Publications by authors named "Wen Liu"

1,564 Publications

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Increasing the comprehensive economic benefits of farmland with Even-lighting Agrivoltaic Systems.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(7):e0254482. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Agrivoltaic combines crop planting and electricity generation on the same land, it is considered as an opportunity to resolve the competition for land use between food and energy production. In addition to growing crops, farmers can gain electricity with the installation of agrivoltaic systems on their farmland. They can use this clean energy for agricultural production or sell it for extra income. The Chinese government considers it an important strategy for "Targeted Poverty Alleviation". However, current methods of agrivoltaic provide uneven and low irradiance for crops, which usually results in reduced yield and low quality. In this study, an improved agrivoltaic system with a grooved glass plate has been designed, manufactured, and investigated, called Even-lighting Agrivoltaic System (EAS). Two experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of the improvement. We measured the crops' light environment, the crop growth process, the crop yield and quality, the electricity generation, and calculated the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) as well as the comprehensive economic benefits on the farmland per hectare. Under the EAS, crops grew fast and the yield was similar or better than that under the natural state. By adding supplementary LED lamps into the EAS, the soluble sugar content of lettuce increased by 72.14% and the nitrate content of lettuce decreased by 21.51%. The average LER of the EAS for common vegetables was 1.64 as demonstrated in this work. Comprehensive economic benefits outperform the installation and maintenance costs, thus, the EAS can increase farmers' income by an average of 5.14 times. The EAS provides new ideas and directions for the future development of agrivoltaic.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254482PLOS
July 2021

The Immune Subtypes and Landscape of Gastric Cancer and to Predict Based on the Whole-Slide Images Using Deep Learning.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:685992. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of General Practice, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor with different responses to immunotherapy. Identifying immune subtypes and landscape of GC could improve immunotherapeutic strategies.

Methods: Based on the abundance of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we used unsupervised consensus clustering algorithm to identify robust clusters of patients, and assessed their reproducibility in an independent cohort from Gene Expression Omnibus. We further confirmed the feasibility of our immune subtypes in five independent pan-cancer cohorts. Finally, functional enrichment analyses were provided, and a deep learning model studying the pathological images was constructed to identify the immune subtypes.

Results: We identified and validated three reproducible immune subtypes presented with diverse components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, molecular features, and clinical characteristics. An immune-inflamed subtype 3, with better prognosis and the highest immune score, had the highest abundance of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T-activated cells, follicular helper T cells, M1 macrophages, and NK cells among three subtypes. By contrast, an immune-excluded subtype 1, with the worst prognosis and the highest stromal score, demonstrated the highest infiltration of CD4+ T resting cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, while an immune-desert subtype 2, with an intermediate prognosis and the lowest immune score, demonstrated the highest infiltration of M2 macrophages and mast cells, and the lowest infiltration of M1 macrophages. Besides, higher proportion of EVB and MSI of TCGA molecular subtyping, over expression of CTLA4, PD1, PDL1, and TP53, and low expression of JAK1 were observed in immune subtype 3, which consisted with the results from Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. These subtypes may suggest different immunotherapy strategies. Finally, deep learning can predict the immune subtypes well.

Conclusion: This study offers a conceptual frame to better understand the tumor immune microenvironment of GC. Future work is required to estimate its reference value for the design of immune-related studies and immunotherapy selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.685992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273735PMC
June 2021

Dyslipidemia Is Related to Mortality in Critical Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:611526. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: It has been reported that dyslipidemia is related to coronavirus-related diseases. Critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who suffered from multiple organ dysfunctions were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, China. Whether the lipids profile was associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 in critical patients remained unclear.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed in critical patients (N=48) with coronavirus disease 2019 in Leishenshan hospital between February and April 2020 in Wuhan. The parameters including lipid profiles, liver function, and renal function were collected on admission day, 2-3days after the admission, and the day before the achievement of clinical outcome.

Results: Albumin value and creatine kinase (ck) value were statistically decreased at 2-3 days after admission compared with those on admission day (<0.05). Low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), and apolipoprotein A (Apo B) levels were statistically decreased after admission (<0.05). Logistic regression showed that HDL-c level both on admission day and the day before the achievement of clinical outcome were negatively associated with mortality in critical patients with COVID-19. Total cholesterol (TC) level at 2-3days after admission was related to mortality in critical patients with COVID-19.

Conclusions: There were lipid metabolic disorders in the critical patients with COVID-19. Lower levels of HDL-c and TC were related to the progression of critical COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.611526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261125PMC
July 2021

The Relationship Between Food Consumption and Bowel Symptoms Among Patients With Rectal Cancer After Sphincter-Saving Surgery.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:642574. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Nursing, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Dietary self-management is an important strategy for controlling bowel symptoms after sphincter-saving surgery; however, the dietary factors influencing bowel symptoms are not completely clear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the specific consumption of food components and bowel symptoms. This study applied a cross-sectional study design. Using convenience sampling, a total of 169 patients with rectal cancer after sphincter-saving surgery were selected from a tertiary hospital. Data were collected through three questionnaires, including general and treatment-related questionnaires, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) bowel function scale-Chinese version, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the collected data. It was found that the consumption of fruit, cholesterol, and protein and the interaction of cereals and milk products were the main dietary factors affecting bowel symptoms in patients after sphincter-saving surgery. The consumption of protein and fruit was negatively correlated with the symptoms of frequent and urgent defecation, and the consumption of fruit and protein was negatively correlated with general bowel function. The consumption of fruit was negatively correlated with the abnormal feeling of defecation, and the interaction between cereals and milk products was positively correlated with the abnormal feeling of defecation. The results of this study provide evidence for medical staff to further develop scientific dietary education programs to relieve bowel symptoms and promote the quality of life of patients in the future. More research is also needed to explore the mechanisms of the effects of different food components on bowel symptoms in patients after sphincter-saving surgery in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.642574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255470PMC
June 2021

The Mediator subunit MED20 organizes the early adipogenic complex to promote development of adipose tissues and diet-induced obesity.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(1):109314

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Metabolic Remodeling and Disease, Zhongshan Hospital, Institute of Metabolism and Integrative Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Qi Zhi Institute, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

MED20 is a non-essential subunit of the transcriptional coactivator Mediator complex, but its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we identify MED20 as a substrate of the anti-obesity CRL4-WDTC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex through affinity purification and candidate screening. Overexpression of WDTC1 leads to degradation of MED20, whereas depletion of WDTC1 or CUL4A/B causes accumulation of MED20. Depleting MED20 inhibits adipogenesis, and a non-degradable MED20 mutant restores adipogenesis in WDTC1-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, knockout of Med20 in preadipocytes abolishes development of brown adipose tissues. Removing one allele of Med20 in preadipocytes protects mice from diet-induced obesity and reverses weight gain in Cul4a- or Cul4b-depleted mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis reveals that MED20 organizes the early adipogenic complex by bridging C/EBPβ and RNA polymerase II to promote transcription of the central adipogenic factor, PPARγ. Our findings have thus uncovered a critical role of MED20 in promoting adipogenesis, development of adipose tissue and diet-induced obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109314DOI Listing
July 2021

Determination of the Geographical Origin of Coffee Beans Using Terahertz Spectroscopy Combined With Machine Learning Methods.

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:680627. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Different geographical origins can lead to great variance in coffee quality, taste, and commercial value. Hence, controlling the authenticity of the origin of coffee beans is of great importance for producers and consumers worldwide. In this study, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, combined with machine learning methods, was investigated as a fast and non-destructive method to classify the geographic origin of coffee beans, comparing it with the popular machine learning methods, including convolutional neural network (CNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM) to obtain the best model. The curse of dimensionality will cause some classification methods which are struggling to train effective models. Thus, principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic algorithm (GA) were applied for LDA and SVM to create a smaller set of features. The first nine principal components (PCs) with an accumulative contribution rate of 99.9% extracted by PCA and 21 variables selected by GA were the inputs of LDA and SVM models. The results demonstrate that the excellent classification (accuracy was 90% in a prediction set) could be achieved using a CNN method. The results also indicate variable selecting as an important step to create an accurate and robust discrimination model. The performances of LDA and SVM algorithms could be improved with spectral features extracted by PCA and GA. The GA-SVM has achieved 75% accuracy in a prediction set, while the SVM and PCA-SVM have achieved 50 and 65% accuracy, respectively. These results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy, together with machine learning methods, is an effective and satisfactory approach for classifying geographical origins of coffee beans, suggesting the techniques to tap the potential application of deep learning in the authenticity of agricultural products while expanding the application of THz spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.680627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247636PMC
June 2021

Strong Metal-Support Interaction for 2D Materials: Application in Noble Metal/TiB Heterointerfaces and their Enhanced Catalytic Performance for Formic Acid Dehydrogenation.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 3:e2101536. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637459, Singapore.

Strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is a phenomenon commonly observed on heterogeneous catalysts. Here, direct evidence of SMSI between noble metal and 2D TiB supports is reported. The temperature-induced TiB overlayers encapsulate the metal nanoparticles, resulting in core-shell nanostructures that are sintering-resistant with metal loadings as high as 12.0 wt%. The TiO -terminated TiB surfaces are the active sites catalyzing the dehydrogenation of formic acid at room temperature. In contrast to the trade-off between stability and activity in conventional SMSI, TiB -based SMSI promotes catalytic activity and stability simultaneously. By optimizing the thickness and coverage of the overlayer, the Pt/TiB catalyst displays an outstanding hydrogen productivity of 13.8 mmol g h in 10.0 m aqueous solution without any additive or pH adjustment, with >99.9% selectivity toward CO and H . Theoretical studies suggest that the TiB overlayers are stabilized on different transition metals through an interplay between covalent and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the computationally determined trends in metal-TiB interactions are fully consistent with the experimental observations regarding the extent of SMSI on different transition metals. The present research introduces a new means to create thermally stable and catalytically active metal/support interfaces for scalable chemical and energy applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101536DOI Listing
July 2021

Activation of DNA methyltransferase 3a by Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in gastric carcinoma.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Background: Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in all Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells. It interacts with a variety of cellular proteins and activates the transcription of other EBV latency genes, which plays an important role in the persistence of the EBV genome during latent infection.

Aim: Several studies have shown that EBV infection induces the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and causes extensive methylation of the whole genome in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). However, the specific mechanism by which EBV regulates DNMTs expression is still unclear.

Methods And Results: EBNA1 plasmid and siRNA were transfected to evaluate the effect of EBNA1 on DNMT3a expression. Molecular biology experiments were used to detect the biological function of DNMT3a and its effect on EBV latency in gastric carcinoma cells. We showed that EBNA1 upregulated DNMT3a expression through the E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) in EBVaGC. DNMT3a knockdown restrained cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, promoted cell apoptosis and suppressed cell migration in vitro.

Conclusions: Our results showed a new mechanism for EBV to regulate the expression of DNMT3a. Targeting the EBNA1/E2F1/DNMT3a axis may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy in the treatment of EBVaGC with high DNMT3a expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.06.004DOI Listing
June 2021

The Impact of Mental Health Status on Health Consumption of the Elderly in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jun 20;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Convention Management, College of Hotel and Tourism, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Based on the national baseline survey data of the CHARLS2015, the comprehensive evaluation index of depression degree of the elderly in China is calculated using a principal component analysis method. The Tobit model is used to investigate the influence of mental health status with depression degree as a proxy variable on the health consumption of the elderly in China. The results show that the overall effect and the phased effect of depression on the health consumption of the elderly are positive. In other words, high levels of depression lead to a higher probability and amount of health consumption. Research findings show that chronic illness and increased social activity can weaken the effect of depression on the health spending of the elderly. Fully considering the factors affecting the mental health of elderly people is required to improve their level of mental health. Importantly, the quality audit system of health products and the supervision and management system of the health consumption market should be improved to realize the benign operation of the health consumption market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126622DOI Listing
June 2021

Multidrug Resistance Like Protein 1 Activity in Malpighian Tubules Regulates Lipid Homeostasis in .

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Functional Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter) family, are pivotal for transporting endo- and xenobiotics, which confer resistance to anticancer agents and contribute to the clearance of oxidative products. However, their function in many biological processes is still unclear. We investigated the role of an evolutionarily conserved MRP in metabolic homeostasis by knocking down the expression of () in several tissues involved in regulating metabolism, including the gut, fat body, and Malpighian tubules. Interestingly, only suppression of in the Malpighian tubules, the functional equivalent to the human kidney, was sufficient to cause abnormal lipid accumulation and disrupt feeding behavior. Furthermore, reduced Malpighian tubule expression resulted in increased (homolog of human ) expression. is known to play a role in detoxification and lipid metabolism processes. Reduced expression of in the Malpighian tubules also conveyed resistance to oxidative stress, as well as reduced normal levels of reactive oxygen species in adult flies. This study reveals that an evolutionarily conserved MRP is required in Malpighian tubules for proper metabolic homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229909PMC
June 2021

Characterization of a carboxyl methyltransferase in provides insights into the biosynthesis of fusarin A.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Bioorganic and Natural Products Chemistry, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, China. and Huzhou Center of Bio-Synthetic Innovation, 1366 Hongfeng Road, Huzhou 313000, China.

Fusarium graminearum is a major fungal pathogen that causes a series of devastating crop diseases by producing a variety of mycotoxins. Fusarins are a class of polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrids. In Fusarium mycotoxins, a variable 2-pyrrolidone ring conjugates with a polyene chain substituted with a methyl ester moiety. The enzymatic route through which fusarin A, a major member of the fusarin family with a characteristic tetrohydrofuran-coupled pyrrolidone ring, is formed in F. graminearum has not been established. By targeting the final step in the biosynthesis of fusarin A, we report here an S-adenosyl methionine-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase responsible for the formation of the methyl ester moiety by in vivo gene inactivation, isolation and characterization of a key fusarin intermediate, and in vitro biochemical characterization. Related findings provide insights into the poorly understood biosynthetic pathway of fusarin A. Additionally, bioactivity assays demonstrate that the methyl ester is necessary for fusarin cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01010gDOI Listing
July 2021

SNAPIN Regulates Cell Cycle Progression to Promote Pancreatic β Cell Growth.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 14;12:624309. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In diabetes mellitus, death of β cell in the pancreas occurs throughout the development of the disease, with loss of insulin production. The maintenance of β cell number is essential to maintaining normoglycemia. SNAPIN has been found to regulate insulin secretion, but whether it induces β cell proliferation remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the physiological roles of SNAPIN in β cell proliferation. SNAPIN expression increases with the age of mice and SNAPIN is down-regulated in diabetes. KEGG pathway and GO analysis showed that SNAPIN- interacting proteins were enriched in cell cycle regulation. B cell cycle was arrested in the S phase, and cell proliferation was inhibited after SNAPIN knockdown. The expression of CDK2, CDK4 and CCND1 proteins in the S phase of the cell cycle were reduced after SNAPIN knockdown, whereas they were increased after overexpression of SNAPIN. In addition, insulin protein and mRNA levels also increased or decreased after SNAPIN knockdown or overexpression, respectively. Conclusions: Our data indicate that SNAPIN mediates β cells proliferation and insulin secretion, and provide evidences that SNAPIN might be a pharmacotherapeutic target for diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.624309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237857PMC
June 2021

Direct Preparation of *MRE Zeolites with Ultralarge Mesoporosity: Strategy and Working Mechanism.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 30;13(27):31756-31765. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China.

Introduction of mesopore is critical for applications where mass-transport limitations within microporous networks, especially for zeolite with one-dimensional microporous network, hinder their performance. Generally, the creation of mesopore in zeolite through a direct synthesis route is strongly dependent on complex and expensive organic molecules, which limits their commercial application. Here, we successfully developed a facile synthesis route for preparing ZSM-48 zeolite (*MRE topology) with ultralarge mesoporosity in which typical 1,6-hexylenediamine worked as an organic structure-directing agent, innovatively assisted by a simple crystal growth modifier (tetraethylammonium bromide, TEABr). The working mechanism of TEABr during crystallization was revealed and proposed on the basis of TEM, thermal gravimetric mass spectrum, and C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR characterization results. In the process, TEA ions preferentially interacted with the solid during the induction period, which effectively suppressed the aggregation of ZSM-48 primary nanorods. As a result, ultralarge mesoporosity of 0.97 cm·g was constructed through the stacking of the nanorods. Interestingly, TEA ions only took part in the crystallization process and did not occlude in the pores of the final zeolites indicating its potential in recyclability. Moreover, similar synthesis strategy could be applied for the preparation of hierarchical ferrierite zeolites, implying the universality of this strategy. Compared with a conventional sample, ZSM-48 zeolite with ultralarge mesoporosity showed superior catalytic stability in the -xylene isomerization reaction due to its significantly enhanced diffusion and mass transfer capability, which will greatly promote the practical application of ZSM-48 zeolite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09137DOI Listing
July 2021

Detection of the Microvascular Changes of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 06;10(7):31

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, P.R. China.

Purpose: To investigate microvascular parameters that are related to the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: In total, 105 eyes from 105 diabetic patients were recruited in this prospective cross-sectional study, including 37 eyes with no clinical signs of DR (NoDR), 43 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 25 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Angiogram images from the parafoveal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), the deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the radial peripapillary capillary plexus were analyzed, and metrics were compared among groups. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the best OCTA parameters that could distinguish DR severity among groups.

Results: Parafoveal vessel diameter index in the SCP and vessel density (VD) in the DCP showed the strongest correlation with the severity of DR (P < 0.01). Extrafoveal avascular area in the SCP was the parameter that could most distinguish NoDR from NPDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 83.72% and 78.38%, respectively. VD in the DCP also was the most sensitive biomarker to distinguish NPDR from PDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 84.00% and 79.07%, respectively.

Conclusions: The microvascular changes in the SCP and DCP in DR may have different characteristics that could be identified with specific OCTA parameters. OCTA serves as a promising technology to discriminate eyes with different severity of DR.

Translational Relevance: Our study investigated OCTA metrics and severity of DR. At different stages of DR, ophthalmologists may focus on specific OCTA parameters to predict the progression of retinopathy in individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.7.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254014PMC
June 2021

Mixed plantations of and change soil fungal and archaeal communities and enhance soil phosphorus availability in Shanghai, China.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 27;11(12):7239-7249. Epub 2021 May 27.

Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden Shanghai China.

Soil degradation has been found in urban forests in Shanghai, especially in the pure plantations. Mixed plantations are considered to improve soil quality because they can stimulate organic matter cycling and increase soil carbon and nutrient content. Although soil microbes play crucial roles in regulating soil biogeochemical processes, little is known about how mixed plantations affect soil microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, and fungi. Here, we evaluated soil chemical properties, abundances and compositions of soil bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities, and enzyme activities in pure and mixed and plantations, located in Shanghai, China. The results showed that soil available phosphorus content in the mixed plantation of and was significantly higher than that in pure plantations, while no significant difference was observed in the content of soil organic carbon, total and available nitrogen, total and available potassium among the three studied plantations. We found higher fungal abundance in the mixed plantation, when compared to both pure plantations. Moreover, fungal abundance was positively correlated with the content of soil available phosphorus. No significant difference was found in the abundance and diversity of bacterial and archaeal community among the three studied plantations. A similarity analysis (ANOSIM) showed that mixed plantation significantly altered the community composition of archaea and fungi, accompanied with an increase of alkaline phosphatase activity. However, ANOSIM analysis of bacterial communities showed that there was no significant group separation among different plantations. Overall, results from this study indicated that fungal and archaeal communities were more sensitive to aboveground tree species than bacterial community. Moreover, mixed plantations significantly increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the content of soil available phosphorus, suggesting that afforestation with and is an effective way to alleviate phosphorus deficiency in urban forests in Shanghai, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216939PMC
June 2021

DDB1 binds histone reader BRWD3 to activate the transcriptional cascade in adipogenesis and promote onset of obesity.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(12):109281

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Metabolic Remodeling and Disease, Institute of Metabolism and Integrative Biology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and Shanghai Qi Zhi Institute, Shanghai, China; State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Obesity has become a global pandemic. Identification of key factors in adipogenesis helps to tackle obesity and related metabolic diseases. Here, we show that DDB1 binds the histone reader BRWD3 to promote adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Although typically recognized as a component of the CUL4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, DDB1 stimulates adipogenesis independently of CUL4. A DDB1 mutant that does not bind CUL4A or CUL4B fully restores adipogenesis in DDB1-deficient cells. Ddb1 mice show delayed postnatal development of white adipose tissues and are protected from diet-induced obesity. Mechanistically, by interacting with BRWD3, DDB1 is recruited to acetylated histones in the proximal promoters of ELK1 downstream immediate early response genes and facilitates the release of paused RNA polymerase II, thereby activating the transcriptional cascade in adipogenesis. Our findings have uncovered a CUL4-independent function of DDB1 in promoting the transcriptional cascade of adipogenesis, development of adipose tissues, and onset of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109281DOI Listing
June 2021

Layered double hydroxide-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction: identification and tailoring of active sites, and superaerophobic nanoarray electrode assembly.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a critical half-cell reaction for hydrogen production via water electrolysis. However, the practical OER suffers from sluggish kinetics and thus requires efficient electrocatalysts. Transition metal-based layered double hydroxides (LDHs) represent one of the most active classes of OER catalysts. An in-depth understanding of the activity of LDH based electrocatalysts can promote further rational design and active site regulation of high-performance electrocatalysts. In this review, the fundamental understanding of the structural characteristics of LDHs is demonstrated first, then comparisons and in-depth discussions of recent advances in LDHs as highly active OER catalysts in alkaline media are offered, which include both experimental and computational methods. On top of the active site identification and structural characterization of LDHs on an atomic scale, strategies to promote the OER activity are summarised, including doping, intercalation and defect-making. Furthermore, the concept of superaerophobicity, which has a profound impact on the performance of gas evolution electrodes, is explored to enhance LDHs and their derivatives for a large scale OER. In addition, certain operating standards for OER measurements are proposed to avoid inconsistency in evaluating the OER activity of LDHs. Finally, several key challenges in using LDHs as anode materials for large scale water splitting, such as the issue of stability and the adoption of membrane-electrode-assembly based electrolysers, are emphasized to shed light on future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00186hDOI Listing
June 2021

Atomically Dispersed Fe-N Modified with Precisely Located S for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 May 26;12(1):116. Epub 2020 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

Immobilizing metal atoms by multiple nitrogen atoms has triggered exceptional catalytic activity toward many critical electrochemical reactions due to their merits of highly unsaturated coordination and strong metal-substrate interaction. Herein, atomically dispersed Fe-NC material with precise sulfur modification to Fe periphery (termed as Fe-NSC) was synthesized, X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis confirmed the central Fe atom being stabilized in a specific configuration of Fe(N)(N-C-S). By enabling precisely localized S doping, the electronic structure of Fe-N moiety could be mediated, leading to the beneficial adjustment of absorption/desorption properties of reactant/intermediate on Fe center. Density functional theory simulation suggested that more negative charge density would be localized over Fe-N moiety after S doping, allowing weakened binding capability to *OH intermediates and faster charge transfer from Fe center to O species. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the Fe-NSC sample exhibited significantly enhanced oxygen reduction reaction performance compared to the S-free Fe-NC material (termed as Fe-NC), showing an excellent onset potential of 1.09 V and half-wave potential of 0.92 V in 0.1 M KOH. Our work may enlighten relevant studies regarding to accessing improvement on the catalytic performance of atomically dispersed M-NC materials by managing precisely tuned local environments of M-N moiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00456-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770948PMC
May 2020

[Diagnostic Cut-Off Value of RDW for Screening Thalassemia and the Combined Determination of MCV, MCH, HBA and RDW].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):847-852

Department of Prenatal Diagnosis of Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College,Nanchong 637000, Sichuan Province, China,Laboratory of Medical Examination of North Sichuan Medical College,Nanchong 637000, Sichuan Province, China,Translational Medicine Research Center of North Sichuan Medical College,Nanchong 637000, Sichuan Province, China,E-mail:

Objective: To explore the value of red cell distribution width (RDW), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and hemoglobin (Hb) A2 combined determination scheme for screening thalassemia.

Methods: The RDW levels of thalassemia group and healthy control group were detected and compared. The efficiency of RDW for screening thalassemia was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The diagnostic cut-off value of RDW was also acquired by Youden index. Then, 3 groups for thalassemia screening scheme were set, including MCV+MCH+HBA , MCV+MCH+RDW(>16.0)+HBA and MCV+MCH+RDW(>15.15)+HBA . The performances of the 3 groups were evaluated through screening 621 clinical suspected cases of thalassemia.

Results: The RDW level in thalassemia group was significantly higher than that in healthy control group (P<0.05). The diagnostic cut-off value for screening thalassemia was RDW>15.15, when the Youden index was the biggest among all data. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false negative rate and consistency rate of MCV+MCH+RDW(>15.15)+HBA group was 75.46%, 48.83%, 26.50%, 89.06%, 24.54%, and 54.06%, respectively.

Conclusion: The diagnostic cut-off value of RDW for thalassemia screening has been established. The group of MCV(<82.0 fl)+MCH(<27.0 pg)+HBA (<2.5% or ≥3.5%)+RDW(>15.15) has a best efficiency among the 3 groups to screen thalassemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.03.030DOI Listing
June 2021

Repositive RT-PCR test in discharged COVID-19 patients during medical isolation observation.

Int J Med Sci 2021 26;18(12):2545-2550. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan province, China.

The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been researched. However, the prevalence of repositivity by real-time PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. A retrospective study was conducted involving 599 discharged patients with COVID-19 in a single medical centre. The clinical features of patients during their hospitalization and 14-day post-discharge quarantine were collected. A total of 122 patients (20.4%) out of 599 patients retested positive after discharge. Specifically, 94 (15.7%) retested positive within 24 h of discharge, and another 28 patients (4.7%) were repositive on day 7 after discharge, although none showed any clinical symptomatic recurrence. Both repositives and non‑repositives have similar patterns of IgG and IgM. Notably, the length of hospitalization of non-repositive patients was longer than that of 24-h repositive patients and 7-day repositive patients. In addition, the length of hospitalization of 24-h repositive patients was shorter than that of 7-day repositive patients, indicating that the length of hospitalization was also a determinant of viral shedding. Our study provides further information for improving the management of recovered and discharged patients, and further studies should be performed to elucidate the infectiveness of individuals with prolonged or RNA repositivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.58766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176169PMC
June 2021

Oxygen defective titanate nanotubes induced by iron deposition for enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation and acetaminophen degradation: Mechanisms, water chemistry effects, and theoretical calculation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 27;418:126180. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of All Material Fluxes in River Ecosystems, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The large consumption of acetaminophen (APAP) worldwide and unsatisfactory treatment efficiencies by conventional wastewater treatment processes give rise to the seeking of new technology for its effective removal. Herein, we proposed a facile one-step hydrothermal method to synthesize defective iron deposited titanate nanotubes (Fe/TNTs) for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation and APAP degradation. The retarded first-order reaction rate of APAP degradation by Fe/TNTs was 5.1 times higher than that of neat TNTs. Characterizations indicated iron deposition effectively induced oxygen vacancies and Ti, facilitating the electrical conductivity and PMS binding affinity of Fe/TNTs. Besides, oxygen vacancies could act as an electron mediator through PMS activation by iron. Moreover, the formation of Fe-O-Ti bond facilitated the synergistic redox coupling between Fe and Ti, further enhancing the PMS activation. SO was the major radical, causing C-N bond cleavage and decreasing the overall toxicity. In contrast, APAP degradation by neat TNTs-PMS system mainly works through nonradical reaction. The Fe/TNTs activated PMS showed desired APAP removal under mild water chemistry conditions and good reusability. This work is expected to expand the potential application of titanate nanomaterials for PMS activation, and shed light on facile synthesis of oxygen defective materials for sulfate-radical-based advanced oxidation processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126180DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular mechanosensors in osteocytes.

Bone Res 2020 Jun 8;8(1):23. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cell Microenvironment and Disease Research, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Cell Microenvironment, and School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Osteocytes, the most abundant and long-lived cells in bone, are the master regulators of bone remodeling. In addition to their functions in endocrine regulation and calcium and phosphate metabolism, osteocytes are the major responsive cells in force adaptation due to mechanical stimulation. Mechanically induced bone formation and adaptation, disuse-induced bone loss and skeletal fragility are mediated by osteocytes, which sense local mechanical cues and respond to these cues in both direct and indirect ways. The mechanotransduction process in osteocytes is a complex but exquisite regulatory process between cells and their environment, between neighboring cells, and between different functional mechanosensors in individual cells. Over the past two decades, great efforts have focused on finding various mechanosensors in osteocytes that transmit extracellular mechanical signals into osteocytes and regulate responsive gene expression. The osteocyte cytoskeleton, dendritic processes, Integrin-based focal adhesions, connexin-based intercellular junctions, primary cilium, ion channels, and extracellular matrix are the major mechanosensors in osteocytes reported so far with evidence from both in vitro and in vitro studies. This review aims to give a systematic introduction to osteocyte mechanobiology, provide details of osteocyte mechanosensors, and discuss the roles of osteocyte mechanosensitive signaling pathways in the regulation of bone homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-020-0099-yDOI Listing
June 2020

Three week compared to seven week run-in period length and the assessment of pre-randomization adherence: A study within a trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 5;107:106466. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Canada.

Background/aims: To examine how measuring adherence at 3 weeks by self-report and pill counts compares to measurements at 7 weeks in a pre-randomization run-in period.

Methods: Study within a trial of an international parallel group randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compares spironolactone to placebo. Adults receiving dialysis enter an 8-week active run-in period with spironolactone. Adherence was assessed by both self-report and pill counts in a subgroup of participants at both 3 weeks and 7 weeks.

Results: 332 participants entered the run-in period of which 166 had complete data. By self-report, 146/166 (94.0%) and 153/166 (92.2%) had at least 80% adherence at 3 and 7 weeks respectively (kappa = 0.27 (95% C.I. 0.16 to 0.38). By pill counts, the mean (SD) adherence was 96.5% (16.1%) and 92.4% (18.2%) at 3 and 7 weeks respectively (r = 0.32) with a mean (SD) difference of 3.1% (17.8%) and a 95% limit of agreement from -31.7% to +37.9%. The proportion of adherent participants by self-report and pill counts at 3 weeks agreed in 87.4% of participants (McNemar's p-value 0.58, kappa 0.11, p = 0.02) and at 7 weeks agreed in 92.2% (McNemar's p-value 0.82, kappa 0.47, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Three and seven-week run-in periods and both self-reported and pill count assessments performed similarly.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03020303.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106466DOI Listing
June 2021

Dibutyl phthalate disrupts conserved circadian rhythm in Drosophila and human cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 15;783:147038. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Functional Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Institute of Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

People are constantly exposed to phthalates, due to their common use in the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and skin care products. The ability of phthalates to disrupt endocrine signaling, leading to developmental, reproductive and metabolic defects, has been studied, yet how phthalates interfere with these biological functions is still unclear. To uncover DBP interacting molecular pathways, we raised Drosophila melanogaster on food containing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at various concentrations. Whole transcriptome analysis of adult Drosophila reveals that DBP exposure throughout development disrupts the expression of genes central to circadian rhythm regulation, including increased expression of vrille (vri, human NFIL3), timeless (tim, human TIMELESS) and period (per, human PER3), with decreased expression of Pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf). DBP exposure also alters the expression of the evolutionarily conserved nuclear receptor Hormone receptor-like in 38 (Hr38, human NR4A2), which is known to regulate Pdf expression. Furthermore, behavioral assays determined that exposing Drosophila to DBP throughout development modifies the circadian rhythm of adults. Although DBP inhibits the expression of signaling systems regulating vision, including Rh5 and Rh6, two light-sensing G-protein coupled receptors involved in the daily resetting of circadian rhythm, it does not influence eye development. Circadian rhythm genes are well conserved from flies to humans; therefore, we tested the effect of DBP exposure on human breast cells (MCF10A) and demonstrate that, similar to the fruit fly model, this exposure disrupts circadian rhythm (BMAL1 expression) at doses that promote the proliferation and migration ability of MCF10A cells. Our results are the first to provide comprehensive evidence that DBP interferes with circadian rhythm in both adult Drosophila and human cells, which may help to explain the broad physiological action of phthalates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147038DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of three novel pathogenic mutations in sarcomere genes associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy based on multi-omics study.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Sep 1;520:43-52. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, but exhibits heterogeneous clinical features. A major research focus is to identify specific ultrasonic phenotypes, and causal gene mutations, as well as to elucidate the possible metabolic pathogenic effects in familial HCM through multi-omics study.

Methods: Nine members of two familial HCM pedigrees were enrolled in this study. Their clinical data were collected, and the data of multiparameter ultrasound, whole-exome sequencing, and untargeted metabolomics were analyzed.

Results: We identified three novel pathogenic sarcomere gene mutations, TNNT2-rs397516484, MYH6-rs372446459 and MYBPC3-rs786204339 in two familial HCM pedigrees. The proband of Family 1 and his father carried TNNT2-rs397516484 and MYH6-rs372446459 missense mutations, while the proband of Family 2 and her brother carried MYBPC3-rs786204339 frameshift mutation. They presented with heart failure and abnormal electrocardiogram, accompanied by diastolic and systolic dysfunction and impaired myocardial work. They also showed disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, including the citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fructose and mannose metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism.

Conclusions: Novel TNNT2-rs397516484, MYH6-rs372446459, and MYBPC3-rs786204339 are pathogenic sarcomere gene mutations in familial HCM, leading to decreased cardiac function and metabolic disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, which have important implications for biologically defined diagnoses and precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.05.034DOI Listing
September 2021

Aerophilic Co-Embedded N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Arrays as Highly Efficient Cathodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 1;13(23):26853-26860. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Recently, aluminum-air batteries have attracted great interest owing to their high output energy density, low cost, and feasibility to store and transport Al metal. However, the commercial application is still hindered by the lack of a high-performance air cathode, where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) happens, requiring fast charge transfer and mass transport at the catalyst-electrolyte-air interface. Herein, we report an aerophilic air cathode featuring both high intrinsic catalytic activity and large three-phase interface to facilitate air transport, which is prepared by growing cobalt-embedded and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (CoNCNT) arrays on carbon fiber paper and then modifying surface wettability with polytetrafluoroethylene solution. The optimized air electrode during the ORR shows a high onset potential of 0.95 V and fast current increase of 342.96 mA cm V, which is comparable to the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C, and has even better stability under the same conditions. Moreover, the aluminum-air battery with the aerophilic air electrode is superior to the battery with a commercial Pt/C electrode or aerophobic electrode in terms of maximum power density and long discharging durability. Bubble behavior measurement shows that aerobic wettability plays an important role in gas transport, thus controlling ORR efficiency of the air electrode. The concept of the gas-wettable electrode proves to be effective in the enhancement of oxygen reduction kinetics and would be also adapted in other gas-involved electrodes for energy-related applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00837DOI Listing
June 2021

BRD4 inhibition boosts the therapeutic effects of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells in glioblastoma.

Mol Ther 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiang'an South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest brain malignancy without effective treatments. Here, we report that epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells (EGFR CAR-T) are effective in suppressing the growth of GBM cells in vitro and xenografts derived from GBM cell lines and patients in mice. However, mice soon acquire resistance to EGFR CAR-T cell treatment, limiting its potential use in the clinic. To find ways to improve the efficacy of EGFR CAR-T cells, we performed genomics and transcriptomics analysis for GBM cells incubated with EGFR CAR-T cells, and found that a large cohort of genes including immunosuppressive genes as well as enhancers in vicinity are activated. BRD4, an epigenetic modulator functioning on both promoter and enhancer, is required for the activation of these immunosuppressive genes. Accordingly, inhibition of BRD4 by JQ1 blocks the activation of these immunosuppressive genes. Combination therapy with EGFR CAR-T cells and JQ1 suppresses the growth and metastasis of GBM cells, and prolonged survival in mice. We demonstrate that transcriptional modulation by targeting epigenetic regulators could improve the efficacy of immunotherapy including CAR-T, providing a therapeutic avenue for treating GBM in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.05.019DOI Listing
May 2021

LuxS quorum sensing system mediating Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic characteristics.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Lanzhou Inspection and Quarantine Co, Ltd, 730070, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China.

Lactobacillus plantarum is one of common probiotics in fermented foods. Quorum sensing (QS) is a common communication way within bacteria. It is not clear whether the probiotic properties of L. plantarum mediated by QS. Here, Lb. plantarum YM-4-3 was examined for resistance of pH, bile, antimicrobial and luxS gene expression pattern. The study found that: (1) the supernatant of YM-4-3 had bacteriostatic effect to Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus; (2) Lb. plantarum YM-4-3 shown tolerance property to the strongest acid culture that pH value of 3; (3) the bile tolerance of Lb. plantarum YM-4-3 was significant difference with the growth stage, the early exponential phase of the growth culture can tolerate bile of 0.4% (w/v), while the stationary growth stage can only tolerate bile of 0.2%; (4) Lb. plantarum YM-4-3 luxS gene was contrary expression along with the growth. (5) Compared with the wild-type strain, the adhesion ability of Lb. plantarum YM-4-3 ΔluxS was decreased obviously. These results showed that AI-2 LuxS quorum sensing system mediating Lb. plantarum acid, bile tolerance, antimicrobial and adhesion of probiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02404-5DOI Listing
May 2021

OTUD7B Deubiquitinates LSD1 to Govern Its Binding Partner Specificity, Homeostasis, and Breast Cancer Metastasis.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 29:e2004504. Epub 2021 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China.

Genomic amplification of OTUD7B is frequently found across human cancers. But its role in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is known to execute epigenetic regulation by forming corepressor complex with CoREST/histone deacetylases (HDACs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells maintain LSD1/CoREST complex integrity are unknown. Here, it is reported that LSD1 protein undergoes K63-linked polyubiquitination. OTUD7B is responsible for LSD1 deubiquitination at K226/277 residues, resulting in dynamic control of LSD1 binding partner specificity and cellular homeostasis. OTUD7B deficiency increases K63-linked ubiquitination of LSD1, which disrupts LSD1/CoREST complex formation and targets LSD1 for p62-mediated proteolysis. Consequently, OTUD7B deficiency impairs genome-wide LSD1 occupancy and enhances the methylation of H3K4/H3K9, therefore profoundly impacting global gene expression and abrogating breast cancer metastasis. Moreover, physiological fluctuation of OTUD7B modulates cell cycle-dependent LSD1 oscillation, ensuring the G1/S transition. Both OTUD7B and LSD1 proteins are overpresented in high-grade or metastatic human breast cancer, while dysregulation of either protein is associated with poor survival and metastasis. Thus, OTUD7B plays a unique partner-switching role in maintaining the integrity of LSD1/CoREST corepressor complex, LSD1 turnover, and breast cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004504DOI Listing
May 2021

Insights into the Electron-Transfer Mechanism of Permanganate Activation by Graphite for Enhanced Oxidation of Sulfamethoxazole.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 07 28;55(13):9189-9198. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Many reagents as electron sacrificers have been recently investigated to induce decomposition of permanganate (KMnO) to produce highly reactive intermediate Mn species toward oxidation of organic contaminants; however, this strategy meanwhile causes low KMnO utilization efficiency. This study surprisingly found that graphite can mediate direct electron transfer from organics (e.g., sulfamethoxazole (SMX)) to KMnO, resulting in high KMnO utilization efficiency, rather than reductive sites of graphite-induced conversion of KMnO to highly reactive intermediate Mn species. The galvanic oxidation process (GOP) and comparative experiments of different organic contaminants prove that the KMnO/graphite system mainly extracts electrons from organic contaminants via a one-electron pathway instead of a two-electron pathway. More importantly, the KMnO/graphite system has superior reusability, graphite can keep a long-lasting reactivity, and the KMnO utilization efficiency elevates significantly after each cycle of graphite. The transformation of SMX in the KMnO/graphite system mainly includes self-coupling, hydroxylation, oxidation, and hydrolytic reaction. The work will improve insights into the electron-transfer mechanism and unveil the advantages of efficient KMnO utilization in the KMnO-based technologies in environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00020DOI Listing
July 2021