Publications by authors named "Weifeng Zhang"

213 Publications

Endoscopic closure of tracheoesophageal fistula with a novel dumbbell-shaped occluder.

Endoscopy 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1524-0761DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictive Value of Routine Blood Test in patients with Early Esophageal Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(15):4739-4744. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated hospital of Nanjing medical university.

The present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of routine blood test as potential inflammatory markers in early esophageal cancer (EEC) patients. A matched case-control study was conducted by recruiting 314 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with EEC and then underwent Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) from July 2015 to July 2019 in First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Each EEC patient was matched against one healthy control on the criteria of gender, and age (±2 years). Additionally, a total of 40 subjects (20 cases and 20 controls) were also included in the validation set. Statistical analysis of selected hematological parameters was performed between the two groups. The correlation between preoperative blood indexes and clinicopathological characteristics after ESD in EEC patients were further assessed. Mono-factor analysis showed that the index of monocyte (), MCV (), MCH (), MPV (), PT (), PT-INR (), PDW () and MLR () were statistically significant in EEC patients when compared with those in healthy controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis further identified that PDW and MLR was independently associated with the risk of early esophageal cancer (both ). The higher level of NLR and MLR were statistically significant with submucosal invasion in EEC patients and the level of MLR were significantly associated with larger tumor size . The results of the validation group were in consistence with the primary group. Hematological parameters of MLR and PDW can be used as an adjuvant tool for the diagnosis of EEC. Moreover, the value of MLR can reflect the invasion depth index.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210552PMC
June 2021

IFN-β Acts on Monocytes to Ameliorate CNS Autoimmunity by Inhibiting Proinflammatory Cross-Talk Between Monocytes and Th Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:679498. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

IFN-β has been the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) for almost three decades, but understanding the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remains incomplete. We have shown that MS patients have increased numbers of GM-CSF Th cells in circulation, and that IFN-β therapy reduces their numbers. GM-CSF expression by myelin-specific Th cells is essential for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. These findings suggested that IFN-β therapy may function suppression of GM-CSF production by Th cells. In the current study, we elucidated a feedback loop between monocytes and Th cells that amplifies autoimmune neuroinflammation, and found that IFN-β therapy ameliorates central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity by inhibiting this proinflammatory loop. IFN-β suppressed GM-CSF production in Th cells indirectly by acting on monocytes, and IFN-β signaling in monocytes was required for EAE suppression. IFN-β increased IL-10 expression by monocytes, and IL-10 was required for the suppressive effects of IFN-β. IFN-β treatment suppressed IL-1β expression by monocytes in the CNS of mice with EAE. GM-CSF from Th cells induced IL-1β production by monocytes, and, in a positive feedback loop, IL-1β augmented GM-CSF production by Th cells. In addition to GM-CSF, TNF and FASL expression by Th cells was also necessary for IL-1β production by monocyte. IFN-β inhibited GM-CSF, TNF, and FASL expression by Th cells to suppress IL-1β secretion by monocytes. Overall, our study describes a positive feedback loop involving several Th cell- and monocyte-derived molecules, and IFN-β actions on monocytes disrupting this proinflammatory loop.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.679498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213026PMC
June 2021

Enhanced Valley Polarization of Bilayer MoSe with Variable Stacking Order and Interlayer Coupling.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 18;12(25):5879-5888. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China.

In two-dimensional transitional metal dichalcogenides, tuning the spin-valley-layer coupling via changing layer numbers and stacking orders remains desirable for their application in valleytronics. Herein, six-point star-like MoSe nanoflakes simultaneously containing different atom registration regions from monolayer to bilayer with 2H and 3R stacking order were fabricated, and the valley polarizations were comparably investigated by circular polarized photoluminescent spectroscopy. The degree of valley polarization was detected to be about 12.5% in the monolayer and 10% in the 2H bilayer, but greatly upgraded to about 40% in the 3R bilayer MoSe. This enhancement was attributed to the multiband spin splitting and generation of spin-dependent layer polarization for the 3R MoSe bilayer, which is well evidenced by our calculations of the energy band structures. Our results demonstrate that preparing TMD crystals with controllable stacking orders and interlayer coupling is a promising route to tune the valley index in TMDs for developing valleytronics technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01578DOI Listing
July 2021

Recent structural evolution of lactam- and imide-functionalized polymers applied in organic field-effect transistors and organic solar cells.

Chem Sci 2021 May 7;12(20):6844-6878. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Research/Education Centre for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100190 P. R. China

Organic semiconductor materials, especially donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers, have been increasingly applied in organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic solar cells (OSCs). Plenty of high-performance OFETs and OSCs have been achieved based on varieties of structurally modified D-A polymers. As the basic building block of D-A polymers, acceptor moieties have drawn much attention. Among the numerous types, lactam- and imide-functionalized electron-deficient building blocks have been widely investigated. In this review, the structural evolution of lactam- or imide-containing acceptors (for instance, diketopyrrolopyrrole, isoindigo, naphthalene diimide, and perylene diimide) is covered and their representative polymers applied in OFETs and OSCs are also discussed, with a focus on the effect of varied structurally modified acceptor moieties on the physicochemical and photoelectrical properties of polymers. Additionally, this review discusses the current issues that need to be settled down and the further development of new types of acceptors. It is hoped that this review could help design new electron-deficient building blocks, find a more valid method to modify already reported acceptor units, and achieve high-performance semiconductor materials eventually.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc01711jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153080PMC
May 2021

Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by stimulated Raman scattering metabolic imaging and morphological deformation of bacteria.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jul 7;1168:338622. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Medical Photonics, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Methods for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are urgently needed to address the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Here, we report a new method based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which measures both the metabolic activity and the morphological deformation of bacteria to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of β-lactam antibiotics rapidly. In this approach, we quantify single bacteria's metabolic activity by the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond concentrations in bacteria after DO incubation. In the meantime, bacterial morphological deformation caused by β-lactam antibiotics is also measured. With these two quantifiable markers, we develop an evaluation method to perform AST of cefotaxime on 103 E. coli strains. Our method achieved a 93.2% categorical agreement and a 93.2% essential agreement with the standard reference method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338622DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Pacific Summer Water layer variations and ice cover on Beaufort Sea underwater sound ducting.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2117

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.

A one-year fixed-path observation of seasonally varying subsurface ducted sound propagation in the Beaufort Sea is presented. The ducted and surface-interacting sounds have different time behaviors. To understand this, a surface-forced computational model of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with ice cover is used to simulate local conditions, which are then used to computationally simulate sound propagation. A sea ice module is employed to grow/melt ice and to transfer heat and momentum through the ice. The model produces a time- and space-variable duct as observed, with Pacific Winter Water (PWW) beneath a layer of Pacific Summer Water (PSW) and above warm Atlantic water. In the model, PSW moves northward from the Alaskan coastal area in late summer to strengthen the sound duct, and then mean PSW temperature decreases during winter and spring, reducing the duct effectiveness, one cause of a duct annual cycle. Spatially, the modeled PSW is strained and filamentary, with horizontally structured temperature. Sound simulations (order 200 Hz) suggest that ducting is interrupted by the intermittency of the PSW (duct gaps), with gaps enabling loss from ice cover (set constant in the sound model). The gaps and ducted sound show seasonal tendencies but also exhibit random process behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0003929DOI Listing
April 2021

Myocardial protective effect of intracoronary administration of nicorandil and alprostadil via targeted perfusion microcatheter in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25551

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of nicorandil and alprostadil on myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: In this prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 90 consecutive patients scheduled for elective PCI for de novo coronary lesions were assigned to the nicorandil, alprostadil, and nitroglycerin groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. Drugs were administered intracoronary via a targeted perfusion microcatheter. The primary endpoint was the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion frame count (TMPFC). Additionally, the corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC), TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG), and incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) were assessed.

Results: Both nicorandil and alprostadil were significantly effective in reducing TMPFC (114.6 ± 33.7 vs 93.4 ± 30.9, P = .016; 114.3 ± 34.3 vs 94.7 ± 33.3, P = .029, respectively). Similar findings were observed in the improvement of cTFC (20.3 ± 10.5 vs 13.5 ± 5.0, P = .003; 20.2 ± 7.4 vs 15.2 ± 5.2, P = .003, respectively) and percentage of TMPG 3 (100% vs 82.8%, P = .052; 83.3% vs 96.7%, P = .196, respectively); whereas, nitroglycerin produced a limited effect on TMPFC (114.4 ± 30.9 vs 112.1 ± 31.9, P = .739), cTFC (19.4 ± 7.2 vs 19.3 ± 7.2, P = .936), and percentage of TMPG 3 (86.7% vs 86.7%, P = 1.000). No significant difference was found in the incidence of PMI (16.7% vs 16.0% vs 27.6%, P = .537), though it was comparatively lower in the nicorandil and alprostadil groups. Furthermore, the intracoronary administration of nicorandil and alprostadil had a mild effect on blood pressure and heart rate.

Conclusions: The intracoronary administration of nicorandil and alprostadil via a targeted perfusion microcatheter was more effective in improving myocardial perfusion in patients undergoing elective PCI than nitroglycerin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052047PMC
April 2021

Efficient degradation of polyacrylate containing wastewater by combined anaerobic-aerobic fluidized bed bioreactors.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 5;332:125108. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Polyacrylate containing wastewater (PCW) is the typical sewage discharged by the textile industry. It has extremely poor biodegradability, and chemical methods were used conventionally as the only way for treating PCW. This study is demonstrating a novel biological method. In batch experiment monod kinetics was applied to the experimental data, which indicated that anaerobic treatment used for PCW is feasible. The pilot-scale experiment combined a Spiral Symmetry Stream Anaerobic Bioreactor (SSSAB) and an air-lift external circulation vortex enhancement nitrogen removal fluidized bed bioreactor (AFB). The COD and NH-N removal reached up to 95.2% and 96.6%, respectively, which were higher than the value obtained by other chemical methods. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes increased, which contribute to the degradation of PCW. Therefore, PCW can be degraded efficiently by using a SSSAB-AFB technique and thus provides an alternative to the chemical methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125108DOI Listing
July 2021

Newborn screening and molecular features of patients with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Quanzhou, China.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 7;34(5):649-652. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Quanzhou Maternity and Children's Hospital, Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China.

Objectives: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism. Late-onset MADD is caused by mutations and is the most common lipid storage myopathy in China. However, few patients with MADD have been identified through newborn screening (NBS). This study assessed the acylcarnitine profiles and molecular features of patients with MADD identified through NBS.

Methods: From January 2014 to June 2020, 479,786 newborns screened via tandem mass spectrometry were recruited for this study. Newborns with elevated levels of multiple acylcarnitines were recalled, those who tested positive in the reassessment were referred for genetic analysis.

Results: Of 479,786 newborns screened, six were diagnosed with MADD. The MADD incidence in the Chinese population was estimated to be 1:79,964. Initial NBS revealed five patients with typical elevations in the levels of multiple acylcarnitines; however, in one patient, acylcarnitine levels were in the normal reference range during recall. Notably, one patient only exhibited a mildly increased isovalerylcarnitine (C5) level at NBS. The patient with an atypical acylcarnitine profile was diagnosed with MADD by targeted gene sequencing. Six distinct missense variants were identified, with the most common variant being c.250G>A (p.A84T), with an allelic frequency of 58.35 (7/12).

Conclusions: These findings revealed that it is easy for patients with MADD to go unidentified, as they may have atypical acylcarnitine profiles at NBS and the recall stage, indicating the value of genetic analysis for confirming suspected inherited metabolic disorders in the NBS program. Therefore, false-negative (FN) results may be reduced by combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with genetic testing in NBS for MADD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0694DOI Listing
May 2021

Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment for ACS Induced by Myocardial Bridging: An Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided PCI.

CJC Open 2021 Mar 3;3(3):372-375. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

This report describes a case of a 35-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome. An angiogram and intravascular ultrasound revealed atherosclerotic stenosis in the myocardial bridging segment of the mid-left anterior descending artery. The culprit lesion was treated using a drug-coated balloon, and no residual stenosis was observed, which was later confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography at a 1-year coronary angiographic follow-up. This case provides evidence that drug-coated balloon could be a potential treatment strategy for atherosclerosis located in the myocardial bridging segment and suggests advantages of the "leave nothing behind" strategy in such clinical scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.10.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984997PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide identification and characterization of basic helix-loop-helix genes in nine molluscs.

Gene 2021 Jun 23;785:145604. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Aquatic Germplasm Resources, College of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors form a large superfamily that plays an important role in numerous physiological processes, including development and response to environmental stresses. In this study, the distribution of bHLH genes in nine molluscs was systematically investigated (including five bivalves, three gastropods and one cephalopod). Finally, 53-85 bHLH genes were identified from each genome and classified into corresponding families by using phylogenetic analysis. The results of gene structure and conserved motif analysis illustrated the hereditary conservation of bHLH transcription factors during evolution but showed low similarity in group C. Through transcription profile analysis of C. gigas and T. granosa, we found a important role of bHLH genes in responding to multiple external challenges and development; meanwhile, they also exhibited tissue-specific expression. Interestingly, we were also surprised to find different bHLH genes from the same group generally possess similar patterns expression that tends to simultaneously present high or lower expression of multiple challenges and different tissues in this study. In summary, this study lays the foundation for further investigation of the biological functions and evolution of molluscan bHLH genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145604DOI Listing
June 2021

Increased detection of primary carnitine deficiency through second-tier newborn genetic screening.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 03 23;16(1):149. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Quanzhou Maternity and Children's Hospital, 700 Fengze Street, Quanzhou, 362000, Fujian Province, China.

Background: Newborn screening for primary carnitine deficiency (NBS) is commonly implemented worldwide; however, it has poor sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of improving screening by including a second-tier genetic assay.

Results: An Agena iPLEX assay was developed to identify 17 common SLC22A5 mutations in Chinese populations and was applied in NBS as a second-tier screening. From January 2017 to December 2018, 204,777 newborns were screened for PCD using tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 316 (0.15%) residual NBS-positive specimens with low free carnitine (C0) levels were subjected to this second-tier screening. The screening identified 20 screen-positive newborns who harboured biallelic mutations in theSLC22A5 gene, 99 carriers with one mutation, and 197 screen-negative newborns with no mutations. Among the 99 carriers, four newborns were found to have a second disease-causing SLC22A5mutation by further genetic analysis. Among the 197 screen-negatives were four newborns with persistently low C0 levels, and further genetic analysis revealed that one newborn had two novel SLC22A5 pathogenic variants. In total, 25 newborns were diagnosed with PCD, for a positive predictive value of 7.91% (25/316). Based on these data, we estimate the incidence of PCD in Quanzhou is estimated to be 1:8191.Thirteen distinct SLC22A5 variants were identified, and the most common was c.760C > T, with an allelic frequency of 32% (16/50), followed by c.1400C > G (7/50, 14%), and c.51C > G (7/50, 14%).

Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that 24% (6/25) of PCD cases would have been missed by conventional NBS. This high-throughput iPLEX assay is a powerful tool for PCD genotyping. The addition of this second-tier genetic screening to the current NBS program could identify missed PCD cases, thereby increasing PCD detection. However, further studies are needed to optimise the workflow of the new screening algorithm and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this screening approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01785-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988980PMC
March 2021

CRISPR-mediated rapid generation of neural cell-specific knockout mice facilitates research in neurophysiology and pathology.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Mar 18;20:755-764. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Inducible conditional knockout mice are important tools for studying gene function and disease therapy, but their generation is costly and time-consuming. We introduced clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and into an LSL-Cas9 transgene-carrying mouse line by using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.eB to rapidly knockout gene(s) specifically in central nervous system (CNS) cells of adult mice. in neurons and in astrocytes were knocked out 2 weeks after an intravenous injection of vector, with an efficiency comparable to that of inducible Cre- conditional knockout. For functional testing, we generated astrocyte-specific knockout mice, which exhibited a phenotype similar to mice with Cre--mediated knockout, in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder of the CNS. With this novel technique, neural cell-specific knockout can be induced rapidly (few weeks) and cost-effectively. Our study provides a new approach to building inducible conditional knockout mice, which would greatly facilitate research on CNS biology and disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.02.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940702PMC
March 2021

Genomic Insights into the Origin and Evolution of Molluscan Red-Bloodedness in the Blood Clam Tegillarca granosa.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 05;38(6):2351-2365

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Germplasm Resource of Zhejiang, College of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100, China.

Blood clams differ from their molluscan kins by exhibiting a unique red-blood (RB) phenotype; however, the genetic basis and biochemical machinery subserving this evolutionary innovation remain unclear. As a fundamental step toward resolving this mystery, we presented the first chromosome-level genome and comprehensive transcriptomes of the blood clam Tegillarca granosa for an integrated genomic, evolutionary, and functional analyses of clam RB phenotype. We identified blood clam-specific and expanded gene families, as well as gene pathways that are of RB relevant. Clam-specific RB-related hemoglobins (Hbs) showed close phylogenetic relationships with myoglobins (Mbs) of blood clam and other molluscs without the RB phenotype, indicating that clam-specific Hbs were likely evolutionarily derived from the Mb lineage. Strikingly, similar to vertebrate Hbs, blood clam Hbs were present in a form of gene cluster. Despite the convergent evolution of Hb clusters in blood clam and vertebrates, their Hb clusters may have originated from a single ancestral Mb-like gene as evidenced by gene phylogeny and synteny analysis. A full suite of enzyme-encoding genes for heme synthesis was identified in blood clam, with prominent expression in hemolymph and resembling those in vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of both RB-related Hb and heme functions in vertebrates and blood clam. RNA interference experiments confirmed the functional roles of Hbs and key enzyme of heme synthesis in the maintenance of clam RB phenotype. The high-quality genome assembly and comprehensive transcriptomes presented herein serve new genomic resources for the super-diverse phylum Mollusca, and provide deep insights into the origin and evolution of invertebrate RB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136487PMC
May 2021

Inflammatory response in lungs and extrapulmonary sites detected by [F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in convalescing COVID-19 patients tested negative for coronavirus.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 07 9;48(8):2531-2542. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Medical Imaging, Henan Provincial People's Hospital & the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 7 Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The challenges associated with imaging infected patients have resulted, to date, in a paucity of metabolic imaging studies of patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, it remains unclear if any abnormal metabolic events are taking place in patients who have recovered from COVID-19.

Purpose: To use [F] fluorodeoxyglucose ([F] FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to measure metabolic activity in inflamed organs of patients convalescing post severe COVID-19 infection.

Materials And Methods: A prospective study was performed in seven convalescing patients who were recovering from severe COVID-19 infection in February 2020. Prior to [F] FDG PET/CT, all patients had received two consecutive negative results of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Clinical intake including symptoms, treatment, laboratory test results, and follow-up was performed. The PET/CT images of COVID-19 patients were compared to a control group of patients that were matched for age and sex.

Results: Residual pulmonary lesions were present in all patients and maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), average standard uptake value (SUVavg), maximum CT intensity (CTmax), and average CT intensity (CTavg) were all significantly greater than in the control group (p < 0.01 for all). In addition, SUVmax and SUVavg were significantly greater in the mediastinal lymph node and liver, and SUVmax was significantly greater in the spleen, of COVID-19 patients compared with controls (p < 0.05 for all). For the spleen, SUVmax (r = 0.863, p = 0.003) and SUVavg (r = 0.797, p = 0.007) were significantly correlated with blood lymphocyte count, and which was below the normal range in five of the seven (71.4%) patients convalescing post severe COVID-19 infection.

Conclusion: [F] FDG PET/CT quantitative analysis has shown that significant inflammation remained in lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and liver after two consecutive negative RT-PCR tests in patients convalescing post severe COVID-19 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-05083-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794623PMC
July 2021

Universal and tunable liquid-liquid separation by nanoparticle-embedded gating membranes based on a self-defined interfacial parameter.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 4;12(1):80. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, P.R. China.

Superwetting porous membranes with tunable liquid repellency are highly desirable in broad domains including scientific research, chemical industry, and environmental protection. Such membranes should allow for controllable droplet bouncing or spreading, which is difficult to achieve for low surface energy organic liquids (OLs). Here we develop an interfacial physical parameter to regulate the OL wettability of nanoparticle-embedded membranes by structuring synergistic layers with reconfigurable surface energy components. Under the tunable solid-liquid interaction in the aggregation-induced process, the membranes demonstrate positive/negative liquid gating regularity for polar protic liquids, polar aprotic liquids, and nonpolar liquids. Such a membrane can be employed as self-adaptive gating for various immiscible liquid mixtures with superior separation efficiency and permeation flux, even afford successive achievement of high-performance in situ extraction-back extraction coupling. This study should provide distinctive insights into intrinsic wetting behaviors and have pioneered a rational strategy to design high-performance separation materials for diverse applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20369-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782719PMC
January 2021

Total-body dynamic PET/CT of micro-metastatic lymph node in a patient with lung cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 05 3;48(5):1678-1679. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Henan Provincial People's Hospital & the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 7, Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-05121-1DOI Listing
May 2021

MDCC-Net: Multiscale double-channel convolution U-Net framework for colorectal tumor segmentation.

Comput Biol Med 2021 03 16;130:104183. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Multiscale feature fusion is a feasible method to improve tumor segmentation accuracy. However, current multiscale networks have two common problems: 1. Some networks only allow feature fusion between encoders and decoders of the same scale. It is obvious that such feature fusion is not sufficient. 2. Some networks have too many dense skip connections and too much nesting between the coding layer and the decoding layer, which causes some features to be lost and means that not enough information will be learned from multiple scales. To overcome these two problems, we propose a multiscale double-channel convolution U-Net (MDCC-Net) framework for colorectal tumor segmentation.

Methods: In the coding layer, we designed a dual-channel separation and convolution module and then added residual connections to perform multiscale feature fusion on the input image and the feature map after dual-channel separation and convolution. By fusing features at different scales in the same coding layer, the network can fully extract the detailed information of the original image and learn more tumor boundary information.

Results: The segmentation results show that our proposed method has a high accuracy, with a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 83.57%, which is an improvement of 9.59%, 6.42%, and 1.57% compared with nnU-Net, U-Net, and U-Net++, respectively.

Conclusion: The experimental results show that our proposed method has good performance in the segmentation of colorectal tumors and is close to the expert level. The proposed method has potential clinical applicability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.104183DOI Listing
March 2021

Transparent and Stretchable Graphene Electrode by Intercalation Doping for Epidermal Electrophysiology.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 3;12(50):56361-56371. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Epidermal electronics is regarded as the next-generation technology, and graphene is a promising electrode, which is a key building block of such devices. However, graphene has a tendency to crack at small strains with a rapidly increased resistance upon stretching. Here, to enable graphene applicable in epidermal electronics, we designed a novel graphene structure that is molybdenum chloride (MoCl)-intercalated few-layer graphene (Mo-FLG) fabricated in a confined environment. In the case of bilayer graphene (BLG), MoCl-intercalated bilayer graphene (Mo-BLG) exhibited a low sheet resistance of 40 Ω/square (sq) at a transmittance of 80%. Due to the self-barrier doping effect, the sheet resistance increased to only 60 Ω/sq after exposing to the atmosphere over 1 month. Transferred onto elastomer substrates, Mo-BLG can work as an electrode up to 80% strain and maintain a high conductivity that is durable over 2000 cycles at 30% strain. This mechano-electrostability is attributed to the special intercalated structure where the intercalated dopants act as lubricants to weaken the layer-layer interaction and allow a certain degree of sliding, as well as electrical crack-connectors to bridge the cracked domains at a high strain. Mo-BLG can be applied as epidermal electrodes to monitor electrophysiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electroencephalography (EEG), and surface electromyogram (sEMG) with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) comparable to commercial Ag/AgCl electrode. This is the first demonstration of epidermal electrodes based on intercalation-doped graphene applied in health monitoring, shedding light on the future development of graphene-based epidermal electronics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17658DOI Listing
December 2020

A study of multinucleated giant cells in esophageal cancer.

Clin Immunol 2021 01 13;222:108600. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Personalized Medicine, Center of Collaborative and Creative Center, Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China; Jinxin Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics, Chengdu, Jinjiang Hospital for Maternal and Child Health Care, 66 Jingxiu Road, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence, abundance, distribution, nature and clinical significance of multinucleated giant cell (MGC) in esophageal cancer.

Materials And Methods: MGCs were examined with conventional pathology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence in 107 esophageal cancer tissues. The findings were correlated to pathological diagnosis and clinical behavior of the cancers.

Results: MGCs were identified in 31.7% (34/107) of the cases. MGCs were positive for CD11c, CD11b, CD32, CD16, HLA-DR and MMP9, and negative for CD163, CD206 and CD64 giving a molecular profile of proinflammatory M1 but not immunosuppressive M2. MGCs were significantly related to decreased lymph node metastasis (p = 0.011), low pTNM stage (p = 0.044), favorable survival (p = 0.04), squamous cell cancer type rather than other histopathological subtypes (p = 0.020) and associated to better differentiation (p = 0.063).

Conclusions: MGCs belong to M1 macrophage and perform phagocytosis and scavenging of cancer cells that would benefit patients' survival and could serve as a prognostic marker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108600DOI Listing
January 2021

Interferon-γ/Interleukin-27 Axis Induces Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells and Restores Immune Tolerance in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity.

Front Immunol 2020 26;11:576752. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Antigen (Ag)-specific tolerance induction by intravenous (i. v.) injection of high-dose auto-Ags has been explored for therapy of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). It is thought that the advantage of such Ag-specific therapy over non-specific immunomodulatory treatments would be selective suppression of a pathogenic immune response without impairing systemic immunity, thus avoiding adverse effects of immunosuppression. Auto-Ag i.v. tolerance induction has been extensively studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, and limited clinical trials demonstrated that it is safe and beneficial to a subset of MS patients. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of i.v. tolerance induction are incompletely understood, hampering the development of better approaches and their clinical application. Here, we describe a pathway whereby auto-Ag i.v. injected into mice with ongoing clinical EAE induces interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion by auto-Ag-specific CD4 T cells, triggering interleukin (IL)-27 production by conventional dendritic cells type 1 (cDC1). IL-27 then, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation, induces programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the central nervous system of mice with EAE. PD-L1 interaction with programmed cell death protein 1 on pathogenic CD4 T cells leads to their apoptosis/anergy, resulting in disease amelioration. These findings identify a key role of the IFN-γ/IL-27/PD-L1 axis, involving T cells/cDC1/moDCs in the induction of i.v. tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.576752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649367PMC
June 2021

Oligodendrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as antigen-specific therapy for autoimmune neuroinflammation in mice.

Sci Transl Med 2020 11;12(568)

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) develop because of failed peripheral immune tolerance for a specific self-antigen (Ag). Numerous approaches for Ag-specific suppression of autoimmune neuroinflammation have been proven effective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. One such approach is intravenous tolerance induction by injecting a myelin Ag used for triggering EAE. However, the translation of this and similar experimental strategies into therapy for MS has been hampered by uncertainty regarding relevant myelin Ags in MS patients. To address this issue, we developed a therapeutic strategy that relies on oligodendrocyte (Ol)-derived extracellular vesicles (Ol-EVs), which naturally contain multiple myelin Ags. Intravenous Ol-EV injection reduced disease pathophysiology in a myelin Ag-dependent manner, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in several EAE models. The treatment was safe and restored immune tolerance by inducing immunosuppressive monocytes and apoptosis of autoreactive CD4 T cells. Furthermore, we showed that human Ols also released EVs containing most relevant myelin Ags, providing a basis for their use in MS therapy. These findings introduce an approach for suppressing central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity in a myelin Ag-specific manner, without the need to identify the target Ag.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aba0599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886371PMC
November 2020

Learning Dual Encoding Model for Adaptive Visual Understanding in Visual Dialogue.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 18;30:220-233. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Different from Visual Question Answering task that requires to answer only one question about an image, Visual Dialogue task involves multiple rounds of dialogues which cover a broad range of visual content that could be related to any objects, relationships or high-level semantics. Thus one of the key challenges in Visual Dialogue task is to learn a more comprehensive and semantic-rich image representation that can adaptively attend to the visual content referred by variant questions. In this paper, we first propose a novel scheme to depict an image from both visual and semantic views. Specifically, the visual view aims to capture the appearance-level information in an image, including objects and their visual relationships, while the semantic view enables the agent to understand high-level visual semantics from the whole image to the local regions. Furthermore, on top of such dual-view image representations, we propose a Dual Encoding Visual Dialogue (DualVD) module, which is able to adaptively select question-relevant information from the visual and semantic views in a hierarchical mode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of DualVD, we propose two novel visual dialogue models by applying it to the Late Fusion framework and Memory Network framework. The proposed models achieve state-of-the-art results on three benchmark datasets. A critical advantage of the DualVD module lies in its interpretability. We can analyze which modality (visual or semantic) has more contribution in answering the current question by explicitly visualizing the gate values. It gives us insights in understanding of information selection mode in the Visual Dialogue task. The code is available at https://github.com/JXZe/Learning_DualVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3034494DOI Listing
May 2021

The gut microbiome in differential diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease and membranous nephropathy.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):1100-1110

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, P.R. China.

Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and membranous nephropathy (MN) are the two major causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing evidence has shown that intestinal dysbiosis is associated with many diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the composition of the gut microbiome in DKD and MN patients.

Methods: 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on 271 fecal samples (DKD = 129 and MN = 142), and taxonomic annotation of microbial composition and function was completed.

Results: We observed distinct microbial communities between the two groups, with MN samples exhibiting more severe dysbiosis than DKD samples. Relative increases in genera producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in DKD and a higher proportion of potential pathogens in MN were the main contributors to the microbiome alterations in the two groups. Five-fold cross-validation was performed on a random forest model, and four operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based microbial markers were selected to distinguish DKD from MN. The results showed 92.42% accuracy in the training set and 94.52% accuracy in the testing set, indicating high potential for these microbiome-based markers in separating MN from DKD. Overexpression of several amino acid metabolic pathways, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism was found in DKD, while interconversion of pentose/glucoronate and membrane transport in relation to ABC transporters and the phosphotransferase system were increased in MN.

Conclusion: The composition of the gut microbiome appears to differ considerably between patients with DKD and those with MN. Thus, microbiome-based markers could be used as an alternative tool to distinguish DKD and MN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1837869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599019PMC
November 2020

A distinct GM-CSF T helper cell subset requires T-bet to adopt a T1 phenotype and promote neuroinflammation.

Sci Immunol 2020 10;5(52)

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Elevation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing T helper (T) cells has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. However, the identity of GM-CSF-producing T cells has not been closely examined. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and high-dimensional single-cell mass cytometry, we identified eight populations of antigen-experienced CD45RACD4 T cells in blood of healthy individuals including a population of GM-CSF-producing cells, known as TGM, that lacked expression of signature transcription factors and cytokines of established T lineages. Using GM-CSF-reporter/fate reporter mice, we show that TGM cells are present in the periphery and central nervous system in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition to GM-CSF, human and mouse TGM cells also expressed IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-3, and CCL20. TGM cells maintained their phenotype through several cycles of activation but up-regulated expression of T-bet and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) upon exposure to IL-12 in vitro and in the central nervous system of mice with autoimmune neuroinflammation. Although T-bet was not required for the development of TGM cells, it was essential for their encephalitogenicity. These findings demonstrate that TGM cells constitute a distinct population of T cells with lineage characteristics that are poised to adopt a T1 phenotype and promote neuroinflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aba9953DOI Listing
October 2020

Differential diagnosis for esophageal protruded lesions using a deep convolution neural network in endoscopic images.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 06 13;93(6):1261-1272.e2. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background And Aims: Recent advances in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have led to remarkable results in digestive endoscopy. In this study, we aimed to develop CNN-based models for the differential diagnosis of benign esophageal protruded lesions using endoscopic images acquired during real clinical settings.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the images from 1217 patients who underwent white-light endoscopy (WLE) and EUS between January 2015 and April 2020. Three deep CNN models were developed to accomplish the following tasks: (1) identification of esophageal benign lesions from healthy controls using WLE images; (2) differentiation of 3 subtypes of esophageal protruded lesions (including esophageal leiomyoma [EL], esophageal cyst (EC], and esophageal papilloma [EP]) using WLE images; and (3) discrimination between EL and EC using EUS images. Six endoscopists blinded to the patients' clinical status were enrolled to interpret all images independently. Their diagnostic performances were evaluated and compared with the CNN models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: For task 1, the CNN model achieved an AUC of 0.751 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.652-0.850) in identifying benign esophageal lesions. For task 2, the proposed model using WLE images for differentiation of esophageal protruded lesions achieved an AUC of 0.907 (95% CI, 0.835-0.979), 0.897 (95% CI, 0.841-0.953), and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.769-0.968) for EP, EL, and EC, respectively. The CNN model achieved equivalent or higher identification accuracy for EL and EC compared with skilled endoscopists. In the task of discriminating EL from EC (task 3), the proposed CNN model had AUC values of 0.739 (EL, 95% CI, 0.600-0.878) and 0.724 (EC, 95% CI, 0.567-0.881), which outperformed seniors and novices. Attempts to combine the CNN and endoscopist predictions led to significantly improved diagnostic accuracy compared with endoscopists interpretations alone.

Conclusions: Our team established CNN-based methodologies to recognize benign esophageal protruded lesions using routinely obtained WLE and EUS images. Preliminary results combining the results from the models and the endoscopists underscored the potential of ensemble models for improved differentiation of lesions in real endoscopic settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.10.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of phosphorus-based inhibitors for PCDD/Fs suppression.

Waste Manag 2021 Jan 10;119:82-90. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

State Key Laboratory for Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Inhibition mechanisms of sulfur-, nitrogen- and phosphorus- based inhibitors on the de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were studied by exploring speciation evolution of carbon, chorine and copper in fly ash under laboratory-scale experiments. Significant inhibition of PCDD/Fs by thiourea (TUA) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) was observed as 97.2% and 98.2%, respectively, except for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP). ADP and PDP exhibited better inhibition on PCDFs than on PCDDs, whereas TUA exhibited the opposite effect. After adding inhibitors, the proportion of C-O/C=O/O-C=O bonds at the surface of fly ash increased, and stronger oxidation of carbon occurred, together with the conversion from Cu to Cu and the inhibition of organic chlorine formation. Kinetic model results indicated that TUA might either suppress the carbon gasification or promote the decomposition of PCDD/Fs, resulting in a remarkable inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation. Simulated chemical reaction equilibrium further comfirmed that catalytic metal could be deactivated into CuS and CuS by sulfur, and into CuPO by phosphorus. Moreover, NH, decomposed from TUA and ADP, was able to convert Cl into HCl, albeit with a weaker chlorination ability. This study of inhibition mechanisms is useful for the exploration and utilization of efficient inhibitors in full-scale incinerators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.09.019DOI Listing
January 2021

Self-calibrated optical vector analyzer with a largely extended measurement range based on linearly frequency-modulated waveform and recirculating frequency shifter.

Opt Express 2020 Sep;28(19):28536-28547

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel method to realize an optical vector analyzer (OVA) with a largely increased measurement range based on linearly frequency-modulated (LFM) waveform and a recircuiting frequency shifter (RFS) loop. An optical LFM signal is sent into an RFS loop to extend its frequency range by circulating in the loop. At the output of the RFS, the frequency-extended optical LFM signal is launched into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with the device under test (DUT) incorporated in one arm and a delay line in the other arm. By beating the optical signals from the MZIs at a pair of balanced photodetectors, low-frequency signals are generated, from which the frequency responses of the DUT can be extracted using post-digital signal processing. To eliminate the unwanted influence from the measurement system, another MZI (MZI) sharing the delay line arm with the MZI is used for system self-calibration. Thanks to the largely extended frequency range of the optical LFM signal with the use of the RFS loop, the measurement range of the OVA is highly increased. As a proof of the concept, an experiment is performed in which the magnitude and phase responses of a narrow-band fiber ring resonator (FRR) and a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas chamber are measured with the proposed OVA. The measurement results show that a measurement range as broad as 418 GHz and a frequency resolution as high as 0.5 MHz are achieved with a measurement time as short as 400 µs. The key advantages of the proposed OVA include a largely extended measurement range, high measurement speed and high resolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.404680DOI Listing
September 2020
-->