Publications by authors named "Weiming Wang"

225 Publications

Negative Emotion Arousal and Altruism Promoting of Online Public Stigmatization on COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:652140. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Business Administration and Tourism Management, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 is a public health crisis that has had a profound impact on society. Stigma is a common phenomenon in the prevalence and spread of infectious diseases. In the crisis caused by the pandemic, widespread public stigma has influenced social groups. This study explores the negative emotions arousal effect from online public stigmatization during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on social cooperation. We constructed a model based on the literature and tested it on a sample of 313 participants from the group being stigmatized. The results demonstrate: (1) relevance and stigma perception promote negative emotions, including anxiety, anger, and grief; (2) the arousal of anger and grief leads to a rise in the altruistic tendency within the stigmatized group; and (3) stigmatization-induced negative emotions have a complete mediating effect between perceived relevance and altruistic tendency, as well as perceived stigma and altruistic tendency. For a country and nation, external stigma will promote the group becoming more united and mutual help. One wish to pass the buck but end up helping others unintentionally. We should not simply blame others, including countries, regions, and groups under the outbreak of COVID-19, and everyone should be cautious with the words and actions in the Internet public sphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.652140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187574PMC
May 2021

Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury at high altitude: a retrospective observational study in a single center.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jun 9;22(1):215. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (Pr-AKI) is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. There are few studies focusing on Pr-AKI at high altitude in the literature.

Objectives: to investigate the incidence, etiology, clinical features and maternal-fetal outcomes of Pr-AKI in women living at high altitude.

Methods: 6,512 pregnant women attending the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at local hospital from January 2015 to December 2018 were screened for Pr-AKI. Patients with serum creatinine above normal range(> 70umol/L) then underwent assessment to confirm the diagnosis of Pr-AKI. AKI was diagnosed and staged based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes(KDIGO) guideline. Individuals meeting the Pr-AKI criteria were recruited. Their clinical data were recorded and retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Pr-AKI was identified in 136/6512(2.09 %) patients. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy(HDP) was the leading cause of Pr-AKI(35.3 %). 4(2.9 %) women died and the majority(86.1 %) had recovered renal function before discharge. Fetal outcomes were confirmed in 109 deliveries with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks. Pre-term delivery occurred in 30(27.3 %) cases and perinatal deaths in 17(15.5 %). The rate of low birth weight infant(LBWI) and intrauterine growth restriction(IUGR) was 22.0 and 10.9 % respectively. 16(14.5 %) infants were admitted to NICU after birth. Patients with HDP had a higher cesarean rate(56.3 %). More IUGR(25.0 %) and LBWI(37.8 %) were observed in their infants with a higher risk of admission to NICU(22.0 %). High altitude might have an adverse impact on HDP-related Pr-AKI patients with earlier terminated pregnancy and more stillbirth/neonatal death. Logistic regression models indicated that uncontrolled blood pressure, high altitude and advanced AKI were associated with adverse fetal outcomes in HDP-related Pr-AKI patients.

Conclusions: Pr-AKI was not rare in high-altitude regions and caused severe fetal morbidities and mortalities. Uncontrolled blood pressure, high altitude and advanced AKI were all risk factors for adverse fetal outcomes in Pr-AKI patients, especially for those with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02418-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190839PMC
June 2021

Acute cardiovascular stress induced by shoulder vibratory exercise of different amplitudes.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Vibration exercise has been investigated to enhance muscle activation, however, the effect of different amplitude vibratory exercises on cardiovascular stress is less understood.

Objective: Our study aims to explore the acute effect of shoulder vibratory exercises with different postures and amplitudes on the cardiovascular response in healthy adults.

Methods: Using a repeated measures randomized design, 36 subjects performed three different sessions with FLEXI-BAR exercise (FBE): (1) zero-amplitude, (2) small-amplitude, (3) large-amplitude. Each session included three different shoulder positions: 45-, 90- and 180-degree flexion. Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored continuously, while systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate-pressure product (RPP) were measured before and after each exercise session.

Results: Compared with zero-amplitude, both small- and large-amplitude FBE protocols induced higher SBP. By contrast, DBP decreased with small- and large-amplitude. The RPP immediately after the exercise session were higher than at baseline. For high frequency, low frequency of HRV and HR there was a main effect of amplitude.

Conclusion: Small- and large-amplitude FBE increased significantly SBP, RPE, HRV, HR and induced lower DBP, but the changes were modest, suggesting that FBE impose no extra threats to cardiovascular stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-200044DOI Listing
May 2021

Consolidation Treatment and Long-Term Prognosis of Rituximab in Minimal Change Disease and Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 10;15:1945-1953. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: There is currently a lack of studies investigating long-term prognosis and the necessity of further rituximab (RTX) consolidation treatment for minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RTX for these diseases and to investigate whether a consolidation treatment can lower risks of relapse and reinforce long-term remission.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. The relapse and remission of 70 patients treated with 1 course of RTX treatment (4 infusions of 375 mg/m2) over a median follow-up time of 27 months (12-60 months) were analyzed. The rates of patients that were able to achieve non-relapse for a duration of 24 months between RTX consolidation therapy and non-consolidation therapy were compared.

Results: There were 67 cases (95.71%) of remission and 3 cases (4.29%) of non-remission. The average number of relapses decreased from 3.7±2.5 times before the treatment to 0.8±1.8 times after treatment (P <0.001). The average avannual number of relapses decreased from 1.3±1.2 times/year to 0.2±0.3 times/year (P <0.001). The results from the Cox proportional-hazards model showed that the risk of relapse in patients who received RTX non-consolidation treatment was significantly higher than those with consolidation treatment (odds ratios (OR) 20.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) OR 5.7-75.7, p<0.001). The 24-month relapse-free rate was also significantly higher in patients with consolidation therapy compared with non-consolidation therapy (86.36% vs 25%, p<0.001). No adverse events were recorded.

Conclusion: RTX is highly effective in treating MCD and FSGS, and RTX consolidation therapy may be recommended to reinforce long-term remissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S302257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121273PMC
May 2021

Chemoprotective Effect of Syringic Acid on Cyclophosphamide Induced Ovarian Damage via Inflammatory Pathway.

J Oleo Sci 2021 ;70(5):675-683

Department of Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University.

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is very well-known anticancer drug and commonly used against various cancers. CP therapy is related to female ovarian cancer and causes female infertility. The ovarian cancer associated with the increase oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. Syringic acid (SA) is very well phyto-constituent and already proof antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on various diseases. We investigated the chemoprotective impact of SA on CP mediated ovarian damage, and the underlying mechanism. CP (75 mg/kg) was used to cause ovarian damage and rats were randomly divided into separate groups and received a different dose of SA for 14-day. Body weight, food and water intake were determined. Ovarian weight and tumor index was measured. Antioxidant parameters were determined in the serum and ovarian tissue. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis parameters and inflammatory mediators were estimated in the serum. Hormonal parameters and Histomorphometry were estimated. Dose dependently treatment of SA significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the levels of biochemical parameter such as nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and augmented the antioxidant parameters include catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum and ovarian tissue. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the level of luteinizing hormones (LH), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), estradiol (E2) and folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) as well as ovarian follicles. SA significantly (p < 0.001) down-regulated cytokines, inflammatory mediator and caspase-3 parameters. Taken altogether, we conclude that SA considerably reduced ovarian damage via reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21023DOI Listing
January 2021

Fiber Derived Microbial Metabolites Prevent Acute Kidney Injury Through G-Protein Coupled Receptors and HDAC Inhibition.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:648639. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Kidney Node Laboratory, The Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from gut microbial fermentation of fiber have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties in acute kidney injury (AKI). However the direct mechanistic link between SCFAs, diet and the gut microbiome is yet to be established. Using the murine model of folic-acid nephropathy (FAN), we examined the effect of dietary fiber on development of AKI (day 2) and subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) (day 28). FAN was induced in wild-type and knockout mice lacking G protein-coupled receptors , , or . Mice were randomized to high-fiber or normal-chow diets, or SCFAs in drinking water. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the gut microbiome and H-NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiles. Mice fed high-fiber were partially protected against development of AKI and subsequent CKD, exhibiting better kidney function throughout, less tubular injury at day 2 and less interstitial fibrosis and chronic inflammation at day 28 vs controls. Fiber modified the gut microbiome and alleviated dysbiosis induced by AKI, promoting expansion of SCFA-producing bacteria and , which increased fecal and serum SCFA concentrations. SCFA treatment achieved similar protection, but not in the absence of GPR41 or GPR109A. Histone deacetylase activity (HDAC) was inhibited in kidneys of high-fiber fed mice. We conclude that dietary manipulation of the gut microbiome protects against AKI and subsequent CKD, mediated by HDAC inhibition and activation of GPR41 and GPR109A by SCFAs. This study highlights the potential of the gut microbiome as a modifiable target in the prevention of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.648639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060457PMC
April 2021

Understanding Pixel-level 2D Image Semantics with 3D Keypoint Knowledge Engine.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 13;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Pixel-level 2D object semantic understanding is an important topic in computer vision and could help machine deeply understand objects (e.g. functionality and affordance) in our daily life. However, most previous methods directly train on correspondences in 2D images, which is end-to-end but loses plenty of information in 3D spaces. In this paper, we propose a new method on predicting image corresponding semantics in 3D domain and then projecting them back onto 2D images to achieve pixel-level understanding. In order to obtain reliable 3D semantic labels that are absent in current image datasets, we build a large scale keypoint knowledge engine called KeypointNet, which contains 103,450 keypoints and 8,234 3D models from 16 object categories. Our method leverages the advantages in 3D vision and can explicitly reason about objects self-occlusion and visibility. We show that our method gives comparative and even superior results on standard semantic benchmarks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3072659DOI Listing
April 2021

Screening for Cognitive Impairment After Stroke: Validation of the Chinese Version of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen.

Front Neurol 2021 5;12:608188. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Centre for Gerontology and Rehabilitation, University College Cork, St Finbarr's Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

Screening for post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is necessary because stroke increases the incidence of and accelerates premorbid cognitive decline. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Q) screen is a short, reliable and accurate cognitive screening instrument but is not yet validated in PSCI. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a Chinese version of the Q screen (Q-CN) compared with the widely-used Chinese versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CN) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-CN). We recruited 34 patients who had recovered from a stroke in rehabilitation unit clinics in 2 university hospitals in China: 11 with post-stroke dementia (PSD), 15 with post-stroke cognitive impairment no dementia (PSCIND), and 8 with normal cognition (NC). Classification was made based on clinician assessment supported by a neuropsychological battery, independent of the screening test scores. The Q-CN, MoCA-CN, and MMSE-CN screens were administered randomly by a trained rater, blind to the diagnosis. The mean age of the sample was 63 ± 13 years and 61.8% were male. The Q-CN had statistically similar diagnostic accuracy in differentiating PSD from NC, an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94 compared to 0.99 for the MoCA-CN ( = 0.237) and 0.99 for the MMSE-CN ( = 0.293). The Q-CN (AUC 0.91), MoCA-CN (AUC 0.94), and MMSE-CN (AUC 0.79) also had statistically similar accuracy in separating PSD from PSCIND. The MoCA-CN more accurately distinguished between PSCIND and normal cognition than the Q-CN ( = 0.015). Compared to the MoCA-CN, the administration times of the Q-CN (329s vs. 611s, respectively, < 0.0001) and MMSE-CN (280 vs. 611s, respectively, < 0.0001) were significantly shorter. The Q-CN is accurate in identifying PSD and separating PSD from PSCIND in patients post-stroke following rehabilitation and is comparable to the widely-used MoCA-CN, albeit with a significantly shorter administration time. The Q-CN had relatively poor accuracy in identifying PSCIND from NC and hence may lack accuracy for certain subgroups. However, given the small sample size, the study is under-powered to show superiority of one instrument over another. Further study is needed to confirm these findings in a larger sample size and in other settings (countries and languages).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.608188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982853PMC
March 2021

Acupuncture for HIV-associated distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e25140

Department of Acupuncture, Guang' anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) is one of the most frequent neurological complications of HIV infection, and causes pain and dysaesthesias in millions globally. Many individuals with this infection report using acupuncture to manage their symptoms, but evidence supporting the use of acupuncture is limited. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for patients with HIV-associated DSPN.

Methods: Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of science, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database and clinical trials registers (the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform portal and www.ClinicalTrials.gov) will be electronically searched from inception to December 1, 2020. All randomized controlled trials in English or Chinese without restriction on publication status will be included. Selection of studies, extraction of data, and assessment of studies quality will be independently performed by 2 reviewers. The primary outcome measure will be the change in pain intensity assessed by validated scales. Secondary outcomes include change in neurologic summary scores, quality of life, physical function evaluated by admitted tools, and adverse events related to acupuncture reported in the included trials. If possible, a meta-analysis will be conducted to provide an estimate of the pooled treatment effect using Review Manager 5.3 statistical software. Otherwise, qualitative descriptive analysis will be given. The results will be presented as the risk ratio for binary data and the mean difference (MD) or standardized MD for continuous data.

Results: The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference.

Conclusion: This review will be the first review entirely focused on assessing the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for HIV-associated DSPN.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020210994.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969230PMC
March 2021

Detail-Preserving Shape Unfolding.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Mathematical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Canonical extrinsic representations for non-rigid shapes with different poses are preferable in many computer graphics applications, such as shape correspondence and retrieval. The main reason for this is that they give a pose invariant signature for those jobs, which significantly decreases the difficulty caused by various poses. Existing methods based on multidimentional scaling (MDS) always result in significant geometric distortions. In this paper, we present a novel shape unfolding algorithm, which deforms any given 3D shape into a canonical pose that is invariant to non-rigid transformations. The proposed method can effectively preserve the local structure of a given 3D model with the regularization of local rigid transform energy based on the shape deformation technique, and largely reduce geometric distortion. Our algorithm is quite simple and only needs to solve two linear systems during alternate iteration processes. The computational efficiency of our method can be improved with parallel computation and the robustness is guaranteed with a cascade strategy. Experimental results demonstrate the enhanced efficacy of our algorithm compared with the state-of-the-art methods on 3D shape unfolding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915582PMC
February 2021

Trends in the incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability of facial fracture at global, regional and national levels from 1990 to 2017.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e10693. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Center of Stomatology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Facial fracture is one of the most common injuries globally. Some types of facial fractures may cause irreversible damage and can be life-threatening. This study aimed to investigate the health burden of facial fractures at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2017.

Methods: Facial fracture data, including the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) from 1990 to 2017, were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease study. We calculated the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) to assess the changes of facial fractures in 195 countries or territories and 21 regions.

Results: From 1990 to 2017, the change in cases of facial fracture incidence was 39% globally, while the age-standardized incidence rate showed a downtrend with an EAPC of 0.00. Syria experienced a ten-fold increase in incidence cases with an EAPC of 9.2, and this condition is largely responsible for the global health burden of facial fractures. The prevalence and YLDs showed a similar trend worldwide as the incidence. Additionally, we found that the incidence, prevalence, and YLDs showed a discrepancy among various age groups with a gradual change of proportion over the past 28 years. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of facial fractures were nearly twice for male than those for female from 1990 to 2017.

Conclusions: EAPC showed a correlation with the ASRs of facial fractures and had no relationship with socio-demographic index. The proportion of children and elderly suffering from facial fractures slightly changed with time. The ratio of facial fractures between males and females was 2:1. These findings suggest that more targeted and specific strategies based on age and gender should be established in various countries and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821785PMC
January 2021

Factors associated with psychological distress among patients with breast cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Breast Cancer Department, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430079, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychological distress and the corresponding risk factors among patients with breast cancer affected by the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: This cross-sectional, survey-based, region-stratified study was conducted from March 14 to March 21, 2020. An online survey was used to collect the basic characteristics of patients with breast cancer. The degree of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) questionnaires, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress outcomes.

Results: Among the 834 patients with breast cancer included in the study, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia was 21.6%, 15.5%, and 14.7%, respectively. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence of these symptoms was observed between patients in Wuhan and those outside Wuhan. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that comorbidity, living alone, deterioration of breast cancer, and affected treatment plan were risk factors for psychological distress including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. When stratified by location, living alone was associated with depression and insomnia only among patients in Wuhan, but not those outside Wuhan.

Conclusions: This study shows an elevated prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among patients with breast cancer during part of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with comorbidity, living alone, deterioration of breast cancer, and whose treatment plan was affected should be paid more attention to prevent mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-05994-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849966PMC
February 2021

Dynamics of a stochastic HBV infection model with cell-to-cell transmission and immune response.

Math Biosci Eng 2020 12;18(1):616-642

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300, China.

In this paper, considering the proven role of exosomes and the inevitable randomization within-host, we establish a hepatitis B virus (HBV) model with cell-to-cell transmission and CTL immune response from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE). By introducing the reproduction number $ R_0 $, we prove that $ R_0 $ can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of the SDE HBV model. Under certain assumptions, if $ R_{0}\leq1 $, the solution of the SDE model always fluctuates around the infection-free equilibrium of the deterministic model, which indicates that the HBV will eventually disappear almost surely; if $ R_{0} > 1 $, under extra conditions, the solution of the SDE model fluctuates around endemic equilibrium of the corresponding deterministic model, which leads to the stochastic persistence of the HBV with probability one. One of the most interesting findings is that the fluctuation amplitude is positively related to the intensity of the white noise, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate HBV infection dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021034DOI Listing
December 2020

Increased Lifetime Risk of ESRD in Familial IgA Nephropathy.

Kidney Int Rep 2021 Jan 20;6(1):91-100. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Familial IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been widely reported. However, its clinicohistologic characteristics and long-term prognosis are not clear.

Methods: A total of 348 familial IgAN cases from 167 independent families were recruited and their clinicohistologic characteristics as well as lifetime risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were compared to 1116 sporadic IgAN patients from the same geographic region.

Results: Of all familial IgAN patients, 60 (17%) came from 32 single-generation (SG; all affected individuals are siblings) families, whereas 286 (82%) came from 134 multiple-generation (MG; affected individuals were present in at least 2 consecutive generations) families. The lifetime ESRD risk was significantly higher in familial patients than sporadic ones after adjusting by gender (hazard ratio [HR]=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.74,  = 0.004), with 5 years younger in median ESRD age (60 years vs. 65 years in familial and sporadic cases separately). Interestingly, among familial patients, we found cases from SG families (vs. MG families: HR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.59-4.31,  < 0.001) or with early onset (onset age <30 years) (vs. late onset: HR = 4.79, 95% CI: 3.16-7.26,  < 0.001) had higher lifetime ESRD risk. Furthermore, among sporadic patients, men had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), higher urine protein, higher Oxford T score, and higher risk for life span ESRD compared with women (male vs. female, 25% vs. 17%,  = 0.003) whereas these gender differences were not seen in familial patients.

Conclusion: Familial IgAN cases had poorer renal outcomes and less gender differences compared with sporadic cases. These findings provide evidence that familial disease represent a distinct subtype of more progressive IgAN. Early diagnosis could improve the prognosis of cases with familial IgAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783566PMC
January 2021

Acute Kidney Disease Increases the Risk of Post-Kidney Biopsy Bleeding Complications.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2020 26;45(6):873-882. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China,

Introduction: Kidney biopsy, providing the insightful information for most kidney diseases, is an invasive diagnostic tool with certain risks ranging from the least severe macroscopic hematuria to the most severe life-threatening bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization. We aimed to compare the postbiopsy bleeding complications between 2 common methods and to further explore the risk factors of bleeding complications in patients using the negative pressure suction puncture (NPS) method.

Methods: We retrospectively collected the data from percutaneous native kidney biopsies in 2016. The clinical, laboratory tests, pathological findings, and the occurrence of bleeding complications following kidney biopsy were analyzed. The kidney biopsy was performed in our center by experienced nephrologists with 2 different methods, namely, NPS method and real-time ultrasound-guided needle (RTU) method. We compared rates of complications between 2 methods and evaluated univariate and multivariate association of risk factors with bleeding complications in the NPS group.

Results: 626 kidney biopsies were performed between January 2016 and December 2016. There were 83.2% (521/626) participants in the NPS group and 16.8% (105/626) in the RTU group. There were more participants in the RTU group needing >1 needle pass during biopsy than those in the NPS group (61.0 vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001). Acute kidney disease (AKD) occurred before the procedure of kidney biopsy accounted for 13.8% (72/521) in the NPS group and 1.9% (2/105) in the RTU group. The renal pathological findings revealed higher number of glomeruli in the NPS group than in the RTU group (26.8 ± 13.0 vs. 17.2 ± 8.6, p < 0.001). The incidence of bleeding complications in the NPS group was lower than that in the RTU group (9.2 vs. 21.9%, p < 0.01). Logistic multivariate regression showed that AKD was independently associated with bleeding complications after kidney biopsy in the NPS group.

Conclusion: Regarding the bleeding risk, there was noninferiority of NPS over RTU. AKD contributes to higher risks of bleeding complications after kidney biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509443DOI Listing
May 2021

Early to Mid-Holocene Palaeoenvironment Change and Sedimentary Evolution in the Xianghu Area, Zhejiang.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 28;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Geography and Spatial Information Techniques, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

A 2.5 m long sediment core (XH-2) obtained from Xianghu area, near the Kuahuqiao site, were analyzed for grain size, diatom index, and geochemistry of organic carbon. The results of the total organic carbon (TOC) and stable organic carbon isotope (δC) in sediment samples from core XH-2 in the Xianghu area in Zhejiang Province have revealed the evolution history of sedimentary environmental and climatic changes during the breeding-prosperity-decline period of the Kuahuqiao culture. During 9300-8200 cal a BP, TOC contents were relatively high and stable, whereas δC values tended to be negative. This condition indicated that the climate was humid, and the sedimentary environment in the Xianghu area was stable. During 8200-7500 cal a BP, TOC contents presented a fluctuating declining trend, and δC values were significantly high, implying that the climate was arid, and the Xianghu area was gradually reduced to land. Thus, conducive conditions were provided for the development of the Kuohuqiao culture (7700-7400 cal a BP). From 7500 cal a BP, TOC contents obviously declined, and δC values were partially low, suggesting strengthened hydrodynamic force and wet conditions in the Xianghu area. This condition was related to the rise in sea level at approximately 7400 cal a BP, and the Kuahuqiao site became obsolete due to the transgression event. The TOC contents in core XH-2 were remarkably influenced by grain size, whereas no significant correlation existed between the δC variability and grain size. Sedimentary environment changes in the Xianghu area from 9300 to 6600 cal a BP, which was reflected by the TOC and δC records in core XH-2, accorded with the diatom results in this core and those in the Baima Lake area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579593PMC
September 2020

Efficacy of acupuncture versus sham acupuncture or waitlist control for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis: study protocol for a two-centre randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 09 25;10(9):e036773. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Guang'anmen Hospital, Xicheng District, China

Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is reported to be the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Acupuncture has been used for patients experiencing PF, but evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture on PF is limited. The primary objective of this trial is to compare combined acupuncture and sham acupuncture (SA) versus waitlist control for improving the level of pain experienced by patients suffering from chronic PF.

Methods And Analysis: This will be a two-centre, parallel-group, sham and no-treatment controlled, assessor-blinded randomised trial. We will randomly allocate 120 participants with chronic PF to acupuncture, SA and waitlist control groups at a ratio of 2:1:1. Participants in the acupuncture and SA groups will receive a 30 min acupuncture or SA treatment for a total of 12 sessions over 4 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up. Participants in the waitlist control group will not undergo treatment for a period of 16 weeks but instead will have the option of 4 weeks (12 sessions) of acupuncture free of charge at the end of the follow-up period. The primary outcome will be the treatment response rate 4 weeks after randomisation, assessed as a minimum of 50% improvement in the worst pain intensity during the first steps in the morning compared with the baseline. All analyses will be performed with a two-sided p value of <0.05 considered significant following the intention-to-treat principle.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study has been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (approval no. 2019-210-KY). The results will be disseminated through presentation at a peer-reviewed medical journal, the relevant conferences and scientific meetings.

Trial Registration: NCT04185259.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520861PMC
September 2020

Modelling the effects of the contaminated environments on tuberculosis in Jiangsu, China.

J Theor Biol 2021 01 16;508:110453. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 PR China. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important public health issue in Jiangsu province, China. In this study, based on the TB transmission routes and the statistical data of TB cases, we formulate a novel TB epidemic model accounting for the effects of the contaminated environments on TB transmission dynamics. The value of this study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, we define the basic reproduction number, R, and prove that R can be used to govern the threshold dynamics of the model. Epidemiologically, we find that the annual average R is 1.13,>1 and TB in Jiangsu is an endemic disease. Therefore, in order to control the TB in Jiangsu efficiently, we must decrease the virus shedding rate or increase the recovery rates, and increase the environmental clearance rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493753PMC
January 2021

Comparison of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture for patients with plantar heel pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

Acupunct Med 2020 Aug 18:964528420947739. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Acupuncture, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS), also known as plantar fasciitis, affects millions of people worldwide. Electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) are the two acupuncture modalities frequently used for PHPS in the clinical setting. However, which modality is more effective has yet to be determined.

Objective: To examine whether EA is more effective than MA with regards to pain relief for patients with PHPS.

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 12 treatment sessions of EA or MA over 4 weeks with 24 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcome was the proportion of treatment responders, defined as patients with at least a 50% reduction from baseline in the worst pain intensity experienced during the first steps in the morning after a 4-week treatment, measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-100; higher scores signify worse pain). Analysis was by intention-to-treat.

Results: Ninety-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of PHPS were enrolled from 29 July 2018 through 28 June 2019. Of the patients, 78 (85%) completed the treatment and follow-up. The primary outcome occurred in 54.8% (23/42) of the EA group compared to 50.0% (21/42) of the MA group after the 4-week treatment (difference -4.76, 95% confidence interval, -26.10 to 16.57,  = 0.662). There were no significant between-group differences for any secondary outcomes after 4 weeks of treatment and at 16 weeks and 28 weeks of follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events in either group.

Conclusion: Among patients with PHPS, EA did not have a better effect with respect to relieving pain intensity than MA at week 4, although both EA and MA appeared to have positive temporal effects, with decreased heel pain and improved plantar function.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1800016531 (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0964528420947739DOI Listing
August 2020

CD147 promotes proliferation and migration of oral cancer cells by inhibiting junctions between E-cadherin and β-catenin.

J Oral Pathol Med 2020 Nov 27;49(10):1019-1029. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Center of Stomatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Although association between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been demonstrated, we found CD147, one transmembrane protein we previously studied in oral submucous fibrosis, was correlated with E-cadherin, one marker of EMT. Here, we investigated CD147 expression in the different stages of OSCC and assessed its association with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Materials And Methods: CD147 and E-cadherin expression in tissue microarrays containing 48 OSCC specimens and matched adjacent tissues was analysed using immunohistochemistry. CD147 was overexpressed or knocked down using exogenous cloning vector and RNA interference, respectively, in OSCC cell lines. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using the CCK8 assay and scratch test, respectively. The expression and localization of EMT-associated proteins was analysed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.

Results: CD147 expression in OSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues and was markedly higher in cancer tissues with metastasis (P < .05). CD147 expression showed significant negative correlation with E-cadherin expression. CD147 overexpression downregulated E-cadherin and inhibited its complex with β-catenin and then upregulated N-cadherin and vimentin. Additionally, alterations in CD147 protein expression affected proliferation and migration ability in OSCC cells and were related to β-catenin nuclear translocation.

Conclusion: CD147 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis by promoting EMT progression in OSCC. It may be considered as a novel potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.13088DOI Listing
November 2020

GFR Estimation Using a Panel of Filtration Markers in Shanghai and Beijing.

Kidney Med 2020 Mar-Apr;2(2):172-180. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA.

Rationale & Objectives: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using creatinine and cystatin C (eGFR) may be less accurate compared to measured GFR (mGFR) in China than in North America, Europe, and Australia due to variation across regions in their non-GFR determinants. The non-GFR determinants of β-microglobulin (B2M) and β-trace protein (BTP) differ from those of creatinine and cystatin C. Thus, the average eGFR using all 4 markers (eGFR) could be more accurate than eGFR in China.

Study Design: Diagnostic test study.

Setting & Participants: 1,066 participants in Shanghai and Beijing with creatinine and cystatin C and 666 participants with all 4 filtration markers.

Tests Compared: Index tests were previously developed equations for eGFR using creatinine, cystatin C, B2M, and BTP and combinations. The reference test was mGFR using plasma clearance of iohexol. We compared the performance of eGFR to eGFR using the proportion of participants with errors in eGFR >30% of mGFR (1 - P) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the regression of eGFR on mGFR on the logarithmic scale. We also compared classification and reclassification of mGFR categories using eGFR compared to eGFR.

Outcomes: Accuracy was significantly better for eGFR (1 - P of 10.4% and RMSE of 0.214) compared to eGFR (1 - P of 13.8% and RMSE of 0.232;  = 0.004 and  = 0.006, respectively). However, improvements in accuracy did not generally translate into significant improvement in classification or reclassification of mGFR categories.

Limitations: Study population may not be generalizable to clinical settings other than large urban medical centers in China.

Conclusions: A panel of endogenous filtration markers including B2M and BTP in addition to creatinine and cystatin C may improve GFR estimation in China. Further study is necessary to determine whether GFR estimation using B2M and BTP can be improved and whether these improvements lead to useful clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2019.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380432PMC
January 2020

Advanced Glycation End Products Induce Proliferation and Migration of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through PI3K/AKT Pathway.

Biomed Res Int 2020 13;2020:8607418. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of General Surgery (Vascular Surgery), The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been widely regarded as an important inducing factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic arteriosclerosis, and the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are also involved in this process. However, it is not clear whether AGEs promote atherosclerosis by inducing the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. To figure out this question, this study investigated the effects of AGEs on the proliferation and migration of human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanisms. This study evaluated the effects of different concentrations of AGEs on cell proliferation and migration. CCK8, transwell, and western blotting assays demonstrated that AGEs significantly increased cell proliferation and migration in a concentration-dependent manner and that the optimal proproliferative and promigratory concentrations of AGEs were 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. AGE-induced cell proliferation, migration, and expression of filament actin (F-actin) were markedly attenuated by a PI3K inhibitor (LY2940002). Additionally, the phosphorylation of AKT was reduced when the receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) gene was silenced by lentivirus transfection, which led to a concomitant reduction of the expression of proliferation and migration-related proteins. These data indicate that AGEs may activate the PI3K/AKT pathway through RAGE and thus facilitate the proliferation and migration of HASMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8607418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376398PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of acupuncture for treatment of intermittent claudication in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jul 25;21(1):679. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Acupuncture, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 5 Beixiange, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100053, China.

Background: Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) is a common condition secondary to degenerative changes. Acupuncture may be effective for treating DLSS. However, there is a lack of sufficient evidence showing the efficacy of acupuncture. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for relieving neurogenic claudication in patients with DLSS.

Methods: A total of 196 patients will be randomly assigned to an acupuncture group or a sham acupuncture group at a ratio of 1:1. Patients will receive 18 sessions of treatment for 6 continuous weeks. The primary outcome will be the change in the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score from baseline to week 6. The secondary outcomes will include the change in the scores from baseline for the Numerical Rating Scale, Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, and Anxiety and Depression Scale. Additionally, the expectancy of acupuncture, blinding, and safety will also be assessed. All analysis will be performed based on intention-to-treat.

Discussion: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of neurogenic claudication in patients with DLSS. A limitation of this study is that acupuncturists cannot be blinded according to the characteristics of acupuncture, which may introduce some bias.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03784729 and protocol ID 2018-161-KY. Registered on 18 December 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04612-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382786PMC
July 2020

Confirmation of the absence of local transmission and geographic assignment of imported falciparum malaria cases to China using microsatellite panel.

Malar J 2020 Jul 13;19(1):244. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

EPPI Center Program, Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Current methods to classify local and imported malaria infections depend primarily on patient travel history, which can have limited accuracy. Genotyping has been investigated as a complementary approach to track the spread of malaria and identify the origin of imported infections.

Methods: An extended panel of 26 microsatellites (16 new microsatellites) for Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in 602 imported infections from 26 sub-Saharan African countries to the Jiangsu Province of People's Republic of China. The potential of the 26 microsatellite markers to assign imported parasites to their geographic origin was assessed using a Bayesian method with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) as implemented in the program Smoothed and Continuous Assignments (SCAT) with a modification to incorporate haploid genotype data.

Results: The newly designed microsatellites were polymorphic and are not in linkage disequilibrium with the existing microsatellites, supporting previous findings of high rate of recombination in sub-Saharan Africa. Consistent with epidemiology inferred from patients' travel history, no evidence for local transmission was found; nearly all genetically related infections were identified in people who travelled to the same country near the same time. The smoothing assignment method assigned imported cases to their likely geographic origin with an accuracy (Angola: 59%; Nigeria: 51%; Equatorial Guinea: 40%) higher than would be achieved at random, reaching statistical significance for Angola and Equatorial Guinea.

Conclusions: Genotyping using an extended microsatellite panel is valuable for malaria case classification and programme evaluation in an elimination setting. A Bayesian method for assigning geographic origin of mammals based on genetic data was adapted for malaria and showed potential for identification of the origin of imported infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03316-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359230PMC
July 2020

New risk score for predicting steroid resistance in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or minimal change disease.

Clin Proteomics 2020 29;17:18. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Glucocorticosteroid is used for patients with primary nephrotic syndrome. This study aims to identify and validate that biomarkers can be used to predict steroid resistance.

Methods: Our study contained two stages, discovery and validation stage. In discovery stage, we enrolled 51 minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients treated with full dose steroid. Five urinary biomarkers including β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) were tested and candidates' biomarkers were selected based on their associations with steroid response. In validation stage, candidates' biomarkers were validated in two prospectively enrolled cohorts. Validation cohort A included 157 FSGS/MCD patients. Validation cohort B included 59 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients. Patients were classified into response group (RG) or non-response group (NRG) based on their responses to steroid treatment.

Results: In discovery stage, higher urinary β2-MG was independently associated with response to corticosteroid treatment in MCD/FSGS patients [OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.02-3.53] after adjusted by age and gender. In validation cohort A, patients in NRG had a significant higher urinary β2-MG [Ln (β2-MG/uCr): 4.6 ± 1.7 vs 3.2 ± 1.5] compared to patients in RG. We then developed a 3-variable risk score in predicting steroid resistance in FSGS/MCD patients based on the best predictive model including Ln(β2-MG/uCr) [OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37], age [OR = 1.005, 95% CI 0.98-1.03] and pathology [MCD vs FSGS, OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.46]. The area under the ROC curves of the risk score in predicting steroid response was 0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.85). However, no such association was found in MN patients.

Conclusions: Our study identified a 3-variable risk score in predicting steroid resistance in patients with FSGS or MCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12014-020-09282-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257237PMC
May 2020

Efficacy of whole body vibration therapy on pain and functional ability in people with non-specific low back pain: a systematic review.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 27;20(1):158. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) is currently increasing in popularity as a treatment modality for musculoskeletal disorders and improving health-related quality of life. Recent research has shown that WBV can reduce low back pain and improve the functional abilities for patients, however, optimal frequency and duration of vibration for therapeutic use is unclear. This review was conducted to summarize and determine the efficacy of whole body vibration therapy on individuals with non-specific low back pain (NLBP) and evaluated methodological quality of the included studies.

Methods: Online literature searches through the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library databases, PEDro, Ovid, EBSCO (Medline) and Scopus were conducted up to December 2019. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of WBV on pain intensity and/or functional ability in individuals with non-specific low back pain (NLBP) were included. Details of the sample characteristics, treatment of the comparison group, WBV parameters and outcome measures were recorded, and methodological quality appraised using the PEDro scale.

Results: 7 published RCTs (418 patients) were included in the systematic review. Due to heterogeneity in vibration parameters and prescriptions, and small number of studies, no meta-analysis was performed. Four out of the six included studies using pain as an outcome measure showed that WBV had a beneficial effect on pain compared with the control group, whereas only two trials were considered to be of high methodological quality. Among the six studies which measured functional ability, three studies with good quality reported significant between-group differences in favor of WBV.

Conclusions: There is limited evidence suggests that WBV is beneficial for NLBP when compared with other forms of interventions (stability training, classic physiotherapy, routine daily activity). Due to the small sample sizes and statistical heterogeneity, we still cannot draw conclusions that WBV is an effective intervention. Further high-quality studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be provided to support its use in a general population with NLBP and to explore the optimal treatment protocol.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017074775.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02948-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251707PMC
May 2020

New strategy for grafting hydrophobization of lignocellulosic fiber materials with octadecylamine using a laccase/TEMPO system.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Oct 22;160:192-200. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Textiles and Clothing, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu, China.

The enzymatic functionalization of lignocellulosic fibers using oxidoreductases was successfully achieved by targeting lignin moieties as grafting sites on the surface. In this study, a novel strategy for hydrophobization of lignocelluloses was investigated, which involved the laccase/TEMPO-mediated grafting of octadecylamine (OA) onto both lignin and cellulose components of jute fabrics. The results showed that OA monomers were successfully grafted onto jute fabric surface using the laccase/TEMPO system with the grafting percentage and efficiency values of 0.712% and 10.571%, respectively. The primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose were oxidized by laccase/TEMPO to carbonyl groups, which were then coupled with amino-contained OA monomers via Schiff base reaction. The phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin were transformed by laccase to radicals, on which OA molecules were grafted via Michael addition reaction. Consequently, grafted jute fabrics showed a considerable increase in the surface hydrophobicity with a contact angle of 125.9° and a wetting time of at least 2 h. Furthermore, there was an acceptable decrease in the breaking strength of jute fabrics by 13.60%, and the color of fabrics turned yellowish and reddish. This eco-friendly enzymatic process provides a new strategy for grafting hydrophobization and even functionalization of lignocellulosic fiber materials using amino compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.167DOI Listing
October 2020

Quantifying the improvement in confirmation efficiency of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the early phase of the outbreak in Hong Kong in 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8;96:284-287. Epub 2020 May 8.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Research Institute of Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Backgrounds: The emerging virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), caused a large outbreak of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, in Wuhan, China, since December 2019. COVID-19 soon spread to other regions of China and overseas. In Hong Kong, local mitigation measures were implemented since the first imported case was confirmed on January 23, 2020. Here we evaluated the temporal variation of detection delay from symptoms onset to laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong.

Methods: A regression model is adopted to quantify the association between the SARS-CoV-2 detection delay and calendar time. The association is tested and further validated by a Cox proportional hazard model.

Findings: The estimated median detection delay was 9.5 days (95%CI: 6.5-11.5) in the second half of January, reduced to 6.0 days (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) in the first half of February 2020. We estimate that SARS-CoV-2 detection efficiency improved at a daily rate of 5.40% (95%CI: 2.54-8.33) in Hong Kong.

Conclusions: The detection efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 was likely being improved substantially in Hong Kong since the first imported case was detected. Sustaining enforcement in timely detection and other effective control measures are recommended to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7207138PMC
July 2020

Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles in Focal Glomerulosclerosis: New Genes and Pathways for Steroid Resistance.

Am J Nephrol 2020 29;51(6):442-452. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) characterized by steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) are prone to progress to ESRD. Mechanism for the FSGS patients' response to steroid treatment is still unknown and currently, it is impossible to predict the steroid resistance before treatment of patients with FSGS.

Methods: To identify biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets of FSGS patients with SRNS, patients diagnosed as kidney biopsy-proven FSGS and nephrotic syndrome (NS) were prospectively enrolled. They were divided into 2 groups, steroid-sensitive NS and SRNS based on their treatment response. Cortical regions were selected from biopsied renal tissues, and glomeruli were isolated under an inverted microscope. RNA was prepared from the isolated glomeruli and further used for microarray analysis. Followed by multiple analyses, the top 6 highest and lowest, and a selected panel of differentially expressed genes obtained and their related pathways were validated via real-time PCR, western blot, and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Results: In SRNS group, we discovered that the most significant up-regulated pathway was primarily related to cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process. Meanwhile, the most significant down-regulated pathway was primarily involved in anatomical structure morphogenesis. Moreover, we found NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), one of the key regulators of renal ROS, at a much higher level in SRNS both at transcriptomic and proteomic levels. We also found the levels of ROS, p-p38 MAPK and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, which were all regulated by NOX4, were also higher in glomeruli isolated from SRNS patients. At last, we detected stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 homolog (STRA6), a cell surface receptor formerly known as a gene preventing podocytes from over-proliferative lesion induced by HIV infection and was up-regulated by retinoic acid, expressed at a much higher level in SRNS kidneys.

Conclusion: We found 2 potential mechanisms underline the SRNS, NOX4/ROS/P38 MAPK/MMP-2 pathway and STRA6. Our findings provided new insights into the steroid resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505956DOI Listing
April 2020

Rapid Yeast Cell Viability Analysis by Using a Portable Microscope Based on the Fiber Optic Array and Simple Image Processing.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Apr 8;20(7). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024, China.

A fiber optic array (FOA) can be used as an alternative or a supplement to the lens in a microscope due to its large magnification, high coupling efficiency and extremely low distortion. Based on our previous research, this paper first demonstrated the resolution and field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope based on the FOA. To further validate the FOA microscope's imaging capability, yeast activity and concentration were investigated by simple image processing. The results showed that the percentages of live and dead yeast cells correctly identified were 92.1% and 84.8%, except for the clusters, which agreed well with the manual counting methods. Then, the performances of the portable microscopes based on the FOA and lens were compared and the factors that affect the FOA microscope imaging performance were analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20072092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180804PMC
April 2020