Publications by authors named "Wei-Rui Zhao"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Scanning of Temporal Vessels to Assess the Safety of Filler Injections.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Temple filler injection is one of the most common minimally invasive cosmetic procedures involving the face; however, vascular complications are not uncommon.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anatomy of the temporal vessels and provide a more accurate protocol for temple filler injection.

Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 56 cadaveric heads injected with lead oxide were obtained. We then used Mimics software to construct 3-dimensional (3D) images of the temporal vessels described by a coordinate system based on the bilateral tragus and right lateral canthus.

Results: In the XOY plane, the superficial temporal artery (STA), middle temporal artery (MTA), zygomatico-orbital artery (ZOA), posterior branch of the deep temporal artery (PDTA), and lateral margin of the orbital rim divide the temple into 4 parts (A, B, C, and D). The probabilities of the STA, MTA, ZOA, and PDTA appearing in parts A, B, C, and D were 30.73%, 37.06%, 39.48%, and 77.18%, respectively. In 3D images, these vessels together compose an arterial network that is anastomosed with other vessels, such as the external carotid, facial, and ocular arteries.

Conclusions: 3D CT images can digitally elucidate the exact positions of temporal vessels in a coordinate system, improving the safety of temple filler injections in a clinical setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa371DOI Listing
February 2021

Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Study on the Vessels of the Zygomatic Region: Arterial Variations and Clinical Relevance.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Feb;147(2):328-336

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Guangdong Second Provincial People's Hospital.

Background: Injection-based techniques for "cheek augmentation" have gained popularity in recent years. The aim of this study was to perform a topographic analysis of the depth and distribution of the vessels in the zygomatic region to facilitate clinical procedures.

Methods: The external carotid arteries of seven cadaveric heads were infused with lead oxide contrast medium. The facial and superficial temporal arteries of another 12 cadaveric heads were injected sequentially with the same medium. Computed tomographic scanning was then performed, and three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were reconstructed using validated algorithms.

Results: The vessels on the zygomatic arch received a double blood supply from across the upper and lower borders of the arch, and the number of the vessels varied from one to four. Ninety percent of the vessels on the zygomatic arch were at a depth of 1 to 2.5 mm, and 75 percent were at a depth of 10 to 30 percent of the soft-tissue thickness. The vessels were concentrated on the midline of the zygomatic arch and the lateral margin of the frontal process. All samples showed a vessel travel along the lateral margin of the frontal process that eventually merged into the superior marginal arcades.

Conclusions: This study reported a topographic analysis of the depth and distribution of the vessels in the zygomatic region based on three-dimensional scanning. The results indicated that injection on the zygomatic arch should be performed deep to the bone, and the vascular zones anterior or posterior to the midline of the zygomatic arch were relatively safe injection areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000007519DOI Listing
February 2021

Parallel Strategy Increases the Thermostability and Activity of Glutamate Decarboxylase.

Molecules 2020 Feb 6;25(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, China.

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) is a unique pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that specifically catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which exhibits several well-known physiological functions. However, glutamate decarboxylase from different sources has the common problem of poor thermostability that affects its application in industry. In this study, a parallel strategy comprising sequential analysis and free energy calculation was applied to identify critical amino acid sites affecting thermostability of GAD and select proper mutation contributing to improve structure rigidity of the enzyme. Two mutant enzymes, D203E and S325A, with higher thermostability were obtained, and their semi-inactivation temperature (T) values were 2.3 °C and 1.4 °C higher than the corresponding value of the wild-type enzyme (WT), respectively. Moreover, the mutant, S325A, exhibited enhanced activity compared to the wild type, with a 1.67-fold increase. The parallel strategy presented in this work proved to be an efficient tool for the reinforcement of protein thermostability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037157PMC
February 2020

A Single Mutation Increases the Thermostability and Activity of Amine Transaminase.

Molecules 2019 Mar 27;24(7). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Enhancing the thermostability of ()-selective amine transaminases (AT-ATA) will expand its application in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines. In this study, mutual information and coevolution networks of ATAs were analyzed by the Mutual Information Server to Infer Coevolution (MISTIC). Subsequently, the amino acids most likely to influence the stability and function of the protein were investigated by alanine scanning and saturation mutagenesis. Four stabilized mutants (L118T, L118A, L118I, and L118V) were successfully obtained. The best mutant, L118T, exhibited an improved thermal stability with a 3.7-fold enhancement in its half-life () at 40 °C and a 5.3 °C increase in compared to the values for the wild-type protein. By the differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) analysis, the best mutant, L118T, showed a melting temperature () of 46.4 °C, which corresponded to a 5.0 °C increase relative to the wild-type AT-ATA (41.4 °C). Furthermore, the most stable mutant L118T displayed the highest catalytic efficiency among the four stabilized mutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479498PMC
March 2019

Biosynthesis of γ-aminobutyrate by engineered Lactobacillus brevis cells immobilized in gellan gum gel beads.

J Biosci Bioeng 2019 Aug 7;128(2):123-128. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is an important chemical in pharmaceutical field. The use of lactic acid bacteria as biocatalysts for the conversion of l-monosodium glutamate (MSG) into GABA opens interesting perspectives for the production of this functional compound. In this work, an engineered GABA high-producing strain Lactobacillus brevis GadA was constructed by overexpressing a C-terminally truncated GadA mutant, which is active in expanded pH range. After comparison with agar and κ-carrageenan, gellan gum was selected as the optimal immobilization support, and the properties of L. brevis GadA cells encapsulated in this hydrogel were examined. The optimum pH and temperature of immobilized cells were found to be 40°C and pH 4.4, respectively. It was also observed that operational and thermal stabilities of the cells were increased with immobilization. After ten consecutive reaction cycles, the total amounts of GABA produced by the immobilized cells summed up to 87.56 g/L under the optimum experimental conditions. Taken together, the improved stability and good usability make the immobilized L. brevis GadA cells more valuable for industrial applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.01.010DOI Listing
August 2019

Construction of stabilized (R)-selective amine transaminase from Aspergillus terreus by consensus mutagenesis.

J Biotechnol 2019 Mar 28;293:8-16. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100, PR China. Electronic address:

Amine transaminases are a class of efficient and industrially-desired biocatalysts for the production of chiral amines. In this study, stabilized variants of the (R)-selective amine transaminase from Aspergillus terreus (AT-ATA) were constructed by consensus mutagenesis. Using Consensus Finder (http://cbs-kazlab.oit.umn.edu/), six positions with the most prevalent amino acid (over 60% threshold) among the homologous family members were identified. Subsequently, these six residues were individually mutated to match the consensus sequence (I77 L, Q97E, H210N, N245D, G292D, and I295 V) using site-directed mutagenesis. Compared to that of the wild-type, the thermostability of all six single variants was improved. The H210N variant displayed the largest shift in thermostability, with a 3.3-fold increase in half-life (t) at 40 °C, and a 4.6 °C increase in T among the single variants. In addition, the double mutant H210N/I77L displayed an even larger shift with 6.1-fold improvement of t at 40 °C, and a 6.6 °C increase in T. Furtherly, the H210N/I77L mutation was introduced into the previously engineered thermostable AT-ATA by the introduction of disulfide bonds, employing B-factor and folding free energy (ΔΔG) calculations. Our results showed that the combined variant H210N/I77L/M150C-M280C had the largest shift in thermostability, with a 16.6-fold improvement of t and a 11.8 °C higher T.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.01.007DOI Listing
March 2019

Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Study on the Periorbital Branches of the Ophthalmic Artery: Arterial Variations and Clinical Relevance.

Aesthet Surg J 2019 09;39(10):1109-1117

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Filler injection is a popular cosmetic procedure, but it can entail vascular complications. Periorbital injections have the highest risk within the entire injection area.

Objectives: The authors sought to systematically screen for periorbital arterial variations prior to treatment.

Methods: The external carotid arteries of 10 cadaveric heads were infused with adequate lead oxide contrast. The facial and superficial temporal arteries of another 11 cadaveric heads were injected with the contrast in sequential order. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed after injection of contrast, and 3-dimensional (3D) CT scans were reconstructed using validated algorithms.

Results: Three types of periorbital blood vessels were found to derive from the ophthalmic artery, including 30% directly originating from the ophthalmic artery, 65% originating from its trochlear branch, and 5% originating from its supraorbital branch. In the forehead, the ophthalmic artery, originating from the internal carotid arteries, formed anastomoses between the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery, originating from the external carotid artery, with the deep and superficial branches of the supratrochlear and supraorbital arteries, respectively. The lateral orbit and malar plexus can be classified into 4 types based on the trunk artery: the zygomatic orbital artery (27%), the transverse facial artery (23%), the premasseteric branch of the facial artery (19%), and all 3 contributing equally (31%).

Conclusions: Postmortem 3D CT can map periorbital arterial variations. The branching pattern of the ophthalmic artery, the ophthalmic angiosome in the forehead, and the distribution of the lateral orbit and malar plexus were identified at high resolution to guide clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjy228DOI Listing
September 2019

High-Throughput Screening of Full-Face Clinically Relevant Arterial Variations Using Three-Dimensional Postmortem Computed Tomography.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 11;142(5):653e-664e

From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Radiology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital.

Background: Vascular complications resulting from intravascular filler injection and embolism are major safety concerns for facial filler injection. It is essential to systematically screen full-face arterial variations and help design evidence-based safe filler injection protocols.

Methods: The carotid arteries of 22 cadaveric heads were infused with adequate lead oxide contrast. The facial and superficial temporal arteries of another 12 cadaveric heads were injected with the contrast in a sequential order. A computed tomographic scan was acquired after each contrast injection, and each three-dimensional computed tomographic scan was reconstructed using validated algorithms.

Results: Three-dimensional computed tomography clearly demonstrated the course, relative depth, and anastomosis of all major arteries in 63 qualified hemifaces. The ophthalmic angiosome consistently deploys two distinctive layers of branch arteries to the forehead. The superficial temporal and superior palpebral arteries run along the preauricular and superior palpebral creases, respectively. The study found that 74.6 percent of the hemifaces had nasolabial trunks coursing along the nasolabial crease, and that 50.8 percent of the hemifaces had infraorbital trunks that ran through the infraorbital region. Fifty percent of the angular arteries were the direct anastomotic channels between the facial and ophthalmic angiosomes, and 29.2 percent of the angular arteries were members of the ophthalmic angiosomes.

Conclusions: Full-face arterial variations were mapped using postmortem three-dimensional computed tomography. Facial creases were in general correlated with underlying deep arteries. Facial and angular artery variations were identified at high resolution, and reclassified into clinically relevant types to guide medical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000004834DOI Listing
November 2018

Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 glutamate decarboxylase: Crystal structure and functional analysis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 09 24;503(3):1703-1709. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100, PR China. Electronic address:

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which is a unique pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, can catalyze α-decarboxylation of l-glutamate (L-Glu) to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). The crystal structure of GAD in complex with PLP from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 was successfully solved by molecular-replacement, and refined at 2.2 Å resolution to an R factor of 18.76% (R = 23.08%). The coenzyme pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) forms a Schiff base with the active-site residue Lys279 by continuous electron density map, which is critical for catalysis by PLP-dependent decarboxylase. Gel filtration showed that the active (pH 4.8) and inactive (pH 7.0) forms of GAD are all dimer. The residues (Ser126, Ser127, Cys168, Ile211, Ser276, His278 and Ser321) play important roles in anchoring PLP cofactor inside the active site and supporting its catalytic reactivity. The mutant T215A around the putative substrate pocket displayed an 1.6-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency (k/K) compared to the wild-type enzyme (1.227 mM S versus 0.777 mM S), which was the highest activity among all variants tested. The flexible loop (Tyr308-Glu312), which is positioned near the substrate-binding site, is involved in the catalytic reaction, and the conserved residue Tyr308 plays a vital role in decarboxylation of L-Glu.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.07.102DOI Listing
September 2018

Physiology-Oriented Engineering Strategy to Improve Gamma-Aminobutyrate Production in Lactobacillus brevis.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Feb 18;65(4):858-866. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310027, China.

Gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is an important chemical in the pharmaceutical field. GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offer the opportunity of developing this health-oriented product. In this study, the gadA, gadB, gadC, gadCB, and gadCA gene segments of Lactobacillus brevis were cloned into pMG36e, and strain Lb. brevis/pMG36e-gadA was selected for thorough characterization in terms of GABA production after analysis of GAD activities. Subsequently, a physiology-oriented engineering strategy was adopted to construct an FF-ATPase deficient strain NRA6 with higher GAD activity. As expected, strain NRA6 could produce GABA at a concentration of 43.65 g/L with a 98.42% GABA conversion rate in GYP fermentation medium, which is 1.22-fold higher than that obtained by the wild-type strain in the same condition. This work demonstrates how the acid stress response mechanisms of LAB can be employed to develop cell factories with improved production efficiency and contributes to research into the development of the physiology-oriented engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04442DOI Listing
February 2017

[Study on the effect of ultrasound on the secondary structure of BSA by FTIR].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2010 Aug;30(8):2072-6

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Structure changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) under ultrasound treatment were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The largest emission peak of BSA solution's fluorescence spectra shifted in blue orientation, indicating that the environment of the Trp residues in BSA had altered with ultrasound treatment. The fluorescence intensity of the solution has also decreased with ultrasound, which showed fluorescence quenching effect and the conformation changes of the BSA. The relative contents of a-helix, beta-fold, beta-turn and random coil under different ultrasound treatment power and time were quantitatively determined via analysis of the amide I changes of infrared spectra of BSA using curve fitting method, the secondary structure of BSA had variation trend from alpha-helix to beta-sheet, however, the relative contents random coil had not significant change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
August 2010