Publications by authors named "Wei-Hsian Yin"

160 Publications

The Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The Eligibility of Novel Heart Failure Medications.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2021 Jul;37(4):394-403

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital.

Background: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and beta-blockers are the initial treatment of choice for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), whereas sacubitril/valsartan (SAC/VAL) and ivabradine are considered to second-line therapies. The eligibility of SAC/VAL and ivabradine according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) labels, Taiwan National Health Insurance (TNHI) reimbursement regulations, and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) heart failure (HF) guidelines are diverse, and they may not fulfill the needs of real-world HFrEF patients.

Methods: Patients hospitalized for HF with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were recruited from 21 hospitals in Taiwan between 2013 and 2014. The criteria for SAC/VAL and ivabradine according to the different regulations were applied.

Results: Of 1,474 patients, 86.8%, 29.4%, and 9.5% met the EMA/FDA label criteria, TNHI-regulation, and ESC guidelines for SAC/VAL, compared to 47.1%, 37.2%, and 45.6% for ivabradine, respectively. Ineligible reasons for the TNHI regulations included LVEF > 35% (19.9%, for SAC/VAL and ivabradine) and sinus rate < 75 beats per minute (bpm) (29.9%, for ivabradine). Although not meeting the TNHI regulations, patients with LVEF 35-40% had a similar 1-year mortality rate (15.6% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.876) to those with LVEF ≤ 35%, whereas patients with a sinus rate 70-74 bpm had a similar 1-year mortality rate (15.3% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.805) to those with a sinus rate ≥ 75 bpm.

Conclusions: Approximately 70% and 63% of TSOC-HFrEF registry patients were ineligible for SAC/VAL and ivabradine, respectively, according to current TNHI regulations. Regardless of the eligibility for novel HFrEF medications, the high incidence of adverse events suggests that all patients should be treated cautiously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6515/ACS.202107_37(4).20201223ADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261705PMC
July 2021

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Very Small Vessels With the Use of a Newer-Generation 2.0 mm Drug-Eluting Stent.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Jul;33(7):E565-E574

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, No 45, Cheng Hsin St, Beitou, Taipei 112, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Objectives: The outcomes of treating coronary artery disease (CAD) in very small vessels <2.25 mm are sparse. The present study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the Resolute Onyx 2.0 mm drug-eluting stent (DES) (Medtronic) with the Onyx 2.25 mm DES for the treatment of CAD.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CAD involving Onyx 2.0 mm DES (Onyx 2.0 group) and Onyx 2.25 mm DES (Onyx 2.25 group) in the 2 consecutive years from November 2016 to November 2018. Major adverse cardiac and cerebral event (MACCE) rate, defined as all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularization for target-lesion failure, was reported.

Results: A total of 152 subjects with 160 lesions were enrolled. The baseline demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedural results between the two groups were similar. The lesions were significantly shorter (P<.01), fewer stents were consequently deployed (P=.04), and the total stent length was shorter (P<.01) in the Onyx 2.0 group vs the Onyx 2.25 group. At a median follow-up of 673 days, MACCE rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. Multivariate analysis identified the presence of atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and the use of statins to be independently associated with MACCE.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the use of the Onyx 2.0 mm DES to treat CAD in very small vessels (<2.25 mm) is feasible and safe, and the clinical outcomes were similar to those of the Onyx 2.25 mm group.
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July 2021

Effects of Transapical Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 11;8:633369. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

In this study, transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation (TAMVI) was compared with surgical redo mitral valve replacement (SRMVR) in terms of clinical outcomes. We retrospectively identified patients with degenerated mitral bioprosthesis or failed annuloplasty rings who underwent redo SRMVR or TAMVI at our medical center. Clinical outcomes were based on echocardiography results. We retrospectively identified patients with symptomatic mitral bioprosthetic valve dysfunction ( = 58) and failed annuloplasty rings ( = 14) who underwent redo SRMVR ( = 36) or TAMVI ( = 36). The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality scores were higher in the TAMVI group (median: 9.52) than in the SRMVR group (median: 5.59) (-value = 0.02). TAMVI patients were more severe in New York Heart Association (-value = 0.04). The total procedure time (skin to skin) and length of stay after procedures were significantly shorter in the TAMVI group, and no significant difference in mortality was noted after adjustment for confounding factors (-value = 0.11). The overall mean mitral valve pressure gradient was lower in the TAMVI group than in the SRMVR group at 24 months ( < 0.01). Both groups presented a decrease in the severity of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation at 3-24 months. In conclusion, the statistical analysis is still not robust enough to make a claim that TAMVI is an appropriate alternative. The outcome of the patient appears only to be related to the patient's pre-operative STS score. Additional multi-center, longitudinal studies are warranted to adequately assess the effect of TAMVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.633369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225931PMC
June 2021

Adherence to healthy lifestyle improved clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients after coronary intervention.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Jun;84(6):596-605

Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Lifestyle modification is suggested for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the impact of adherence to a healthy lifestyle remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to a healthy lifestyle with future outcomes and biochemical markers in CAD patients.

Methods: The Biosignature CAD study examined 716 CAD patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Information was collected on whether these patients adhered to a healthier lifestyle after PCI, including healthy diet, not smoking, and exercise. The clinical outcomes included major cardiovascular events and unplanned revascularization procedures, hospitalization for refractory or unstable angina, and other causes.

Results: The average follow-up period was 26.8 ± 8.1 months, during which 175 (24.4%) patients experienced at least one event. The combination of healthy lifestyle factors was associated with lower risk, and the maximum risk reduction reached 50% (hazard ratio: 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.99). As the number of healthy lifestyle factors increased, there were decreases in inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein, waist circumference, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p < 0.05). The benefits of modifiable healthy lifestyle factors were especially observed in the younger population, males, patients with HDL <40 mg/dL, those with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and those receiving statin therapy.

Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle is independently associated with a lower risk of future adverse events in CAD patients and plays an important role in secondary prevention in the era of interventional cardiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000536DOI Listing
June 2021

Prasugrel switching from clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in Taiwanese patients: an analysis of safety and efficacy.

Cardiovasc Interv Ther 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The recommended maintenance dose of prasugrel for East Asian populations (i.e., Japanese and Taiwanese) is 3.75 mg as part of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for the prevention of recurrent ischemia and stent thrombosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This modified dosage regimen has been established in studies conducted in Japan; however, the efficacy and safety of switching from clopidogrel to prasugrel DAPT among Taiwanese patients remain to be explored. In this phase IV, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study, we evaluated the 4-week pharmacodynamic response, and the 48-week safety outcomes of prasugrel 3.75 mg after a switch from clopidogrel in Taiwanese ACS patients. A total of 203 prasugrel-naïve ACS patients (over 90% male) who had received post-PCI clopidogrel DAPT for at least 2 weeks were enrolled from ten medical centers in Taiwan and subsequently switched to prasugrel 3.75 mg DAPT. Four weeks after the switch, P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) values were significantly decreased in the total cohort (mean - 18.2 ± 48.1; 95% confidence interval - 24.9 to - 11.5, p < 0.001), and there was an overall consistent antiplatelet response in the treated subjects. The proportion of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR; PRU > 208) dropped from 23.5 to 10% (p < 0.001). Female sex was associated with a greater PRU reduction with prasugrel, whereas HPR at baseline, age ≥ 65 years, and body mass index ≥ 25 best predicted HPR at Week 4. Throughout the 48-week treatment with prasugrel, the incidences of MACE (1.0%) and TIMI major bleeding (2.0%) were rather low, accompanying an acceptable safety profile of TIMI minor (6.4%) and non-major, non-minor clinically relevant bleeding (3.0%). Overall, switching to the maintenance dose of prasugrel (3.75 mg) was observed to be effective and well tolerated among post-PCI ACS patients in Taiwan. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03672097.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12928-021-00771-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Fenofibrate attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice via activating the eNOS/EPC pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1159. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) improve endothelial impairment, which in turn restores endothelial function in patients with heart failure (HF). In the present study, we tested whether fenofibrate, with its anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective effects, could improve myocardial function by activating EPCs through the eNOS pathway in a doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy mouse model. Wild-type mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with vehicle, DOX + saline, DOX + fenofibrate, and DOX + fenofibrate + L-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). DOX-induced cardiac atrophy, myocardial dysfunction, the number of circulating EPCs and tissue inflammation were analyzed. Mice in the DOX + fenofibrate group had more circulating EPCs than those in the DOX + saline group (2% versus 0.5% of total events, respectively) after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. In addition, the inhibition of eNOS by L-NAME in vivo further abolished the fenofibrate-induced suppression of DOX-induced cardiotoxic effects. Protein assays revealed that, after DOX treatment, the differential expression of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and NT-pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) between saline- and DOX-treated mice was involved in the progression of HF. Mechanistically, fenofibrate promotes Akt/eNOS and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), which results in the activation of EPC pathways, thereby ameliorating DOX-induced cardiac toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-80984-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806979PMC
January 2021

Sex differences in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement in Asia.

Open Heart 2021 01;8(1)

Department of Cardiology, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly performed. Physically small Asians have smaller aortic root and peripheral vessel anatomy. The influence of gender of Asian patients undergoing TAVR is unknown and may affect outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in Asian patients undergoing TAVR.

Methods: Patients undergoing TAVR from eight countries were enrolled. In this retrospective analysis, we examined differences in characteristics, 30-day clinical outcomes and 1-year survival between female and male Asian patients.

Results: Eight hundred and seventy-three patients (54.4% women) were included. Women were older, smaller and had less coronary artery and lung disease but tended to have higher logistic EuroSCOREs. Smaller prostheses were used more often in women. Major vascular complications occurred more frequently in women (5.5% vs 1.8%, p<0.01); however, 30-day stroke and mortality (women vs men: 1.5% vs 1.6%, p=0.95% and 4.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.48) were similar. Functional status improvement was significant and comparable between the sexes. Conduction disturbance and permanent pacemaker requirements (11.2% vs 9.0%, p=0.52) were also similar as was 1-year survival (women vs men: 85.6% vs 88.2%, p=0.25). The only predictors of 30-day mortality were major vascular injury in women and age in men.

Conclusions: Asian women had significantly smaller stature and anatomy with some differences in clinical profiles. Despite more frequent major vascular complications, women had similar 30-day stroke or mortality rates. Functional status improvement was significant and comparable between the sexes. Conduction disturbance and permanent pacemaker requirements were similar as was 1-year survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798412PMC
January 2021

Rationale and design of the ADAPT-TAVR trial: a randomised comparison of edoxaban and dual antiplatelet therapy for prevention of leaflet thrombosis and cerebral embolisation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

BMJ Open 2021 01 5;11(1):e042587. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul, The Republic of Korea

Introduction: Optimal antithrombotic strategy following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is still unknown. We hypothesised that the direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban can potentially prevent subclinical leaflet thrombosis and cerebral embolisation compared with conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing TAVR.

Methods And Analysis: The ADAPT-TAVR trial is an international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, superiority trial comparing edoxaban-based strategy and DAPT strategy in patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation who underwent successful TAVR. A total of 220 patients are randomised (1:1 ratio), 1-7 days after successful TAVR, to receive either edoxaban (60 mg daily or 30 mg daily if patients had dose-reduction criteria) or DAPT using aspirin (100 mg daily) plus clopidogrel (75 mg daily) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was an incidence of leaflet thrombosis on four-dimensional, volume-rendered cardiac CT imaging at 6 months post-TAVR. The key secondary endpoints were the number of new lesions and new lesion volume on brain diffusion-weighted MRI and the changes in neurological and neurocognitive function assessment between immediate post-TAVR and 6 months of study drug administration. Detailed clinical information on thromboembolic and bleeding events were also assessed.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethic approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board of Asan Medical Center (approval number: 2017-1317) and this trial is also approved by National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation of Republic of Korea (approval number: 31511). Results of this study will be disseminated in scientific publication in reputed journals.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03284827.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786793PMC
January 2021

Prognostic effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease under statin treatment.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21835. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) under statin treatment, the influence of on-treatment level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular (CV) events is controversial. Statin-treated patients were selected from the Taiwanese Secondary Prevention for patients with AtheRosCLErotic disease (T-SPARCLE) Registry, a multicenter, observational study of adult patients with ASCVD in Taiwan. Low HDL-C was defined as < 40 mg/dL for men and < 50 mg/dL for women. The primary outcome was a composite CV events including CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or cardiac arrest with resuscitation. A total of 3731 patients (mean age 65.6 years, 75.6% men) were included. Patients with on-treatment low HDL-C (44%, mean HDL-C 34.9 ± 6.8 mg/dL) were younger and with more diabetes and higher body weight. The mean follow-up time was 2.7 years. We used restricted cubic spline curves to examine the potential non-linear association between HDL-C and adverse outcomes. Decreased HDL-C levels were associated with a significantly increased risk of CV events in women (< 49 mg/dL in women) but not in men (< 42 mg/dL in men). However, the protective effect of elevated HDL-C levels was more prominent in men than in women. In ASCVD patients with statin therapy, low on-treatment HDL-C was common in Taiwan and associated with an increased risk of CV events in women. Higher HDL-C levels provided more protective effect in men than in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78828-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736267PMC
December 2020

Delayed Coronary Obstruction after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement - An Uncommon But Serious Complication.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2020 Sep;36(5):409-415

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital.

As transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) becomes the mainstream treatment for valvular aortic stenosis, it is vitally important to recognize its associated procedural complications. Among the clinically relevant but uncommonly seen complications, the development of delayed coronary obstruction (DCO) occurring during the early post-procedural phase or even later following the index TAVR procedure, has been reported. These reports have raised concerns as TAVR comes more common in lower-risk patients. In this review article, we explored the implications of DCO for pre-procedural computed tomography evaluation, valve selection and sizing, intra-procedural manipulation, and approaches to post-procedural management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6515/ACS.202009_36(5).20200516ADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490610PMC
September 2020

Circulating fatty-acid binding-protein 4 levels predict CV events in patients after coronary interventions.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Jan 25;120(1 Pt 3):728-736. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Institute of Clinical Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Fatty-acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) has been associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, incident heart failure, and the prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, recent studies have not reported a significant correlation between FABP4 and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in high-risk patients or those with documented CHD. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between FABP4 and the prognosis in a cohort of patients with CHD who received coronary interventions.

Methods: Serum FABP4 levels were measured in 973 patients after a successful intervention for CHD, who were then prospectively followed for 30 months.

Result: During this period, 223 patients experienced composite CV outcomes (22.92%), defined as cardiovascular/cerebrovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for refractory or unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, and peripheral artery occlusive disease. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant association between FABP4 levels at baseline (categorized in tertiles) and composite CV outcomes during follow-up (log-rank test, p < 0.003). The patients with the highest tertile of baseline FABP4 had an increased risk of composite CV outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.662; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-2.302; p = 0.0022), which remained significant after multivariate adjustments for traditional risk factors and hs-CRP (HR 1.596; 95% CI, 1.088-2.342; p = 0.0168). In contrast, FABP4 failed to show a significant association with cardiovascular/cerebrovascular death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke after multivariate adjustments (HR, 1.594; 95% CI, 0.651-3.904, p = 0.3073).

Conclusion: In conclusion, circulating FABP4 is an independent prognostic predictor for the composite cardiovascular events in the patients with stable CHD after coronary interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.08.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Stepwise manipulation of cardiac computed tomography multi-planar reconstruction to mimic transesophageal echocardiography.

Echocardiography 2020 09 10;37(9):1512-1523. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to plan transcatheter structural heart interventions. However, intraoperative guidance relies on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy. This study sought to develop a stepwise CT multi-planar reconstruction manipulation method to mimic TEE, bridging the gap between preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance tools. This CT manipulation reproduced similar configurations as TEE views in the mid-esophageal left ventricle (LV) views, transgastric LV 2-chamber views for mitral apparatus, and other miscellaneous views. Stepwise cardiac CT manipulation to mimic TEE is the final piece of the puzzle in the mental co-registration of these three crucial imaging modalities. Now, we can predict the TEE images and fluoroscopy projections in a preoperative rehearsal, thus improving the intraoperative accuracy of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14801DOI Listing
September 2020

2020 Consensus of Taiwan Society of Cardiology on the pharmacological management of patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

J Chin Med Assoc 2020 Jul;83(7):587-621

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan, ROC, University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

The global incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes have been escalating in recent decades. The total diabetic population is expected to increase from 415 million in 2015 to 642 million by 2040. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). About two-thirds of patients with type 2 diabetes died of ASCVD. The association between hyperglycemia and elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk has been demonstrated in multiple cohort studies. However, clinical trials of intensive glucose reduction by conventional antidiabetic agents did not significantly reduce macrovascular outcomes.In December 2008, U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a mandate that every new antidiabetic agent requires rigorous assessments of its CV safety. Thereafter, more than 200,000 patients have been enrolled in a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These trials were initially designed to prove noninferiority. It turned out that some of these trials demonstrated superiority of some new antidiabetic agents versus placebo in reducing CV endpoints, including macrovascular events, renal events, and heart failure. These results are important in clinical practice and also provide an opportunity for academic society to formulate treatment guidelines or consensus to provide specific recommendations for glucose control in various CV diseases.In 2018, the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC) and the Diabetes Association of Republic of China (DAROC) published the first joint consensus on the "Pharmacological Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases." In 2020, TSOC appointed a new consensus group to revise the previous version. The updated 2020 consensus was comprised of 5 major parts: (1) treatment of diabetes in patients with multiple risk factors, (2) treatment of diabetes in patients with coronary heart disease, (3) treatment of diabetes in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease, (4) treatment of diabetes in patients with a history of stroke, and (5) treatment of diabetes in patients with heart failure. The members of the consensus group thoroughly reviewed all the evidence, mainly RCTs, and also included meta-analyses and real-world evidence. The treatment targets of HbA1c were finalized. The antidiabetic agents were ranked according to their clinical evidence. The consensus is not mandatory. The final decision may need to be individualized and based on clinicians' discretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000359DOI Listing
July 2020

Multicentre, randomized comparison of two-stent and provisional stenting techniques in patients with complex coronary bifurcation lesions: the DEFINITION II trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 07;41(27):2523-2536

Division of Cardiology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China.

Aim: The present study aimed to assess the benefits of two-stent techniques for patients with DEFINITION criteria-defined complex coronary bifurcation lesions.

Methods And Results: In total, 653 patients with complex bifurcation lesions at 49 international centres were randomly assigned to undergo the systematic two-stent technique (two-stent group) or provisional stenting (provisional group). The primary endpoint was the composite of target lesion failure (TLF) at the 1-year follow-up, including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TVMI), and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). The safety endpoint was definite or probable stent thrombosis. At the 1-year follow-up, TLF occurred in 37 (11.4%) and 20 (6.1%) patients in the provisional and two-stent groups, respectively [77.8%: double-kissing crush; hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.90; P = 0.019], largely driven by increased TVMI (7.1%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.90; P = 0.025) and clinically driven TLR (5.5%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-1.00; P = 0.049) in the provisional group. At the 1 year after indexed procedures, the incidence of cardiac death was 2.5% in the provisional group, non-significant to 2.1% in the two-stent group (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.31-2.37; P = 0.772).

Conclusion: For DEFINITION criteria-defined complex coronary bifurcation lesions, the systematic two-stent approach was associated with a significant improvement in clinical outcomes compared with the provisional stenting approach. Further study is urgently warranted to identify the mechanisms contributing to the increased rate of TVMI after provisional stenting.

Study Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.com; Identifier: NCT02284750.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa543DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of Arachidonic Acid-derived Lipid Mediators with Subsequent Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

Sci Rep 2020 05 15;10(1):8105. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested for cardiovascular health. This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic impacts of the PUFA metabolites, oxylipins, on clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 2,239 patients with stable CAD were prospectively enrolled and followed up regularly. Among them, twenty-five consecutive patients with new onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 2-year follow-up were studied. Another 50 gender- and age-matched patients without clinical cardiovascular events for more than 2 years were studied for control. Baseline levels of specific arachidonic acid metabolites were significantly higher in patients with subsequent AMI than in the controls. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the incidence of future AMI was more frequently seen in patients with higher baseline levels of 8-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 9-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, 15-HETE, 19-HETE, 20-HETE, 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, or 14-15-EET when compared to their counterparts (all the P < 0.01). Further, serum levels of these specific HETEs, except for 11,12-EET, were positively correlated to the levels of some inflammatory and cardiac biomarker such as tumor necrosis factor-α and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Accordingly, serum specific oxylipins levels are increased and associated with the consequent onset of AMI, suggesting their potential role for secondary prevention in clinically stable CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65014-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229015PMC
May 2020

Potential impacts of high-sensitivity creatine kinase-MB on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

Sci Rep 2020 03 27;10(1):5638. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Institute of Clinical Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of high-sensitivity creatine kinase-myocardial band or fraction (hsCK-MB) in comparison with other well-established biomarkers including heart type-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (SCHD). A total of 1,785 patients were enrolled and followed for 36 months. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes included cardiovascular (CV) death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina-related hospitalizations, and hospitalizations for heart failure. The all-cause mortality rate was significantly higher in the high hsCK-MB group compared to the low hsCK-MB group (4.64% vs. 1.88%, p = 0.0026). After adjusting for baseline covariates, there were no significant differences for the secondary outcomes. H-FABP (≥4.226 ng/mL) was the best predictor for all-cause mortality (HR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.28-5.62, p = 0.009) and CV death (HR = 6.84, 95% CI = 1.89-22.14, p = 0.003). The high NT-proBNP group had a higher AMI-related hospitalization rate (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.00-3.65, p = 0.05). Neither the addition of hsCK-MB to any other markers nor combinations of the three markers improved the prognostic significance of CV outcomes. In conclusion, hsCK-MB was an independent predictor for all-cause mortality but not CV outcomes in patients with SCHD. Combination of hsCK-MB, H-FABP and NT-proBNP failed to improve the prognostic power for all-cause mortality or CV outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61894-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101408PMC
March 2020

Prescription patterns of diabetes medications influencing clinical outcomes of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 04 29;7(2):604-615. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, No. 45, Cheng-Hsin Street, 112 Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan.

Aims: We collected the different prescription patterns of diabetes medications in a cohort of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and analysed the impact of different prescription patterns on clinical outcomes.

Methods And Results: Consecutive diabetic patients with HFrEF from a heart failure referral centre were retrospectively analysed between 2015 and 2016. Exclusion criteria include being lost to follow-up, not receiving diabetes medications, and having severe renal impairment with a glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m . Prescription of diabetes medications and the respective clinical outcomes were collected between 2016 and 2018. Among 381 patients (mean age, 64.8 ± 12.8 years; 71.9% male; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 27.6 ± 7.0%; mean body mass index, 26.1 ± 4.7 kg/m ), the prescription rates of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) increased from 10.3% in 2016 to 17.6% in 2017 and 26.5% in 2018 (P < 0.001); the prescription rates of metformin, sulfonylurea, insulin, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors did not change significantly over time. The prescription rates of metformin and SGLT2i were significantly higher in patients managed by cardiologists than non-cardiologists (in 2018, 71.1% vs. 44.2% for metformin, 45.4% vs. 9.9% for SGLT2i, both P < 0.001). During the study period, annualized event rates of cardiovascular death or first unplanned HF hospitalization were 19.0 per 100 patient-years. After a multivariate analysis, prescriptions of metformin {odds ratio (OR): 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.51], P < 0.001} and SGLT2i [OR: 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.98), P = 0.042] were independently associated with lower annualized event rates of cardiovascular death or unplanned HF hospitalization.

Conclusions: Prescription patterns of diabetes medications in diabetics with HFrEF were diverse among different specialists. Prescriptions of metformin and SGLT2i were associated with favourable clinical outcomes. Our finding indicates the importance of awareness of beneficial effect of different classes of diabetes medications and collaboration between specialists in the management of diabetic HFrEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160466PMC
April 2020

Response to "Grey Areas and Open Questions in Neprilysin Inhibition".

J Cardiol 2020 04 24;75(4):463-464. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2019.12.002DOI Listing
April 2020

The Correlation between Waist-Hip Ratio and Achieving Therapeutic Lipid Goals in Taiwan.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2019 Nov;35(6):605-614

Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital.

Background: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) are all simple anthropometric tools used to categorize obesity status. This study aimed to determine associations between different anthropometric indices and the attainment of therapeutic lipid goals in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) undergoing secondary prevention.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, this multi-center study enrolled 5718 patients undergoing secondary prevention for CVD. At study enrollment, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein protein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were recorded. This cross-sectional study analyzed these three anthropometric obesity indices and correlations with achieving therapeutic lipid goals.

Results: Among the 5718 patients, multivariate analysis revealed that those with higher BMI or WC tended not to meet their HDL-C and TG therapeutic goals. However, neither BMI nor WC showed a relationship with achieving the LDL-C target. The patients with an elevated WHR (≥ 0.98 for males and ≥ 0.97 for females) were less likely to achieve all three lipid target values, including LDL-C (p = 0.05), HDL-C (p < 0.001) and TG (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Among Taiwanese patients undergoing secondary prevention for CVD, the higher the WHR the lower the likelihood of achieving the lipid therapeutic goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6515/ACS.201911_35(6).20190403ADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859101PMC
November 2019

Fenofibrate Reverses Dysfunction of EPCs Caused by Chronic Heart Failure.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2020 04 7;13(2):158-170. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The enhanced activity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists might explain the reversal of chronic heart failure (CHF)-mediated endothelial dysfunction. We studied baseline circulating EPC numbers in patients with heart failure and clarified the effect of fenofibrate on both circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) and late EPC activity. The numbers of circulating EPCs in CHF patients were quantified by flow cytometry. Blood-derived mononuclear cells were cultured, and CAC and late EPC functions, including fibronectin adhesion, tube formation, and migration, were evaluated. We focused on the effect of fenofibrate, an AMPK agonist, on EPC function and Akt/eNOS cascade activation in vitro. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34/KDR) was significantly lower in CHF patients (ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP): 0.07%, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP): 0.068%; p < 0.05) than in healthy subjects (0.102% of the gating region). In CACs, fibronectin adhesion function was reversed by fenofibrate treatment (p < 0.05). Similar results were also found for tube formation and migration in late EPCs, which were significantly improved by fenofibrate in an AMPK-dependent manner (p < 0.05), suggesting that fenofibrate reversed CACs and late EPC dysfunction in CHF patients. The present findings reveal the potential application of the AMPK agonist fenofibrate to reverse endothelial dysfunction in CHF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-019-09889-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Performance and short-term outcomes of three different transcatheter aortic valve replacement devices in patients with aortic stenosis: A single-center experience.

J Chin Med Assoc 2019 Nov;82(11):827-834

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Data on whether different transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) devices and delivery approaches can achieve equally favorable outcomes when performed by a single heart team are scarce. We sought to compare the performance and short-term outcomes of three different TAVR devices-self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve (MCV), mechanically expanded Lotus valve, and balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN XT (SXT)-for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in a single large-volume center in Taiwan.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who underwent TAVR for the treatment of severe AS. Clinical outcomes were reported following Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 (VARC-2) criteria. The composite primary endpoint was combined all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), or disabling stroke within 180 days.

Results: A total of 231 patients (MCV n=112, Lotus n=18, and SXT n=101) were included. The device and procedural success rates were similar among all three TAVR devices. At 30 days, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, periprocedural MI, stroke, major vascular complications, life-threatening bleeding, acute kidney injury (AKI, stage 2/3), or VARC-2 composite early safety endpoints. There was no difference among groups in the rate of primary endpoint within 180 days. Lack of procedural success, presence of acute coronary occlusion during TAVR, and presence of AKI (stage 3) after TAVR were independent predictors of adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: TAVR using MCV, Lotus, or SXT was associated with similar 30- and 180-day clinical outcomes. The presence of periprocedural complications was one of the main determinants of short-term adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000187DOI Listing
November 2019

Recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after sacubitril/valsartan: predictors and management.

J Cardiol 2020 03 26;75(3):233-241. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Literature describing recovery of left ventricular (LV) function post sacubitril/valsartan treatment and the optimal management of heart failure (HF) patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan remain sparse.

Methods: We recruited 437 consecutive chronic HF patients with baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40%, who were treated with sacubitril/valsartan. All patients underwent routine echocardiographic measurement.

Results: During treatment period, recovery of LVEF to 50% or greater was observed in 77 (17.6%) patients. After multivariate analysis, recovery of LV dysfunction was associated with non-ischemic etiology of HF, smaller baseline LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and higher initial dosage of sacubitril/valsartan. Compared to those without recovery of LV dysfunction, death from cardiovascular causes or first unplanned hospitalization for HF (CVD/HFH) were significantly lower in patients with LVEF recovery [11.7% vs. 24.4%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, p = 0.014]. Among patients with recovery of LVEF, 51 patients continued to receive the same dosage of sacubitril/valsartan had higher LVEF and were less likely to have deterioration of LVEF than the other 26 patients who received either tapering dose of sacubitril/valsartan or switching from sacubitril/valsartan to renin-angiotensin-system blockers (LVEF 56.4 ± 5.3% vs. 45.0 ± 12.8%, p < 0.001; ΔLVEF 1.2 ± 5.1% vs. -9.3 ± 12.0%, p < 0.001). CVD/HFH occurred more frequently in the taper group than the maintenance group (23.1% vs. 5.9%, HR 0.22, p = 0.035).

Conclusions: Non-ischemic etiology of HF, smaller baseline LVEDD, and higher initial dosage of sacubitril/valsartan could predict better recovery of LV function. Among patients with functional recovery, tapering sacubitril/valsartan dose was associated with deterioration of recovered heart function and had less favorable prognosis during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2019.08.005DOI Listing
March 2020

Quantification of Stent Creep by Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve-in-Valve Implantation for Failed Bioprostheses.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2019 Jul;35(4):380-386

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation (aVIV) has been used to treat bioprosthetic failure due to "stent creep", defined as inward flexion or bending of stent posts. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) geometric analysis of failed bioprostheses to determine the incidence of stent creep in patients undergoing aVIV and its contribution to the hemodynamics of those valves.

Methods: We retrospectively examined the 3D-TEE of 22 consecutive patients (age 74.4 ± 11.3 years; M/F = 12/10) who underwent aVIV for failed bioprostheses. The modes of bioprosthesis failure included stenosis (n = 8), regurgitation (n = 9), and combined (n = 5). The degree of stent creep was assessed by calculating the triangular area obtained by projecting the apex of stent posts on a reconstructed plane. This measured area was divided by that of the regular triangle defined by the base of stent posts to calculate a ratio, which we termed the "stent creep ratio" (SCR).

Results: The mean SCR was lower in the patients with failed prostheses than that in the controls (0.82 ± 0.16 vs. 0.96 ± 0.05, p = 0.02). The SCR was negatively correlated with the peak trans-aortic pressure gradient (r = -0.62, p < 0.01). An SCR cut-off point of 0.79 was associated with aortic peak velocity > 4 m/s (AUC = 0.81, sensitivity = 0.79, specificity = 0.83). Fourteen of the 22 patients had pre- and post-aVIV 3D-TEE, and the SCR was corrected satisfactorily from 0.81 ± 0.13 to 1.04 ± 0.19 (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: SCR measured by 3D-TEE is feasible to quantitatively evaluate stent creep. Stent creep is an important mode of structural deterioration in surgical bioprostheses, which can be treated by aVIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6515/ACS.201907_35(4).20181126ADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656973PMC
July 2019

2019 Focused Update of the Guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure.

Acta Cardiol Sin 2019 May;35(3):244-283

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei.

Heart failure is a growing epidemic, especially in Taiwan because of the aging population. The 2016 Taiwan Society of Cardiology - Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (TSOC-HFrEF) registry showed that the guideline-recommended therapies were prescribed suboptimally both at the time of hospital discharge and during follow-up. We, therefore, conducted this 2019 focused update of the guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology for the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure to reinforce the importance of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of heart failure. The 2019 focused update discusses new diagnostic criteria, pharmacotherapy, non-pharmacological management, and certain co-morbidities of heart failure. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor and If channel inhibitor is introduced as new and recommended medical therapies. Latest criteria of cardiac resynchronization therapy, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, heart transplantation, and ventricular assist device therapy are reviewed in the non-pharmacological management chapter. Co-morbidities in heart failure are discussed including chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sleep-disordered breathing. We also explain the adequate use of oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation in heart failure management. A particular chapter for chemotherapy-induced cardiac toxicity is incorporated in the focused update to emphasize the importance of its recognition and management. Lastly, implications from the TSOC-HFrEF registry and post-acute care of heart failure are discussed to highlight the importance of guideline-directed medical therapy and the benefits of multidisciplinary disease management programs. With guideline recommendations, we hope that the management of heart failure can be improved in our society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6515/ACS.201905_35(3).20190422ADOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533577PMC
May 2019

Incremental value of right parasternal transthoracic echocardiographic examination over the left parasternal approach in assessing ascending aorta size: Additional benefit of three-dimensional echocardiography.

Echocardiography 2019 07 19;36(7):1306-1314. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: The ascending aorta (AA) has not been well studied using two-dimensional right parasternal transthoracic echocardiographic examination (2DRPE).

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the incremental value of 2DRPE over two-dimensional left parasternal transthoracic echocardiographic examination (2DLPE) in evaluating the size of AA in adult patients (pts) and, secondly, to determine whether live/real time three-dimensional (3D) RPE provided any additional benefit over 2DRPE.

Materials And Methods: The AA was successfully imaged by 2DLPE, 2DRPE, and 3D RPE in 87 of 141 (61.7%) pts which comprised of two groups of consecutive pts separated by an interval of 2 weeks.

Results: The maximum length of AA visualized by 2DRPE (4.98 ± 0.89) was larger than 2DLPE in 76/87(87%) pts (P < 0.001). Both the maximum systolic AA inner luminal width and leading edge-to-leading edge width by 2DRPE were greater than 2DLPE (P < 0.001). Similar to other noninvasive imaging modalities where mid-AA width is taken at level of right pulmonary artery, mid-AA width could also be taken at this level by 2DRPE in 79/87(91%) pts since this landmark was visualized during 2DRPE. However, this vessel could be visualized in only 2/87 (2%) pts with 2DLPE. 3DRPE conferred additional benefit over 2DRPE. The maximal AA length by 3DRPE was larger than 2DRPE in 60/87(69%) pts, and the maximal inner lumen and leading edge to leading edge widths were larger in 54/87(62%) and 66/87(76%) pts, respectively.

Conclusion: Our preliminary study demonstrates significant incremental value of 2DRPE over 2DLPE in the assessment of AA. 3DRPE confers an additional advantage over 2DRPE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14412DOI Listing
July 2019

Computed Tomography-Determined Muscle Quality Rather Than Muscle Quantity Is a Better Determinant of Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Acad Radiol 2020 03 31;27(3):381-388. Epub 2019 May 31.

Heart Center, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, No. 45, Zhenxing Street, Beitou District, Taipei, Taiwan; Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Computed tomography (CT)-determined skeletal muscle measures have been used for predicting postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We investigated the impact of CT-determined muscle quantity (measured as psoas muscle area [PMA] and psoas muscle index [PMI]) and quality (measured as psoas muscle density [PMD]) on hospital length of stay (LOS) after TAVI.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 182 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI between March 2013 and August 2017 with adequate preprocedural CT imaging. Baseline demographic and clinical data, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, the essential frailty toolset (EFT) frailty rating, and precontrast PMD, PMA, and PMI were obtained in all study patients. The primary outcome was prolonged postoperative LOS defined as greater than 14 days.

Results: Patients with prolonged LOS had a significantly higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (p < 0.001) and significantly lower PMD (p < 0.001) than those with LOS ≤14 days. More patients with prolonged LOS had concomitant peripheral vascular disease (p  = 0.001), had undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (p = 0.022), and had an EFT score ≥4 (p < 0.001) compared to those without prolonged LOS. Neither PMA (p = 0.123) nor PMI (p = 0.271) were associated with prolonged LOS. Multivariate analysis identified EFT score ≥4, the presence of peripheral vascular disease, and PMD as independent predictors of prolonged LOS.

Conclusion: The precontrast CT-determined muscle quality measurement PMD is a simple and objective predictor of prolonged LOS after TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2019.05.007DOI Listing
March 2020

Sacubitril/valsartan in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients: Real world experience on advanced chronic kidney disease, hypotension, and dose escalation.

J Cardiol 2019 Oct 11;74(4):372-380. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Heart Center, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibition (ARNI) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality by 20% as compared with enalapril in a randomized controlled trial. However, there is a paucity of real-world data on the effects of ARNI in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), especially those with concurrent renal impairment or hypotension.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2017, we recruited 466 HFrEF patients treated with sacubitril/valsartan (Group A) and 466 patients managed with standard HF treatment without ARNI (Group B) in a HF referral center. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were collected between both groups.

Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. During a follow-up period of 15 months, death from cardiovascular causes or first unplanned hospitalization for HF occurred in 100 patients in Group A (21.5%) and 144 in Group B (30.9%, hazard ratio 0.66; 95% CI 0.51-0.85; p=0.001). The incidences of deaths from any causes, cardiovascular death, sudden death, and HF re-hospitalization were all significantly lower in Group A than Group B patients. Among patients with different chronic kidney disease stages and normotensive patients, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan showed more favorable outcomes than treatment with standard HF care without ARNI. However, in patients with baseline systolic blood pressure lower than 100mmHg, there were no significant differences of outcomes in both groups. Among Group A patients, escalation of sacubitril/valsartan was associated with better outcomes.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan on HFrEF patients in real world practice, including those with advanced renal impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2019.03.010DOI Listing
October 2019

Circulating TNFSF14 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily 14) Predicts Clinical Outcome in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 06;39(6):1240-1252

From the Divison of Cardiology, Department of Medicine (R.-H.C., P.-H.H., H.-B.L., S.-J.L., J.-W.C.), Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

Objective- Basic research indicates that TNFSF14 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14) may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Given the requirements of new biomarkers for risk classification in coronary artery disease (CAD), we conducted a longitudinal analysis to investigate if TNFSF14 levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with stable CAD. Approach and Results- In total, 894 patients with CAD were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study. The primary outcome was the occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and hospitalization because of angina or heart failure. During the mean follow-up period of 22±9 months, 32 patients reached the primary outcome and 166 patients reached the secondary outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the event-free survival was significantly different in the first and fourth quartile groups in subjects categorized by TNFSF14 levels. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, TNFSF14 was independently associated with the risk of cardiovascular events after adjustment for various relevant factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.25). In the validation cohort of 126 multivessel patients with CAD, TNFSF14 was confirmed to provide good prognostic predictive value for composite cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19). Conclusions- This is the first study to demonstrate that increased TNFSF14 levels were independently associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with stable CAD. Future studies are worthy to validate if TNFSF14 could be a novel prognostic biomarker for CAD outcomes over different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312166DOI Listing
June 2019
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