Publications by authors named "Weitao Wang"

66 Publications

Accessing and Assessing the Cell-Surface Glycocalyx Using DNA Origami.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 24;21(11):4765-4773. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

The cell-surface glycocalyx serves as a physiological barrier regulating cellular accessibility to macromolecules and other cells. Conventional glycocalyx characterization has largely been morphological rather than functional. Here, we demonstrated direct glycocalyx anchoring of DNA origami nanotiles and performed a comprehensive comparison with traditional origami targeting to the phospholipid bilayer (PLB) using cholesterol. While DNA nanotiles effectively accessed single-stranded DNA initiators anchored on the glycocalyx, their accessibility to the underlying PLB was only permitted by extended nanotile-to-initiator spacing or by enzymatic glycocalyx degradation using trypsin or pathogenic neuraminidase. Thus, the DNA nanotiles, being expelled by the physiologic glycocalyx, provide an effective functional measure of the glycocalyx barrier integrity and faithfully predict cell-to-cell accessibility during DNA-guided multicellular assembly. Lastly, the glycocalyx-anchoring mechanism enabled enhanced cell-surface stability and cellular uptake of nanotiles compared to PLB anchoring. This research lays the foundation for future development of DNA nanodevices to access the cell surface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193633PMC
June 2021

Integrated microenvironment-associated genomic profiles identify LRRC15 mediating recurrent glioblastoma-associated macrophages infiltration.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 7;25(12):5534-5546. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant intracranial tumour with intrinsic infiltrative characteristics, which could lead to most patients eventually relapse. The prognosis of recurrent GBM patients remains unsatisfactory. Cancer cell infiltration and their interaction with the tumour microenvironment (TME) could promote tumour recurrence and treatment resistance. In our study, we aimed to identify potential tumour target correlated with rGBM microenvironment based on the gene expression profiles and clinical information of rGBM patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. LRRC15 gene with prognostic value was screened by univariate and multivariate analysis, and the correlation between macrophages and LRRC15 was identified as well. Furthermore, the prognosis correlation and immune characteristics of LRRC15 were validated using the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database and our clinical tissues by immunochemistry assay. Additionally, we utilized the transwell assay and carboxy fluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) tracking to further confirm the effects of LRRC15 on attracting microglia/macrophages and tumour cell proliferation in the TME. Gene profiles-based rGBM microenvironment identified that LRRC15 could act in collusion with microglia/macrophages in the rGBM microenvironment to promote the poor prognosis, especially in mesenchymal subtype, indicating the strategies of targeting LRRC15 to improve macrophages-based immunosuppressive effects could be promising for rGBM treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184692PMC
June 2021

The effects of overhang placement and multivalency on cell labeling by DNA origami.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 6;13(14):6819-6828. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, USA.

Through targeted binding to the cell membrane, structural DNA nanotechnology has the potential to guide and affix biomolecules such as drugs, growth factors and nanobiosensors to the surfaces of cells. In this study, we investigated the targeted binding efficiency of three distinct DNA origami shapes to cultured endothelial cells via cholesterol anchors. Our results showed that the labeling efficiency is highly dependent on the shape of the origami as well as the number and the location of the binding overhangs. With a uniform surface spacing of binding overhangs, 3D isotropic nanospheres and 1D anisotropic nanorods labeled cells effectively, and the isotropic nanosphere labeling fit well with an independent binding model. Face-decoration and edge-decoration of the anisotropic nanotile were performed to investigate the effects of binding overhang location on cell labeling, and only the edge-decorated nanotiles were successful at labeling cells. Edge proximity studies demonstrated that the labeling efficiency can be modulated in both nanotiles and nanorods by moving the binding overhangs towards the edges and vertices, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that while double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bridge tethers can rescue the labeling efficiency of the face-decorated rectangular plate, this effect is also dependent on the proximity of bridge tethers to the edges or vertices of the nanostructures. A final comparison of all three nanoshapes revealed that the end-labeled nanorod and the nanosphere achieved the highest absolute labeling intensities, but the highest signal-to-noise ratio, calculated as the ratio of overall labeling to initiator-free background labeling, was achieved by the end-labeled nanorod, with the edge-labeled nanotile coming in second place slightly ahead of the nanosphere. The findings from this study can help us further understand the factors that affect membrane attachment using cholesterol anchors, thus providing guidelines for the rational design of future functional DNA nanostructures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr09212fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161690PMC
April 2021

Direct effects of selection on aboveground biomass contrast with indirect structure-mediated effects of complementarity in a subtropical forest.

Oecologia 2021 May 18;196(1):249-261. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Ecology, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Understanding the multiple biotic and abiotic controls of aboveground biomass (AGB) is important for projecting the consequences of global change and to effectively manage carbon storage. Although large-scale studies have identified the major environmental and biological controls of AGB, drivers of local-scale variation are less well known. Additionally, involvement of multiple causal paths and scale dependence in effect sizes potentially confounds comparisons among studies differing in methodology and sampling grain. We tested for scale dependence in evidence supporting selection, complementarity and environmental factors as the main determinants of AGB variation over a 50 ha study extent in subtropical China, modelling this at four sampling grains (0.01, 0.04, 0.25 and 1 ha). At each grain, we used piecewise structural equation models to quantify the direct and indirect effects of environmental (topographic and edaphic properties) and forest attributes (structure, diversity and functional traits) on AGB, while controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Direct scale-invariant effects on AGB were evident for structure and community-mean traits, supporting dominance of selection effects. However, diversity had strong indirect effects on AGB via forest structure, particularly at larger sampling grains (≥ 0.25 ha), while direct effects only emerged at the smallest grain size (0.01 ha). The direct and indirect effects of edaphic and topographic factors were also important for explaining both forest attributes and AGB across all scales. Although selection effects appeared to be more influential on ecosystem function, ignoring indirect causal pathways for diversity via structural attributes risks overlooking the importance of complementarity on ecosystem functioning, particularly as sampling grain increases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-021-04915-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Cu-Catalyzed Coupling with Two Ynone Units by Selective Triple and Sigma C-C and C-H Bond Cleavages.

Org Lett 2021 Mar 11;23(5):1928-1933. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

We report a new copper-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 1] annulation process through the selective cleavage of sigma and triple C-C and C-H bonds using two ynone units. This new methodology involves breaking multiple chemical bonds in a single operation, including C≡C, C-C, C-H, and N-O. These high-value adducts lead to a diverse collection of synthetically challenging trisubstituted indolizines by the simultaneous engagement of different bond-breaking events and show excellent fluorescence in green aqueous solutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00371DOI Listing
March 2021

Facial Protection to Prevent Facial Trauma and Allow for Optimal Protection after Facial Fracture Repair.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Facial Plastics, Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Facial skeletal fractures continue to affect humankind, and many methods to alleviate and prevent the injuries outright have been sought after. Prevention is desired, but the implementation and general compliance may contribute to missed opportunities to decrease the burden of facial skeletal trauma. In this article, we explore the preventative as well as postoperative options for the protection of the facial skeleton.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723006DOI Listing
February 2021

Flap Failure and Salvage in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):314-320. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

With advanced head and neck ablative surgery comes the challenge to find an ideal reconstructive option that will optimize functional and aesthetic outcomes. Contemporary microvascular reconstructive surgery with free tissue transfer has become the standard for complex head and neck reconstruction. With continued refinements in surgical techniques, larger surgical volumes, and technological advancements, free flap success rates have exceeded 95%. Despite these high success rates, postoperative flap loss is a feared complication requiring the surgeon to be aware of potential options for successful salvage. The purpose of this article is to review free flap failure and ways to optimize surgical salvage in the scenario of flap compromise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759432PMC
November 2020

Fistula Management in Head and Neck Cancer.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):299-304. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Fistulas in head and neck cancer patients are a common and challenging issue. Despite their commonality, there is little consensus regarding optimal treatment strategies or in preventative measures that might be taken preoperatively. A general knowledge and understanding of what factors correlate with fistula formation can assist a surgeon in optimizing a patient for surgery, thus decreasing prevalence. In addition, surgical techniques can aid in both the prevention and treatment of fistulas once they form. This review details risk factors for fistula formation, the use of vascularized tissue as a preventative measure, conservative and nonconservative treatment of fistulas, and possible strategies to decrease the likelihood of their formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759424PMC
November 2020

Regional Salvage Flap Options in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):293-298. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Microvascular free tissue transfer is the standard in the complex head and neck reconstruction with success rates greater than 95%. Free tissue transfer allows for more versatility in reconstructing complex defects with better tissue match. Failures, however, do occur and subsequent free tissue transfer might not be an option due to either the patients' health or in a vessel depleted neck. In these challenging salvage scenarios, the head and neck reconstructive surgeon must turn to regional flaps for reconstruction. Here, we review multiple regional flap options for salvage head and neck reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759422PMC
November 2020

Complications in Skull Base Surgery and Subsequent Repair.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):286-292. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Over the past several decades, endoscopic sinus surgery has revolutionized the approach to skull base surgery. Open skull base approaches remain a viable option for advanced skull base tumors. Complications have gone down with increased reliability of vascularized tissue transfer. In this article, the authors explore the various complications that can present following skull base surgery and review the approaches for repair when such issues are encountered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759428PMC
November 2020

Facial Transplantation: Complications, Outcomes, and Long-Term Management Strategies.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):245-253. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Within the past two decades, vascularized facial composite allotransplantation has evolved into a viable option in the reconstructive surgeons' armamentarium for patients with extensive facial disfigurements. As it has expanded the frontiers of microsurgical reconstructive techniques, facial transplantation has come to garner widespread interest within both the medical community and the general public. The procedure has established itself as an amalgamation of the forefronts of reconstructive microsurgery, immunology, and transplantation science. Therein too lies its complexity as multifaceted scientific developments are met with ethical and social issues. Both patients and physicians are faced with the everlasting challenges of immunosuppression regimens and their inherent complications, long-term aesthetic and functional considerations, the role of revision procedures, and the inevitable psychosocial implications. This article reflects on the medical and surgical advancements in facial transplantation surgery and highlights anticipated future challenges. It aims to encourage discussion regarding anticipated barriers to current practice and suggest future directions as we transition into the next phase of facial allograft transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759434PMC
November 2020

Osteoradionecrosis of the Midface and Mandible: Pathogenesis and Management.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 Nov 24;34(4):232-244. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Facial Plastics, Fort Worth, Texas.

Radiation therapy is an important and commonly used treatment modality for head and neck cancers. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a potential debilitating complication of treatment, which most commonly affects the mandible. Management strategies are tailored to the severity of disease. Medical management including oral rinses, irrigations, antibiotics, and pharmacological treatments is viable for mild-to-moderate ORN. More severe disease is best addressed with a combination of medical management and surgical intervention aimed at aggressively removing devitalized tissue until bleeding bone is encountered and reconstructing the soft tissue and bone defect. Reconstruction with either regional vascularized flaps or vascularized osteocutaneous free flaps in case of larger full-thickness bone defects (greater than 6 cm) or anterior mandible (medial to mental foramen) is most appropriate. Maxillary ORN complications can present with a wide range of functional problems and facial disfigurement. Life-threatening and time-sensitive problems should be treated first, such as skull base bone coverage or correction of severe ectropion, to avoid blindness from exposure keratopathy. Then, less time-sensitive issues can be addressed next, such as nasal obstruction, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and chronic tearing. It may require a combination of specialists from different disciplines to address various issues that can arise from maxillary ORN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759426PMC
November 2020

Septal Perforation Repair Using Bilateral Rotational Flaps With Interposed Mastoid Periosteal Graft.

Laryngoscope 2021 07 28;131(7):1497-1500. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: To evaluate the outcomes of endonasal repair of septal perforations utilizing opposing bilateral rotational flaps and a periosteum interposition graft.

Methods: Retrospective review of a single surgeon, tertiary referral center experience of patients who underwent septal perforation repair. Patient demographics, etiology of perforation, closure rate, and complication data were obtained. Patients screening positively for cocaine use or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were not offered repair.

Results: A total of 104 patients were included, 65 male and 39 female with mean age of 45.4 years. Etiology of perforations included prior surgery in 45, trauma in 15, and unknown in 44, and the average perforation size in each etiologic group were 1.35 cm, 1.25 cm, and 1.30 cm, respectively. The greatest dimension of perforations repaired ranged from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. The overall success rate was 87.5% at 6 month follow-up. Successful closure was achieved in 95.6%, 86.7%, and 79.5%, respectively (χ  = 5.264, P = .0218).

Conclusion: Our described technique is a reliable endonasal approach with predictable outcomes in septal perforations up to 1.5 cm in size. Having an unknown etiology of septal perforation may be a risk factor for failure.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:1497-1500, 2021.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29347DOI Listing
July 2021

Palatomaxillary Obturation and Facial Prosthetics in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Dec 24;36(6):715-721. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Rehabilitation of head and neck defects following trauma, oncologic resection, or congenital malformation is a challenging task. Not only is the restoration of three-dimensional form necessary for acceptable cosmesis, but simultaneous restoration of functional speech and swallow is also essential for optimal reconstruction outcomes. While advances in free tissue transfer have allowed surgical reconstruction of head and neck defects once considered inoperable and associated with poor quality of life, not all patients are ideal surgical candidates. As such, nonsurgical solutions to both functional and cosmetic restoration remain a necessary alternative option. Facial prostheses and palatomaxillary obturators have evolved with increasingly biocompatible materials as well as retention systems to address significant defects that challenge the limits of surgical reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721114DOI Listing
December 2020

Customized Orbit and Frontal Bone Implants.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Dec 24;36(6):711-714. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Orbitocranial reconstruction objectives include creation of a solid barrier between intracranial contents and the environment allowing restoration of physiologic homeostasis and restoration of aesthetic craniofacial contours. Historically, bone grafts have been used for reconstruction but were fraught with unpredictable resorption and imperfect contouring given the complex anatomy of the orbitofrontal bones. With advances in three-dimensional modeling technology, alloplastic custom implants in orbital and frontal bone reconstruction have allowed for rapid fixation reducing surgical times and improved cosmesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721109DOI Listing
December 2020

Emerging applications at the interface of DNA nanotechnology and cellular membranes: Perspectives from biology, engineering, and physics.

APL Bioeng 2020 Dec 8;4(4):041507. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

DNA nanotechnology has proven exceptionally apt at probing and manipulating biological environments as it can create nanostructures of almost arbitrary shape that permit countless types of modifications, all while being inherently biocompatible. Emergent areas of particular interest are applications involving cellular membranes, but to fully explore the range of possibilities requires interdisciplinary knowledge of DNA nanotechnology, cell and membrane biology, and biophysics. In this review, we aim for a concise introduction to the intersection of these three fields. After briefly revisiting DNA nanotechnology, as well as the biological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and cellular membranes, we summarize strategies to mediate interactions between membranes and DNA nanostructures, with a focus on programmed delivery onto, into, and through lipid membranes. We also highlight emerging applications, including membrane sculpting, multicell self-assembly, spatial arrangement and organization of ligands and proteins, biomechanical sensing, synthetic DNA nanopores, biological imaging, and biomelecular sensing. Many critical but exciting challenges lie ahead, and we outline what strikes us as promising directions when translating DNA nanostructures for future and membrane applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0027022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725538PMC
December 2020

Treatment of Oligometastatic Disease in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

Laryngoscope 2021 05 12;131(5):E1476-E1480. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objective: No surgical or radiotherapeutic treatment guidelines exist for oligometastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (oHNSCC), and only recently have interventions with curative intent been studied. Herein, we sought to elucidate survival rates among patients with oHNSCC to determine if treatment with curative intent is warranted in this population.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed cases of oHNSCC treated between March 1998 and March 2018. Fisher's exact test was used to compare patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) to those who underwent surgical excision and to compare outcomes of patients with oligometastases at the time of initial presentation to those that developed oligometastatic disease after primary treatment.

Results: Eighty one patients with metastases to the lungs, ribs, pelvis, vertebral column, liver, clavicle, and sternum were included. Overall, 32 patients (40%) were alive 5 years post-treatment. The site of metastasis, the modality of treatment, and the time of development of oligometastatic disease did not significantly affect 5-year survival.

Conclusion: Herein, we demonstrate that multi-modality treatment of oHNSCC is warranted for some patients with an estimated 40% 5-year survival. Aggressive treatment of the primary and regional sites is necessary in addition to treatment of the metastatic site and incurs a survival benefit compared to patients with metastatic HNSCC treated with systemic therapy alone. oHNSCC should be approached separately from polymetastatic disease. Patients should be counseled about the possibility for long-term survival, and aggressive initial treatment with the intention for cure should be considered in this population.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E1476-E1480, 2021.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29115DOI Listing
May 2021

Reconstructive Options During Nonfunctional Laryngectomy.

Laryngoscope 2021 05 10;131(5):E1510-E1513. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objective: A paucity of data exists regarding surgical outcomes for patients undergoing total laryngectomy for a dysfunctional larynx. Herein, we present the largest study evaluating the method of closure on postoperative fistula rate and swallowing ability.

Method: We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing total laryngectomy for a dysfunctional larynx after primary radiation or chemoradiation therapy for laryngeal carcinoma from 1998 to 2020. Demographic information, operative details, length of hospitalization, fistula formation, method of fistula treatment, and need for enteral feeding 6 months after surgery were analyzed.

Results: A total of 268 patients were included. Flaps were performed in 140 (52.2%) patients, including radial forearm free flaps (RFFF), pectoralis flaps, and supraclavicular flaps. Sixty-four (23.9%) patients developed postoperative fistulas. There was no significant difference in the fistula rate between flap and primary closure methods (P = .06). However, among patients who had a flap, RFFF had a significantly lower fistula rate (P = .02). Significantly more patients who had initial closure with a pectoralis flap required an additional flap for fistula repair than those who underwent RFFF or primary closure (P < .05). Last, whereas 87 patients (32.5%) required an enteral feeding tube 6 months after surgery, significantly fewer patients who underwent RFFF were feeding tube-dependent (P = < .0001).

Conclusion: Herein, we present the largest study of outcomes after total laryngectomy for dysfunctional larynx. Postoperative fistula rates are high, 23%; however, the majority of patients, 67%, will not require long-term enteral support. The RFFF is an excellent option demonstrating the lowest rates of postoperative fistula and enteral feeding tube dependence.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E1510-E1513, 2021.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29154DOI Listing
May 2021

High-power and high-energy Nd:YAG-Nd:YVO hybrid gain Raman yellow laser.

Opt Express 2020 Aug;28(16):24088-24094

We present a simple and reliable method to successfully reconcile the average output power and pulse energy of the solid-state Raman yellow lasers. By virtue of the hybrid laser gain of Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO in an intracavity frequency-doubled Raman, much higher pumping is allowed and nearly linear polarized fundamental and Stokes waves can be delivered for efficient non-critical phase matching. 7.6 W of yellow output at 588 nm is obtained under incident pump power of 42.0 W at the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 110 kHz and the pulse energy reaches 0.41 mJ under the same incident pump power at the PRF of 10 kHz.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.400498DOI Listing
August 2020

Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed -C-H Alkylation of Naphthylamines with Diazo Compounds for Synthesis of 2,2-Disubstituted π-Extended 3-Oxindoles in Water.

Org Lett 2020 07 19;22(13):5187-5192. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed -C-H alkylation of naphthylamines with diazo compounds for the synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted π-extended 3-oxindoles has been developed. The method represents the first example of C-H alkylation via carbenoid insertion in water as a sustainable solvent. The procedure includes an inexpensive ruthenium catalyst as well as aqueous media and results in the release of benign N. The π-extended 3-oxindole products exhibit favorable antitumor properties and remarkable fluorescent properties in aqueous solution for fluorescent imaging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01811DOI Listing
July 2020

Indications and Outcomes of Mohs Micrographic Surgery Using a Multidisciplinary Approach: A Decade of Experience.

Dermatol Surg 2021 01;47(1):10-15

Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester, New York, New York.

Background: Traditional approaches of staged outpatient Mohs Micrographic Surgery (MMS) in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) followed by reconstruction is not possible in a subset of patients.

Objective: Assess the indications and outcomes of a multidisciplinary approach MMS.

Methods And Materials: Retrospective, single-surgeon, single Mohs specialist, university-based tertiary care referral practice, including all MMS performed in the operating room setting with concurrent reconstruction in patients from 2008 to 2018 with minimum follow-up of 6 months. Patients with NMSCs who completed multidisciplinary MMS approach were included. Number of Mohs stages, duration of procedure, reconstruction techniques, and complications including flap loss, bleeding, hematoma, wound infections, dehiscence, and local recurrence rates were reviewed.

Results: Three hundred twenty patients were included, 160 male and 160 female with mean ages of 71.6 and 72.1 years, respectively. Indications for a multidisciplinary approach MMS were as follows: neuro/psych 22.5%, extensive anticipated defect size 55%, patient request/convenience 4.4%, medical intolerance 5%, multiple reasons 8.1%, and unknown in 5%. Average stage required to clear margins was 1.57 ± 0.64. Mean operative times by increasing Mohs stages up to 3 including reconstruction were 125.1, 159.3, and 195.5 minutes, respectively (p < .00001).

Conclusion: Indications for a multidisciplinary approach MMS were extensive defects and neuro/psych issues. Advantages include patient tolerance and single-stage procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DSS.0000000000002467DOI Listing
January 2021

Topography and plant community structure contribute to spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration in a subtropical forest.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Sep 11;733:139287. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Ecology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Soil respiration is the largest carbon (C) flux from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. Accurate estimates of the magnitude and distribution of soil respiration are critically important to models of global C cycling and predictions of future climate change. One of the greatest challenges to accurate large-scale estimation of soil respiration is its great spatial heterogeneity at the site level. Our study explored how soil respiration varies in space and the drivers that lead to this variance in a natural subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest in Southern China. We conducted a two-year soil respiration measurement for 168 randomly selected sampling points in a 4 ha plot. We measured the spatial variance of soil respiration and tested its correlation to a variety of abiotic and biotic factors including topography, aboveground plant community structure, soil environmental factors, soil organic matter, and microbial community structure. We found that soil respiration was highly varied across the study plot, with a spatial variation coefficient (CV) of 32.75%. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that elevation influenced tree species diversity, productivity, and soil water content, which in turn affected soil respiration via soil C content, clay content, fungal:bacterial ratio, annual litterfall, and fine root biomass. 31% of the total spatial variation of soil respiration was accounted for in the SEM, mostly by elevation, soil C content, annual litterfall biomass, tree species diversity as estimated by the Simpson's index, and soil water content, with standardized total effects of 0.31, -0.31, 0.29, 0.19, and -0.18, respectively. Our data demonstrated that soil respiration was highly spatially varied at the fine scale, and was primarily regulated by factors of topography and plant community structure. More studies investigating the spatial variation of soil respiration are therefore needed to better understand and assess terrestrial ecosystem C cycling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139287DOI Listing
September 2020

Prosthetic Reconstruction of the Maxilla and Palate.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 May 6;34(2):114-119. Epub 2020 May 6.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Maxillary defects commonly present following surgical resection of oncologic processes. The use of rotational and free flaps has largely replaced the use of prosthetic options for hard palate and maxillary reconstruction, but prostheses remain a useful tool. Prosthetic devices may be invaluable in patients considered poor candidates for surgical reconstruction secondary to poor vascularity, need for postoperative radiation, or medical comorbidities that place them at high risk for healing following reconstruction. Obturators may also be considered over soft tissue options if oncologic surveillance via direct visualization of the surgical site is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202916PMC
May 2020

Osteoradionecrosis of the Maxilla: Conservative Management and Reconstructive Considerations.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 May 6;34(2):106-113. Epub 2020 May 6.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

The implementation of radiotherapy in the multimodal treatment of advanced head and neck cancer has greatly improved survival rates. In some patients, however, this benefit comes at the potential expense of the tissue surrounding the primary site of malignancy. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the facial bones, in particular the maxilla, is a debilitating complication of radiation therapy. Exposure to ionizing radiation results in devitalization of underlying bone with necrosis of adjacent soft tissue. Controversy surrounding appropriate early intervention in ORN persists and no consensus for clinical treatment has been established. In the present article, we review the pathophysiology of maxillary ORN and discuss the role of both conservative medical therapy and reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202910PMC
May 2020

Premaxillary Deficiency: Techniques in Augmentation and Reconstruction.

Semin Plast Surg 2020 May 6;34(2):92-98. Epub 2020 May 6.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Progressive premaxillary retrusion is a common sequela of the facial aging process. In most cases, this manifests with central maxillary recession. Central maxillary insufficiency is also commonly encountered within certain ethnic communities, or in cleft lip nasal deformity, and may represent a challenge for the plastic and reconstructive surgeon attempting correction in the setting of facial contouring, rhinoplasty, or reconstruction following oncologic resection or trauma. Aesthetically, premaxillary retrusion may be coincident with an acute nasolabial angle and ptotic nasal tip. Minor deformities may be addressed with use of either alloplastic implants, autogenous tissue, lipotransfer, or injectable filler. Larger composite defects may require reconstruction with implementation of free tissue transfer. Herein, we describe techniques that aim to augment, or reconstruct, the premaxillary region in the context of nasal deformity, osseous resorption, or composite maxillofacial defects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1709175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202913PMC
May 2020

Experience With "Jaw in a Day" Technique.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):1212-1217

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, TX.

The "Jaw in a Day" (JIAD) technique, first described by Levine and colleagues, establishes immediate functional occlusion through a single-stage maxillomandibular reconstruction with concurrent implant placement and provisional prosthesis delivery. In this study, the authors describe 2 cases exemplifying the reconstructive principles of JIAD. One patient underwent mandibular reconstruction with the JIAD technique and another patient underwent JIAD with an optimized rapid sequence computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for composite maxillomandibular reconstruction. Immediate implant-borne prosthesis was fixated and all implants osseointegrated into the neomandible. Although the authors' patient outcomes are consistent with the literature, the published reports of JIAD remain limited, and further studies are required to assess the long-term functional and aesthetic outcomes as well as cost-effectiveness of this approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006369DOI Listing
January 2021

Fragment Enrichment of Circulating Tumor DNA With Low-Frequency Mutations.

Front Genet 2020 28;11:147. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

School of Computer Science, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou, China.

Human blood contains cell-free DNA (cfDNA), with circulating tumor-derived DNAs (ctDNAs) widely used in cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, it is still difficult to efficiently and accurately identify and distinguish specific ctDNAs from normal cfDNA in cancer patient blood samples. In this study, ctDNA fragment length distribution analysis showed that ctDNA fragments are frequently shorter than the normal cfDNAs, which is consistent with previous findings. Interestingly, the ctDNA fragment length was found to be partially associated with the mutant allele frequency, with a low mutant allele frequency (< ~0.6%) associated with a longer ctDNA fragment length when compared to normal cfDNAs. The findings of this study contribute to improving the detection of low-frequency tumor mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059766PMC
February 2020

The Utility of the Maxillary Heuwieser for Oropharyngeal Foreign Body Removal Under Nebulized Local Anesthesia: A Case Series.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Feb 13:145561320906329. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

We describe a novel and safe use of existing instrumentation in the removal of select foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract to minimize health-care costs. A retrospective review of 4 cases involving visualized upper aerodigestive tract foreign bodies were identified via flexible laryngoscopy and extracted under local anesthesia from 2016 to 2018. All 4 patients were not in any airway distress and underwent successful removal of the foreign body, which included 2 fishbones, a sewing pin, and a wire bristle with a maxillary Heuwieser or giraffe instrument under flexible laryngoscopy visualizing using local anesthesia without complications. No foreign bodies were dislodged. The use of a maxillary Heuwieser and flexible laryngoscopy visualization is safe, allows for removal of otherwise difficult to reach foreign bodies at the bedside, improving patient comfort, obviates the need for general anesthesia to the patient, and minimizes health-care costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320906329DOI Listing
February 2020

Progressive Scalp Thinning Over Mesh Cranioplasty and the Role of Lipotransfer.

Laryngoscope 2020 08 28;130(8):1926-1931. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.

Objectives: To evaluate the role of lipotransfer in progressive scalp thinning following titanium mesh cranioplasty.

Methods: Retrospective review of single surgeon, single tertiary referral experience of all patients who underwent mesh cranioplasty. Patient demographics, prior radiotherapy, frequency and timing of scalp thinning, and treatment course data were obtained.

Results: A total of 144 patients were included, 77 male and 67 female with mean ages 58.2 and 54.8, respectively. One hundred four patients (72%) developed mesh exposure or impending exposure requiring reconstruction. Fifty-six patients (54%) with scalp thinning were treated with lipotransfer, 40 of which were salvaged and the remainder of these patients definitively managed with cranioplasty and reconstruction. Prior radiotherapy was found to be associated with higher rates of mesh exposure (P = .0028), but not predictive of response to lipotransfer.

Conclusion: Lipotransfer is a useful technique in managing moderate scalp thinning following mesh cranioplasty. Mesh exposure or severe thinning require definitive cranioplasty and reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: IV Laryngoscope, 130: 1926-1931, 2020.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28463DOI Listing
August 2020

Medicolegal Aspects of Craniofacial Trauma.

Facial Plast Surg 2019 Dec 29;35(6):657-665. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

Characterization of complications in facial trauma management is of special interest to practitioners of facial trauma surgery. It is important for facial trauma surgeons to not only understand the standard of care, but also the pitfalls that can expose them to litigation. Litigation within the realm of facial trauma surgery often manifests from issues with poor communication, inadequate informed consent processes, and poor surgical management. In this analysis, we comprehensively examine malpractice litigation in facial trauma surgery, and outline important factors for surgeons to consider in the care of this patient population. It is important for facial trauma surgeons to understand medicolegal issues within their scope of practice. These include principles of informed consent, state regulated statutes of limitation, and Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act laws. This analysis emphasizes the importance of exercising appropriate patient care, understanding the indications for surgery, and seeking counsel when necessary.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1700798DOI Listing
December 2019