Publications by authors named "Wen Wu"

508 Publications

Halogen Bonding Adsorbent Pyridine N-oxides for Iodine Capture in Water.

Chemistry 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, P. R. China.

Rapid capture of I with high volatility and toxicity in the environment has attracted much attention. Herein we reported a firstly synthesized nonporous material: pyridine N-oxides (NTPO and ATPO) as iodine adsorbent. Both of NTPO and ATPO exhibit remarkable performance on the adsorption of iodine in aqueous solution, vapor state and organic solvents. Upon the capture of iodine, pyridine N-oxides were transformed to binary cocrystals combined with the pyridine N-oxides and iodine which is driven by halogen bond between iodine and oxygen atoms. Moreover, pyridine N-oxides shows high chemical, thermal and moisture stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202103336DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Executive Function and Its Neural Mechanism: An Event-Related Potential Study.

Front Neurosci 2021 27;15:701560. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Executive function refers to the conscious control of thinking and behavior in psychological process. Executive dysfunction widely exists in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, and is closely related to the decline of daily living ability and function. This study intends to explore the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on executive function and its neural mechanism by using event-related potential (ERP), so as to provide basis for further study on the relationship between cerebral cortex and executive function. Task switching paradigm was used to study the cognitive flexibility in executive function. Thirty-one healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive rTMS stimulations (1 Hz rTMS or sham rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) twice. The switching task and the electroencephalography EEG recordings were performed before (pre-rTMS/pre-sham rTMS) and immediately after the end of the rTMS application (post-rTMS/post-sham rTMS). The analysis of RTs showed that the main effects of switching and time were statistically significant. Further analysis revealed that the RT of rTMS stimulation was longer than sham rTMS at post-stimulation. ERP analysis showed that there was a significant switching effect in frontal and central scalp location, and the P2 amplitude in switch trials was greater than that in non-switch trials. At post-stimulation, the N2 amplitude of rTMS is more negative than that of sham rTMS at non-switch trials, whereas no such difference was found at switch trials. The P3 amplitude and LPC amplitude are significantly reduced by rTMS at post-stimulation. Low-frequency rTMS of the left DLPFC can cause decline of cognitive flexibility in executive function, resulting in the change of N2 amplitude and the decrease of P3 and LPC components during task switching, which is of positive significance for the evaluation and treatment of executive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.701560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580383PMC
October 2021

Attention Bias to Pain Words Comes Early and Cognitive Load Matters: Evidence from an ERP Study on Experimental Pain.

Neural Plast 2021 31;2021:9940889. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Attention bias (AB) is a common cognitive challenge for patients with pain. In this study, we tested at what stage AB to pain occurs in participants with experimental pain (EP) and tested whether cognitive load interferes with it. We recruited 40 healthy adults aged 18-27 years, and randomized them into control and EP groups. We sprayed the participants in the EP group with 10% capsaicin paste to mimic acute pain and those in the control group with water, accessing both groups' behavioral results and event-related potential data. We found that high-load tasks had longer response times and lower accuracies than low-load tasks did and that different neural processing of words occurred between the groups. The EP group exhibited AB to pain at an early stage with both attentional avoidance (N1 latency) and facilitated attention (P2 amplitude) to pain words. The control group coped with semantic differentiation (N1) at first, followed by pain word discrimination (P2). In addition, AB to pain occurred only in low-load tasks. As the cognitive load multiplied, we did not find AB in the EP group. Therefore, our study adds further evidence for AB to pain, suggesting the implementation of cognitive load in future AB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9940889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572635PMC
October 2021

Cross-linking of -nitrosothiolated AIEgens inside cancer cells to monitor NO release and reverse chemo-resistance.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Nov 23;57(93):12520-12523. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.

Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing platforms have been demonstrated as promising approaches for the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells due to the suppression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, the non-specific systemic release of NO and difficulty in estimating the precise NO amount in target sites hindered their translational applications. Traditional bioimaging techniques which are responsive to NO molecules cannot distinguish between exogenous and endogenous NO. Herein we introduce -nitrosothiol-functionalized tetraphenylethene (TPE-RSNO) to specifically monitor exogenous NO release and synergistically reverse MDR. TPE-RSNO can specifically respond to NO release and visualize NO delivery with fluorescence in living cells. Moreover, the elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells triggered rapid NO release to reduce P-gp and thus synergistically increase the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc05504fDOI Listing
November 2021

Exploration of the optimal range of urinary iodine concentration in Chinese pregnant women in mildly iodine-deficient and -sufficient areas.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Nov 5. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, #22 Qixiangtai Street, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, China.

Purpose: There is some uncertainty about the optimal ranges for urinary iodine concentration (UIC) during pregnancy. This study aimed to explore associations between maternal UIC and thyroid function in iodine sufficient and mildly iodine deficient areas.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study in which 1461 healthy pregnant women were enrolled to collect their blood and urine samples during their routine antenatal care in Tianjin and Wuqiang, China. Wuqiang was a mildly iodine-deficient region, while Tianjin was iodine sufficient. UIC, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), serum iodine concentration (SIC) including total serum iodine concentration (tSIC) and non-protein bound serum iodine concentration (nbSIC) were assessed during the routine antenatal care visits.

Results: The median UIC in pregnant women was 174 (113, 249) μg/L in Tianjin and 111 (63, 167) μg/L in Wuqiang, respectively. Compared with Tianjin, UIC, FT3 and TSH were lower, and FT4, tSIC, nbSIC, rates of TPOAb and TgAb positivity and the thyroid dysfunction rate (TDR) were higher in Wuqiang (P < 0.001). FT3, FT4, tSIC and nbSIC increased during pregnancy in Tianjin with increasing UIC, while only FT3 and nbSIC increased in Wuqiang (P < 0.05). In Tianjin, the TDR increased with UIC and peaked at UIC ≥ 500 μg/L (P = 0.002), while in Wuqiang, the TDR showed a weak "U-shaped" relationship with UIC and the rate was lowest with UIC 100-149 μg/L.

Conclusions: In iodine-deficient areas, there was a lower TDR in pregnant women with UIC 100-149 μg/L. We suspected that the optimal UIC criteria recommended by WHO may be a little high for pregnant women in mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02693-yDOI Listing
November 2021

Fecal microbiota transplantation mitigates bone loss by improving gut microbiome composition and gut barrier function in aged rats.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e12293. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis is closely related to bone loss and the occurrence of osteoporosis in animals and human. However, little is known about the effect and the mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on bone in the treatment of senile osteoporosis.

Methods: Aged female rats were randomly divided into the FMT group and the control group. 3-month-old female rats were used as fecal donors. The rats were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks following transplantation and the serum, intestine, bone, and feces were collected for subsequent analyses.

Results: The bone turnover markers of osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and carboxy-terminal peptide (CTX) decreased significantly at 12 and 24 weeks following FMT ( < 0.05). At 12 weeks following transplantation, histomorphometric parameters including the bone volume (BV), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the FMT group were comparable to the control group. However, at 24 weeks following transplantation, these parameters of the FMT group were significantly higher than those of the control group ( < 0.05). Besides, the GM aggregated at 12 and 24 weeks following FMT, and the ecological distance was close between the rats in the FMT group and the donor rats. Alpha diversity, shown by the Shannon index and Simpson index, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio decreased significantly after FMT at 24 weeks. Furthermore, FMT restored the GM composition in aged rats at the phylum and family level, and the intestinal microbiota of the aged rats was similar to that of the donor rats. Correlation network analysis indirectly suggested the causality of FMT on alleviating osteoporosis. FMT improved the intestinal structure and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins of occludin, claudin, and ZO-1, which might be associated with the protective effects of FMT on bone.

Conclusions: GM transplanted from young rats alleviated bone loss in aged rats with senile osteoporosis by improving gut microbiome composition and intestinal barrier function. These data might provide a scientific basis for future clinical treatment of osteoporosis through FMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542369PMC
October 2021

Analysis of Correlation Between White Matter Changes and Functional Responses in Post-stroke Depression.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 11;13:728622. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms with high prevalence, however, the mechanism of the brain network in PSD and the relationship between the structural and functional network remain unclear. This research applies graph theory to structural networks and explores the relationship between structural and functional networks. : Forty-five patients with acute ischemic stroke were divided into the PSD group and post-stroke without depression (non-PSD) group respectively and underwent the magnetic resonance imaging scans. Network construction and Module analysis were used to explore the structural connectivity-functional connectivity (SC-FC) coupling of multi-scale brain networks in patients with PSD. : Compared with non-PSD, the structural network in PSD was related to the reduction of clustering and the increase of path length, but the degree of modularity was lower. : The SC-FC coupling may serve as a biomarker for PSD. The similarity in SC and FC is associated with cognitive dysfunction, retardation, and desperation. Our findings highlighted the distinction in brain structural-functional networks in PSD. : https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03256305, NCT03256305.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.728622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542668PMC
October 2021

Consumer Trust in Food and the Food System: A Critical Review.

Foods 2021 Oct 18;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Health and Biosecurity, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Brisbane 4102, Australia.

Increased focus towards food safety and quality is reshaping food purchasing decisions around the world. Although some food attributes are visible, many of the attributes that consumers seek and are willing to pay a price premium for are not. Consequently, consumers rely on trusted cues and information to help them verify the food quality and credence attributes they seek. In this study, we synthesise the findings from previous research to generate a framework illustrating the key trust influencing factors that are beyond visual and brand-related cues. Our framework identifies that consumer trust in food and the food system is established through the assurances related to individual food products and the actors of the food system. Specifically, product assurance builds consumer trust through food packaging labels communicating food attribute claims, certifications, country or region of origin, and food traceability information. In addition, producers, processors, and retailers provide consumers with food safety and quality assurances, while government agencies, third-party institutions, advocacy groups, and the mass media may modify how labelling information and food operators are perceived by consumers. We hope our framework will guide future research efforts to test these trust factors in various consumer and market settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536093PMC
October 2021

Improved dual-polarized wideband multifunctional switchable absorber/reflector based on active frequency selective surfaces.

Opt Express 2021 Sep;29(20):31036-31047

An improved dual-polarized multifunctional switchable absorber/reflector with both wideband absorbing and wideband reflecting characteristics is presented in this paper. The proposed structure consists of three parts including a top-layer active frequency selective surface (AFSS) structure, a bottom-layer metal sheet and an air spacer in between. The polarization stability is satisfied by deploying the super-element topology, which contains four similar unitary elements arranged in a 2 × 2 matrix form. The PIN diode is employed as a RF switch in the AFSS structure for the purpose of switching. The bias networks responsible for different polarizations are intentionally separated through via holes. Multifunctional properties with four different operating states can be attained by controlling horizontally- and vertically-loaded PIN diodes independently. In addition, the biggest advantage of the proposed structure lies in its wideband features at both absorbing and reflecting states for different polarizations and incident angles. Finally, a prototype of the design is fabricated and measured to verify the simulation, and a good agreement between the simulated and observational results can be achieved under normal incidence as well as oblique incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.438984DOI Listing
September 2021

Comprehensive analysis of abnormal expression, prognostic value and oncogenic role of the hub gene FN1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma bioinformatic analysis and experiments.

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e12141. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of General Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers with a poor prognosis worldwide. Although the treatment of PDAC has made great progress in recent years, the therapeutic effects are still unsatisfactory. Methods. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PDAC and normal pancreatic tissues based on four Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE15471, GSE16515, GSE28735 and GSE71729). A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established to evaluate the relationship between the DEGs and to screen hub genes. The expression levels of the hub genes were further validated through the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), ONCOMINE and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) databases, as well as the validation GEO dataset GSE62452. Additionally, the prognostic values of the hub genes were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier plotter and the validation GEO dataset GSE62452. Finally, the mechanistic roles of the most remarkable hub genes in PDAC were examined through experiments.

Results: We identified the following nine hub genes by performing an integrated bioinformatics analysis: COL1A1, COL1A2, FN1, ITGA2, KRT19, LCN2, MMP9, MUC1 and VCAN. All of the hub genes were significantly upregulated in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreatic tissues. Two hub genes (FN1 and ITGA2) were associated with poor overall survival (OS) rates in PDAC patients. Finally, experiments indicated that FN1 plays vital roles in PDAC cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and the cell cycle.

Conclusions: In summary, we identified two hub genes that are associated with the expression and prognosis of PDAC. The oncogenic role of FN1 in PDAC was first illustrated by performing an integrated bioinformatic analysis and experiments. Our results provide a fundamental contribution for further research aimed finding novel therapeutic targets for overcoming PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428264PMC
September 2021

Brain Network to Placebo and Nocebo Responses in Acute Experimental Lower Back Pain: A Multivariate Granger Causality Analysis of fMRI Data.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 9;15:696577. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

: Placebo and nocebo responses are widely observed. Herein, we investigated the nocebo hyperalgesia and placebo analgesia responses in brain network in acute lower back pain (ALBP) model using multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA). This approach analyses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for lagged-temporal correlation between different brain areas. : After completing the ALBP model, 20 healthy subjects were given two interventions, once during a placebo intervention and once during a nocebo intervention, pseudo-randomly ordered. fMRI scans were performed synchronously during each intervention, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were collected at the end of each intervention. The fMRI data were then analyzed using multivariate GCA. : Our results found statistically significant differences in VAS scores from baseline (pain status) for both placebo and nocebo interventions, as well as between placebo and nocebo interventions. In placebo network, we found a negative lagged-temporal correlation between multiple brain areas, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), secondary somatosensory cortex area, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and insular cortex (IC); and a positive lagged-temporal correlation between multiple brain areas, including IC, thalamus, ACC, as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA). In the nocebo network, we also found a positive lagged-temporal correlation between multiple brain areas, including the primary somatosensory cortex area, caudate, DLPFC and SMA. : The results of this study suggest that both pain-related network and reward system are involved in placebo and nocebo responses. The placebo response mainly works by activating the reward system and inhibiting pain-related network, while the nocebo response is the opposite. Placebo network also involves the activation of opioid-mediated analgesia system (OMAS) and emotion pathway, while nocebo network involves the deactivation of emotional control. At the same time, through the construction of the GC network, we verified our hypothesis that nocebo and placebo networks share part of the same brain regions, but the two networks also have their own unique structural features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.696577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458622PMC
September 2021

Targeting Notch4 in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 8;13:7033-7045. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

The dysregulation of Notch signaling is found in many cancers and is closely related to cancer progression. As an important Notch receptor, abnormal Notch4 expression affects several tumor-cell behaviors, including stemness, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, radio/chemoresistance and angiogenesis. In order to inhibit the oncogenic effects of Notch4 activation, several methods for targeting Notch4 signaling have been proposed. In this review, we summarize the known molecular mechanisms through which Notch4 affects cancer progression. Finally, we discuss potential Notch4-targeting therapeutic strategies as a reference for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S315511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436177PMC
September 2021

Plexin-A1 expression in the inhibitory neurons of infralimbic cortex regulates the specificity of fear memory in male mice.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Faculty of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Maintaining appropriate levels of fear memory specificity is crucial for individual's survival and mental health, whereas overgeneralized fear commonly occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating fear memory specificity remain poorly understood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is considered as a key brain region in fear memory regulation. Previous transcriptomic studies have identified that plexin-A1, a transmembrane receptor critical for axon development, was downregulated in the mPFC after fear memory training. In this study, we identified that learning-induced downregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of plexin-A1 specifically occurred in the inhibitory but not excitatory neurons in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of mPFC. Further studies of plexin-A1 by virus-mediated over-expression of functional mutants selectively in the IL inhibitory neurons revealed the critical roles of plexin-A1 for regulating memory specificity and anxiety. Moreover, our findings revealed that plexin-A1 regulated the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, a GABA synthetase, which in turn modulated the activity of IL and its downstream brain regions. Collectively, our findings elucidate the molecular modifier of IL inhibitory neurons in regulating memory specificity and anxiety, and provide candidates for developing therapeutic strategies for the prevention or treatment of a series of fear generalization-related neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01177-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Sex Differences in the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Signal to Placebo Analgesia and Nocebo Hyperalgesia in Experimental Pain: A Functional MRI Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 23;15:657517. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Placebo as well as nocebo responses are widely found in scientific research and clinical practice. Growing evidence suggests sex differences in placebo as well as nocebo responses. However, data concerning this question are still insufficient. This study examined whether the BOLD signals of two responses, as measured with functional MRI (fMRI), differ by sex under conditions of equivalent experimental pain perception.

Method: Thirty-one healthy volunteers (14 female) underwent two fMRI scans, once during a placebo intervention and once during a nocebo intervention, pseudorandomly ordered, in an acute lower back pain (ALBP) model. We collected visual analog scale (VAS) data after each scanning. fMRI data from different sex groups were subjected to functional connectivity (FC) analysis and behavioral correlation analysis (BCA).

Results: The results showed statistical differences in VAS scores between male and female participants, in both placebo and nocebo responses. Both groups also showed reduced FC in the pain-associated network of the placebo response and elevated FC in the pain-related network of the nocebo response. However, in the placebo condition, male participants displayed increased FC in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus (PHP), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while female participants showed increased FC in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampal gyrus (HP), and insular cortex (IC). In the nocebo condition, male participants showed decreased FC in the PCC and HP, while female participants displayed decreased FC in the mid-cingulate cortex, thalamus (THS), and HP. The BCA results of the two groups were also different.

Conclusion: We found that the endogenous opioid system and reward circuit play a key role in sex differences of placebo response and that anxiety and its secondary reactions may cause the sex differences of nocebo response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.657517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419258PMC
August 2021

Integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles provides insight into the fruit pericarp pigmentation disorder caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Aug 25;21(1):397. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of South Subtropical Fruit Biology and Genetic Resource Utilization & Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Tree Research, Institute of Fruit Tree Research, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 510640, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Mandarin 'Shatangju' is susceptible to Huanglongbing (HLB) and the HLB-infected fruits are small, off-flavor, and stay-green at the maturity period. To understand the relationship between pericarp color and HLB pathogen and the effect mechanism of HLB on fruit pericarp coloration, quantitative analyses of HLB bacterial pathogens and carotenoids and also the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles were performed in the mandarin 'Shatangju' variety with four different color fruits, whole green fruits (WGF), top-yellow and base-green fruits (TYBGF), whole light-yellow fruits (WLYF), and whole dark-yellow fruits (WDYF) that were infected with HLB.

Results: the HLB bacterial population followed the order WGF > TYBGF > WLYF > WDYF. And there were significant differences between each group of samples. Regarding the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid, the chlorophyll-a content in WGF was the highest and in WDYF was the lowest. The content of chlorophyll-b in WGF was significantly higher than that in other three pericarps. There were significant differences in the total content of carotenoid between each group. WGF and TYBGF pericarps were low in phytoene, γ-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and apocarotenal, while other kinds of carotenoids were significantly higher than those in WDYF. And WLYF was only short of apocarotenal. We comprehensively compared the transcriptome and metabolite profiles of abnormal (WGF, TYBGF and WLYF) and normal (WDYF, control) pericarps. In total, 2,880, 2,782 and 1,053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 121, 117 and 43 transcription factors were identified in the three comparisons, respectively. The qRT-PCR confirmed the expression levels of genes selected from transcriptome. Additionally, a total of 77 flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites were identified in the three comparisons. Most (76.65 %) showed markedly lower abundances in the three comparisons. The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was the major enrichment pathway in the integrative analysis of metabolome and transcriptome profiles.

Conclusions: Synthesizing the above analytical results, this study indicated that different color pericarps were associated with the reduced levels of some carotenoids and phenylpropanoids derivatives products and the down-regulation of proteins in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids derivatives biosynthesis pathway and the photosynthesis-antenna proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03167-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385863PMC
August 2021

Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Fracture in China: The China Osteoporosis Prevalence Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2121106. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Importance: The aging of the population is associated with an increasing burden of fractures worldwide. However, the epidemiological features of fractures in mainland China are not well known.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with osteoporosis, clinical fractures, and vertebral fractures in an adult population 40 years or older in mainland China.

Design, Setting. And Participants: This cross-sectional study, the China Osteoporosis Prevalence Study, was conducted from December 2017 to August 2018. A random sample of individuals aged 20 years or older who represented urban and rural areas of China were enrolled, with a 99% participation rate.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Weighted prevalence of osteoporosis, clinical fracture, and vertebral fracture by age, sex, and urban vs rural residence as determined by x-ray absorptiometry, questionnaire, and radiography.

Results: A total of 20 416 participants were included in this study; 20 164 (98.8%; 11 443 women [56.7%]; mean [SD] age, 53 [13] years) had a qualified x-ray absorptiometry image and completed the questionnaire, and 8423 of 8800 (95.7%) had a qualified spine radiograph. The prevalence of osteoporosis among those aged 40 years or older was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.2%-5.8%) among men and 20.6% (95% CI, 19.3%-22.0%) among women. The prevalence of vertebral fracture was 10.5% (95% CI, 9.0%-12.0%) among men and 9.7% (95% CI, 8.2%-11.1%) among women. The prevalence of clinical fracture in the past 5 years was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.3%-4.9%) among men and 4.2% (95% CI, 3.6%-4.7%) among women. Among men and women, 0.3% (95% CI, 0.0%-0.7%) and 1.4% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.0%), respectively, with osteoporosis diagnosed on the basis of bone mineral density or with fracture were receiving antiosteoporosis treatment to prevent fracture.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of an adult population in mainland China, the prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral fracture were high and the prevalence of vertebral fracture and clinical fracture was similarly high in men and women. These findings suggest that current guidelines for screening and treatment of fractures among patients in China should focus equally on men and women and should emphasize the prevention of vertebral fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369359PMC
August 2021

lncRNA GAS5 regulates angiogenesis by targeting miR‑10a‑3p/VEGFA in osteoporosis.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Oct 13;24(4). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Spine Surgery, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan 410007, P.R. China.

Osteoporosis is a severe bone disease commonly occurring in older males and postmenopausal females. Previous studies have shown that long non‑coding (lnc)RNA growth arrest‑specific 5 (GAS5) serves an important role in osteoporosis. However, its role is unclear and requires further exploration. The relative expression levels of GAS5 and miR‑10a‑3p in the serum samples of patients with osteoporosis, as well as the relative expression levels of GAS5, microRNA (miR)‑10a‑3p and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA in osteoblasts, were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR. ELISA and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of VEGFA. A Matrigel angiogenesis test was used to assess the effects on angiogenesis. RNA binding interactions between GAS5/miR‑10a‑3p and miR‑10a‑3p/VEGFA were evaluated using dual‑luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, the effects of the GAS5/miR‑10a‑3p/VEGFA axis were investigated via ELISA, western blotting and Matrigel angiogenesis. GAS5 was significantly downregulated and miR‑10a‑3p was upregulated in patients with osteoporosis. Overexpression of GAS5 promoted angiogenesis. GAS5 acted as a sponge of miR‑10a‑3p; VEGFA was a target gene of miR‑10a‑3p. GAS5 induced angiogenesis by inhibiting miR‑10a‑3p and enhancing VEGFA expression. These results indicated that GAS5 overexpression increased angiogenesis by inhibiting miR‑10a‑3p, promoting the expression of VEGFA. The present study revealed a novel mechanism and provided novel targets for the clinical treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12350DOI Listing
October 2021

Hsa_circ_0016788 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via miR-506-3p/poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background And Aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide. Recent researches have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) could affect the progress of HCC, but the mechanism is still indistinct. In this work, we explored the roles of circRNA_0016788 in HCC.

Methods: The levels of hsa_circ_0016788, microRNA-506-3p (miR-506-3p), and mRNA of poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase, member 14 (PARP14) were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HCC tissues. Meanwhile, the level of PARP14 was quantified by Western blot analysis. Besides, the cell functions were examined by commercial kit, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, EdU assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay, Western blot, and transwell assay. Furthermore, the interplay between miR-506-3p and hsa_circ_0016788 or PARP14 was detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Eventually, the in vivo experiments were applied to measure the role of hsa_circ_0016788.

Results: The levels of hsa_circ_0016788 and PARP14 were upregulated, and the miR-506-3p level was decreased in HCC tissues in contrast to that in normal tissues. For functional analysis, hsa_circ_0016788 deficiency inhibited cell glycolysis metabolism, cell vitality, cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion in HCC cells whereas promoted cell apoptosis. Moreover, miR-506-3p was confirmed to repress the progression of HCC cells by suppressing PARP14. In mechanism, hsa_circ_0016788 acted as a miR-506-3p sponge to regulate the level of PARP14. In addition, hsa_circ_0016788 knockdown also inhibited tumor growth in vivo.

Conclusion: Hsa_circ_0016788 facilitates the development of HCC through increasing PARP14 expression by regulating miR-506-3p, which also offered an underlying targeted therapy for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15635DOI Listing
August 2021

Prednisolone suppresses collagen-encoding gene expression causing cartilage defects in zebrafish larvae.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Oct 29;87:103719. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, 214000, China. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a clinically important disease. Despite many studies, the intrinsic pathogenesis of GIOP is still not fully understood. Cartilage is the target tissue of the glucocorticoid prednisolone (PN). To explore the intrinsic mechanism of PN-induced cartilage damage, we performed cartilage staining and cell transfection experiments in zebrafish larvae treated with PN. The results showed that PN caused cartilage damage in zebrafish at 25 μM. Moreover, after treatment with PN, it was found that collagen-encoding gene expression was significantly reduced. Further research revealed that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates the transcriptional inhibition of collagen genes by PN. These results indicate that glucocorticoids cause cartilage damage by inhibiting the expression of collagen genes through their receptors. Our study provides new insights into GIOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2021.103719DOI Listing
October 2021

Efficacy and safety of single-inhaler triple therapy of glycopyrronium, formoterol and fluticasone in patients with COPD: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 26;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Global Medical Affairs, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Mumbai, India.

Background: The aim of this work was to investigate the safety and efficacy of single-inhaler triple therapy with 12.5 μg glycopyrronium (GB)/12 μg formoterol fumarate (FF)/250 μg fluticasone propionate (FP), compared to 50 μg GB co-administered with a fixed dose of 12 μg FF/250 μg FP in subjects with COPD.

Methods: This was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-control, parallel-group, noninferiority study conducted at 20 sites across India. COPD patients aged ≥40 to ≤75 years, with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70, using mono/dual therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), or long-acting β-agonists (LABAs) for ≥1 month, were included. Subjects were randomised 1:1 to GB/FF/FP or GB+FF/FP for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end-point was the change from baseline in trough FEV at the end of 12 weeks. The study is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India (identifier number: CTRI/2019/01/017156).

Results: Between 23 March 2019 and 14 February 2020, 396 subjects were enrolled, with 198 patients each in the fixed-triple (GB/FF/FP) and open-triple (GB+FF/FP) groups. The difference in least-square mean (LSM) changes in pre-dose FEV from baseline at 12 weeks was noninferior between the groups (p<0.05). The LSM change from baseline in post-dose FEV was comparable (p=0.38). A superiority test showed comparable efficacy (p=0.12) for the difference in mean change from baseline in trough FEV between the groups. Adverse events (mild or moderate) were recorded in 25.3% and 24.9% of subjects in the GB/FF/FP and GB+FF/FP groups.

Conclusions: Fixed triple therapy with GB/FF/FP provides comparable bronchodilation and lung function improvement as open-triple therapy. It is safe and well tolerated in symptomatic COPD patients with a history of exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00255-2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311133PMC
July 2021

Synergizing metal-support interactions and spatial confinement boosts dynamics of atomic nickel for hydrogenations.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Oct 26;16(10):1141-1149. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Chemical Physics, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Atomically dispersed metal catalysts maximize atom efficiency and display unique catalytic properties compared with regular metal nanoparticles. However, achieving high reactivity while preserving high stability at appreciable loadings remains challenging. Here we solve the challenge by synergizing metal-support interactions and spatial confinement, which enables the fabrication of highly loaded atomic nickel (3.1 wt%) along with dense atomic copper grippers (8.1 wt%) on a graphitic carbon nitride support. For the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene, the fabricated catalyst shows extraordinary catalytic performance in terms of activity, selectivity and stability-far superior to supported atomic nickel alone in the absence of a synergizing effect. Comprehensive characterization and theoretical calculations reveal that the active nickel site confined in two stable hydroxylated copper grippers dynamically changes by breaking the interfacial nickel-support bonds on reactant adsorption and making these bonds on product desorption. Such a dynamic effect confers high catalytic performance, providing an avenue to rationally design efficient, stable and highly loaded, yet atomically dispersed, catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00951-yDOI Listing
October 2021

The Roles of circMTO1 in Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 30;9:656258. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently discovered type of covalently-closed circular non-coding RNAs, mainly formed by non-sequential back-splicing of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs). Recent studies have demonstrated that circRNAs can have either oncogenic or tumor-suppressor roles depending on the cellular context. CircRNA mitochondrial tRNA translation optimization 1 (circMTO1), a recently reported circular RNA originating from exons of MTO1 located on chromosome 6q13, was proved to be abnormally expressed in many malignant tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric carcinoma and colorectal cancer, resulting in tumor initiation and progression. However, there are no reviews focusing on the roles of circMTO1 in cancer. Here, we first summarize the main biological characteristics of circMTO1, and then focus on its biological functions and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, we summarize the roles of circMTO1 in cancer and discuss future prospects in this area of research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.656258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277961PMC
June 2021

The Inhibitory Effect of Emotional Conflict Control on Memory Retrieval.

Neuroscience 2021 08 5;468:29-42. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Evidence is mounting that emotional conflict is mainly resolved by the rostral anterior cingulate inhibiting the processing of emotional distractors. However, this theory has not been verified from the perspective of memory retrieval. This experiment aimed to explore the offline effect of emotional conflict processing on memory retrieval. We adopted a modified encoding-retrieval paradigm to explore this issue. Participants' electroencephalography (EEG) signal were also collected. A face-word Stroop task was used to create the congruency factor. In addition, an old/new judgment task was used to evaluate the recognition performance. During the retrieval phase, the response time of the incongruent condition was longer and the recognition accuracy was lower compared with congruent and neutral conditions in the behavioral data. For event-related potentials (ERP), we detected two well-established old/new effects related to memory retrieval under both neutral and emotional conditions: the frontal negativity (FN400) related to familiarity-driven recognition and the late posterior negativity (LPN) related to reconstructive processing or evaluation of retrieval outcomes. More importantly, the old/new effects were missing for incongruent condition during the early stage of FN400 (300-400 ms). Besides, for LPN (700-900 ms), the old/new effects of the incongruent condition are greater than the congruent condition. The results prove that the encoding phase's emotional congruency factor has a regulatory effect on the retrieval phase's early familiarity processing and evaluation of retrieval outcomes. Our data confirm the inhibitory effect of emotional conflict control on memory retrieval and support the emotional conflict control mechanism found in previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.05.032DOI Listing
August 2021

Three-dimensional printing-based personalized limb salvage and reconstruction treatment of pelvic tumors.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 4;124(3):420-430. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background And Objectives: The treatment of pelvic tumors is widely recognized to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized three-dimensional (3D) printing-based limb salvage and reconstruction treatment for pelvic tumors.

Methods: Twenty-eight pelvic tumor patients were enrolled. 3D printing lesion models and osteotomy templates were prepared for surgery planning, prosthesis design, and osteotomy assistance during surgery. 3D printing-based personalized pelvic prostheses were manufactured and used in all 28 patients. Follow-up of postoperative survival, prosthesis survival, imaging examinations, and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) lower limb functional scores were carried out.

Results: The mean follow-up period was 32.2 months, during which 16 patients had disease-free survival, 3 survived with the disease, and 9 died. The prostheses were stable, and the mean offset of the center of rotation was 5.48 mm. The prosthesis-bone interface showed good integration. For the 19 surviving patients, the mean MSTS lower limb functional score was 23.2. Postoperative complications included superficial infection in six patients and hip dislocation in three patients.

Conclusions: Personalized 3D printing-based limb salvage and reconstruction was an effective treatment for pelvic tumors. Our patients achieved good early postoperative efficacy and functional recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26516DOI Listing
September 2021

Tumor Extrinsic Factors Mediate Primary T-DM1 Resistance in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Biotechnology Review and Research 1, Office of Biotechnology Products, Office of Pharmaceutical Quality, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

To explore if the tumor microenvironment contributes to the primary resistance of HER2-positive breast cancer cells to T-DM1, we examined whether Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix that provides a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture condition, caused the primary resistance of HER2-positive, T-DM1-sensitive breast cancer cells (JIMT1 and SKBR-3 cells) to T-DM1. This is different from the conventional approach such that the cells are exposed with escalated doses of drug to establish a drug-resistant cell line. We found that these cells were able to grow and form spheroids on the Matrigel in the presence of T-DM1. We further explored the molecular mechanisms that enables these cells to be primarily resistant to T-DM1 and found that EGFR was activated in the spheroids, leading to an increased HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation. This in turn enhances cell growth signaling downstream of EGFR/HER2 in the spheroids. HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation promotes receptor internalization and degradation in the spheroids, which limits T-DM1 access to HER2 on the cell surface of spheroids. Blocking EGFR activity by erlotinib reduces HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation and enhances HER2 cell surface expression. This enables T-DM1 to gain access to HER2 on the cell surface, resumes cell sensitivity to T-DM1, and exhibits synergistic activity with T-DM1 to inhibit the formation of spheroids on Matrigel. The discovery described in this manuscript reveals a novel approach to investigate the primary resistance of HER2-positive breast cancer cells and provides an opportunity to develop a therapeutic strategy to overcome primary resistance to T-DM1 by combing T-DM1 therapy with kinase inhibitors of EGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150545PMC
May 2021

Rosmarinic Acid Induces Proliferation Suppression of Hepatoma Cells Associated with NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 May 1;22(5):1623-1632. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Endoscopy Center, Institute of Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hospital of Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural phenolic compound that acts as a Fyn inhibitor by 53 homology modeling of the human Fyn structure. Therefore, the apoptosis mechanism related to  NF-κB signaling pathway induced by RA in HepG2 was investigated.

Methods: The cell growth, apoptosis, and proliferation of HepG2 regulated by various concentrations of RA were studied. The proteins expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, PI3K, AKT, NF-κB, and apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 were detected.

Results: RA significantly reduced proliferation rates, inhibited migration and invasion, and decreased the expressions of invasion-related factors, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. TUNEL staining revealed that RA resulted in a dose-dependent increase of HepG2 cell apoptosis. In line with this finding, the expression of apoptosis suppressor protein Bcl-2 was downregulated and that of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was increased. In addition, we found that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway was involved in RA-mediated inhibition of HepG2 cell metastasis.

Conclusion: Our study identified that  RA as a drug candidate for the treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.5.1623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408391PMC
May 2021

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection With Double Band Ligation for Small Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 09;116(9):1827-1828

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001302DOI Listing
September 2021

BVES-AS1 inhibits the malignant behaviors of colon adenocarcinoma cells via regulating BVES.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Sep 3;45(9):1945-1956. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of General Surgery, The 988th Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

The underexpression of the long noncoding RNA blood vessel epicardial substance antisense RNA 1 (BVES-AS1) has been shown in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) patients. However, its role in COAD remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the function and potential mechanism of BVES-AS1 in COAD. Colony formation, Cell Counting Kit-8, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential assay, wound healing, transwell, and western blot analyses were used to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in COAD cells. RNA pull-down, luciferase reporter, and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation assays were used to detect the interaction of BVES-AS1 and downstream genes. BVES-AS1 was expressed at low levels in COAD cells. Overexpressed BVES-AS1 inhibited COAD cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT while elevating cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, BVES-AS1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA sponging miR-522-3p to regulate the expression of nearby gene blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES). Besides this, BVES-AS1 recruited TATA-box binding protein associated factor 15 (TAF15) to promote BVES messenger RNA stability. Taken together, our study confirmed that BVES-AS1 inhibited COAD progression via interacting with miR-522-3p and TAF15 to regulate BVES expression, which might offer a perspective for COAD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11634DOI Listing
September 2021

[Identification and pedigree analysis for an A(W)37B subtype due to c.940A>G variant of ABO gene].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):496-498

School of Medical Laboratory, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong 261053, China.

Objective: To delineate the serological and molecular profiles of a patient with A(w)37B subtype.

Methods: The ABO bloodtypes of the proband, his wife and daughter were determined with a standard serological method. Their ABO genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). All exons of the ABO gene were directly sequenced. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were further analyzed by cloning and sequencing.

Results: The red blood cells of the proband showed a weak B phenotype. His serum sample contained weak reactive anti-A antibody, which was defined as A(w)B blood group based on the serological characteristics. The A and B alleles were detected by blood group genotyping. Gene cloning and sequencing have identified a characteristic c.940A>G variant (ABO*AW.37) in exon 7 of the ABO gene, which resulted in substitution of Lysine by Glutamate at position 314. The proband's daughter has inherited the ABO*AW.37 allele.

Conclusion: The c.940A>G variant in exon 7 of the ABO gene probably underlay the decreased activity of GTA transferase and resulted in the Aw37 phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200804-00581DOI Listing
May 2021

Soft soled footwear has limited impact on toddler gait.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251175. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiotherapy, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Dentistry & Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The development of walking in young toddlers is an important motor milestone. Walking patterns can differ widely amongst toddlers, and are characterised by unique biomechanical strategies. This makes comparisons between newly walking toddler's and older children's walking difficult. Little is currently understood regarding the effects of footwear on the gait in newly walking toddlers. A quasi-experimental pre-post study design was used to assess whether spatiotemporal parameters of gait, and in-shoe foot and lower limb kinematics, differed when walking barefoot and in soft-soled footwear in newly walking toddlers. There were 18 toddlers recruited, with 14 undergoing testing. The GAITRite system collected spatial and temporal data. The Vicon camera system collected kinematic data. The testing conditions included barefoot and footwear. Footwear tested was a commercially available soft soled shoe (Bobux XPLORER). Data was extracted directly from the GAITRite system and analysed. Walking in footwear did not change spatial or temporal data, however there were small but significant decreases in hip adduction/abduction range of motion (mean difference (MD) = 1.79°, 95% CI = -3.51 to -0.07, p = 0.04), knee flexion (MD = -7.63°, 95% CI = 2.70 to 12.55, p = 0.01), and knee flexion/extension range of movement (MD = 6.25°, 95% CI = -10.49 to -2.01, p = 0.01), and an increase in subtalar joint eversion (MD = 2.85°, 95% CI = 5.29 to -0.41, p = 0.03). Effect sizes were small for hip and ankle range, peak knee extension, and subtalar joint ranges (d<0.49), medium for knee flexion/extension range (d = 0.75) and large for peak knee flexion (d = 0.87). The magnitude of kinematic changes with soft-soled footwear were small thus the clinical importance of these findings is uncertain. Future longitudinal studies are needed to develop recommendations regarding footwear for newly walking toddlers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251175PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109762PMC
November 2021
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