Publications by authors named "Wen Qin"

468 Publications

Ruthenium red: a highly efficient and versatile cell staining agent for single-cell analysis using inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Analyst 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Staining of biological cells with heavy metals can increase their visibility in mass spectrometry. In this study, the potential of ruthenium red (RR) as a staining agent for single-cell analysis by inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SC-ICP-TOF-MS) is explored using two different yeast strains and one algal species. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows the simultaneous detection of Ru and multiple intrinsic elements in single cells. Ru has a better correlation with Mg than with P in () cells. For the three tested strains, the staining efficiency of RR exceeded 96%; the staining strengths were 30-32 ag μm for the yeast cells and 59 ag μm for the algal cells. By deriving the cell volume of single cells from their Ru mass, the concentration of Mg and P in individual cells of can be calculated. Elemental concentrations of Mg and P were highly variable in the cell individuals, with their 25-75 percentile values of 0.10-0.19 and 0.76-2.07 fg μm, respectively. RR staining has several advantages: it is fast, does not affect cell viability and is highly efficient. Provided that the shape of the individual cells of a culture is similar, Ru staining allows the elemental content to be directly correlated with the cell volume to accurately calculate the intracellular concentration of target elements in single cells. Therefore, RR can be a promising cell staining agent for future application in SC-ICP-TOF-MS research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01143jDOI Listing
October 2021

Marked Seasonal Variation in Structure and Function of Gut Microbiota in Forest and Alpine Musk Deer.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:699797. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xining, China.

Musk deer ( spp.) is a globally endangered species due to excessive hunting and habitat fragmentation. Captive breeding of musk deer can efficiently relieve the hunting pressure and contribute to the conservation of the wild population and musk supply. However, its effect on the gut microbiota of musk deer is unclear. Recent studies have indicated that gut microbiota is associated with host health and its environmental adaption, influenced by many factors. Herein, high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used based on 262 fecal samples from forest musk deer () (FMD) and 90 samples from alpine musk deer () (AMD). We sought to determine whether seasonal variation can affect the structure and function of gut microbiota in musk deer. The results demonstrated that FMD and AMD had higher α-diversity of gut microbiota in the cold season than in the warm season, suggesting that season change can affect gut microbiota diversity in musk deer. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also revealed significant seasonal differences in the structure and function of gut microbiota in AMD and FMD. Particularly, phyla and significantly dominated the 352 fecal samples from captive FMD and AMD. The relative abundance of and the ratio of to were significantly decreased in summer than in spring and substantially increased in winter than in summer. In contrast, the relative abundance of showed opposite results. Furthermore, dominant bacterial genera and main metabolic functions of gut microbiota in musk deer showed significant seasonal differences. Overall, the abundance of main gut microbiota metabolic functions in FMD was significantly higher in the cold season. WGCNA analysis indicated that OTU6606, OTU5027, OTU7522, and OTU3787 were at the core of the network and significantly related with the seasonal variation. These results indicated that the structure and function in the gut microbiota of captive musk deer vary with seasons, which is beneficial to the environmental adaptation and the digestion and metabolism of food. This study provides valuable insights into the healthy captive breeding of musk deer and future reintroduction programs to recover wild populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.699797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450597PMC
September 2021

Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica cases caused by GPNMB mutations with different inheritance patterns.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis on Dermatoses, National Clinical Research Center for Skin and Immune Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica (ACD) is a rare form of primary cutaneous amyloidosis featured by reticulate dotted hypo- and hyperpigmentation. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in GPNMB, encoding glycoprotein (transmembrane) nonmetastatic melanoma protein B, were found in autosomal-recessive or semi-dominant ACD.

Objective: This study aims to detect the genetic defect underlying ACD in nine separate cases and to investigate the functional consequences of the mutants.

Methods: Nine ACD cases were collected including eight with autosomal-recessive pattern and one with autosomal-dominant pattern. Whole-exome sequencing or Sanger sequencing of the GPNMB gene was performed to detect the pathogenic mutations. Haplotype analysis was employed to determine the origin of mutation c.565C > T using adjacent highly polymorphic SNPs. Immunoblotting and subcellular localization assessments were performed to evaluate the expression of the mutants using HEK293 cells transfected with the GPNMB constructs.

Results: We detected four recurrent mutations (c.393 T > G, p.Y131*; c.565C > T, p.R189*; c.1056delT, p.P353Lfs*20; c.1238 G > C, p.C413S) and two novel mutations (c.935delA, p.N312Tfs*4; c.969 T > A, p.C323*) in GPNMB. Mutation c.565C > T found in six separate ACD cases shared a common haplotype. The two novel mutations caused a decreased abundance of truncated proteins. The c.1238 G > C mutation, which was detected in the autosomal-dominant case, caused abnormal reticular subcellular localization of the protein. A major percentage of wildtype changed its expression pattern when co-expressed with this mutant.

Conclusions: Our findings proved that the recurrent mutation c.565C > T originated from a founder effect. The autosomal-dominant ACD associated mutation p.C413S played its pathogenic role through a dominant-negative effect on wild-type GPNMB. This study expands the genotype and inherited modes of ACD and improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2021.08.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Facile fabrication of sandwich-like anthocyanin/chitosan/lemongrass essential oil films via 3D printing for intelligent evaluation of pork freshness.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 8;370:131082. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China. Electronic address:

In this study, chitosan (CH), mulberry anthocyanin (MA), and lemongrass essential oils (LEO) were used as an interlayer using a 3D printer. Further, cassava starch (CS) was used as a protective layer to form indicator films. The indicator films containing LEO showed significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties, and the release rate of LEO increased with a rise in pH. When chilled pork spoiled, the color of the indicator films changed from red to gray-blue, and the RGB values could be automatically analyzed by a smartphone application to determine pork freshness. These films hold implications as easy-to-use indicators of meat freshness, with great potential for monitoring food spoilage, as part of an intelligent packaging system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131082DOI Listing
September 2021

Mechanism of catalytic ozonation in expanded graphite aqueous suspension for the degradation of organic acids.

Environ Technol 2021 Oct 3:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

In this study, expanded graphite (EG) was prepared by the oxidation and intercalation of the natural flake graphite using perchloric acid and potassium permanganate at different expansion temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600°C), and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). EG prepared at 500°C was found to be highly effective for the mineralization of oxalic acid aqueous solution during ozonation at pH 3, which was ascribed to the formation of hydroxyl radicals from the surface reaction of surface hydroxyl groups on EG with ozone. The performance of expanded graphite in this catalytic system was basically unchanged after three repeated use. The presence of Cl, , and could inhibit the degradation of oxalic acid in catalytic ozonation with EG. Degradations of oxamic acid and pyruvic acid in catalytic ozonation with EG were pH-dependent, which were lower than that of oxalic acid. The degradations of oxalic acid and oxamic acid were identified as mineralization process by the determination of TOC, while pyruvic acid may transform into organic products such as acetic acid by O/EG. Manganese ion (Mn) could promote the degradation of oxalic acid by O/EG at pH 3 because permanganate was produced by O/EG in oxalic acid solution and then reacted with oxalic acid readily at acidic pH. Catalytic ozonation by EG exhibited great application potential for the destruction of refractory organic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1983024DOI Listing
October 2021

Recent advances in cyclodextrin-based films for food packaging.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 1;370:131026. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Collegeof Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an 625014, China. Electronic address:

Cyclodextrins are garnering increasing attention because they offer several benefits. For instance, cyclodextrins can form several complexes and supramolecular structures not only for food packaging but also for applications in other fields of science. In this review, we discussed the physical and chemical properties of cyclodextrins and the mechanism of their inclusion complex formation. The use of cyclodextrins in various types of food packaging is elaborated upon. We also explain the effects of cyclodextrins on the packaging of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and processed foods. Furthermore, some feasible suggestions for future applications are provided. In addition to the positive attributes of cyclodextrins, there are some limitations and drawbacks, which are discussed briefly in this review. In summary, this review can serve as a guide for researchers exploring cyclodextrins for the development of various packaging films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131026DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of genetic polymorphisms within nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes in rheumatoid arthritis: Evidence for replication and genetic interaction.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Aug 28;100:108089. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical School of Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315211, PR China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315211, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study was performed to replicate the associations of genetic polymorphisms within nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to further examine genetic interactions in a Chinese population.

Methods: A total of eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 594 RA patients and 604 healthy controls.

Results: Genetic association analysis revealed that NFKBIE rs2233434, TNIP1 rs10036748 and BLK rs13277113 were significantly associated with RA, cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-positive RA and rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive RA, and TNFAIP3 rs2230926 was significantly associated with CCP-positive RA. Significant additive interaction was observed between NFKB1 rs28362491 and IKBKE rs12142086 (RERI = 0.76, 95% CI 0.13-1.38; AP = 0.57, 95% CI 0.11-1.03), NFKBIE rs2233434 and BLK rs13277113 (RERI = 1.41, 95% CI 0.88-1.94; AP = 0.85, 95% CI 0.50-1.20), NFKBIL rs2071592 and TNIP1 rs10036748 (RERI = 0.59, 95% CI 0.17-1.02; AP = 0.46, 95% CI 0.05-0.87), UBE2L3 rs5754217 and TNFSF4 rs2205960 (RERI = 0.50, 95% CI 0.16-0.84; AP = 0.57, 95% CI 0.09-1.05). Significant multiplicative interaction was detected between BLK rs13277113 and UBE2L3 rs5754217 (p = 0.02), BLK rs13277113 and TNFSF4 rs2205960 (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Our results lent further support to the role of NF-κB signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of RA from a genetic perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108089DOI Listing
August 2021

Genes associated with grey matter volume reduction in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, School of Medical Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, No. 154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

There is extensive grey matter volume (GMV) reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may account for cognitive impairment in this disabling disorder. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of genes associated with MS, we know little about which genes associated with GMV reduction and cognitive decline in MS. In the present study, we aimed to uncover genes associated with GMV reduction in MS by performing cross-sample (1473 brain tissue samples) partial least squares regression between gene expression from 6 postmortem brains and case-control GMV difference of MS from a meta-analysis of 1391 patients and 1189 controls (discovery phase) and from the intergroup comparison between 69 patients and 70 controls (replication phase). We identified 623 genes whose brain spatial expression profiles were significantly associated with GMV reduction in MS. These genes showed significant enrichment for MS-related genes identified by GWAS; were functionally associated with ion channel, synaptic transmission, axon and neuron projection; and showed more significant cell type-specific expression in neurons than other cell types. More importantly, the identified genes showed significant enrichment for those genes with downregulated rather than upregulated expression in MS. The spatial distribution patterns of the expression of the identified genes showed more significant correlations with brain activation patterns of memory and language tasks. These findings indicate that grey matter atrophy in MS may be resulted from the joint effects of multiple genes that are associated with this disorder, especially genes with downregulated expression in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10777-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization and preliminary safety evaluation of nano-SiO isolated from instant coffee.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 25;224:112694. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA; Department of Healthcare and Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University(,) Yeosu 59626, South Korea. Electronic address:

The physiological and toxicological evaluation of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO) particles in food is important for ensuring food safety. In this study, nano-SiO particles isolated from five brands of instant coffee, were structurally characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential analyses. Their toxicity was assessed by measuring cell viability, membrane integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in model gastrointestinal cells (GES-1 and Caco-2). Additionally, mortality, deformity rate, heart rate and death of whole zebra fish embryos were measured. The five types of nano-SiO samples comprised amorphous particles with a purity of approximately 99%, which met the food additive standard. Considering that the original particle size ranged from 10 to 50 nm, the samples were classified as nano-SiO food additives. Nano-SiO did not significantly impact the activity of GES-1 or Caco-2 cells, and no significant cell membrane damage was observed (Caco-2 cells exhibited mild micro damage); however, a slight increase in intracellular RPS levels was detected. Moreover, nano-SiO was found to cause head deformity, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending. Collectively, the results show that nano-SiO time- and dose-dependently affects GES-1 and Caco-2 cell viability, as well as the mortality, heart rate, and abnormality rate of zebra fish embryos. Specifically, a high concentration (≥ 200 μg/mL) and long exposure time (≥ 48 h) of food additive nano-SiO affected GES-1, Caco-2 cells, and the gastrointestinal tract in zebra fish embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112694DOI Listing
August 2021

Manifestation and Mechanisms of Abnormal Mineralization in Teeth.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P. R. China.

Tooth biomineralization is a dynamic and complicated process influenced by local and systemic factors. Abnormal mineralization in teeth occurs when factors related to physiologic mineralization are altered during tooth formation and after tooth maturation, resulting in microscopic and macroscopic manifestations. The present Review provides timely information on the mechanisms and structural alterations of different forms of pathological tooth mineralization. A comprehensive study of these alterations benefits diagnosis and biomimetic treatment of abnormal mineralization in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00592DOI Listing
August 2021

Recent advances in the fabrication of pH-sensitive indicators films and their application for food quality evaluation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Aug 12:1-17. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, China.

Over a few decades, anthocyanin (ACN)-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems have been widely used to monitor the freshness or spoilage of perishable food products. Most of the perishable food products are highly susceptible to enzymatic/microbial spoilage and produce several volatile or nonvolatile organic acid and nitrogenous compounds. As a result, the natural pH of fresh foods significantly changes. Fabrication of CAN-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems is an advanced technique that monitors the freshness or spoilage of perishable foods based on the display of color variations at varying pH values. This study focuses on the advancement of pH-sensitive indicators and extraction of colorimetric indicators from commercially available natural sources. Moreover, the fabrication techniques and widespread industrial applications of such indicators have also been discussed. In addition, readers will get information about the color-changing and antioxidant mechanisms of ACN-based indicator films in food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1959296DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of ultrasonic treatment and homogenization on physicochemical properties of okara dietary fibers for 3D printing cookies.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Sep 25;77:105693. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China. Electronic address:

This paper presents a means to modify the attributes of okara fiber using ultrasonic and high-speed shearing treatment. The results of scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the modified okara fiber demonstrates small particle size and high thermal stability. When the 500 W-15,000 rpm combination is used for okara-fiber treatment, the latter exhibits excellent swelling (SC) as well as water- and oil-holding capacities. When 6% of modified okara fiber is added to the dough, the resulting cookies demonstrate the best printing performance. Subsequently, the printing parameters can be optimized to obtain the best filling rate of 30%. The corresponding nozzle diameter and printing speed equal 0.8 mm and 50 mm/s, respectively. Finally, the 3D-printed cookies containing okara fiber are compared against those commonly available in the market via sensory evaluation. As observed, the 3D-printed cookies were more acceptable to people. Therefore, the addition of the okara dietary fiber to the cookie dough not only improves the okara utilization rate but also increases the dietary-fiber content in the cookie, thereby alleviating the occurrence of obesity in modern society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348173PMC
September 2021

Development and characterization of aldehyde-sensitive cellulose/chitosan/beeswax colorimetric papers for monitoring kiwifruit maturity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 23;187:566-574. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we developed an in-package colorimetric paper to monitor the ripeness of kiwifruit by detecting the release of aldehydes. Strongly hydrophobic composite films were prepared using chitosan as the matrix and beeswax as an additive. A piece of cellulose paper containing methyl red and bromocresol violet as color indicators was heat-sealed between two hydrophobic films to protect the indicators from the effects of fruit respiration and transpiration. The nucleophilic addition reaction between aldehydes and OH (Cannizzaro reaction) changes the pH in the paper and triggers a color change in the indicators. As the kiwifruit ripens, the colorimetric paper changes from bluish-purple to dark red and then gradually to red. A mobile phone application was further used to measure the RGB values and link them to kiwifruit ripeness. This intelligent paper can be used for the accurate and convenient monitoring of produce in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.132DOI Listing
September 2021

Complete mitochondrial genome of (Bovidae: Antilopinae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 9;6(8):2310-2312. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology, Lhasa, China.

In Qinghai province, (Adlerberg, 1931) is only distributed in Qaidam basin and it is beneficial for the balance of this ecosystem. In this paper, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of firstly, a circularized sequence with 16,435 bp, containing a total of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The sequence is similar to other subspecies of , the phylogenetic tree revealed that and are more closely related to each other. Our research is useful for the taxonomic and evolutionary research of goitered gazelle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1950056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274506PMC
July 2021

Tribological, cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of graphene oxide/carbon fibers/polyetheretherketone composite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy as orthopedic/dental implants.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 10 30;122:104659. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Material Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China. Electronic address:

In this work, graphene oxide/carbon fibers/polyetheretherketone (GO/CF/PEEK) composite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) alloy were fabricated by electrostatic powder spraying method. The coatings with 0.02 wt% GO and 25 wt% CF were made to improve the wear resistance, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of the TC4 as orthopedic/dental implants. The physicochemical properties involving coating thickness, Vickers hardness, micromorphology, phase structures and contact angles were investigated. The results indicated that the GO/CF/PEEK coatings can significantly decrease the coefficient of friction (COF) (from 0.433 ± 0.017 to 0.085 ± 0.008) and enhance the wear resistance of TC4 alloy during the wet friction process in sliding contact with a SiN ball. The results showed that few scratches appeared on the GO/CF/PEEK coating. As the in vitro cytotoxicity test by murine fibroblast L929 cells shown, the GO/CF/PEEK coating revealed good cytocompatibility. More importantly, GO/CF/PEEK coating exhibited excellent suppression toward Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) owing to the antibacterial nature of GO. Therefore, the GO/CF/PEEK composite coated TC4 could be considered as a prospective orthopedic/dental implant material for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104659DOI Listing
October 2021

Analysis of Continuous Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-Associated Infections Based on the Real-Time Monitoring System in 2018 in Shandong in China.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:6693889. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Infection Control, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China.

Background: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a serious threat to the safety of patients worldwide. The prevalence survey is widely used to explore and study the characteristics of HAI. However, the annual continuous prevalence survey of hospital-acquired infections has not been reported so far.

Aim: This study is aimed at examining the occurrence and development trend of HAIs dynamically and accurately.

Methods: An annual continuous HAI prevalence survey based on the real-time monitoring system was conducted in representative hospitals from different regions in Shandong in China. . A total of 64 hospitals participated in the survey, and 2,741,433 patients were monitored in 2018. The highest prevalence of HAIs in Shandong was 3.83% (February 15), the lowest was 1.85% (February 28), and the average was 2.45%. The percentile distribution of prevalence of HAIs in this study was as follows: P10, 2.23%; P25, 2.31%; P50, 2.41%; P75, 2.55%; and P90, 2.73%.

Conclusion: This study dynamically and accurately showed the occurrence and development trend of HAIs in Shandong in 2018. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the HAI prevalence survey in various medical institutions in Shandong and provide the basis for the regional HAI prevention and control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6693889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213461PMC
June 2021

High-dose Chemotherapy Combined with Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Frontline Therapy for Intermediate/High-risk Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Jun 3;41(3):465-473. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Medical Center of Hematology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400037, China.

The role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) following high-dose chemotherapy has been validated and accepted as a standard treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, its clinical efficacy as frontline therapy remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of frontline auto-HSCT for newly diagnosed intermediate/high-risk DLBCL patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 223 patients treated with frontline auto-HSCT or chemotherapy alone (year 2008-2014) from four hospitals. The median follow-up time was 29.4 months. Between the two treatment arms among the intermediate/high-risk DLBCL patients, the 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates of patients given frontline auto-HSCT were 87.6% and 81.9%, respectively, and the chemotherapy-alone group showed 3-year OS and PFS rates of 64.9% and 59.59%, respectively. Compared with the chemotherapy-alone group, the frontline auto-HSCT could eliminate the adverse impact of non-germinal center B-cell (GCB) type. In addition, in the frontline auto-HSCT group, patients who achieved complete response (CR) at auto-HSCT had a longer survival time than those who did not achieve CR. Our results suggested that frontline auto-HSCT could improve the prognosis of intermediate/high-risk DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2394-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Investigation and Analysis of Sharp Injuries among Health Care Workers from 36 Hospitals in Shandong Province, China.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:5698483. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Infection Control, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China.

Background: This study investigated and analyzed the current situation of sharp injuries among health care workers (HCWs) in China's Shandong Province.

Methods: By means of questionnaire survey, the incidence of sharp injuries among HCWs from 36 hospitals in China's Shandong Province in October 2019 was investigated, and the results of this survey were compared with those of October 2012.

Results: A total of 48165 HCWs were investigated. 549 cases of sharp injuries occurred. The incidence of sharp injuries was 1.14%, which was significantly lower than that in October 2012 (9.71%). In the occupational distribution of sharp injuries among HCWs, the proportion of nurses was 58.65%, doctors 23.32%, and interns 12.02%. Among the distribution of sharp injury departments, general wards, operating rooms, intensive care units, disinfection supply centers, and outpatient clinics were the high-incidence sites of occupational exposure among HCWs. The main instruments causing sharp injuries in HCWs were syringes, scalp steel needles, surgical suture needles, vacuum blood collection needles, and glass slides. Drug administration, double-handed loop needle cap, blood extraction, surgical suture needle, and arteriovenous needle extraction were high-risk operations causing sharp instrument injuries in HCWs.

Conclusion: The incidence of sharp injuries among HCWs from 36 hospitals in Shandong Province in October 2019 was significantly lower than that in October 2012. Sharp injuries were a common type of occupational exposure for HCWs. The occurrence of sharp injuries should be effectively reduced by changing wrong habitual behavior and implementing standard protective measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5698483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214496PMC
June 2021

Occult primary white matter impairment in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

Eur J Neurol 2021 09 9;28(9):2871-2881. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology & Tianjin Key Lab of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background And Purpose: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a disease maternally inherited from mitochondria that predominantly impairs the retinal ganglion cells and their axons. To identify whether occult brain white matter (WM) impairment is involved, a voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion metrics was carried out in LHON patients with normal-appearing brain parenchyma.

Methods: Fifty-four symptomatic LHON patients (including 22 acute LHON with vision loss for ≤12 months, and 32 chronic LHON) without any visible brain lesions and 36 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. VBA was applied to quantify the WM microstructural changes of LHON patients. Finally, the associations of the severity of WM impairment with disease duration and ophthalmologic deficits were assessed.

Results: Compared with the HCs, the average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was significantly reduced in patients with chronic LHON, whereas it was increased in patients with acute LHON (p < 0.05, corrected). VBA identified significantly decreased fractional anisotropy widely in WM in both the acute and chronic LHON patients, including the left anterior thalamic radiation and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and bilateral corticospinal tract, dentate nuclei, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major, and optic radiation (OR; p < 0.05, corrected). The integrity of most WM structures (except for the OR) was correlated with neither disease duration nor RNFL thickness (p > 0.05, corrected).

Conclusions: Occult primary impairment of widespread brain WM is present in LHON patients. The coexisting primary and secondary WM impairment may jointly contribute to the pathological process of LHON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14995DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel pathogenic variants in the RECQL4 gene causing Rothmund-Thomson syndrome in three Chinese patients.

J Dermatol 2021 Oct 22;48(10):1511-1517. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Dermatology, Shunyi Maternal and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by poikiloderma, short stature, sparse hair, skeletal abnormalities, and cancer predisposition. Mutations in ANAPC1 or RECQL4 have been identified to underlie RTS. Either Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed for three Chinese RTS patients. Copy number variants were called by the eXome-Hidden Markov Model using read-depth data of NGS, and the putative heterozygous deletion was confirmed by PCR with multiple primers. The breakpoints were identified by Sanger sequencing. All patients presented with characteristic features of poikiloderma, short stature, and sparse hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows. In addition, patient 1 had intellectual disability and speech delay, and patient 2 developed osteosarcoma when she was 13 years old. Biallelic RECQL4 variants were identified in all three patients. Five of the six variants were novel, including c.119-1G>A, c.2886-1G>A, c.2290C>T (p.Gln764*), and c.3552dupG (p.Arg1185Glufs*42), and a gross deletion encompassing exons 6 to 10. Our study expands the genetic and clinical spectrums of RTS. Furthermore, we reported the first heterozygous gross deletion in RECQL4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.16015DOI Listing
October 2021

Determination of elemental distribution and evaluation of elemental concentration in single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using single cell-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Metallomics 2021 06;13(6)

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Single-cell analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SC-ICP-MS) is a method to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of the elemental content and distribution of single cells. Six intrinsic target elements were analyzed in yeast cells at different cell growth phases cultured in medium with different phosphorus concentrations (0, 7, 14 mM) to study its effect on cell growth and composition. SC-ICP-MS results were compared with those obtained by the acid digestion and the average ratio was 0.81. The limits of detection of this method were 0.08, 2.54, 12.5, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.08 fg cell-1 for Mg, P, K, Mn, Cu, and Zn, respectively. During the exponential growth phase, the cells exhibited higher elemental contents, wider distribution for most elements, and larger cell size in comparison to the stationary growth phase. Phosphorus-free conditions reduced the average P content in single cells of stationary growth phase from 650 to 80 fg. Phosphorus deficiency led to decreasing intracellular concentrations not only of P but also of K and Cu, and to increasing Zn concentration after 48 h. Mg maintained its concentration at ∼0.11 fg µm-3 and did not change significantly under the three investigated conditions after 48 h. Accordingly, Mg content was successfully used to estimate the intracellular concentration of other intrinsic elements in single yeast cells. SC-ICP-MS is suited to determine target elements in single yeast cells, and allows the study of heterogeneity of cell composition and effects of stressors on the elemental content, distribution, and concentrations of intrinsic elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mtomcs/mfab032DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of INSR genetic polymorphism on hippocampal volume and episodic memory in chinese type 2 diabetes.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Nov 3;58(11):1471-1480. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Medical imaging and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

Aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of the type 2 diabetes-specific insulin/IGF signaling genetic variants on the hippocampal volume and their relationships with episodic memory in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the genotype-by-diagnosis interaction effect on hippocampal volume in Chinese participants (109 patients with type 2 diabetes, 116 healthy controls). Mediation analysis was performed to test whether the hippocampal volume would mediate the association between genotype and episodic memory in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Results: INSR (rs8101064) exhibited a significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction effect on the bilateral hippocampal volumes (left, P = 0.020; right, P = 0.004, P < 0.05). The T allele carriers exhibited smaller bilateral hippocampal volumes than the CC homozygotes in patients with type 2 diabetes (left, P = 0.004; right, P = 0.002). Mediation analysis revealed the significant mediation effect of the left hippocampal volume on the association between INSR (rs8101064) genetic polymorphism and the short- and long-term memory scores in patients with type 2 diabetes (short-term memory: 95% CI, -2.716, -0.266; long-term memory: 95% CI, -0.823, -0.103).

Conclusions: Hyperglycemia exposure and INSR (rs8101064) genetic polymorphism had an interaction effect on the hippocampal volume, and the T allele of the INSR (rs8101064) may serve as a risk factor for the decreased hippocampal volume in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. The left hippocampal volume mediated the effect of INSR (rs8101064) genetic polymorphism on episodic memory in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, which provided a biological pathway for understanding how the INSR (rs8101064) genetic polymorphism affects episodic memory in type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01750-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Decoding Spatial Memory Retrieval in Cubical Space Using fMRI Signals.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 18;15:624352. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

The way spatial memory retrieval is represented in the brain remains unclear to date. Previous studies have displayed a hippocampus-centered navigation network using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. There have been some studies on the representation of navigation behavior by signal distribution patterns, but only in the hippocampus and adjacent structures. In this study, we aimed to determine (1) the brain regions that represent information in both intensity and distribution patterns during spatial memory retrieval and (2) whether the patterns of neural responses represent spatial memory retrieval behavior performance. Both univariate analysis [general linear model (GLM)] and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) were employed to reveal the spatial distributions of brain responses elicited by spatial memory retrieval. Correlation analyses were performed to detect the correspondences between brain responses and behavior performance. We found that spatial memory retrieval occurred in widespread brain regions, including the bilateral hippocampi, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral superior parietal lobules, bilateral occipital lobes, and cerebellum. The amplitude of activation in the left hippocampus showed a significant negative correlation ( = -0.46, = 0.039) with the number of task completions. Additionally, within-subject classification accuracies based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal patterns of the right middle temporal gyrus (rMTG) rostral areas in the Brainnetome Atlas showed a significant positive correlation ( = 0.78, < 0.0001) with retrieval accuracy. In summary, our findings have implications for understanding the separation between navigational and non-navigational states and emphasizing the utility of MVPA in the whole brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2021.624352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168467PMC
May 2021

Somatic frameshift mutation in PIK3CA causes CLOVES syndrome by provoking PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Hereditas 2021 Jun 1;158(1):18. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis on Dermatoses and National Clinical Research Center for Skin and Immune Diseases, 8 Xishiku St, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: CLOVES syndrome (OMIM# 612918) is a rare overgrowth disorder resulted from mosaic gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CA gene. All the reported CLOVES-associated PIK3CA mutations are missense mutations affecting certain residues. We aim to investigate underlying mutation and its pathogenicity in a patient with CLOVES syndrome and to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors.

Results: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing to detect underlying somatic mutations in the skin lesion of the patient. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to evaluate the mRNA abundance of PIK3CA in the patient's skin lesion. AKT phosphorylation level assessed by immunoblotting of lysates from transiently transfected cells was performed to evaluate the PIK3CA mutations and inhibitory effects of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. A somatic frameshift mutation c.3206_3207insG (p.X1069Trpfs*4) in PIK3CA was identified in the genomic DNA extracted from the vascular malformation sample of the patient. This mutation affects the canonical stop codon of PIK3CA (NM_006218.4) and is predicted to produce a prolonged protein with four additional residues. qRT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of the patient's affected skin tissue were comparable compared to the normal control. In vitro studies revealed that p.X1069Trpfs*4 mutant exhibited increased AKT phosphorylation significantly to that of the wildtype, which could be inhibited by PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors.

Conclusions: We have identified the first frameshift mutation in PIK3CA that causes CLOVES syndrome, which was confirmed to overactive PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by transient transfection assays. We also provided more evidence of ARQ092 to be a potential therapeutic option for PROS in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41065-021-00184-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170820PMC
June 2021

Functional Reorganizations Outside the Sensorimotor Regions Following Complete Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 11 1;54(5):1551-1559. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Studies have shown that loss of sensorimotor function in spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to brain functional reorganization, which may play important roles in motor function recovery. However, the specific functional changes following SCI are still poorly understood.

Purpose: To investigate whether there are functional reorganizations outside the sensorimotor regions after complete thoracolumbar SCI (CTSCI), and how these reorganizations are associated with clinical manifestations.

Study Type: Prospective.

Subjects: Eighteen CTSCI patients (28-67 years of age; 16 men) and 18 age-, gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) (27-64 years of age; 16 men).

Field Strength/sequence: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using echo-planar-imaging (EPI) sequence at 3.0 T.

Assessment: Data preprocessing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF). Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was used to characterize regional neural function, and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) was used to evaluate the functional integration of the brain network.

Statistical Tests: Two-sample t-tests were used for ALFF and FC measures (the data conform to the normal distribution), partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between clinical and imaging indicators, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to search for sensitive imaging indicators.

Results: Compared with HCs, CTSCI patients showed decreased ALFF in right lingual gyrus (LG), increased ALFF in right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and decreased FC between the right LG and Vermis_3 (cluster-level FWE correction with P < 0.05). Subsequent correlation analyses revealed that decreased FC between the right LG and Vermis_3 positively correlated with the visual analog scale (VAS) (P = 0.043, r = 0.443). Finally, the ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of FC value between right LG and Vermis3 was 0.881.

Data Conclusion: These findings suggest a possible theoretical basis of the mechanism of visual-, emotion-, and cognition-related techniques in rehabilitation training for CTSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27764DOI Listing
November 2021

MicroRNAs miR-18a and miR-452 regulate the replication of enterovirus 71 by targeting the gene encoding VP3.

Virus Genes 2021 Aug 17;57(4):318-326. Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial in the process of host-pathogen interaction. In this study, we established a screening system for miRNAs of target genes to detect the effect of miRNAs on Enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. A 3'-untranslated region (UTR) dual-luciferase assay was performed to confirm putative miRNA targets in EV71 genome. Firstly, 13 fragments of EV71 genome were inserted into the vector pMIR, and luciferase activities were analyzed to identify the putative miRNAs of target genes. The expression of the reporter protein was significantly downregulated in cells transfected with the vector containing gene VP3. Then we screened for miRNAs that might target to VP3 through online analysis software. In addition, Western blot, real-time PCR, virus titration, and morphological changes were considered to examine the effects of miRNAs on virus replication. The results suggested that miR-18a and miR-452 repress the reproduction of EV71 virus by binding to VP3. Moreover, EV71 infection also affected the expression of endogenous miR-18a and miR-452. In addition, no significant cytotoxic effects were observed. The results from this study suggest that the intracellular miRNAs may play vital roles in the host-virus interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-021-01842-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Biomaterials from the sea: Future building blocks for biomedical applications.

Bioact Mater 2021 Dec 29;6(12):4255-4285. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710032, PR China.

Marine resources have tremendous potential for developing high-value biomaterials. The last decade has seen an increasing number of biomaterials that originate from marine organisms. This field is rapidly evolving. Marine biomaterials experience several periods of discovery and development ranging from coralline bone graft to polysaccharide-based biomaterials. The latter are represented by chitin and chitosan, marine-derived collagen, and composites of different organisms of marine origin. The diversity of marine natural products, their properties and applications are discussed thoroughly in the present review. These materials are easily available and possess excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and potent bioactive characteristics. Important applications of marine biomaterials include medical applications, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery agents, anticoagulants, rehabilitation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, bone diseases and diabetes, as well as comestible, cosmetic and industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.04.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102716PMC
December 2021

[Mechanism of microRNA-29a regulating steatosis in the human hepatocyte via targeting silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):284-288

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China;National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression of microRNA-29 a(miR-29 a) in the human steatotic hepatocyte model and the mechanism of targeting silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1(Sirt1)to regulate fat deposition of steatotic hepatocyte.

Methods: The nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model was induced by a mixture of oleic acid and palmitic acid. After successful validation model, the expression of miR-29 a and Sirt1 was measured by PCR. The target genes of miR-29 a was predicted in biological system. MiR-29 a mimic and miR-29 a inhibitor were transfected into hepatocytes, and then established the human steatotic hepatocyte model, the result of oil red O staining and triglyceride(TG)lipid content were observed, the expression of Sirt1 mRNA and protein were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.

Results: The steatosis hepatocyte model was successfully established. Compared with control group, the relative expression of miR-29 a and triglyceride increased significantly(P<0. 01), while the relative expression of Sirt1 decreased significantly(P<0. 01) in the model group. Sirt1 was a target gene of miR-29 a. After transfection, the lipid droplet and the deposition of fat increased obviously in miR-29 a mimic group than those in the control group. TG content in miR-29 a mimic group increased significantly(P<0. 05), the expression of miR-29 a increased significantly(P<0. 01), while the expression of Sirt1 mRNA decreased significantly(P<0. 05), and the expression of Sirt1 protein showed a downtrend. On the contrary, after the inhibition of miR-29 a expression, the lipid droplets in miR-29 a inhibitor group were relatively reduced, the fat deposition was alleviated. The TG content was significantly decreased(P<0. 05), the expression of miR-29 a in the cells was effectively inhibited(P<0. 01), while the expression of Sirt1 mRNA was significantly increased(P<0. 05), and Sirt1 protein was on an upward compared with the control group.

Conclusion: The expression of miR-29 a is significantly increased in the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model. Upregulation of miR-29 a negatively regulates the expression of Sirt1, thus promoting fat deposition of steatotic hepatocyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.02.020DOI Listing
March 2021

Rheological and textural properties of acid-induced soybean protein isolate gel in the presence of soybean protein isolate hydrolysates or their glycosylated products.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 30;360:129991. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 46, Xinkang Road, Ya'an 625014, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Enzymatic hydrolysis and glycosylation were successively applied to modify soybean protein isolate (SPI) and rheological and textural properties of acid-induced SPI gel added with the obtained SPI hydrolysates and their glycosylated products were then investigated. The incorporation of SPI hydrolysates decreased the elastic modulus (G') and hardness of SPI gel, which might be related to the random aggregation between SPI hydrolysates and native SPI molecules via hydrophobic interactions. In addition, as the molecular weight of SPI hydrolysates decreased, the reduction in G' and hardness became more significant. Although glycosylation of SPI hydrolysates weakened the adverse effects of hydrolysates on the SPI gel formation to some extent, the glycosylated SPI hydrolysates were still unable to improve the gel quality compared with the control. However, results of this research may provide important information for understanding the influencing mechanism of SPI hydrolysates and their glycosylated products on the formation of SPI gel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129991DOI Listing
October 2021

Chinese consumers' willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay for it.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250112. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Economics and Management, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.

A COVID-19 vaccine is the key to beating the virus, and effective vaccines are going to be available in the near future. It is urgent to estimate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and their value to individuals, in order to develop an effective public vaccination strategy. Based on a survey of 1,188 randomly selected respondents in China, we analyzed Chinese consumers' willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine and their willingness to pay for it. We find that 79.41% of the respondents are willing to get vaccinated in China, and the average amount that they're willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine shot is 130.45 yuan. However, though the elderly are at higher risk of infection and the disease could be fatal for them, they are less willing to get the vaccine and not willing to pay as much for the shot. Subsidies and health communication concerning COVID-19 vaccines should be provided in order to expand vaccination coverage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250112PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096001PMC
May 2021
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