, immunohistochemical analyses, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were performed to detect the effect of Kcnq1ot1 on β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo. The relationship between Kcnq1ot1 and miR-15b-5p was predicted by bioinformatics prediction, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.

Results: Kcnq1ot1 was more abundant in the pancreas. The expression of Kcnq1ot1 was decreased in the islets of db/db mice and diet-induced obese mice and in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes. Silencing Kcnq1ot1 inhibited the β-cell proliferation concomitant with a reduction in the levels of Ccnd1 and Ccnd2. Insulin synthesis and secretion were impaired, along with the decreased expression of Ins1, Ins2, and insulin-related transcription factors. Moreover, Kcnq1ot1 knockdown in vivo reduced glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion, consistent with the reduction in the relative islet area and Ki67-positive β-cells detected by immunochemistry and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Mechanistically, Kcnq1ot1 directly targeted miR-15b-5p which regulated β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion through Ccnd1 and Ccnd2. Notably, the suppression of miR-15b-5p attenuated the inhibition of Min6 proliferation and insulin production induced by Kcnq1ot1 knockdown.

Conclusion: Kcnq1ot1 regulated β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion via the miR-15b-5p/Ccnd1 and Ccnd2 axis, which is worthy of further investigation considering its potential in diabetes treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-022-01871-6DOI Listing
March 2022

Exploring global changes in agricultural ammonia emissions and their contribution to nitrogen deposition since 1980.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 04 28;119(14):e2121998119. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94016.

SignificanceAgricultural systems are already major forces of ammonia pollution and environmental degradation. How agricultural ammonia emissions affect the spatio-temporal patterns of nitrogen deposition and where to target future mitigation efforts, remains poorly understood. We develop a substantially complete and coherent agricultural ammonia emissions dataset in nearly recent four decades, and evaluate the relative role of reduced nitrogen in total nitrogen deposition in a spatially explicit way. Global reduced nitrogen deposition has grown rapidly, and will occupy a greater dominant position in total nitrogen deposition without future ammonia regulations. Recognition of agricultural ammonia emissions on nitrogen deposition is critical to formulate effective policies to address ammonia related environmental challenges and protect ecosystems from excessive nitrogen inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121998119DOI Listing
April 2022

Integrating life cycle assessment and a farmer survey of management practices to study environmental impacts of peach production in Beijing, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, National Observation and Research Station of Agriculture Green Development (Quzhou, Hebei), China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

While intensive peach production has expanded rapidly in recent years, few studies have explored the environmental impacts associated with specific regional systems or the optimal management strategies to minimize associated environmental risks. Here, data from a survey of 290 native farmers were used to conduct a life cycle assessment to quantify the acidification potential (AP), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP), and reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses in peach production in Pinggu District, Beijing. Total annual Nr losses, and GWP, AP, and EP values for peach production in Pinggu District were respectively 10.7 kg N t, 857 kg CO-eq t, 12.9 kg SO-eq t, and 4.1 kg PO-eq t. The principal driving factors were fertilizer production, transportation, and application, which together accounted for 94%, 67%, 75%, and 94% of Nr losses, GWP, AP, and EP, respectively. In the high yield, high nitrogen-use efficiency (HH) group, relative values of Nr losses, GWP, AP, and EP were respectively 33%, 25%, 39%, and 32% lower than the overall averages for 290 orchards. Further analyses indicate that improved farming practices such as decreasing application rates of fertilizers, increasing proportion of base fertilization rate, and proper fertilization frequency in the HH group were the main reasons for these orchards' better performance in peach yields and partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer, and their reduced environmental impacts. These results highlight the need to optimize nutrient management in peach production in order simultaneously to realize both environmental sustainability and high productivity in the peach production system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19780-0DOI Listing
March 2022

Stereotactic radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases: Concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy associated with superior clinicoradiological response outcomes.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2022 Mar 27. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Gamma Knife Centre of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction/purpose: This study assessed long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following treatment with combination stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and immunotherapy (IT) for melanoma brain metastases (BM).

Methods: A retrospective review was performed in a contemporary cohort of patients with melanoma BM at a single tertiary institution receiving Gamma Knife SRS for melanoma BM. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards modelling was performed with a P <0.05 for significance.

Results: 101 patients (435 melanoma BM) were treated with SRS between January-2015 and June-2019. 68.3% of patients received IT within 4 weeks of SRS (concurrent) and 31.7% received SRS alone or non-concurrently with IT. Overall, BM local control rate was 87.1% after SRS. Median progression free survival was 8.7 months. Median follow-up was 29.2 months. On multivariate analysis (MVA), patients receiving concurrent SRS-IT maintained a higher chance of achieving a complete (CR) or partial response (PR) [HR 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.5, P = 0.012)] and a reduced likelihood of progression of disease (PD) [HR 0.52 (95% CI: 0.16-0.60), P = 0.048]. Any increase in BM volume on the initial MRI 3 months after SRS predicted a lower likelihood of achieving long-term CR or PR on MVA accounting for concurrent IT, BRAF status and dexamethasone use [HR = 0.048 (95% CI: 0.007-0.345, P = 0.0026)]. Stratified volumetric change demonstrated a sequential relationship with outcomes on Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Conclusion: Concurrent SRS-IT has favourable clinical and radiological outcomes with respect to CR, PR and a reduced likelihood of PD. Changes in BM volume on the initial MRI 3 months after SRS were predictive of long-term outcomes for treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.13403DOI Listing
March 2022

Spatiotemporal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus deposition across China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 24;830:154740. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway for the input of anthropogenic and natural nutrients to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, previous measurements focused mainly on hotspot locations, ignoring the fact that the deposition magnitudes of various nutrient species (e.g., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P)) at a national scale should be investigated jointly. To better characterize national scale bulk deposition, precipitation samples were collected at 41 sites across China from September 2015 to August 2016 and September 2017 to August 2018. The bulk deposition fluxes of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) over the network were 27.5 kg N ha yr and 0.92 kg P ha yr, respectively. Contributions of NH, NO, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to TN averaged 32%, 32%, and 36%, respectively. Significant spatial and seasonal variations in concentrations and deposition fluxes of all nutrient species were observed reflecting effects of local reactive nitrogen (Nr) and P emissions and rainfall amount. Major sources were energy resource consumption for NO, agricultural activities for NH, and a mixed contribution of both anthropogenic and natural sources for DON and TP. Atmospheric N and P deposition represent important external nutrient inputs to ecosystems and a high ratio of TN to TP (29.9) may induce relative P-limitation and further increase the risk of eutrophication. This work reveals a new map of atmospheric N and P deposition and identifies regions where emissions should be controlled to mitigate long-term impacts of atmospheric deposition over China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154740DOI Listing
March 2022

FER1L4:A long non-coding RNA with multiple roles in the occurrence and development of tumors.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Medical College,China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China.

Background: FER-1 family member 4 (FER1L4), a 6.7 kb lncRNA located at 20q11.22, plays an important biological function in a variety of tumor diseases. The purpose of this review is to clarify the pathophysiological mechanism and potential biological function of FER1L4 in different tumors.

Methods: By searching the relevant literature of PubMed, the specific pathophysiological mechanism of FER1L4 in different tumors was summarized.

Results: LncRNA FER1L4 is one of the key factors in tumorigenesis and is abnormally down-regulated in many tumors, including osteosarcoma, lung cancer, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, laryngeal cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, endometrial cancer, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and so on. However, FER1L4 is downregulated in breast cancer, glioma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma and periodontitis, and plays a protective role in orthodontic teeth. In addition, as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene, FER1L4 affects tumor proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis. Conclusion:LncRNA FER1L4 has a good application prospect in the treatment and diagnosis of many kinds of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220324141016DOI Listing
March 2022

Transglutaminase 2 enhances hepatocyte growth factor signaling to drive the mesothelioma cancer cell phenotype.

Mol Carcinog 2022 Jun 23;61(6):537-548. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an important mesothelioma cancer cell survival protein. However, the mechanism whereby TG2 maintains mesothelioma cell survival is not well understood. We present studies showing that TG2 drives hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-dependent MET receptor signaling to maintain the aggressive mesothelioma cancer phenotype. TG2 increases HGF and MET messenger RNA and protein levels to enhance MET signaling. TG2 inactivation reduces MET tyrosine kinase activity to reduce cancer cell spheroid formation, invasion and migration. We also confirm that HGF/MET signaling is a biologically important mediator of TG2 action. Reducing MET level using genetic methods or treatment with MET inhibitors reduces spheroid formation, invasion and migration and this is associated with reduced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 inhibitors suppress the cancer phenotype. Moreover, MET knockout mesothelioma cells form 10-fold smaller tumors compared to wild-type cells and these tumors display reduced MET, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 activity. These findings suggest that TG2 maintains HGF and MET levels in cultured mesothelioma cells and tumors to drive HGF/MET, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 signaling to maintain the aggressive mesothelioma cancer phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23399DOI Listing
June 2022
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