Publications by authors named "Weidong Wang"

573 Publications

Fine Mapping of the Leaf Rust Resistance Gene in Spelt Wheat 'Altgold'.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:666921. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE), Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Wheat leaf rust (also known as brown rust), caused by the fungal pathogen Erikss. (Pt), is one by far the most troublesome wheat disease worldwide. The exploitation of resistance genes has long been considered as the most effective and sustainable method to control leaf rust in wheat production. Previously the leaf rust resistance gene has been mapped to the distal end of chromosome arm 2AS linked to molecular marker . In this study, was delimited to a 0.8 cM interval between flanking markers and , by employing two larger segregating populations obtained from crosses of the resistant parent Altgold Rotkorn (ARK) with the susceptible parents Xuezao and Chinese Spring (CS), respectively. 24 individuals from 622 F plants of crosses between ARK and CS were obtained that showed the recombination between gene and the flanking markers and . With the aid of the CS reference genome sequence (IWGSC RefSeq v1.0), one SSR marker was developed between the interval matched to the -flanking marker and a high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed. The was finally located to a region corresponding to 60.11 Kb of the CS reference genome. The high-resolution genetic linkage map founded a solid foundation for the map-based cloning of and the co-segregating marker will facilitate the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the target gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.666921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274547PMC
June 2021

Mussel-Inspired Bisphosphonated Injectable Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Adhesive, Self-Healing, and Osteogenic Properties for Bone Regeneration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 6;13(28):32673-32689. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, PR China.

Injectable hydrogels have received much attention because of the advantages of simulation of the natural extracellular matrix, microinvasive implantation, and filling and repairing of complex shape defects. Yet, for bone repair, the current injectable hydrogels have shown significant limitations such as the lack of tissue adhesion, deficiency of self-healing ability, and absence of osteogenic activity. Herein, a strategy to construct mussel-inspired bisphosphonated injectable nanocomposite hydrogels with adhesive, self-healing, and osteogenic properties is developed. The nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(l-glutamic acid)-dextran (nHA/PLGA-Dex) dually cross-linked (DC) injectable hydrogels are fabricated via Schiff base cross-linking and noncovalent nHA-BP chelation. The chelation between bisphosphonate ligands (alendronate sodium, BP) and nHA favors the uniform dispersion of the latter. Moreover, multiple adhesion ligands based on catechol motifs, BP, and aldehyde groups endow the hydrogels with good tissue adhesion. The hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and the introduction of BP and nHA both can effectively promote viability, proliferation, migration, and osteogenesis differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The incorporation of BP groups and HA nanoparticles could also facilitate the angiogenic property of endothelial cells. The nHA/PLGA-Dex DC hydrogels exhibited considerable biocompatibility despite the presence of a certain degree of inflammatory response in the early stage. The successful healing of a rat cranial defect further proves the bone regeneration ability of nHA/PLGA-Dex DC injectable hydrogels. The developed tissue adhesive osteogenic injectable nHA/PLGA-Dex hydrogels show significant potential for bone regeneration application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06058DOI Listing
July 2021

Fine particulate matter constituents and infant mortality in Africa: A multicountry study.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 30;156:106739. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Fudan University, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Few studies have investigated the association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and infant mortality in developing countries, especially for the health effects of specific PM constituents.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to specific PM constituents with infant mortality in 15 African countries from 2005 to 2015.

Methods: Based on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) dataset, we included birth history records from 15 countries in Africa and conducted a multicountry cross-sectional study to examine the associations between specific PM constituents and infant mortality. We estimated annual residential exposure using satellite-derived PM for mass and a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) for its six constituents, including organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO), nitrate (NO), ammonium (NH), and soil dust (DUST). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed by fitting single-constituent models, the constituent-PM models, and the constituent-residual models. We also conducted stratified analyses by potential effect modifiers and examined the specific associations for each country.

Results: We found positive and significant associations between PM total mass and most of its constituents with infant mortality. In the single-constituent model, for an IQR increase in pollutant concentrations, the odds ratio (OR) of infant mortality was 1.03 (95 %CI; 1.01, 1.06) for PM total mass, and was 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.06), 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.02 (95 %CI: 1.00, 1.03), 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) for BC, OM, SO, and DUST, respectively. The associations of BC, OM, and SO remained significant in the other two models. We observed larger estimates in subgroups with older maternal age, living in urban areas, using unclean cooking energy, and with access to piped water. The associations varied among countries, and by different constituents.

Conclusions: The carbonaceous fractions and sulfate play a major important role among PM constituents on infant mortality. Our findings have certain policy implications for implementing effective measures for targeted reduction in specific sources (fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning) of PM constituents against the risk of infant mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106739DOI Listing
June 2021

MicroRNA Omics Analysis of Pollen Tubes in Response to Low-Temperature and Nitric Oxide.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 23;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Nitric oxide (NO) as a momentous signal molecule participates in plant reproductive development and responds to various abiotic stresses. Here, the inhibitory effects of the NO-dominated signal network on the pollen tube growth of under low temperature (LT) were studied by microRNA (miRNA) omics analysis. The results showed that 77 and 71 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were induced by LT and NO treatment, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that DEM target genes related to microtubules and actin were enriched uniquely under LT treatment, while DEM target genes related to redox process were enriched uniquely under NO treatment. In addition, the target genes of miRNA co-regulated by LT and NO are only located on the cell membrane and cell wall, and most of them are enriched in metal ion binding and/or transport and cell wall organization. Furthermore, DEM and its target genes related to metal ion binding/transport, redox process, actin, cell wall organization and carbohydrate metabolism were identified and quantified by functional analysis and qRT-PCR. In conclusion, miRNA omics analysis provides a complex signal network regulated by NO-mediated miRNA, which changes cell structure and component distribution by adjusting Ca gradient, thus affecting the polar growth of the pollen tube tip under LT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11070930DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 18;293:78-89. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents during global COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 to 2020, and the potential modifying effects of age and gender.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and two Chinese academic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang) for studies published from December 2019 to September 2020 that reported the prevalence of above mental health problems among children and adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the pooled prevalence.

Results: Twenty-three studies (21 cross-sectional studies and 2 longitudinal studies) from two countries (i.e., China and Turkey) with 57,927 children and adolescents were identified. Depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed in 12, 13, 2, and 2 studies, respectively. Meta-analysis of results from these studies showed that the pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were 29% (95%CI: 17%, 40%), 26% (95%CI: 16%, 35%), 44% (95%CI: 21%, 68%), and 48% (95%CI: -0.25, 1.21), respectively. The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that adolescents and females exhibited higher prevalence of depression and anxiety compared to children and males, respectively.

Limitations: All studies in meta-analysis were from China limited the generalizability of our findings.

Conclusions: Early evidence highlights the high prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among female and adolescents. Studies investigating the mental health of children and adolescents from countries other than China are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.021DOI Listing
June 2021

Adipsin promotes bone marrow adiposity by priming mesenchymal stem cells.

Elife 2021 06 22;10. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Naomi Berrie Diabetes Cente, Columbia University, New York, United States.

Background: Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has been shown to be vital for regulating metabolism and maintaining skeletal homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) niche. As a reflection of BM remodeling, MAT is highly responsive to nutrient fluctuations, hormonal changes, and metabolic disturbances such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Expansion of MAT has also been strongly associated with bone loss in mice and humans. However, the regulation of BM plasticity remains poorly understood, as does the mechanism that links changes in marrow adiposity with bone remodeling.

Methods: We studied deletion of Adipsin, and its downstream effector, C3, in C57BL/6 mice as well as the bone-protected PPARγ constitutive deacetylation 2KR mice to assess BM plasticity. The mice were challenged with thiazolidinedione treatment, calorie restriction, or aging to induce bone loss and MAT expansion. Analysis of bone mineral density and marrow adiposity was performed using a μCT scanner and by RNA analysis to assess adipocyte and osteoblast markers. For studies, primary bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and subjected to osteoblastogenic or adipogenic differentiation or chemical treatment followed by morphological and molecular analyses. Clinical data was obtained from samples of a previous clinical trial of fasting and high-calorie diet in healthy human volunteers.

Results: We show that Adipsin is the most upregulated adipokine during MAT expansion in mice and humans in a PPARγ acetylation-dependent manner. Genetic ablation of Adipsin in mice specifically inhibited MAT expansion but not peripheral adipose depots, and improved bone mass during calorie restriction, thiazolidinedione treatment, and aging. These effects were mediated through its downstream effector, complement component C3, to prime common progenitor cells toward adipogenesis rather than osteoblastogenesis through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Conclusions: Adipsin promotes new adipocyte formation and affects skeletal remodeling in the BM niche. Our study reveals a novel mechanism whereby the BM sustains its own plasticity through paracrine and endocrine actions of a unique adipokine.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health T32DK007328 (NA), F31DK124926 (NA), R01DK121140 (JCL), R01AR068970 (BZ), R01AR071463 (BZ), R01DK112943 (LQ), R24DK092759 (CJR), and P01HL087123 (LQ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219379PMC
June 2021

Evaluating carbon content in airway macrophages as a biomarker of personal exposure to fine particulate matter and its acute respiratory effects.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 14;283:131179. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China; Shanghai Typhoon Institute/CMA, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

It remains unclear whether carbon content in airway macrophages (AM) can predict personal short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution and its respiratory health effects. We aimed to evaluate the pathway from personal PM exposure to adverse respiratory outcomes through AM carbon content. We designed a longitudinal panel study with 3 scheduled follow-ups among 113 non-smoking patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Shanghai, China, from April 2017 to January 2019. We quantified AM carbon content from induced sputum by image analysis, tested lung function and measured sputum levels of 4 pro-inflammatory cytokines and 2 anti-inflammatory cytokines. We applied the "meet in the middle" approach incorporating linear mixed-effect models to evaluate the associations from external PM exposure to respiratory outcomes through AM carbon content. Our results indicated that personal exposure to PM within 24 h was significantly associated with decreased forced expiratory volume in 1s and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increased macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These changes were accompanied by increased areas of AM carbon and higher percentage of AM area occupied by carbon, both of which were associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exposure to ambient black carbon and organic carbon in PM within 2 days was significantly associated with increased AM carbon area and percentage of AM area occupied by carbon. Our findings reinforced the causality in respiratory health effects of PM in which increased AM carbon content might serve as a valid exposure biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131179DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations of residential greenness with peripheral and central obesity in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 28;791:148084. Epub 2021 May 28.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China.

Background: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for public health. Recent studies found that greenness exposure may protect against obesity. However, the accumulated evidence on associations of greenness-obesity is inconsistent and most of them are from developed countries.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the associations of greenness exposure with indicators of peripheral and central obesity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a Chinese national Sub-Clinical Outcomes of Polluted Air (SCOPA) prospective cohort across 15 provinces, and 5849 participants with average age of 64.7 were included. Surrounding greenness was estimated with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which was calculated at each participant's residential addresses within a 250 m buffer. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio% (WHtR%) were calculated based on those measurements. The relationships between EVI and obese outcomes were explored using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models.

Results: Non-linear associations were observed between EVI and obese indicators. Participants living in Quartile 3 benefited more than in Quartile 4 compared to the lowest quartile (Quartile 1) of greenness. For peripheral obesity, participants living in Quartile 3 of EVI had 0.86 kg/m (β -0.86, 95% CI: -1.10, -0.61) lower BMI, and 46% (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.44-0.66) lower odds of peripheral obesity than in Quartile 1. For central obesity, participants living in Quartile 3 of EVI had 1.85 cm (β -1.85, 95% CI: -2.54, -1.15) lower waist circumference, 1.12% (β -1.12, 95% CI: -1.56, -0.67) lower waist-to-height ratio% (WHtR%), and 33% (OR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.57-0.78) lower odds of central obesity than in Quartile 1 of EVI.

Conclusions: Higher levels of greenness were statistically significant associated with lower obesity risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148084DOI Listing
May 2021

Highly Sensitive Pseudocapacitive Iontronic Pressure Sensor with Broad Sensing Range.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 11;13(1):140. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xian, 710049, Shaanxi, P. R. China.

Highlights: The iontronic pressure sensor achieved an ultrahigh sensitivity (S > 200 kPa, S > 45,000 kPa). The iontronic pressure sensor exhibited a broad sensing range of over 1.4 MPa. Pseudocapacitive iontronic pressure sensor using MXene was proposed. Flexible pressure sensors are unprecedentedly studied on monitoring human physical activities and robotics. Simultaneously, improving the response sensitivity and sensing range of flexible pressure sensors is a great challenge, which hinders the devices' practical application. Targeting this obstacle, we developed a TiCT-derived iontronic pressure sensor (TIPS) by taking the advantages of the high intercalation pseudocapacitance under high pressure and rationally designed structural configuration. TIPS achieved an ultrahigh sensitivity (S > 200 kPa, S > 45,000 kPa) in a broad sensing range of over 1.4 MPa and low limit of detection of 20 Pa as well as stable long-term working durability for 10,000 cycles. The practical application of TIPS in physical activity monitoring and flexible robot manifested its versatile potential. This study provides a demonstration for exploring pseudocapacitive materials for building flexible iontronic sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity and sensing range to advance the development of high-performance wearable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00664-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193410PMC
June 2021

Flexible Waterproof Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors with Wide Linear Working Range Based on Conductive Fabrics.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Aug 8;12(1):159. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

CityU-Xidian Joint Laboratory of Micro/Nano-Manufacturing, Xi'an, 710071, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00498-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770928PMC
August 2020

Substrate-Binding Mode and Intermediate-Product Distribution Coguided Protein Design of Alginate Lyase AlyF for Altered End-Product Distribution.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Recently, we reported alginate lyase AlyF that predominantly produced trisaccharides (the trisaccharide content is 87.0%), and the determination of its substrate-binding mode facilitated its protein engineering for new product distribution. To clarify the relationship between the substrate-binding pocket and end-product distribution, the open binding pocket change was initially designed. The resulting F128T_W172R mutant of AlyF exhibited different intermediate-product distributions but still similar end-product distributions. However, these observations suggested that cleavage pattern changes for intermediate products might contribute to an altered end-product distribution. Structural analysis indicated that the sugar-binding affinity at subsite -2 should be redesigned to achieve this goal. Thus, residue Arg266, which is involved in sugar binding at subsite -2, was selected for site-saturation mutagenesis in the F128T_W172R mutant. The dominant end products of the F128T_W172R_R226H mutant were altered to disaccharides and trisaccharides (the disaccharide content increased to 40.5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02473DOI Listing
June 2021

Indoor simulation test research on cumulative longitudinal displacement of rail based on force and displacement sensors data collection.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211023287

School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The train sometimes needs to brake frequently on the turnout, although the braking force does not exceed the limit resistance of fastener, cumulative displacement of rail occurs because of the long-term effect of the train brakes, thus, the relationship between the cumulative displacement of rail and the number of train braking actions should be explored. Aiming at the spring bar type III fastener, a 1:1 physical indoor simulation test was carried out, and an electromagnetic relay device was used to simulate the train load, force, and displacement sensors for data collection. Then a single load no more than the maximum resistance of fastener was applied to the rail end to explore the relationship between the number of loads and the rail cumulative deformation. The rail longitudinal cumulative displacement changes linearly in positive correlation with the number of load actions, and increases faster when the number of load actions is small. As the number of repeated loads increases, the above-mentioned relationship approximately and credibly obeys the power function distribution. Repeatedly applying load no more than the maximum longitudinal resistance of fastener to the rail, the existence of the rail cumulative displacement caused by frequent train braking can be demonstrated, and the relationship curve between the rail displacement and the number of loads can be obtained. Applying the fitting formula, the rail displacement after a specific number of loading times can be attained, and then referring to specific codes, we can determine whether it will exceed the safety limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211023287DOI Listing
June 2021

RIP3 impedes transcription factor EB to suppress autophagic degradation in septic acute kidney injury.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 8;12(6):593. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Autophagy is an important renal-protective mechanism in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) has been implicated in the renal tubular injury and renal dysfunction during septic AKI. Here we investigated the role and mechanism of RIP3 on autophagy in septic AKI. We showed an activation of RIP3, accompanied by an accumulation of the autophagosome marker LC3II and the autophagic substrate p62, in the kidneys of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic AKI mice and LPS-treated cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The lysosome inhibitor did not further increase the levels of LCII or p62 in LPS-treated PTECs. Moreover, inhibition of RIP3 attenuated the aberrant accumulation of LC3II and p62 under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro. By utilizing mCherry-GFP-LC3 autophagy reporter mice in vivo and PTECs overexpression mRFP-GFP-LC3 in vitro, we observed that inhibition of RIP3 restored the formation of autolysosomes and eliminated the accumulated autophagosomes under LPS treatment. These results indicated that RIP3 impaired autophagic degradation, contributing to the accumulation of autophagosomes. Mechanistically, the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the lysosome and autophagy pathway, was inhibited in LPS-induced mice and LPS-treated PTECs. Inhibition of RIP3 restored the nuclear translocation of TFEB in vivo and in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation further showed an interaction of RIP3 and TFEB in LPS-treated PTECs. Also, the expression of LAMP1 and cathepsin B, two potential target genes of TFEB involved in lysosome function, were decreased under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro, and this decrease was rescued by inhibiting RIP3. Finally, overexpression of TFEB restored the autophagic degradation in LPS-treated PTECs. Together, the present study has identified a pivotal role of RIP3 in suppressing autophagic degradation through impeding the TFEB-lysosome pathway in septic AKI, providing potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of septic AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03865-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187512PMC
June 2021

Advanced oxidation protein products impair autophagic flux in macrophage by inducing lysosomal dysfunction via activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in Crohn's disease.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 May 21;172:33-47. Epub 2021 May 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Dysfunction in macrophages is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Previously, we found that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were predominantly deposited in macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria of CD patients. However, whether AOPPs contributes to macrophage dysfunction in CD and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AOPPs on macrophages functions in CD. In the present study, we discovered increased AOPPs levels were positively correlated with impaired autophagy in macrophages of CD patients. AOPPs could impair autophagic flux by inducing lysosomal dysfunction in RAW264.7 cell line and macrophages in AOPPs-treated mice, evidenced by increased number of autophagosomes, blocked degradation of autophagy-related proteins (LC3B-II and SQSTM1/p62), and decreased activity of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes after AOPPs challenge. Besides, AOPPs could also promote M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) in AOPPs-treated mice. In addition, our study revealed that PI3K-AKT-mTOR-TFEB pathway was activated by AOPPs in macrophages. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway effectively alleviated AOPPs-induced autophagy impairment and M1 polarization both in vitro and in vivo, thus reducing intestinal inflammation in AOPPs-challenged mice. Together, this study demonstrates that AOPPs-induced autophagy impairment in macrophages is crucial for CD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.05.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Blocking core fucosylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor prevents peritoneal fibrosis progression.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):869-877

Department of Nephrology, Liaoning Translational Medicine Center of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Objective: Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) ultimately causes ultrafiltration failure and peritoneal dialysis (PD) termination, but there are few effective therapies for it. Core fucosylation, which is catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) in mammals, may play a crucial role in PF development. This study aims to assess the effects of inhibiting core fucosylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor on PF rats.

Methods: PF rats (established by 4.25% glucose dialysate) were treated with either an adenovirus-Fut8 short hairpin RNA (Fut8shRNA) or adenovirus-control. Masson's staining and net ultrafiltration were performed at week six. Fut8 level and core fucosylation of EGF receptor and collagen I in the peritoneal membrane were assessed, and EGF signaling was detected, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and their phosphorylation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in peritoneal effluent was examined.

Results: Fut8 was upregulated in PF rats but decreased after Fut8shRNA treatment. EGF and EGF receptor expression was upregulated in PF rats, while core fucosylation of EGF receptor decreased after Fut8shRNA treatment. Masson's staining results showed an increase in peritoneal thickness in PF rats but a decrease after Fut8shRNA treatment. Fut8shRNA treatment increased net ultrafiltration, reduced the expression of collagen I and MCP-1 compared to PF rats. Fut8shRNA treatment suppressed phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-κB in the peritoneal membrane of PF rats.

Conclusions: Fut8shRNA treatment ameliorated the fibrotic changes in PF rats. A potential mechanism may be that Fut8shRNA treatment inactivated EGF signaling pathway by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and NF-κB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2021.1918557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143636PMC
December 2021

Fine mapping of a powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW39 derived from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Aug 13;134(8):2469-2479. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE), Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Key Message: Powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW39, originated from wild emmer wheat accession IW39, was mapped to a 460.3 kb genomic interval on wheat chromosome arm 2BS. Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is destructive disease and a significant threat to wheat production globally. The most effective way to control this disease is genetic resistance. However, when resistance genes become widely deployed in agriculture, their effectiveness is compromised by virulent variants that were previously minor components of the pathogen population or that arise from mutation. This necessitates continual search for new sources of resistance in both wheat and its near relatives. In this study, we produced a common wheat line 8D49 (87-1/IW39//2*87-1), which has all-stage immunity to Bgt isolate E09 and many other Chinese Bgt isolates, by transferring powdery mildew resistance from Israeli wild emmer wheat (WEW) accession IW39 to the susceptible common wheat line 87-1. Genetic analysis indicated that the powdery mildew resistance in 8D49 was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated MlIW39. Genetic linkage analyses with molecular markers showed that MlIW39 was located in a 0.7 cm genetic region between markers QB-3-16 and 7Seq546 on the short arm of chromosome 2B. Fine mapping using three large F populations delimited MlIW39 to a physical interval of approximately 460.3 kb region in the WEW reference genome (Zavitan v1.0) that contained six annotated protein-coding genes, four of which had gene structures similar to known disease resistance genes. This provides a foundation for map-based cloning of MlIW39. Markers 7Seq622 and 7Seq727 co-segregating with MlIW39 can be utilized for marker-assisted selection in further genetic studies and wheat breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03836-9DOI Listing
August 2021

A review on China's constructed wetlands in recent three decades: Application and practice.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 11;104:53-68. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been introduced to and developed in China for environmental engineering over the most prosperous three decades (1990-2020). To study the origin, development process, and future trend of CWs, this review summarized a wide range of literatures between 1990 and 2020 by Chinese authors. Firstly, the publication number over years, research highlights, and the author contributions with the most published papers in this field were conducted through bibliometric analysis. Secondly, the most principal components of CWs, substrates and macrophytes were summarized and analyzed. Thirdly, the typical application cases from traditional CWs, pond systems to combined pond-wetland systems were presented. In China, CWs were predominately distributed in the east of the so-called 'Hu Huanyong Line'. Therefore CWs were limited by the socio-economic level and climatic conditions. It is unquestionable that the overall level of China's CWs has improved significantly, and one of the most prominent features has started towards the plural pattern development. There has been a trend of large-scale or low-cost CW application in the recent years. However, lifecycle research and management are required for better strategies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.032DOI Listing
June 2021

Enterococcus faecalis contributes to hypertension and renal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats by disturbing lipid metabolism.

J Hypertens 2021 Jun;39(6):1112-1124

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.

Objective: Increasing studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota play vital roles in the development of hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.

Methods: The relative abundance of Enterococcus faecalis was determined in the faecal samples of angiotensin II or deoxycorticosterone acetate/salt-induced hypertensive rats. Then, E. faecalis culture was administered orally to rats for 6 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured, renal injury was estimated and a serum metabolomic analysis was performed.

Results: Compared with control, E. faecalis was markedly enriched in the faecal samples of hypertensive rats. The rats receiving live E. faecalis but not dead bacteria exhibited higher BP and enhanced renal injury. The serum metabolomic data showed that the E. faecalis treatment resulted in 35 variable metabolites including 16 (46%) lipid/lipid-like molecules, suggesting significant disturbance of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of 18 lipid metabolic enzymes in the renal medulla and cortex presented distinct and dynamic changes in response to 3 or 6-week E. faecalis treatment. Consistently, the protein levels of lysophospholipases A1 (LYPLA1) and phospholipase A2 group 4 A (PLA2G4) were enhanced only by live E. faecalis, which thus may have decreased the nitric oxide production in the renal medulla and elevated BP.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that E. faecalis in the gut contributes to hypertension and renal injury in rats by disturbing the lipid metabolism. The information provided here could shed new light on the pathologic mechanisms and potential intervention targets for the treatment of gut dysbiosis-induced hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002767DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic engineering of the precursor supply pathway for the overproduction of the nC-surfactin isoform with promising MEOR applications.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 May 8;20(1):96. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 211816, PR China.

Background: Surfactin, a representative biosurfactant of lipopeptide mainly produced by Bacillus subtilis, consists of a cyclic heptapeptide linked to a β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The functional activity of surfactin is closely related to the length and isomerism of the fatty acid chain.

Results: In this study, the fatty acid precursor supply pathway in Bacillus subtilis 168 for surfactin production was strengthened through two steps. Firstly, pathways competing for the precursors were eliminated with inactivation of pps and pks. Secondly, the plant medium-chain acyl-carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (BTE) from Umbellularia californica was overexpressed. As a result, the surfactin titer after 24 h of cultivation improved by 34%, and the production rate increased from 0.112 to 0.177 g/L/h. The isoforms identified by RP-HPLC and GC-MS showed that the proportion of nC-surfactin increased 6.4 times compared to the control strain. A comparison of further properties revealed that the product with more nC-surfactin had higher surface activity and better performance in oil-washing. Finally, the product with more nC-surfactin isoform had a higher hydrocarbon-emulsification index, and it increased the water-wettability of the oil-saturated silicate surface.

Conclusion: The obtained results identified that enhancing the supply of fatty acid precursor is very essential for the synthesis of surfactin. At the same time, this study also proved that thioesterase BTE can promote the production of nC-surfactin and experimentally demonstrated its higher surface activity and better performance in oil-washing. These results are of great significance for the MEOR application of surfactin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01585-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105922PMC
May 2021

The reference genome of Miscanthus floridulus illuminates the evolution of Saccharinae.

Nat Plants 2021 05 6;7(5):608-618. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China.

Miscanthus, a member of the Saccharinae subtribe that includes sorghum and sugarcane, has been widely studied as a feedstock for cellulosic biofuel production. Here, we report the sequencing and assembly of the Miscanthus floridulus genome by the integration of PacBio sequencing and Hi-C mapping, resulting in a chromosome-scale, high-quality reference genome of the genus Miscanthus. Comparisons among Saccharinae genomes suggest that Sorghum split first from the common ancestor of Saccharum and Miscanthus, which subsequently diverged from each other, with two successive whole-genome duplication events occurring independently in the Saccharum genus and one whole-genome duplication occurring in the Miscanthus genus. Fusion of two chromosomes occurred during rediploidization in M. floridulus and no significant subgenome dominance was observed. A survey of cellulose synthases (CesA) in M. floridulus revealed quite high expression of most CesA genes in growing stems, which is in agreement with the high cellulose content of this species. Resequencing and comparisons of 75 Miscanthus accessions suggest that M. lutarioriparius is genetically close to M. sacchariflorus and that M. floridulus is more distantly related to other species and is more genetically diverse. This study provides a valuable genomic resource for molecular breeding and improvement of Miscanthus and Saccharinae crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-00908-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238680PMC
May 2021

ER stress modulates apoptosis in A431 cell subjected to EtNBSe-PDT via the PERK pathway.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 24;34:102305. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Dermatology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modality against various cancers including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with which the induction of apoptosis is an effective mechanism. Here, we initially describe the preclinical activity of 5-ethylamino-9-diethylaminobenzo [a] phenoselenazinium(EtNBSe)-mediated PDT treatment in SCC. Results of our studies suggest that EtNBSe-PDT provokes a cellular state of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggering the PERK/ eIF2α signaling pathway and induces the appearance of apoptosis in A431 cells at the meantime. With ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA or eIF2α inhibitor ISRIB, suppressing the EtNBSe-PDT induced ER stress substantially promotes apoptosis of A431 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ATF4, whose expression is ER-stress-inducible and elevated in response to the PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway activation, contributes to cytoprotection against EtNBSe-PDT induced apoptosis. In a mouse model bearing A431 cells, EtNBSe shows intense phototoxicity and when associated with decreased ER stress, EtNBSe-PDT ameliorates tumor growth. Taken together, our study reveals an antagonistic activity of ER stress against EtNBSe-PDT treatment via inhibiting apoptosis in A431 cells. With further development, these results provide a proof-of-concept that downregulation of ER stress response has a therapeutic potential to improve EtNBSe-PDT sensitivity in SCC patients via the promotion of induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102305DOI Listing
June 2021

Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor PRT062607 protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss and breast cancer-induced bone destruction.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 23;188:114579. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Osteolytic diseases, including breast cancer-induced osteolysis and postmenopausal osteoporosis, are attributed to excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is involved in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, whose role in breast cancer though remains controversial. Effects of PRT062607 (PRT), a highly specific inhibitor of SYK, on the osteoclast and breast cancer functionalities are yet to be clarified. This study demonstrated the in vitro inhibitory actions of PRT on the osteoclast-specific gene expression, bone resorption, and osteoclastogenesis caused by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), as well as its in vitro suppressive effects on the growth, migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, which were achieved through PLCγ2 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. Further, we proved that PRT could prevent post-ovariectomy (OVX) loss of bone and breast cancer-induced bone destruction in vivo, which agreed with the in vitro outcomes. In conclusion, our findings suggest the potential value of PRT in managing osteolytic diseases mediated by osteoclasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2021.114579DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristics and functional bacteria in a microbial consortium for rice straw lignin-degrading.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 29;331:125066. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Recycling of Argo-Waste in Cold Region, College of Life Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, People's Republic of China; Engineering Research Center of Processing and Utilization of Grain By-products, Ministry of Education, Daqing 163319, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The degradation of lignin is the main rate-limiting step in the bio-pulping of rice straw. A lignin-degrading bacterial consortium LDC, which can efficiently degrade lignin of reed, was screened in the early stage of our laboratory work. In present study, 7-day incubation of LDC can degrade rice straw lignin by 31.18% in mineral salt medium. The communities' structure of different incubation phases varied greatly, in which high abundance (44.78%) of Anaerocolumna was first found. The expression levels of lignin degradation enzyme class II peroxidase (AA2), vanillyl alcohol oxidase (AA4) and 1,4-benzoquinone reductase (AA6) during peak phase (48 h) were significantly up-regulated than initial phase (24 h), increasing by 112%, 165% and 67%, respectively, and 42.86% AA2 was from Thaurea; 100% AA4 was from Clostridium; 62.5% AA6 was from Pseudomonas. These provide microbial resources and data support for the industrialization of rice straw bio-pulping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125066DOI Listing
July 2021

Educational Disparities in COVID-19 Prevention in China: The Role of Contextual Danger, Perceived Risk, and Interventional Context.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 24;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Sociology, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun St., Beijing 100872, China.

Despite the social disparities in COVID-19 infection, little is known about factors influencing social disparities in preventive behaviors during the pandemic. This study examined how educational disparities in mask-wearing, handwashing, and limiting public outings might be contingent upon three factors: contextual cue of danger, perceived risk of local outbreak, and interventional context with different levels of intensity (i.e, Wuhan vs. other areas). Data were obtained from a telephone survey of 3327 adults, who were recruited through a random-digit-dial method to be representative of all cell phone users in China. Interviews were conducted from 28 April to 26 May 2020. Stratified multiple regression models showed that educational disparities in all three behaviors were only consistently observed among people exposed to context cues of danger, with an enhanced sense of risk of a local outbreak, or in areas other than Wuhan. College education seems to make a difference in handwashing regardless of contextual cues of danger or perception of risk. The findings suggested that, in the process of an epidemic, emerging threats in one's immediate environment or raised awareness of risks are important conditions triggering educational disparities in prevention. However, effective public health interventions could potentially reduce such disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036684PMC
March 2021

Clustering of multiple lifestyle behaviors among migrant, left-behind and local adolescents in China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 19;21(1):542. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Background: Influence of migration on externalized behavioral problems (e.g., aggressive) among adolescents has been well assessed, yet lifestyle behaviors of migrant, left-behind and local adolescents have been largely overlooked by researchers and policy-makers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify clustering of multiple lifestyle behaviors and their associations with migrant status among Chinese adolescents.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 in Beijing, and Wuhu city (Anhui province). Adolescents self-reported age, gender, family economic status, migrant situation, and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., physical activity, screen time, sleep, smoke, soft-drink, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption) via a battery of validated questionnaires. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify behavioral clusters using Mplus 7.1. ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine associations between migrant situations and behavioral clusters using SPSS 22.

Results: Three distinct behavioral clusters were exhibited among 1364 students (mean age: 13.41 ± 0.84 years): "low risk" (N = 847), "moderate risk" (N = 412) and "high risk" (N = 105). The "high-risk" cluster had the highest prevalence of adolescents not meeting healthy behavioral recommendations. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of high-risk lifestyle among migrant, left-behind, rural local and urban local adolescents. But migrant adolescents had the lowest prevalence of low-risk lifestyle, followed by left-behind, rural and urban local adolescents. Moreover, compared with urban local, migrant (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.88,3.94), left-behind (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.46, 3.55), and rural local (OR = 1.76, 95%CI:1.03,3.01) adolescents had a higher risk of moderate-risk lifestyle.

Conclusions: Clustering of assessed lifestyle behaviors differed by the migrant status. Particularly, migrant and left-behind adolescents were more likely to have moderate-risk lifestyle compared with their counterparts. Interventions that promote moderate to vigorous physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables simultaneously are needed among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10584-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980326PMC
March 2021

Interplay of BAF and MLL4 promotes cell type-specific enhancer activation.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1630. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Adipocyte Biology and Gene Regulation Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Cell type-specific enhancers are activated by coordinated actions of lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) and chromatin regulators. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex BAF and the histone H3K4 methyltransferase MLL4 (KMT2D) are both implicated in enhancer activation. However, the interplay between BAF and MLL4 in enhancer activation remains unclear. Using adipogenesis as a model system, we identify BAF as the major SWI/SNF complex that colocalizes with MLL4 and LDTFs on active enhancers and is required for cell differentiation. In contrast, the promoter enriched SWI/SNF complex PBAF is dispensable for adipogenesis. By depleting BAF subunits SMARCA4 (BRG1) and SMARCB1 (SNF5) as well as MLL4 in cells, we show that BAF and MLL4 reciprocally regulate each other's binding on active enhancers before and during adipogenesis. By focusing on enhancer activation by the adipogenic pioneer transcription factor C/EBPβ without inducing cell differentiation, we provide direct evidence for an interdependent relationship between BAF and MLL4 in activating cell type-specific enhancers. Together, these findings reveal a positive feedback between BAF and MLL4 in promoting LDTF-dependent activation of cell type-specific enhancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21893-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955098PMC
March 2021

A radiomics model of predicting tumor volume change of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer after radiotherapy.

Sci Prog 2021 Jan-Mar;104(1):36850421997295

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chengdu, China.

To predict the volume change of stage III NSCLC after radiotherapy with 60 Gy.This retrospective study included two independent cohorts, a train cohort of 192 patients, and a test cohort of 31 patients. We developed a radiomics model based on radiomics features and clinical variables. LIFEx package was used to extract radiomics texture features from CT images. The classification method was logistic regression analysis and feature selection was performed by correlation coefficients. Performance metrics of logistic regression include accuracy, precision, the receiver operating characteristic curves, and recall.The combination features of clinical variables and radiomics can predict the tumor volume change after radiotherapy with 88.7% accuracy (88.6% precision, 88.7% recall, and 88.7% ROC area).Radiomics features combined with medical knowledge have a great potential to predict accurately tumor volume change of stage III NSCLC after radiotherapy with 60 Gy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0036850421997295DOI Listing
March 2021

Root exuded low-molecular-weight organic acids affected the phenanthrene degrader differently: A multi-omics study.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 19;414:125367. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, People's Republic of China; College of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

As a class of highly toxic and persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an increasingly urgent environmental problem. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are important factors that regulate the degradation of PAHs by plant rhizosphere microorganisms, which affect the absorption of PAHs by plant roots. However, the comprehensive mechanisms by which LMWOAs influence the biodegradation of PAHs at cellular and omics levels are still unknown. Here, we systematically analyzed the roles of citric, glutaric and oxalic acid in the PAH-degradation process, and investigated the mechanisms through which these three LMWOAs enhance phenanthrene (PHE) biodegradation by B. subtilis ZL09-26. The results showed that LMWOAs can improve the solubility and biodegradation of PHE, enhance cell growth and activity, and relieve membrane and oxidative stress. Citric acid enhanced PHE biodegradation mainly by improving the strain's cell proliferation and activity, while glutaric and oxalic acid accelerated PHE biodegradation mainly by improving the expression of enzymes and providing energy for the cells of B. subtilis ZL09-26. This study provides new insights into rhizospheric bioremediation mechanisms, which may enable the development of new biostimulation techniques to improve the bioremediation of PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125367DOI Listing
July 2021