Publications by authors named "Weijun Zhou"

114 Publications

The impact of fluid resuscitation via colon on patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12488. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Emergency, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin er Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a life-threatening disease. Fluid Resuscitation Via Colon (FRVC) may be a complementary therapy for early controlled fluid resuscitation. But its clinical application has not been reported. This study aims to explore the impact of FRVC on SAP. All SAP patients with the first onset within 72 h admitted to the hospital were included from January 2014 to December 2018 through electronic databases of Ruijin hospital and were divided into FRVC group (n = 103) and non-FRVC group (n = 78). The clinical differences before and after the therapy between the two groups were analyzed. Of the 181 patients included in the analysis, the FRVC group received more fluid volume and reached the endpoint of blood volume expansion ahead of the non-FRVC group. After the early fluid resuscitation, the inflammation indicators in the FRVC group were lower. The rate of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of hypernatremia also decreased significantly. Using pure water for FRVC was more helpful to reduce hypernatremia. However, Kaplan-Meier 90-day survival between the two groups showed no difference. These results suggest that the combination of FRVC might benefit SAP patients in the early stage of fluid resuscitation, but there is no difference between the prognosis of SAP patients and that of conventional fluid resuscitation. Further prospective study is needed to evaluate the effect of FRVC on SAP patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92065-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203607PMC
June 2021

Stabilizing zinc deposition with sodium lignosulfonate as an electrolyte additive to improve the life span of aqueous zinc-ion batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 26;601:486-494. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Thanks to high safety and low cost, rechargeable zinc-ion batteries (RZIBs) have become a promising candidate for grid-scale energy storage systems. However, zinc anodes suffer from severe dendrite growth and irreversible side reactions, leading to poor cyclability of RZIBs. In this work, low-cost sodium lignosulfonate (SL) is utilized as the electrolyte additive to solve this problem. The added amount of SL is optimized to be 0.02%, which enables the Zn//α-MnO battery to deliver a large capacity of 146 mAh g after 1000 cycles at 1 A g, corresponding to a high capacity retention of 83.5%. The Zn//Zn symmetric cell with the modified electrolyte also shows excellent cyclability even under a commercial level of areal specific capacity (4 mAh cm). Overall, the results of this study confirm that the SL additive can improve the ionic conductivity of electrolyte, restrict the two-dimensional planar diffusion of Zn ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface, lower the nucleation overpotential of Zn ions, prevent side reactions, and inhibit the corrosion of Zn metal. Therefore, the dendrite growth and byproduct formation can be effectively suppressed. This study provides new insights into protecting metal electrodes of electrochemical energy storage devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.134DOI Listing
May 2021

Challenges and prospects for a potential allohexaploid Brassica crop.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Crop Science and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

The production of a new allohexaploid Brassica crop (2n = AABBCC) is increasingly attracting international interest: a new allohexaploid crop could benefit from several major advantages over the existing Brassica diploid and allotetraploid species, combining genetic diversity and traits from all six crop species with additional allelic heterosis from the extra genome. Although early attempts to produce allohexaploids showed mixed results, recent technological and conceptual advances have provided promising leads to follow. However, there are still major challenges which exist before this new crop type can be realized: (1) incorporation of sufficient genetic diversity to form a basis for breeding and improvement of this potential crop species; (2) restoration of regular meiosis, as most allohexaploids are genetically unstable after formation; and (3) improvement of agronomic traits to the level of "elite" breeding material in the diploid and allotetraploid crop species. In this review, we outline these major prospects and challenges and propose possible plans to produce a stable, diverse and agronomically viable allohexaploid Brassica crop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03845-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Soil organic carbon and soil aggregate stability associated with aggregate fractions in a chronosequence of citrus orchards plantations.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 27;293:112847. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410028, China. Electronic address:

Soil aggregates and their associated C may serve as accurate diagnostic markers for changes in soil characteristics in response to different agricultural management practices. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of various chronosequences on soil organic C (SOC) pool in aggregates of different particle sizes in citrus plantations. Surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 120 citrus orchards (Yongxing County, Hunan Province, China) of different plantation ages (0-10y, 11-20y, and 21-30y). Plantation age dramatically affected the composition of soil aggregates of different particle sizes and their associated SOC, with the strongest macroaggregate fraction observed in the 0-10y orchards. Soil mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) gradually decreased with plantation age (by 12.58% and 20.30% in 21-30y orchards, respectively). However, soil fractal dimension (D) and erodibility (K) gradually increased with plantation age (by 3.95% and 2.15% in 21-30y orchards, respectively). Furthermore, the SOC content and pool of aggregates and contribution of aggregates to SOC decreased with decreasing particle size. Multivariate analysis identified the aggregate fraction with a particle size over 2 mm as the main factor affecting the stability of soil aggregates in citrus plantations. The SOC content of aggregates was positively correlated with soil MWD and GMD but negatively correlated with soil D and K. The distribution of organic matter in soil aggregates can help us better understand the stability of soil structure and reduce the risk of soil erosion in successive citrus planting (<30y).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112847DOI Listing
May 2021

A model for phenotyping crop fractional vegetation cover using imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, and State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is the key trait of interest for characterizing crop growth status in crop breeding and precision management. Accurate quantification of FVC among different breeding lines, cultivars, and growth environments is a challenging task, especially because of the large spatiotemporal variability in complex field conditions. This study presents an ensemble modeling strategy for phenotyping crop FVC from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based multispectral images by coupling PROSAIL with gap probability model (PROSAIL-GP). Seven field experiments for four main crops were conducted, and canopy images were acquired using a UAV platform equipped with RGB and multispectral cameras. The PROSAIL-GP model successfully retrieved FVC in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with coefficient of determination, root mean square error (RMSE), and relative RMSE (rRMSE) of 0.79, 0.09, and 18%, respectively. The robustness of the proposed method was further examined with rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and the high accuracy of FVC retrieval was obtained with rRMSE of 12%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. The findings suggest that the proposed method can efficiently retrieve crop FVC from UAV images at a high spatiotemporal domain, which would be a promising tool for precision crop breeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab194DOI Listing
May 2021

[Application of multiple empirical kernel mapping ensemble classifier based on self-paced learning in ultrasound-based computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(1):30-38

Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, P.R. China.

Both feature representation and classifier performance are important factors that determine the performance of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In order to improve the performance of ultrasound-based CAD for breast cancers, a novel multiple empirical kernel mapping (MEKM) exclusivity regularized machine (ERM) ensemble classifier algorithm based on self-paced learning (SPL) is proposed, which simultaneously promotes the performance of both feature representation and the classifier. The proposed algorithm first generates multiple groups of features by MEKM to enhance the ability of feature representation, which also work as the kernel transform in multiple support vector machines embedded in ERM. The SPL strategy is then adopted to adaptively select samples from easy to hard so as to gradually train the ERM classifier model with improved performance. This algorithm is verified on a B-mode ultrasound dataset and an elastography ultrasound dataset, respectively. The results show that the classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity on B-mode ultrasound are (86.36±6.45)%, (88.15±7.12)%, and (84.52±9.38)%, respectively, and the classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity on elastography ultrasound are (85.97±3.75)%, (85.93±6.09)%, and (86.03±5.88)%, respectively. It indicates that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the performance of ultrasound-based CAD for breast cancers with the potential for application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202002004DOI Listing
February 2021

6'-O-Galloylpaeoniflorin Attenuates Osteoclasto-genesis and Relieves Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species and MAPKs/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:641277. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Emerging evidence suggests bright prospects of some natural antioxidants in the treatment of osteoporosis. 6'-O-Galloylpaeoniflorin (GPF), an antioxidant isolated from peony roots (one of very widely used Oriental medicines, with various anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities), shows a series of potential clinical applications. However, its effects on osteoporosis remain poorly investigated. The current study aimed to explore whether GPF can attenuate osteoclastogenesis and relieve ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis via attenuating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and investigate the possible mechanism. After the culture of primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages/monocytes were induced by the use of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and then treated with GPF. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Thereafter, the role of GPF in the production of osteoclasts and the osteogenic resorption of mature osteoclasts were evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, podosome belt formation, and resorption pit assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR examination were performed to evaluate proteins' generation and osteoclast-specific gene levels, respectively. The ROS generation in cells was measured by 2',7'-Dichlorodi-hydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse administered with GPF or vehicle was performed to explore the potential of GPF, then a micro-CT scan was performed in combination with histological examination for further analysis. GPF suppressed the formation of osteoclasts and podosome belts, as well as bone resorption when induced by RANKL through affecting intracellular ROS activity, MAPKs signaling pathway, and subsequent NFATc1 translocation and expression, as well as osteoclast-specific gene expression . study suggested that exposure to GPF prevented osteoporosis-related bone loss in the ovariectomized mice. These findings indicate that GPF attenuates osteoclastogenesis and relieves ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting ROS and MAPKs/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathway. This suggested that GPF may be potentially used to treat bone diseases like periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis associated with osteoclasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.641277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058459PMC
April 2021

Cardiac indicator CK-MB might be a predictive marker for severity and organ failure development of acute pancreatitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):368

Department of Emergency, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The prediction of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is the key to providing timely and targeted intensive care for acute pancreatitis (AP). The heart is one of multiple organs involved in the early stage of SAP, but the predictive ability of cardiac dysfunction for SAP remains elusive. We sought to determine if the serum levels of three cardiac indicators (CI) including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTNI), and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) at admission could predict the occurrence of SAP and the development of related organ failure (OF).

Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted on the files of patients presenting to the emergency intensive care unit and medical ward of a regional hospital in Shanghai. Patients diagnosed as having AP and who met the 2012 Atlanta guideline were admitted within 48 hours after disease onset.

Results: Of the 670 AP patients screened, 238 were enrolled into the study and divided into mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) (n=59), moderate severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) (n=123), and SAP (n=56) groups. No significant difference was found in baseline age, gender, duration from disease onset to admission, comorbidity, or substance abuse. As the levels of three CIs were significantly higher in the SAP group than in the MAP and MSAP groups, the enrolled patients were regrouped into non-SAP and SAP groups for predictive evaluation. Multivariate analysis and nomogram modelling showed that CK-MB, but not cTNI or NT-proBNP predicted the occurrence of SAP [area under curve (AUC) =0.805, confidence interval (CI): 0.794-0.905]. Specifically, 89 patients with OF (Modified Marshall score ≥2) upon admission were selected and CK-MB was shown to predict (AUC =0.805, CI: 0.794-0.905) persistent OF (n=48, duration of OF >48 hours) compared to transient organ failure (TOF) (n=41, duration of OF <48 hours).

Conclusions: CIs including NT-proBNP, cTNI, and CK-MB were elevated in the early stage of AP. CK-MB might be used as an efficient predictive biomarker for SAP occurrence and OF development at admission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033390PMC
March 2021

Integrated design of aqueous zinc-ion batteries based on dendrite-free zinc microspheres/carbon nanotubes/nanocellulose composite film anode.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 18;594:389-397. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China; Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

With the booming development of wearable electronics, flexible zinc-based batteries are attracting significant attention due to their high safety, low cost, environmental benignity, and relatively large energy/power densities. However, in a conventional segregated configuration, the electrodes could be easily detached from the separator when the battery is subjected to bending strain, which would dramatically depress electrochemical performances. Moreover, severe zinc dendrite growth and parasitic side reactions at the anode are extremely detrimental to the durability and the reliability of zinc-based batteries. Herein, a flexible self-standing composite film anode consisting of zinc microspheres, carbon nanotubes, and nanocellulose is constructed to replace the conventional Zn foil. It is found that the use of this anode can effectively inhibit the dendrites and side reactions, thereby substantially improving the cyclability. In addition, a layer-by-layer vacuum filtration method is used to integrate the composite film anode with a cellulose separator and a MnO-based composite film cathode into a single matrix. The unique integrated battery realizes great rate capability and cycling stability, and more importantly, superior affordability to bending deformations. Besides, the commonly used thick, heavy, and expensive current collectors are no longer required in the integrated configuration, therefore enabling the battery to be smarter and cheaper. This study not only opens a new option for building dendrite-free zinc anodes but also discloses a facile strategy to achieve integrated configuration for energy storage devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.067DOI Listing
July 2021

Interface Engineering of Silicon and Carbon by Forming a Graded Protective Sheath for High-Capacity and Long-Durable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 24;13(13):15216-15225. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, whereas its low electronic conductivity and huge volumetric expansion upon lithiation strongly influence its prospective applications. Herein, we develop a facile method to introduce a graded protective sheath onto the surface of Si nanoparticles by utilizing lignin as the carbon source and Ni(NO) as the auxiliary agent. Interestingly, the protective sheath is composed of NiSi, SiC, and C from the interior to the exterior, thereby guaranteeing excellent compatibility between the neighboring components. Thanks to this unique coating layer, the obtained nanocomposite delivers a large reversible specific capacity (1586.3 mAh g at 0.2 A g), excellent rate capability (879.4 mAh g at 5 A g), and superior cyclability (88.2% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 1 A g). Such great performances are found to derive from a slight volumetric expansion, high Li ion diffusion coefficients, good interface stability, and fast electrochemical kinetics. These properties are obviously superior to those of their counterparts, benefiting from the interface engineering. This study offers new insights into constructing high-capacity and long-durable electrode materials for energy storage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00107DOI Listing
April 2021

Lead Toxicity in Cereals: Mechanistic Insight Into Toxicity, Mode of Action, and Management.

Front Plant Sci 2020 4;11:587785. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/The Key Laboratory of Biology and GeneticImprovement of Oil Crops, The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan, China.

Cereals are the major contributors to global food supply, accounting for more than half of the total human calorie requirements. Sustainable availability of quality cereal grains is an important step to address the high-priority issue of food security. High concentrations of heavy metals specifically lead (Pb) in the soil negatively affect biochemical and physiological processes regulating grain quality in cereals. The dietary intake of Pb more than desirable quantity food chain is a major concern for humans, as it can predispose individuals to chronic health issues. In plant systems, high Pb concentrations can disrupt several key metabolic processes such as electron transport chain, cellular organelles integrity, membrane stability index, PSII connectivity, mineral metabolism, oxygen-evolving complex, and enzymatic activity. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been recommended as an inexpensive strategy for remediating Pb-contaminated soils. A diverse group of fungi, i.e., dark septate endophytes is successfully used for this purpose. A symbiotic relationship between endophytes and host cereal induces Pb tolerance by immobilizing Pb ions. Molecular and cellular modifications in plants under Pb-stressed environments are explained by transcription factor families such as bZIP, ERF, and GARP as a regulator. The role of metal tolerance protein (MTP), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), and heavy metal ATPase in decreasing Pb toxicity is well known. In the present review, we provided the contemporary synthesis of existing data regarding the effects of Pb toxicity on morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of major cereal crops. We also highlighted the mechanism/s of Pb uptake and translocation in plants, critically discussed the possible management strategies and way forward to overcome the menace of Pb toxicity in cereals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.587785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901902PMC
February 2021

Drought tolerance in Brassica napus is accompanied with enhanced antioxidative protection, photosynthetic and hormonal regulation at seedling stage.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 5;172(2):1133-1148. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Crop Science, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Climate change, food insecurity, water scarcity, and population growth are some of today's world's frightening problems. Drought stress exerts a constant threat to field crops and is often seen as a major constraint on global agricultural productivity; its intensity and frequency are expected to increase in the near future. The present study investigated the effects of drought stress (15% w/v polyethylene glycol PEG-6000) on physiological and biochemical changes in five Brassica napus cultivars (ZD630, ZD622, ZD619, GY605, and ZS11). For drought stress induction, 3-week-old rapeseed oil seedlings were treated with PEG-6000 in full strength Hoagland nutrient solution for 7 days. PEG treatment significantly decreased the plant growth and photosynthetic efficiency, including primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) of PSII, intercellular CO , net photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, and water-use efficiency of all studied B. napus cultivars; however, pronounced growth retardations were observed in cultivar GY605. Drought-stressed B. napus cultivars also experienced a sharp rise in H O generation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Additionally, the accumulation of ROS was accompanied by increased activity of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase), although the increase was more obvious in ZD622 and ZS11. Drought stress also caused an increased endogenous hormonal biosynthesis (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid) and accumulation of total soluble proteins and proline content, but the extent varies in B. napus cultivars. These results suggest that B. napus cultivars have an efficient drought stress tolerance mechanism, as shown by improved antioxidant enzyme activities, photosynthetic and hormonal regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13375DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis of membrane-bound fatty acid desaturase genes under different biotic and abiotic stresses in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 4;175:188-198. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China. Electronic address:

Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family plays crucial roles in regulation of fatty acid (FA) compositions in plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oilseed crop in the world; however, no comprehensive study on exploring the role of FAD family in relation to stress tolerance in sunflower has been performed yet. In this study, we identified 40 putative FAD genes in H. annuus (HaFAD), which were unevenly distributed across 13 of the total 17 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HaFAD genes were divided into four subfamilies, as supported by highly conserved gene structures and motifs. Collinearity analysis showed that tandem duplication events played a crucial role in the expansion of HaFAD gene family. In addition, tissue-specific expression showed that 32 HaFAD genes were widely expressed in various tissues or organs of sunflower. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results revealed significant expression changes of HaFAD genes in response to abiotic (cadmium, drought) and biotic (Orobanche cumana) stresses, suggesting their important functions in response to different stresses. Therefore, our results provide insights into HaFAD gene family in response to different stresses, and some specific up-regulated genes such as HaFAD3.2, HaADS8, HaFAD2.1, and HaADS9 would be the potential candidate genes for the sunflower tolerance breeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Realizing an All-Round Hydrogel Electrolyte toward Environmentally Adaptive Dendrite-Free Aqueous Zn-MnO Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 29;33(9):e2007559. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, USA.

Flexible energy storage devices are at the forefront of next-generation power supplies, one of the most important components of which is the gel electrolyte. However, shortcomings exist, more or less, for all the currently developed hydrogel electrolytes. Herein, a facile and cost-effective method is developed to construct an all-round hydrogel electrolyte by using cotton as the raw material, tetraethyl orthosilicate as the crosslinker, and glycerol as the antifreezing agent. The obtained hydrogel electrolyte has high ionic conductivity, excellent mechanical properties (e.g., high tensile strength and elasticity), ultralow freezing point, good self-healing ability, high adhesion, and good heat-resistance ability. Remarkably, this hydrogel electrolyte can provide a record-breaking high ionic conductivity of 19.4 mS cm at -40 °C compared with previously reported aqueous electrolytes for zinc-ion batteries. In addition, this hydrogel electrolyte can significantly inhibit zinc dendritic growth and parasitic side reactions from -40 to 60 °C. With this hydrogel electrolyte, a flexible quasi-solid-state Zn-MnO battery is assembled, which shows remarkable energy densities from -40 to 60 °C. The battery also exhibits outstanding cycling durability and has high endurance under various harsh conditions. This work opens new opportunities for the development of hydrogel electrolytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007559DOI Listing
March 2021

Comprehensive proteomic analysis of arsenic induced toxicity reveals the mechanism of multilevel coordination of efficient defense and energy metabolism in two Brassica napus cultivars.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 8;208:111744. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Agricultural Technology Extension Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) a non-essential element is of particular concern with respect to harmful effects on plant metabolism. While extensive studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of plants to increase As concentrations, however, molecular differences elucidating species-specific changes remain largely unknown. In the present experiment, two oilseed Brassica napus (B. napus) cultivars, ZS758 and ZD622, were treated by elevated As concentration. Their responses to the As stress have been investigated through pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer and isobaric tags based proteomic (iTRAQ) analysis. The chlorophyll fluorescence attributes showed that As stress significantly decrease the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) as well as the comparatively closed stomata observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, 65 proteins displayed increased abundance and 52 down-regulated were found in the control vs As comparison in cultivar ZS758, while 44 up and 67 down-regulated proteins were found in the control vs As comparison in ZD622. Metabolic pathways, followed by ribosome and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were the dominant functional annotation categories among the differentially expressed protein (DEPs). Many genes involved in primary metabolism, stress and defense were found to be As-responsive DEPs and/or DEPs between these two cultivars. Based on these results, a schematic description of key processes involved in As tolerance in ZS758 and ZD622 is proposed, which suggests that higher tolerance in ZS758 depends on a multilevel coordination of efficient defense and energy metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR supported the expression patterns of several genes encoding a protein similar to their corresponding DEPs. In addition, these findings could shed light in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of B. napus exposed to As stress and provide or improve essential understandings in the development of advanced B. napus cultivars against As resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111744DOI Listing
January 2021

Synergistic effects of EDDS and ALA on phytoextraction of cadmium as revealed by biochemical and ultrastructural changes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 8;407:124764. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China. Electronic address:

This study explored the phytoremediation potential of sunflower on cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. We also studied the mechanisms through which a plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevolinic acid (ALA) protected sunflower plants from Cd-induced cellular injury. Six-leaf old sunflower plants were exposed to 0.3 g kg Cd for one week and then treated with chelating agents i.e. trisodium (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS, 5 mmol kg) and citric acid (CA,10 mmol kg), and 10 mg L ALA. One week after chelators and ALA application, plants were harvested for further analyses. Results suggested that chelators EDDS/CA significantly increased Cd accumulation but inhibited plant growth of sunflower. In contrast, ALA promoted both Cd absorption and biomass accumulation, especially when applied in combination with EDDS. Bioaccumulation quantity and remove efficiency of Cd + EDDS + ALA treated plants was increased by 21.00% and 20.93% as compared with Cd + EDDS treatment. The qRT-PCR results revealed that increased Cd uptake by chelators EDDS/CA and ALA was associated with an increased expression of Cd transport genes e.g. OPT6, HMA3 and Nramp1 in sunflower leaves and roots. Our study suggested that ALA protects sunflower plants from Cd-induced cellular injury by immobilizing Cd ions, modulating activities of antioxidative enzymes and capturing reactive oxygen species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124764DOI Listing
April 2021

Phase I Trial of Fourth-Generation Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Against Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:564099. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Hematology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The administration of second- or third-generation anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has remarkably improved the survival of patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies. However, there are limited clinical results from fourth-generation CAR-T cell therapy, and the factors affecting response rate and survival have not been fully determined.

Methods: Lymphoma patients with progression or relapse after intensive treatments, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and life expectancy >2 months were enrolled in the study. Peripheral lymphocytes were collected through apheresis, and magnetically selected T cells were lentivirally transduced with a 4th-generation CAR featuring an anti-CD19 CAR and the iCasp9 suicide switch (4SCAR19). The patients received 4SCAR19 T cell infusion after approximately seven days of expansion and a conditioning regimen comprising cyclophosphamide/fludarabine. The efficacy, safety, and risk factors were evaluated.

Results: A total of 21 patients with relapsed/refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled and received 4SCAR19 T cell infusions at a median dose of 8.9×10 CAR-T cells/kg. The overall response rate was 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 43 to 85], with 43% of patients achieving a complete response and 24% having a partial response. The overall and complete response rates were 58 and 33% in the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) group and 78 and 56% in the non-DLBCL group, respectively. The median overall survival was 23.8 months (95% CI, not reached), with a median follow-up of 13.7 months. Factors affecting overall survival were International Prognostic Index (IPI), disease type, and remission status after CAR-T cell treatment. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 during treatment were neutropenia (76%), leukopenia (71%), and thrombocytopenia (29%). The incidence of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was 14%, and all cases were grade 1. One patient developed grade 3 neurotoxicity. No deaths were attributed to infusion of 4SCAR19 T cells, CRS, or neurotoxicity.

Conclusions: In this study, patients with relapsed or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who received 4SCAR19 T cell therapy had durable responses and few of adverse events. The IPI model is suitable for evaluating the prognosis of patients receiving CAR-T cell therapy.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn): ChiCTR-OOC-16007779.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.564099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731732PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide characterization of WRKY gene family in Helianthus annuus L. and their expression profiles under biotic and abiotic stresses.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(12):e0241965. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

WRKY transcription factors play important roles in various physiological processes and stress responses in flowering plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important vegetable oil supplies in the world. However, the information about WRKY genes in sunflower is limited. In this study, ninety HaWRKY genes were identified and renamed according to their locations on chromosomes. Further phylogenetic analyses classified them into four main groups including a species-specific WKKY group. Besides, HaWRKY genes within the same group or subgroup generally showed similar exon-intron structures and motif compositions. The gene duplication analysis showed that five pairs of HaWRKY genes (HaWRKY8/9, HaWRKY53/54, HaWRKY65/66, HaWRKY66/67 and HaWRKY71/72) are tandem duplicated and four HaWRKY gene pairs (HaWRKY15/82, HaWRKY25/65, HaWRKY28/55 and HaWRKY50/53) are also identified as segmental duplication events, indicating that these duplication genes were contribute to the diversity and expansion of HaWRKY gene families. The dN/dS ratio of these duplicated gene pairs were also calculated to understand the evolutionary constraints. In addition, synteny analyses of sunflower WRKY genes provided deep insight to the evolution of HaWRKY genes. Transcriptomic and qRT-PCR analyses of HaWRKY genes displayed distinct expression patterns in different plant tissues, as well as under various abiotic and biotic stresses, which provide a foundation for further functional analyses of these genes. Those functional genes related to stress tolerance and quality improvement could be applied in marker assisted breeding of the crop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241965PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714227PMC
January 2021

The Effect of Virulence and Resistance Mechanisms on the Interactions between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 27;21(23). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Institute of Crop Science and Zhejiang Key Lab of Crop Germplasm, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Parasitic plants have a unique heterotrophic lifestyle based on the extraction of water and nutrients from host plants. Some parasitic plant species, particularly those of the family Orobanchaceae, attack crops and cause substantial yield losses. The breeding of resistant crop varieties is an inexpensive way to control parasitic weeds, but often does not provide a long-lasting solution because the parasites rapidly evolve to overcome resistance. Understanding mechanisms underlying naturally occurring parasitic plant resistance is of great interest and could help to develop methods to control parasitic plants. In this review, we describe the virulence mechanisms of parasitic plants and resistance mechanisms in their hosts, focusing on obligate root parasites of the genera and . We noticed that the resistance (R) genes in the host genome often encode proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains ( proteins), hence we proposed a mechanism by which host plants use proteins to activate downstream resistance gene expression. We speculated how parasitic plants and their hosts co-evolved and discussed what drives the evolution of virulence effectors in parasitic plants by considering concepts from similar studies of plant-microbe interaction. Most previous studies have focused on the host rather than the parasite, so we also provided an updated summary of genomic resources for parasitic plants and parasitic genes for further research to test our hypotheses. Finally, we discussed new approaches such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and RNAi silencing that can provide deeper insight into the intriguing life cycle of parasitic plants and could potentially contribute to the development of novel strategies for controlling parasitic weeds, thereby enhancing crop productivity and food security globally.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730841PMC
November 2020

Developing improved electrolytes for aqueous zinc-ion batteries to achieve excellent cyclability and antifreezing ability.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 27;586:362-370. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China; Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Due to their low cost, high safety, environmental friendliness, and impressive electrochemical performances, aqueous zinc-ion batteries are considered promising alternative technologies to lithium-ion batteries for use in large-scale applications. However, existing aqueous zinc-ion batteries usually suffer from poor cyclability and cannot operate at subzero temperatures. Herein, to solve these problems, the electrolyte in aqueous zinc-ion batterie is optimized by adding the appropriate amounts of diethyl ether and ethylene glycol. Results show that the addition of 1% diethyl ether contributes to the best cyclability at 25 °C. Furthermore, the addition of 30% ethylene glycol results in the best electrochemical performances at 0 and - 10 °C. This significant performance improvement at low temperatures is ascribed to the high ionic conductivity of the modified electrolyte and the low charge transfer impedance of the battery with the modified electrolyte at 0 and -10 °C. It is also shown that the modified electrolyte can decrease the nucleation overpotential of zinc plating, enhance the interfacial stability between the zinc metal and electrolyte, suppress the zinc dendritic growth and side reactions, and decrease the self-corrosion rate of the zinc anode. This work offers a facile strategy to realize aqueous zinc-ion batteries with excellent cyclability and antifreezing ability and may inspire research on other aqueous energy storage systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.099DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Characteristics of Hospitalized Neonates With Hypofibrinogenemia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Pediatr 2020 22;8:589. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Chongqing Yubei District People's Hospital, Chongqing, China.

Neonatal hypofibrinogenemia is often asymptomatic but can manifest as hemorrhage. This study was conducted to characterize clinical characteristics of neonates with hypofibrinogenemia and identify factors associated with hemorrhage. This was a retrospective study of neonates with plasma fibrinogen level (FIB) ≤1.0 g/L who were hospitalized at the Neonatology Department, People's Hospital, Chongqing, China, from January 2012 to December 2017. Based on severity, patients were grouped into severe, moderate, and mild hypofibrinogenemia (FIB < 0.5 g/L, 0.5 g/L ≤ FIB < 0.7 g/L, and 0.7 g/L ≤ FIB ≤ 1.0 g/L, respectively). Clinical characteristics associated with hemorrhage were analyzed. Among 330 neonates, 52.7% showed mild hypofibrinogenemia, 25.5% had moderate hypofibrinogenemia, and 21.8% had severe hypofibrinogenemia. Severe hypofibrinogenemia was not associated with gestational age, but the mild form was frequent in neonates with low/normal birthweight ( = 0.018). Approximately 80.6% of neonates presented hypofibrinogenemia as variable combinations of thrombocytopenia or coagulopathies. Hemorrhage occurred in 38.8% of the cases, 60.9% of which were mild. Hemorrhage manifested as puncture site bleeding (47.7%) or spontaneous skin/mucous membrane bleeding (34.2%). The degree of hypofibrinogenemia was not associated with the severity or occurrence of hemorrhage. Among patients with hypofibrinogenemia and bleeding, 53.4% of the cases with coagulopathies showed mild hemorrhage, 85.7% of the cases with thrombocytopenia had moderate bleeding, while 53.8% of the cases with coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia showed severe hemorrhage. Neonatal hypofibrinogenemia is often comorbid and occurs with thrombocytopenia and/or coagulopathies. Although hemorrhage is not associated with the degree of hypofibrinogenemia, it may be severe when hypofibrinogenemia co-occurs with coagulopathies and/or thrombocytopenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536274PMC
September 2020

QTL Mapping Using a High-Density Genetic Map to Identify Candidate Genes Associated With Metribuzin Tolerance in Hexaploid Wheat ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:573439. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Faculty of Science, UWA School of Agriculture and Environment and The UWA Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia.

Tolerance to metribuzin, a broad-spectrum herbicide, is an important trait for weed control in wheat breeding. However, the genetics of metribuzin tolerance in relation to the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes is limited. This study developed F recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between a highly resistant genotype (Chuan Mai 25) and highly susceptible genotype (Ritchie), which were used for QTL mapping of metribuzin tolerance. Genotyping was done using a diversity arrays technology sequencing (DArTseq) platform, and phenotyping was done in controlled environments. Herbicide tolerance was measured using three traits, visual score (VS), reduction of chlorophyll content (RCC), and mean value of chlorophyll content for metribuzin-treated plants (MCC). A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 2,129 DArTseq markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) identified seven QTL, one each on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 5A, and 6A. Three major QTL-, , and explained 11.39%, 11.06%, and 11.45% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The 5A QTL was further validated using kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) assays in an F validation population developed from Chuan Mai 25 × Dagger. Blasting the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) flanking the QTL in the wheat reference genome RefV1.0 revealed SNP markers within or very close to annotated genes which could be candidate genes responsible for metribuzin tolerance. Most of the candidate genes were related to metabolic detoxification, especially those of P450 pathway and xenobiotic transmembrane transporter activity, which are reportedly key molecules responsible for herbicide tolerance. This study is the first to use specially developed populations to conduct QTL mapping on the metribuzin tolerance trait. The three major QTL and candidate genes identified in this study could facilitate marker-assisted metribuzin breeding in wheat. The QTL could be fine-mapped to locate the genes responsible for metribuzin tolerance, which could be introgressed into elite wheat cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.573439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527527PMC
September 2020

Insights on SNP types, detection methods and their utilization in Brassica species: Recent progress and future perspectives.

J Biotechnol 2020 Dec 24;324:11-20. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Institute of Crop Science, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

The genus Brassica, family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), comprises many important species of oil crops, vegetables and medicinal plants including B. rapa, B. oleracea, B. nigra, B. napus, B. juncea, B. carinata. Genomic researches in Brassica species is constrained by polyploidization, mainly due to its complicated genomic structure. However, rapid development of methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), such as next generation sequencing and SNP microarray, has accelerated release of reference Brassica species genomes as well as discovery of large numbers and genome-wide SNPs, thus intensifying forward genetics in this genus. In this review, we summarize biological characteristics, classification and various methods for detecting SNPs, focusing on high-throughput techniques. Moreover, we describe the pivotal roles of SNPs in genetic diversity, linkage map construction and QTL mapping, comparative genomics, linkage disequilibrium and genome-wide association studies. These insights are expected to deepen our understanding and guide further advancements in Brassica species research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.09.018DOI Listing
December 2020

Characterization of Coprecipitates of As(III) and Fe(II) in the Presence of Phyllosilicate Nanoparticles.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jan 29;106(1):205-210. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, People's Republic of China.

Phyllosilicate nanoparticles play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical processes of Fe(II) and As(III) in paddy soils due to their high mobility and activity. In the present work, two prepared muscovite nanoparticles with different sizes (LNPs and SNPs) were used to investigate the effect of the size of phyllosilicate nanoparticles on the coprecipitation of Fe(II) and As(III) during oxidation process. The results showed that muscovite nanoparticles could significantly promote the removal of Fe(II) and As(III) during coprecipitation process. The formation of crystalline iron oxide and oxidation of As(III) tended to be suppressed by the two muscovite nanoparticles, and the suppression increased as muscovite nanoparticle size decrease. The findings of this study provide a contribution to understanding the roles of the natural phyllosilicate nanoparticles in regulating the biogeochemical processes of Fe and As elements in polluted paddy soils.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02973-zDOI Listing
January 2021

High-Performance Anti-freezing Flexible Zn-MnO Battery Based on Polyacrylamide/Graphene Oxide/Ethylene Glycol Gel Electrolyte.

Front Chem 2020 31;8:603. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

It remains a great challenge for aqueous zinc-ion batteries to work at subzero temperatures, since the water in aqueous electrolytes would freeze and inhibit the transportation of electrolyte ions, inevitably leading to performance deterioration. In this work, we propose an anti-freezing gel electrolyte that contains polyacrylamide, graphene oxide, and ethylene glycol. The graphene oxide can not only enhance the mechanical properties of gel electrolyte but also help construct a three-dimensional macroporous network that facilitates ionic transport, while the ethylene glycol can improve freezing resistance. Due to the synergistic effect, the gel electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity (e.g., 14.9 mS cm at -20 °C) and good mechanical properties in comparison with neat polyacrylamide gel electrolyte. Benefiting from that, the assembled flexible quasi-solid-state Zn-MnO battery exhibits good electrochemical durability and superior tolerance to extreme working conditions. This work provides new perspectives to develop flexible electrochemical energy storage devices with great environmental adaptability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411301PMC
July 2020

Optimal temporal-spatial fluorescence techniques for phenotyping nitrogen status in oilseed rape.

J Exp Bot 2020 10;71(20):6429-6443

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, and State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer maximizes the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) by improving photosynthetic performance. Elucidating the dynamic relationship between fluorescence and plant N status could provide a non-destructive diagnosis of N status and the breeding of N-efficient cultivars. The aim of this study was to explore the impacts of different N treatments on photosynthesis at a spatial-temporal scale and to evaluate the performance of three fluorescence techniques for the diagnosis of N status. One-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis were applied to analyze fluorescence data acquired by a continuous excitation chlorophyll fluorimeter (OJIP transient analysis), pulse amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence (PAM-ChlF), and multicolor fluorescence (MCF) imaging. The results showed that the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and performance index for photosynthesis (PIABS) of bottom leaves were sensitive to N status at the bolting stage, whereas the red fluorescence/far-red fluorescence ratio of top leaves was sensitive at the early seedling stage. Although the classification of N treatments by the three techniques achieved comparable accuracies, MCF imaging showed the best potential for early diagnosis of N status in field phenotyping because it had the highest sensitivity in the top leaves, at the early seedling stage. The findings of this study could facilitate research on N management and the breeding of N-efficient cultivars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa372DOI Listing
October 2020

Ursolic Acid Limits Salt-Induced Oxidative Damage by Interfering With Nitric Oxide Production and Oxidative Defense Machinery in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2020 24;11:697. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute of Crop Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Crops frequently encounter abiotic stresses, and salinity is a prime factor that suppresses plant growth and crop productivity, globally. Ursolic acid (UA) is a potential signaling molecule that alters physiology and biochemical processes and activates the defense mechanism in numerous animal models; however, effects of UA in plants under stress conditions and the underlying mechanism of stress alleviation have not been explored yet. This study examined the effects of foliar application of UA (100 μM) to mitigate salt stress in three rice cultivars (HZ, 712, and HAY). A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse with different salt stress treatments. The results indicated that exposure to NaCl-induced salinity reduces growth of rice cultivars by damaging chlorophyll pigment and chloroplast, particularly at a higher stress level. Application of UA alleviated adverse effects of salinity by suppressing oxidative stress (HO, O) and stimulating activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (APX, CAT, POD, GR, GSH, AsA, proline, glycinebutane), as well as protecting cell membrane integrity (MDA, LOX, EL). Furthermore, UA application brought about a significant increase in the concentration of leaf nitric oxide (NO) by modulating the expression of NR and NOS enzymes. It seems that UA application also influenced Na efflux and maintained a lower cytosolic Na/K ratio via concomitant upregulation of and in rice cultivars. The results of pharmacological tests have shown that supply of the NO scavenger (PTI) completely reversed the UA-induced salt tolerance in rice cultivars by quenching endogenous NO and triggering oxidative stress, Na uptake, and lipid peroxidation. The PTI application with UA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) also caused growth retardation and a significant increase in Na uptake and oxidative stress in rice cultivars. This suggests that UA promoted salt tolerance of rice cultivars by triggering NO production and limiting toxic ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These results revealed that both UA and NO are together required to develop a salt tolerance response in rice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327119PMC
June 2020

Spatial relationship between land-use/land-cover change and land surface temperature in the Dongting Lake area, China.

Sci Rep 2020 06 8;10(1):9245. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China.

The Dongting Lake area (China) is a climate change-sensitive and ecologically fragile area and plays a crucial role in the regulation of the regional climate. In recent decades, rapid social and economic development has led to increased land use/land cover (LULC) changes in the Dongting Lake area, which affect the surface energy balance and hydrological processes. Its contemporary variability under climate change remains highly uncertain. Therefore, we retrieved the Land surface temperature (LST) from the Landsat 7 data and explored its relationship with the LULC types. The results showed that LST is significantly affected by surface type. LST varied significantly across LULC types, with higher LSTs in built-up land, reed beach land, forest land, and paddy fields than in water bodies, mud beaches, marshlands, and riparian forests. Water bodies play an important regulatory role in reducing LST and mitigating thermal effects on the ground. The winter LST in the study area increased by approximately 3.5 °C, which may be related to the decrease in the area of Dongting Lake water bodies, water fields and reed flats after the Three Gorges Reservoir was impounded. Compared with the relationship between the NDVI, DEM, and distance from the water body, the negative correlation between the NDMI and LST was stronger and more stable and had the greatest effect on LST. These insights improve the understanding of the land change consequences on the temporal dynamics of LST.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66168-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280498PMC
June 2020

Modifying the Zn anode with carbon black coating and nanofibrillated cellulose binder: A strategy to realize dendrite-free Zn-MnO batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Oct 28;577:256-264. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, NT, Hong Kong, China.

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries have received significant attention due to their low cost and high safety. However, the unsatisfactory cycling performances caused by the dendritic growth on the Zn anode limit their practical applications. Herein, we propose to modify the conventional Zn foil anode by using carbon black coating and nanofibrillated cellulose binder. The carbon black can form an electrically conductive network, thus greatly enlarging the electroactive surface area, while the nanofibrillated cellulose can act as an electrolyte reservoir to facilitate charge transports. Thanks to that, the modified anode can significantly eliminate the dendritic growth and side reactions, therefore ensuring excellent interface stability with the electrolyte even at a commercial-level areal capacity of 5 mAh g. With the modified anode, the Zn-MnO battery gives a high capacity retention of 87.4% after 1000 cycles, much higher than that with the unmodified Zn foil (42.6%). This study discloses a facile, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to achieve dendrite-free metal electrodes towards great cyclability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.05.102DOI Listing
October 2020

Synthetic biology principles for the design of protein with novel structures and functions.

FEBS Lett 2020 07 9;594(14):2199-2212. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Nature provides a large number of functional proteins that evolved during billions of years of evolution. The diversity of natural proteins encompasses versatile functions and more than a thousand different folds, which, however, represents only a tiny fraction of all possible folds and polypeptide sequences. Recent advances in the rational design of proteins demonstrate that it is possible to design de novo protein folds unseen in nature. Novel protein topologies have been designed based on similar principles as natural proteins using advanced computational modelling or modular construction principles, such as oligomerization domains. Designed proteins exhibit several interesting features such as extreme stability, designability of 3D topologies and folding pathways. Moreover, designed protein assemblies can implement symmetry similar to the viral capsids, while, on the other hand, single-chain pseudosymmetric designs can address each position independently. Recently, the design is expanding towards the introduction of new functions into designed proteins, and we may soon be able to design molecular machines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13796DOI Listing
July 2020