Publications by authors named "Wellington Dos Santos"

27 Publications

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MEWAR: Development of a Cross-Platform Mobile Application and Web Dashboard System for Real-Time Mosquito Surveillance in Northeast Brazil.

Front Public Health 2021 27;9:754072. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Centre for Digital Public Health & Emergencies, Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Mosquito surveillance is a crucial process for understanding the population dynamics of mosquitoes, as well as implementing interventional programs for controlling and preventing the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Environmental surveillance agents who performing routine entomological surveys at properties in areas where mosquito-borne diseases are endemic play a critical role in vector surveillance by searching and destroying mosquito hotspots as well as collate information on locations with increased infestation. Currently, the process of recording information on paper-based forms is time-consuming and painstaking due to manual effort. The introduction of mobile surveillance applications will therefore improve the process of data collection, timely reporting, and field worker performance. Digital-based surveillance is critical in reporting real-time data; indeed, the real-time capture of data with phones could be used for predictive analytical models to predict mosquito population dynamics, enabling early warning detection of hotspots and thus alerting fieldworker agents into immediate action. This paper describes the development of a cross-platform digital system for improving mosquito surveillance in Brazil. It comprises of two components: a dashboard for managers and a mobile application for health agents. The former enables managers to assign properties to health workers who then survey them for mosquitoes and to monitor the progress of inspection visits in real-time. The latter, which is primarily designed as a data collection tool, enables the environmental surveillance agents to act on their assigned tasks of recording the details of the properties at inspections by filling out digital forms built into the mobile application, as well as details relating to mosquito infestation. The system presented in this paper was co-developed with significant input with environmental agents in two Brazilian cities where it is currently being piloted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.754072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8578800PMC
November 2021

Profile of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma mutations in Brazilian patients.

Sci Rep 2021 10 18;11(1):20596. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331, Barretos, São Paulo, 14784 400, Brazil.

Esophageal cancer is an aggressive tumor that has a high rate of incidence and mortality worldwide. It is the 10th most frequent type in Brazil, being squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) the predominant subtype. There is currently an incessant search to identify the frequently altered genes associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma biology that could be druggable. This study aimed to analyze the somatic mutation profile of a large panel of cancer-related genes in Brazilian ESCC. In a series of 46 ESCC diagnoses at Barretos Cancer Hospital, DNA isolated from paired fresh-frozen and blood tissue, a panel of 150 cancer-related genes was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. The genes with the highest frequency of mutations were TP53 (39/46, 84.8%), followed by NOTCH1 (7/46, 15.2%), NFE2L2 (5/46, 10.8%), RB1 (3/46, 6.5%), PTEN (3/46, 6.5%), CDKN2A (3/46, 6.5%), PTCH1 (2/46, 4.3%) and PIK3CA (2/46, 4.3%). There was no significant association between molecular and patients' clinicopathological features. Applying an evolutionary action score of p53 (EAp53), we observed that 14 (35.9%) TP53 mutations were classified as high-risk, yet no association with overall survival was observed. Concluding, this the largest mutation profile of Brazilian ESCC patients, which helps in the elucidation of the major cancer-related genes in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00208-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523676PMC
October 2021

A review exploring the overarching burden of Zika virus with emphasis on epidemiological case studies from Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 8;28(40):55952-55966. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

This paper explores the main factors for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus by focusing on environmental, anthropogenic, and social risks. A literature review was conducted bringing together related information from this genre of research from peer-reviewed publications. It was observed that environmental conditions, especially precipitation, humidity, and temperature, played a role in the transmission. Furthermore, anthropogenic factors including sanitation, urbanization, and environmental pollution promote the transmission by affecting the mosquito density. In addition, socioeconomic factors such as poverty as well as social inequality and low-quality housing have also an impact since these are social factors that limit access to certain facilities or infrastructure which, in turn, promote transmission when absent (e.g., piped water and screened windows). Finally, the paper presents short-, mid-, and long-term preventative solutions together with future perspectives. This is the first review exploring the effects of anthropogenic aspects on Zika transmission with a special emphasis in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15984-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500866PMC
October 2021

Covid-19 rapid test by combining a Random Forest-based web system and blood tests.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Aug 31:1-20. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

The disease caused by the new type of coronavirus, Covid-19, has posed major public health challenges for many countries. With its rapid spread, since the beginning of the outbreak in December 2019, the disease transmitted by SARS-CoV-2 has already caused over 2 million deaths to date. In this work, we propose a web solution, called Heg.IA, to optimize the diagnosis of Covid-19 through the use of artificial intelligence. Our system aims to support decision-making regarding to diagnosis of Covid-19 and to the indication of hospitalization on regular ward, semi-ICU or ICU based on decision a Random Forest architecture with 90 trees. The main idea is that healthcare professionals can insert 41 hematological parameters from common blood tests and arterial gasometry into the system. Then, Heg.IA will provide a diagnostic report. The system reached good results for both Covid-19 diagnosis and to recommend hospitalization. For the first scenario we found average results of accuracy of 92.891%±0.851, kappa index of 0.858 ± 0.017, sensitivity of 0.936 ± 0.011, precision of 0.923 ± 0.011, specificity of 0.921 ± 0.012 and area under ROC of 0.984 ± 0.003. As for the indication of hospitalization, we achieved excellent performance of accuracies above 99% and more than 0.99 for the other metrics in all situations. By using a computationally simple method, based on the classical decision trees, we were able to achieve high diagnosis performance. Heg.IA system may be a way to overcome the testing unavailability in the context of Covid-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1966509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425445PMC
August 2021

Methylation profile of colon cancer genes in colorectal precursor lesions and tumor tissue: perspectives for screening.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 3;56(8):920-928. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Aims: Epigenetic alterations of genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis are likely to be informative biomarkers for early detection. We assessed the methylation profile of a panel of seven colon cancer-related genes comparing normal colon, colorectal cancer (CRC) precursor lesions and cancer tissues from a Brazilian cohort.

Methods: The cohort comprised 114 CRC patients, including 40 matched normal tissue, 47 patients with adenomas, 33 with serrated polyps and 8 with normal colonic biopsy. DNA methylation status of , , , , , and was determined by pyrosequencing and correlated with clinicopathological features. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for all genes using cancer endpoint.

Results: The most frequently methylated genes in cancer and in precancer lesions were , , and , ranging from 55.3 to 95% of the samples. Overall, the frequency of methylation of these four genes in normal colonic tissue was significantly lower as compared to cancer or precursor lesions both in adenoma-carcinoma ( < .001 and  < .050) and serrated (sessile-serrated lesion) ( < .001 and  < .050) pathways. Additionally, sensitivity for the cancer endpoint ranged from 65.6 to 91.8%, and specificity from 17.9 to 62.9% for , , , and genes. Moreover, the comethylation of ≥4 genes was higher in sessile-serrated lesion (87.5%) and conventional adenomas (78.7%) than in hyperplastic polyps (43.7%) ( = .025) and was significantly associated with proximal cancers ( = .042).

Conclusions: Our study suggests the DNA methylation can constitute potential biomarkers in CRC screening of Brazilian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1922744DOI Listing
August 2021

Design, synthesis, studies and evaluation of isatin-pyridine oximes hybrids as novel acetylcholinesterase reactivators.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1370-1377

Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx), Institute of CBRN Defense (IDQBRN), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Organophosphorus poisoning caused by some pesticides and nerve agents is a life-threating condition that must be swiftly addressed to avoid casualties. Despite the availability of medical countermeasures, the clinically available compounds lack a broad spectrum, are not effective towards all organophosphorus toxins, and have poor pharmacokinetics properties to allow them crossing the blood-brain barrier, hampering cholinesterase reactivation at the central nervous system. In this work, we designed and synthesised novel isatin derivatives, linked to a pyridinium 4-oxime moiety by an alkyl chain with improved calculated properties, and tested their reactivation potency against paraoxon- and NEMP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in comparison to the standard antidote pralidoxime. Our results showed that these compounds displayed comparable reactivation also pointed by the studies, suggesting that they are promising compounds to tackle organophosphorus poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2021.1916009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219220PMC
December 2021

Covid-19 diagnosis by combining RT-PCR and pseudo-convolutional machines to characterize virus sequences.

Sci Rep 2021 06 2;11(1):11545. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Escola Politécnica da Universidade de Pernambuco, POLI-UPE, Recife, Brazil.

The Covid-19 pandemic, a disease transmitted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has already caused the infection of more than 120 million people, of which 70 million have been recovered, while 3 million people have died. The high speed of infection has led to the rapid depletion of public health resources in most countries. RT-PCR is Covid-19's reference diagnostic method. In this work we propose a new technique for representing DNA sequences: they are divided into smaller sequences with overlap in a pseudo-convolutional approach and represented by co-occurrence matrices. This technique eliminates multiple sequence alignment. Through the proposed method, it is possible to identify virus sequences from a large database: 347,363 virus DNA sequences from 24 virus families and SARS-CoV-2. When comparing SARS-CoV-2 with virus families with similar symptoms, we obtained [Formula: see text] for sensitivity and [Formula: see text] for specificity with MLP classifier and 30% overlap. When SARS-CoV-2 is compared to other coronaviruses and healthy human DNA sequences, we obtained [Formula: see text] for sensitivity and [Formula: see text] for specificity with MLP and 50% overlap. Therefore, the molecular diagnosis of Covid-19 can be optimized by combining RT-PCR and our pseudo-convolutional method to identify DNA sequences for SARS-CoV-2 with greater specificity and sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90766-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173023PMC
June 2021

Comparison of Dental Carcass Maturity in Non-Castrated Male F1 Angus-Nellore Cattle Finished in Feedlot.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2021 May 1;41(3):554-562. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University (FCAV UNESP), Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil.

Dental classification of carcasses is used as a parameter of cattle maturity at slaughter, and it can influence carcass and meat quality traits. Brazilian beef-packing companies use the number of permanent incisor (PI) teeth as a parameter for bonus and certification of carcasses with superior quality. However, when non-castrated male such as F1 Angus-Nellore (×) are slaughtered, only animals without PI teeth are subsidized by the breed association. We evaluated these animals finished in feedlot for 180 days with zero versus two PI teeth on the carcass and meat quality traits. At the time of slaughter, 88 carcasses were selected, forming two treatments according to dental carcass maturity (0 versus 2 PI teeth; 44 animals per category). It was demonstrated that the number of PI teeth (0 versus 2 PI) did not influence (p>0.05) carcass (weights, yield, cooling loss, ribeye area and the backfat thickness) and meat quality traits ( chemical composition, color, cooking losses, shear force and pH). Thus, dental carcass maturity (zero versus two PI teeth) does not influence non-castrated male F1 Angus-Nellore finished in feedlot for 180 days. This is the first study to demonstrate that carcasses of non-castrated male F1 Angus-Nellore with two PI teeth should be subsidized in a similar way to those with zero PI teeth. Moreover, Brazilian beef-packing companies could produce heavier and leaner carcasses of acceptable quality though the use of crossbred cattle such as non-castrated F1 Angus Nellore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2021.e16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112317PMC
May 2021

Covid-19 Dynamic Monitoring and Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Forecasting.

Front Public Health 2021 8;9:641253. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Informatics, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Periodically, humanity is often faced with new and emerging viruses that can be a significant global threat. It has already been over a century post-the Spanish Flu pandemic, and we are witnessing a new type of coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for Covid-19. It emerged from the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, and within a few months, the virus propagated itself globally now resulting more than 50 million cases with over 1 million deaths. The high infection rates coupled with dynamic population movement demands for tools, especially within a Brazilian context, that will support health managers to develop policies for controlling and combating the new virus. In this work, we propose a tool for real-time spatio-temporal analysis using a machine learning approach. The COVID-SGIS system brings together routinely collected health data on Covid-19 distributed across public health systems in Brazil, as well as taking to under consideration the geographic and time-dependent features of Covid-19 so as to make spatio-temporal predictions. The data are sub-divided by federative unit and municipality. In our case study, we made spatio-temporal predictions of the distribution of cases and deaths in Brazil and in each federative unit. Four regression methods were investigated: linear regression, support vector machines (polynomial kernels and RBF), multilayer perceptrons, and random forests. We use the percentage RMSE and the correlation coefficient as quality metrics. For qualitative evaluation, we made spatio-temporal predictions for the period from 25 to 27 May 2020. Considering qualitatively and quantitatively the case of the State of Pernambuco and Brazil as a whole, linear regression presented the best prediction results (thematic maps with good data distribution, correlation coefficient >0.99 and RMSE (%) <4% for Pernambuco and around 5% for Brazil) with low training time: [0.00; 0.04 ms], CI 95%. Spatio-temporal analysis provided a broader assessment of those in the regions where the accumulated confirmed cases of Covid-19 were concentrated. It was possible to differentiate in the thematic maps the regions with the highest concentration of cases from the regions with low concentration and regions in the transition range. This approach is fundamental to support health managers and epidemiologists to elaborate policies and plans to control the Covid-19 pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.641253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060573PMC
April 2021

Antarctic fungus proteases generate bioactive peptides from caseinate.

Food Res Int 2021 01 4;139:109944. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Federal University of Agreste of Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

The extracellular serine protease produced by Acremonium sp. L1-4B isolated from the Antarctic continent, was purified and used for the proteolysis of bovine and caprine sodium caseinate. Protein hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro to determine their antioxidant and antihypertensive potential, and later characterized by mass spectrometry. Bovine and caprine hydrolysates produced over 24 h showed a higher content of copper chelation (25.8 and 31.2% respectively), also at this time the ABTS scavenging was 65.2% (bovine sample) and 67.5% (caprine sample), and bovine caseinate hydrolysate (8 h) exhibited higher iron chelation capacity (43.1%). Statistically (p < 0.05), caprine caseinate hydrolysates showed relatively higher antioxidant potential in this study. All hydrolysates showed antihypertensive potential; however peptides released from caprine caseinate after 8 h of hydrolysis were able to inhibit 75% of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Nano-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis prospected a total of 23 different peptide sequences in the bovine hydrolysate fraction, originated from the αS1- and β-casein chain, whilst in caprine hydrolysate, 31 sequences were detected, all from β-casein. The low molecular weight bovine and caprine hydrolysates obtained in this research have the potential to act in the prevention of disorders caused by oxidative reactions and in the regulation of blood pressure. These findings support the development of new functional food and nutraceutical formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109944DOI Listing
January 2021

Pyknon-Containing Transcripts Are Downregulated in Colorectal Cancer Tumors, and Loss of Is Associated With Worse Patient Outcome.

Front Genet 2020 12;11:581454. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Pyknons are specific human/primate-specific DNA motifs at least 16 nucleotides long that are repeated in blocks in intergenic and intronic regions of the genome and can be located in a new class of non-coding RNAs of variable length. Recent studies reported that pyknon deregulation could be involved in the carcinogenesis process, including colorectal cancer. We evaluated the expression profile of a set of 12 pyknons in a set of molecularly characterized colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The pyknons (, , , , , , , , , , , and ) expression was determined by qRT-PCR. A pilot analysis of 20 cases was performed, and consistent results were obtained for , , , , and . Further, the expression of the selected pyknons was evaluated in 73 CRC cases. Moreover, in 52 patients, we compared the expression profile in both tumor and normal tissues. All five pyknons analyzed showed significantly lower expression levels in the tumor compared to normal tissue. It was observed an association between expression of with mutations ( = 0.029), to histologic grade ( = 0.035), and to clinical staging ( = 0.016). Moreover, levels of were significantly associated with the patient's poor overall survival ( = 0.04). We reported the significant downregulation of pyknons motifs in tumor tissue compared with the normal counterpart, and the association of lower expression with worse patient outcome. Further studies are needed to extend and validate these findings and determine the clinical-pathological impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.581454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693444PMC
November 2020

COVID-SGIS: A Smart Tool for Dynamic Monitoring and Temporal Forecasting of Covid-19.

Front Public Health 2020 17;8:580815. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Center for Informatics, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

The global burden of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The current spread of Covid-19 in Brazil is problematic causing a huge public health burden to its population and national health-care service. To evaluate strategies for alleviating such problems, it is necessary to forecast the number of cases and deaths in order to aid the stakeholders in the process of making decisions against the disease. We propose a novel system for real-time forecast of the cumulative cases of Covid-19 in Brazil. We developed the novel COVID-SGIS application for the real-time surveillance, forecast and spatial visualization of Covid-19 for Brazil. This system captures routinely reported Covid-19 information from 27 federative units from the Brazil.io database. It utilizes all Covid-19 confirmed case data that have been notified through the National Notification System, from March to May 2020. Time series ARIMA models were integrated for the forecast of cumulative number of Covid-19 cases and deaths. These include 6-days forecasts as graphical outputs for each federative unit in Brazil, separately, with its corresponding 95% CI for statistical significance. In addition, a worst and best scenarios are presented. The following federative units (out of 27) were flagged by our ARIMA models showing statistically significant increasing temporal patterns of Covid-19 cases during the specified day-to-day period: Bahia, Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Amapá, Rondônia, where their day-to-day forecasts were within the 95% CI limits. Equally, the same findings were observed for Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Santa Catarina. The overall percentage error between the forecasted values and the actual values varied between 2.56 and 6.50%. For the days when the forecasts fell outside the forecast interval, the percentage errors in relation to the worst case scenario were below 5%. The proposed method for dynamic forecasting may be used to guide social policies and plan direct interventions in a cost-effective, concise, and robust manner. This novel tools can play an important role for guiding the course of action against the Covid-19 pandemic for Brazil and country neighbors in South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.580815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705350PMC
December 2020

Wooden breast myopathy on broiler breast fillets affects quality and consumer preference.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 18;52(6):3555-3565. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Street Prof. Doctor Walter Mauricio Correa, w/n, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: The emergence of myopathies such as wooden breast in the poultry industry generally associated with the fast development of the breast muscle of broilers has provided changes in the morphological structure of muscle tissues, as well as problems of meat qualitative attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical, chemical, qualitative, and sensorial attributes of broiler fillets associated with severity levels of wooden breast (WB) myopathy in a poultry slaughterhouse.

Materials And Methods: Three hundred fillets in a poultry slaughterhouse were classified into three severity levels: normal (100 samples), moderate (100 samples), and severe (100 samples).

Results: After identification, classification, and description of changes, fillets with a severe WB level presented higher levels of red (a*), yellow (b*), and final pH. The lowest shear force and the highest myofibrillar fragmentation index were observed in fillets with a severe level when compared with normal fillets. The collagen content increased according to severity level. Tasters better evidenced the characteristic taste of chicken meat when tasting fillets with a severe WB level when compared with normal and moderate fillets. The succulence and preference of the Brazilian testers increased according to the severity level of the myopathy.

Conclusion: In general, fillets with moderate and severe WB myopathy were affected not only in appearance but also in qualitative, physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02392-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of genetic variants in clinical outcome of a cohort of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2020 06 19;10(1):9970. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, SP, Brazil.

Tobacco- or human papillomavirus- driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OpSCC) represent distinct clinical, biological and epidemiological entities. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants based on somatic alterations in OpSCC samples from an admixed population, and to test for association with clinical features. The entire coding region of 15 OpSCC driver genes was sequenced by next-generation sequencing in 51 OpSCC FFPE samples. Thirty-five percent of the patients (18/51) were HPV-positive and current or past tobacco consumption was reported in 86.3% (44/51). The mutation profile identified an average of 2.67 variants per sample. Sixty-three percent of patients (32/51; 62.7%) were mutated for at least one of the genes tested and TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene. The presence of mutation in NOTCH1 and PTEN, significantly decreased patient's recurrence-free survival, but only NOTCH1 mutation remained significant after stepwise selection, with a risk of recurrence of 4.5 (HR 95% CI = 1.11-14.57; Cox Regression p = 0.034). These results show that Brazilian OpSCC patients exhibit a similar clinical and genetic profile in comparison to other populations. Molecular characterization is a promising tool for the definition of clinical subgroups, aiding in a more precise tailoring of treatment and prognostication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66741-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305218PMC
June 2020

Morphology, Volume, and Density Characteristics of the Parotid Glands before and after Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients with Head and Neck Tumors.

Int J Dent 2020 26;2020:8176260. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

The multimodal approach for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) includes treatment with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). A common concern regarding CRT side effects is the occurrence of structural and physiological alterations of the salivary glands due to exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to examine the morphology, volume, and density of the parotid glands before and after CRT in HNC patients. A total of 49 HNC patients treated exclusively with CRT were included in the study. Ninety-eight parotid glands were evaluated before and after treatment by using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Shapiro-Wilk test was performed, and the variables (pre-CRT and post-CRT) presented normal distribution. Pearson's coefficient was used to assess the correlation between volume and density. CRT resulted in a significant decrease in the mean volume of the parotid glands (i.e., original volume reduced by 20.5%; < 0.0001). CRT induced a 30.0% (7 Hounsfield units) increase in density of the right parotid gland and a 24.9% (8 Hounsfield units) increase in density of the left parotid gland (=0.0198 and =0.0079, respectively). Changes in morphology and spatial configuration, increased density, and substantial loss of volume of the parotid glands were observed after CRT. There was also a difference in density (=0.003) in the right-side parotid glands in comparison between xerostomic and nonxerostomic groups of patients. These facts lead to the need for a personalized CRT planning in order to minimize oral complications related to the treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8176260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195655PMC
March 2020

Resistance-Trained Individuals Can Underestimate the Intensity of the Resistance Training Session: An Analysis Among Genders, Training Experience, and Exercises.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jan 3. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Laboratory and Research Group on Physiology Applied to Sports Training (FITES), Departament of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Science, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

Dos Santos, WM, Junior, ACT, Braz, TV, Lopes, CR, Brigatto, FA, and Dos Santos, JW. Resistance-trained individuals can underestimate the intensity of the resistance training session: An analysis among genders, training experience, and exercises. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Resistance training (RT) promotes improvements in healthy parameters for young to elderly adults and athlete's performance. Strength and muscle mass improvement are dependent on exercise intensity. This study verifies whether 53 healthy young adults underestimate exercise intensity in 3 different exercises bench press (BP), biceps curl (BC), and leg press 45 (LP). Researchers asked, "How much load do you use to perform 10 repetitions in this exercise usually in workout routines?" in each exercise. Individuals warmed up and then performed as many repetitions as possible until they reached the concentric fail. Deviations from data normality were found by Levene's test; a number of repetition per exercise within gender were test by Friedman test and Connovers' post hoc and Kruskal-Wallis to compare number of repetitions between gender and RT experience. We correlated number of repetition and training experience using Spearman test. The number of repetitions for both groups (male and female) are greater than 8-12 repetitions for BC and LP and female BP, except for men, which perform around 8-12 repetitions on BP. Frequency of maximal repetition reached for 8-12 repetitions for women was 12% for BP, 28% BC, and 28% LP. Men reached repetitions for BP was 46.5%, BC 14.3 and LP 14.3%. Training experience did not influence the number of repetitions reached. Resistance training practitioners underestimate exercise load (56% of total sample) independent of experience. Women underestimate exercise load more than men. Based on the present results, it seems possible to state that the prescription of RT should not be prescribed considering a predefined number of repetitions, as well as a linked percentage of load, without the guidance for frequent adjustments of loads, according to the exercise performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003412DOI Listing
January 2020

In Vitro Evaluation of Neutral Aryloximes as Reactivators for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibited by Paraoxon.

Biomolecules 2019 10 8;9(10). Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Walter Mors Institute of Research on Natural Products (IPPN), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), CCS, Bloco H, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil.

Casualties caused by organophosphorus pesticides are a burden for health systems in developing and poor countries. Such compounds are potent acetylcholinesterase irreversible inhibitors, and share the toxic profile with nerve agents. Pyridinium oximes are the only clinically available antidotes against poisoning by these substances, but their poor penetration into the blood-brain barrier hampers the efficient enzyme reactivation at the central nervous system. In searching for structural factors that may be explored in future SAR studies, we evaluated neutral aryloximes as reactivators for paraoxon-inhibited Electrophorus eel acetylcholinesterase. Our findings may result into lead compounds, useful for development of more active compounds for emergencies and supportive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9100583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843506PMC
October 2019

Microbiota Profile and Impact of in Colorectal Cancer Patients of Barretos Cancer Hospital.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:813. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

Microbial diversity has been pointed out as a major factor in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We sought to explore the richness and abundance of the microbial community of a series of colorectal tumor samples treated at Barretos Cancer Hospital, Brazil, through 16S rRNA sequencing. The presence and the impact of () DNA in CRC prognosis was further evaluated by qPCR in a series of 152 CRC cases. An enrichment for potentially oncogenic bacteria in CRC was observed, with being the most abundant genus in the tumor tissue. In the validation dataset, was detected in 35/152 (23.0%) of fresh-frozen tumor samples and in 6/57 (10.5%) of paired normal adjacent tissue, with higher levels in the tumor ( = 0.0033). DNA in the tumor tissue was significantly associated with proximal tumors ( = 0.001), higher depth of invasion ( = 0.014), higher clinical stages ( = 0.033), poor differentiation ( = 0.011), MSI-positive status ( < 0.0001), BRAF mutated tumors ( < 0.0001), and the loss of expression of mismatch-repair proteins MLH1 ( < 0.0001), MSH2 ( = 0.003), and PMS2 ( < 0.0001). Moreover, the presence of DNA in CRC tissue was also associated with a worse patient cancer-specific survival (69.9 vs. 82.2% in 5 years; = 0.028) and overall survival (63.5 vs. 76.5%; = 0.037). Here we report, for the first time, the association of presence with important clinical and molecular features in a Brazilian cohort of CRC patients. Tumor detection and classification based on the gut microbiome might provide a promising approach to improve the prediction of patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727361PMC
August 2019

Mutation profiling of cancer drivers in Brazilian colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2019 09 23;9(1):13687. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Brazil.

The molecular basis of colorectal cancer (CRC) can guide patient prognosis and therapy. In Brazil, knowledge on the CRC mutation landscape is limited. Here, we investigated the mutation profile of 150 cancer-related genes by next-generation sequencing and associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and genetic ancestry in a series of 91 Brazilian CRC patients. Driver mutations were found in the APC (71.4%), TP53 (56.0%), KRAS (52.7%), PIK3CA (15.4%) and FBXW7 (10.9%) genes. Overall, genes in the MAPK/ERK, PIK3/AKT, NOTCH and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways were mutated in 68.0%, 23.1%, 16.5%, and 15.3% of patients, respectively. MSI was found in 13.3% of tumors, most of which were proximal (52.4%, P< 0.001) and had a high mutation burden. European genetic ancestry was predominant (median of 83.1%), followed by Native American (4.1%), Asian (3.4%) and African (3.2%). NF1 and BRAF mutations were associated with African ancestry, while TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were inversely correlated with Native American ancestry. Our study suggests that Brazilian CRC patients exhibit a mutation profile similar to other populations and identify the most frequently mutated genes, which could be useful in future target therapies and molecular cancer screening strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49611-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757044PMC
September 2019

Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of neutral aryloximes as reactivators of Electrophorus eel acetylcholinesterase inhibited by NEMP, a VX surrogate.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Aug 1;309:108682. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Walter Mors Institute of Research on Natural Products (IPPN), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), CCS, Bloco H, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Brazil. Electronic address:

Casualties caused by nerve agents, potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, have attracted attention from media recently. Poisoning with these chemicals may be fatal if not correctly addressed. Therefore, research on novel antidotes is clearly warranted. Pyridinium oximes are the only clinically available compounds, but poor penetration into the blood-brain barrier hampers efficient enzyme reactivation at the central nervous system. In searching for structural factors that may be explored in SAR studies, we synthesized and evaluated neutral aryloximes as reactivators for acetylcholinesterase inhibited by NEMP, a VX surrogate. Although few tested compounds reached comparable reactivation results with clinical standards, they may be considered as leads for further optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.05.048DOI Listing
August 2019

Image Segmentation Techniques for Healthcare Systems.

J Healthc Eng 2019 2;2019:2723419. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2723419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466904PMC
May 2020

Detection and classification of masses in mammographic images in a multi-kernel approach.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2016 Oct 4;134:11-29. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of Pernambuco, UFPE, Recife, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: According to the World Health Organization, breast cancer is the main cause of cancer death among adult women in the world. Although breast cancer occurs indiscriminately in countries with several degrees of social and economic development, among developing and underdevelopment countries mortality rates are still high due to low availability of early detection technologies. From the clinical point of view, mammography is still the most effective diagnostic technology, given the wide diffusion of the use and interpretation of these images.

Methods: Herein this work we propose a method to detect and classify mammographic lesions using the regions of interest of images. Our proposal consists in decomposing each image using multi-resolution wavelets. Zernike moments are extracted from each wavelet component. Using this approach, we can combine both texture and shape features, which can be applied both to the detection and classification of mammary lesions. We used 355 images of fatty breast tissue of IRMA database, with 233 normal instances (no lesion), 72 benign, and 83 malignant cases.

Results: Classification was performed by using SVM and ELM networks with modified kernels in order to optimize accuracy rates, reaching 94.11%. Considering both accuracy rates and training times, we defined the ration between average percentage accuracy and average training time in a reverse order. Our proposal was 50 times higher than the ratio obtained using state-of-the-art approaches.

Conclusions: As our proposed model can combine high accuracy rate with low learning time, whenever a new data is received, our work will be able to save a lot of time, hours, in learning process in relation to the best method of the state-of-the-art.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.04.029DOI Listing
October 2016

Fuzzy-based simulation of real color blindness.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010 ;2010:6607-10

About 8% of men are affected by color blindness. That population is at a disadvantage since they cannot perceive a substantial amount of the visual information. This work presents two computational tools developed to assist color blind people. The first one tests color blindness and assess its severity. The second tool is based on Fuzzy Logic, and implements a method proposed to simulate real red and green color blindness in order to generate synthetic cases of color vision disturbance in a statistically significant amount. Our purpose is to develop correction tools and obtain a deeper understanding of the accessibility problems faced by people with chromatic visual impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627128DOI Listing
March 2011

MRI segmentation using dialectical optimization.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009 ;2009:5752-5

Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil.

Biology, Psychology and Social Sciences are intrinsically connected to the very roots of the development of algorithms and methods in Computational Intelligence, as it is easily seen in approaches like genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. In this work we propose a new optimization method based on dialectics using fuzzy membership functions to model the influence of interactions between integrating poles in the status of each pole. Poles are the basic units composing dialectical systems. In order to validate our proposal we designed a segmentation method based on the optimization of k-means using dialectics for the segmentation of MR images. As a case study we used 181 MR synthetic multispectral images composed by proton density, T(1)- and T(2)-weighted synthetic brain images of 181 slices with 1 mm, resolution of 1 mm(3), for a normal brain and a noiseless MR tomographic system without field inhomogeneities, amounting a total of 543 images, generated by the simulator BrainWeb [2]. Our principal target here is comparing our proposal to k-means, fuzzy c-means, and Kohonen's self-organized maps, concerning the quantization error, we proved that our method can improved results obtained using k-means.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5332609DOI Listing
April 2010

Evaluation of Alzheimer's disease by analysis of MR images using Objective Dialectical Classifiers as an alternative to ADC maps.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2008 ;2008:5506-9

Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Paraíba, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, yet hard to diagnose precisely without invasive techniques, particularly at the onset of the disease. This work approaches image analysis and classification of synthetic multispectral images composed by diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) cerebral images for the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid area and measuring the advance of Alzheimer's disease. A clinical 1.5 T MR imaging system was used to acquire all images presented. The classification methods are based on Objective Dialectical Classifiers, a new method based on Dialectics as defined in the Philosophy of Praxis. A 2-degree polynomial network with supervised training is used to generate the ground truth image. The classification results are used to improve the usual analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient map.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650461DOI Listing
May 2009

Image segmentation of ovitraps for automatic counting of Aedes Aegypti eggs.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2008 ;2008:3103-6

Department of Computing and Systems, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

The Aedes Aegypti mosquito is the vector of the most difficult public health problems in tropical and semi-tropical world: the epidemic proliferation of dengue, a viral disease that can cause human beings death specially in its most dangerous form, dengue haemorrhagic fever. One of the most useful methods for mosquito detection and surveillance is the ovitraps: special traps to collect eggs of the mosquito. It is very important to count the number of Aedes Aegypti eggs present in ovitraps. This counting is usually performed in a manual, visual and non-automatic form. This work approaches the development of automatic methods to count the number of eggs in ovitraps images using image processing, particularly color segmentation and mathematical morphology-based non-linear filters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4649860DOI Listing
April 2009

Evaluation of Alzheimer's disease by analysis of MR images using multilayer perceptrons and Kohonen SOM classifiers as an alternative to the ADC maps.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2007 ;2007:2118-21

Department of Electronics and Systems, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50.740-530, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, yet hard to diagnose precisely without invasive techniques, particularly at the onset of the disease. This work approaches image analysis and classification of synthetic multispectral images composed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) cerebral images for the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid area and measuring the advance of Alzheimer's disease. A clinical 1.5 T MR imaging system was used to acquire all images presented. The classification methods are based on multilayer perceptrons and Kohonen Self-Organized Map classifiers. We assume the classes of interest can be separated by hyperquadrics. Therefore, a 2-degree polynomial network is used to classify the original image, generating the ground truth image. The classification results are used to improve the usual analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient map.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352740DOI Listing
March 2008
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