Publications by authors named "Wei Zhu"

2,180 Publications

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Nitrate leaching and NH volatilization during soil reclamation in the Yellow River Delta, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 10;286:117330. Epub 2021 May 10.

Yellow River Delta Ecological Research Station of Coastal Wetlands, Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, 264003, China.

The agricultural ecological system is an important part of the Yellow River Delta (YRD); however, soil reclamation may trigger environmental concerns about nitrate leaching and NH volatilization in this area. To assess nitrogen losses during soil reclamation, a two-year field experiment was conducted with plastic film mulch, which is an effective way to alleviate water-salt stress. The Hydrus-2D software package was used to calculate nitrogen transport, transformation and losses. The results showed that nitrogen (N) retention in the soil varied during the two growing seasons, because soil water, salinity and climatic conditions acted together on nitrogen transport and transformation. Soil salinity promoted NH volatilization, and the proportions of ammonia volatilization were 22.78 percent and 19.50 percent of the N input in 2018 and 2019, respectively, because urea hydrolysis, nitrification and soil NH-N adsorption capacity were limited by soil salt. NO-N leaching was controlled by soil water infiltration, climatic conditions and groundwater level. NO-N leaching was 43.84 percent and 32.89 percent of the nitrogen input in 2018 and 2019, respectively; the difference was mainly caused by the different distribution of rainfall during the growing season; thus, soil water infiltration increased under heavy rainfall because it broke the barrier formed by the plough pan. This study indicates that there is a risk of nitrogen pollution during soil reclamation. In addition, Hydrus-2D has considerable potential to calculate nitrogen losses under the effect of plastic film mulch in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117330DOI Listing
May 2021

The role of the HIF-1α/ALYREF/PKM2 axis in glycolysis and tumorigenesis of bladder cancer.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, P. R. China.

Background: As a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) participates in tumor metabolism and growth. The regulatory network of PKM2 in cancer is complex and has not been fully studied in bladder cancer. The 5-methylcytidine (m5C) modification in PKM2 mRNA might participate in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer and need to be further clarified. This study aimed to investigate the biological function and regulatory mechanism of PKM2 in bladder cancer.

Methods: The expression of PKM2 and Aly/REF export factor (ALYREF) was measured by Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The bioprocesses of bladder cancer cells were demonstrated by a series of experiments in vitro and in vivo. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA-sequencing, and dual-luciferase reporter assays were conducted to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of PKM2 in bladder cancer.

Results: In bladder cancer, we first demonstrated that ALYREF stabilized PKM2 mRNA and bound to its m5C sites in 3'-untranslated regions. Overexpression of ALYREF promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation by PKM2-mediated glycolysis. Furthermore, high expression of PKM2 and ALYREF predicted poor survival in bladder cancer patients. Finally, we found that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) indirectly up-regulated the expression of PKM2 by activating ALYREF in addition to activating its transcription directly.

Conclusions: The m5C modification in PKM2 mRNA in the HIF-1α/ALYREF/PKM2 axis may promote the glucose metabolism of bladder cancer, providing a new promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12158DOI Listing
May 2021

SS-31 Protects Liver from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Modulating Macrophage Polarization.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:6662156. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common complication in liver surgeries. It is a focus to discover effective treatments to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Previous studies show that oxidative stress and inflammation response contribute to the liver damage during IRI. SS-31 is an innovated mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant peptide shown to scavenge reactive oxygen species and decrease oxidative stress, but the protective effects of SS-31 against hepatic IRI are not well understood. The aim of our study is to investigate whether SS-31 could protect the liver from damages induced by IRI and understand the protective mechanism. The results showed that SS-31 treatment can significantly attenuate liver injury during IRI, proved by HE staining, serum ALT/AST, and TUNEL staining which can assess the degree of liver damage. Meanwhile, we find that oxidative stress and inflammation were significantly suppressed after SS-31 administration. Furthermore, the mechanism revealed that SS-31 can directly decrease ROS production and regulate STAT1/STAT3 signaling in macrophages, thus inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization. The proinflammation cytokines are then significantly reduced, which suppress inflammation response in the liver. Taken together, our study discovered that SS-31 can regulate macrophage polarization through ROS scavenging and STAT1/STAT3 signaling to ameliorate liver injury; the protective effects against hepatic IRI suggest that SS-31 may be an appropriate treatment for liver IRI in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6662156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057883PMC
April 2021

miR-4417 targets lncRNA PSMG3-AS1 to suppress cell invasion and migration in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 29;22(1):502. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Nursing Department, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang, Shandong 261000, P.R. China.

Although long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) PSMG3-AS1 has been reported to participate in cancer biology, its role in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the lncRNA PSMG3-AS1 in CSCC. The expression levels of PSMG3-AS1 in both CSCC and non-tumor tissues from 64 patients with CSCC were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The potential interaction between miR-4417 and PSMG3-AS1 was predicted using IntaRNA 2.0. Overexpression of miR-4417 and PSMG3-AS1 were achieved in CSCC cells to further explore the potential interaction between them. The effects of overexpression of miR-4417 and PSMG3-AS1 on CSCC cell invasion and migration were assessed by Transwell assay. The results revealed that PSMG3-AS1 expression was upregulated in CSCC tissues, and its high expression levels predicted a poor survival in patients with CSCC. miR-4417 expression was downregulated in CSCC tissues and was inversely correlated with PSMG3-AS1 expression. Moreover, miR-4417 was predicted to interact with PSMG3-AS1. In CSCC cells, overexpression of miR-4417 decreased the expression levels of PSMG3-AS1, while overexpression of PSMG3-AS1 did not affect miR-4417 expression. Transwell assay demonstrated that overexpression of PSMG3-AS1 increased CSCC cell invasion and migration. However, overexpression of miR-4417 inhibited CSCC cell invasion and migration, and attenuated the effects of PSMG3-AS1 overexpression in CSCC cells. In conclusion, the present study indicated that miR-4417 may target PSMG3-AS1 to suppress cancer cell invasion and migration in CSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114464PMC
July 2021

Small Molecule Approaches to Treat Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases (Part II): Nucleic Acid Sensing Antagonists and Inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 10:128101. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Roche Innovation Center Shanghai, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Nucleic acid sensing pathways play an important role in the innate immune system, protecting hosts against infections. However, a large body of evidence supports a close association between aberrant activation of those pathways and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Part II of the digest series on small molecule approaches to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases concentrates on recent advances with respect to small molecule antagonists or inhibitors of the nucleic acid sensing pathways, including endosomal TLRs, NLRP3 inflammasome and cGAS-STING.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128101DOI Listing
May 2021

Imaging of Allografted Glial-Restricted Progenitor Cell Survival and Hydrogel Scaffold Biodegradation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States.

Transplanted glial-restricted progenitor (GRP) cells have potential to focally replace defunct astrocytes and produce remyelinating oligodendrocytes to avert neuronal death and dysfunction. However, most central nervous system cell therapeutic paradigms are hampered by high initial cell death and a host anti-graft immune response. We show here that composite hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels of tunable mechanical strengths can significantly improve transplanted GRP survival and differentiation. Allogeneic GRPs expressing green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase were scaffolded in optimized hydrogel formulations and transplanted intracerebrally into immunocompetent BALB/c mice followed by serial bioluminescent imaging and chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST MRI). We demonstrate that gelatin-sensitive CEST MRI can be exploited to monitor hydrogel scaffold degradation for ∼5 weeks post transplantation without necessitating exogenous labeling. Hydrogel scaffolding of GRPs resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in transplanted cell survival at day 32 post transplantation compared to naked cells. Histological analysis showed significant enhancement of cell proliferation as well as Olig2 and GFAP cell differentiation for scaffolded cells compared to naked cells, with reduced host immunoreactivity. Hence, hydrogel scaffolding of transplanted GRPs in conjunction with serial imaging of cell survival and hydrogel degradation has potential for further advances in glial cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03415DOI Listing
May 2021

Rapidly Progressing Fatal Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm After Acute Myocardial Infarction - A Case Report of Delayed Diagnosis.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 Apr 29;24(2):E414-E417. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, People's Republic of China.

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVPA) is a rare complication of acute myocardial infarction (MI). As pseudoaneurysm is contained by the pericardium alone without involvement of myocardial tissue, LVPA are more prone to rupture and hence necessitates surgical intervention. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with acute MI due to a three-way occlusion in the coronary arteries. An emergency transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) on the 11th day after the MI showed a small ventricular aneurysm, which was probably a late complication of the acute MI episode. A repeat TTE on the 26th day of the MI episode revealed a rapidly progressing LVPA. Emergency heart surgery was planned, but the patient died due to LVPA rupture. This case illustrates timely diagnosis and corrective surgery are key to saving patients from fatal LVPAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.3679DOI Listing
April 2021

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, United States

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a global threat since its emergence. Although several COVID-19 vaccines have become available, the prospective timeframe for achieving effective levels of vaccination across global populations remains uncertain. Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants presents continuing potential challenges for future vaccination planning. Therefore, development of effective antiviral therapies continues to be an urgent unmet need for COVID-19. Successful antiviral regimens for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections have established viral proteases as validated targets for antiviral drug development. In this context, we review here protease targets in drug development, currently available antiviral protease inhibitors, and therapeutic development efforts on SARS-CoV-2 main protease and papain-like protease. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be a global threat since its emergence. The development of effective antiviral therapeutics for COVID-19 remains an urgent and long-term need. Because viral proteases are validated drug targets, specific SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors are critical therapeutics to be developed for treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.121.000688DOI Listing
May 2021

Characteristics of Pan-Cancer Patients With Ultrahigh Tumor Mutation Burden.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:682017. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Tumor mutation burden has been proven to be a good predictor for the efficacy of immunotherapy, especially in patients with hypermutation. However, most research focused on the analysis of hypermutation in individual tumors, and there is a lack of integrated research on the hypermutation across different cancers. This study aimed to characterize hypermutated patients to distinguish between these patients and non-hypermutated patients.

Methods: A total of 5,980 tumor samples involving 23 types of solid tumors from the in-house database were included in the study. Based on the cutoff value of tumor mutation burden (TMB), all samples were divided into hypermutated or non-hypermutated groups. Microsatellite instability status, PD-L1 expression and other mutation-related indicators were analyzed.

Results: Among the 5,980 tumor samples, 1,164 were selected as samples with hypermutation. Compared with the non-hypermutated group, a significant increase in the mutation rates of DNA mismatch repair genes and polymerase genes was detected in the hypermutated group, and there was an overlap between high TMB and high microsatellite instability or high PD-L1. In addition, we found that EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA had a high frequency of both single nucleotide variation and copy number variation mutations. These identified mutant genes were enriched in the oncogenic signaling pathway and the DNA damage repair pathway. At the same time, the somatic cell characteristics and distribution of the two groups were significantly different.

Conclusions: This study identified genetic and phenotypic characteristics of hypermutated tumors and demonstrated that DNA damage repair is critically involved in hypermutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.682017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100597PMC
April 2021

ITGA8 positive cells in the conventional outflow tissue exhibit Schlemm's canal endothelial cell properties.

Life Sci 2021 May 4;278:119564. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Elevated intraocular pressure is primarily induced by the increased resistance of conventional outflow of aqueous humor. Dysfunction of the juxtacanalicular region of trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelium, as the main conventional outflow tissue, have been implicated as the major reasons for the increased resistance. Integrins are widespread in these tissues, especially alpha8 integrin (ITGA8). We aim to investigate the properties of cells expressing ITGA8 in the conventional outflow tissue.

Main Methods: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were performed to detect the mRNA and protein levels of ITGA8 in human conventional outflow tissue. ITGA8-positive cells were isolated from the cultured human TM cells through a magnetic bead-based approach. Flow Cytometry was used to determine the purification efficiency. The expressions of TM and SC biomarkers and dexamethasone-induced myocilin secretion capacity of ITGA8-positive cells was assessed by Real-time PCR, IF and Western blot. A gel contraction assay was performed to evaluate contractility of ITGA8-positive cells after endothelin 1 treatment.

Key Findings: ITGA8 was found with robust expression near the inner wall of SC endothelium. After purification, the proportion of ITGA8-positive cells were increased by about 10%. ITGA8-positive cells were identified with the properties as SC endothelial cells, such as more robust expressions of SC biomarkers, less dexamethasone-inducible myocilin expression, and stronger contractility.

Significance: This study demonstrated that cells expressing ITGA8 in SC region possess more properties as SC endothelial cells. Our data implicate a crucial role of ITGA8 in aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119564DOI Listing
May 2021

Sensitive, Reusable, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensors Constructed with a 3D Graphene/Si Hybrid.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. China.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on graphene and its derivatives have recently attracted attention among those interested in the detection of trace molecules; however, these substrates generally show poor uniformity, an unsatisfactory enhancement factor, and require a complex fabrication process. Herein, we design and fabricate three-dimensional (3D) graphene/silicon (3D-Gr/Si) heterojunction SERS substrates to detect various types of molecules. Notably, the detection limit of 3D-Gr/Si can reach 10 M for rhodamine 6G (R6G) and rhodamine B (RB), 10 M for crystal violet (CRV), copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc), and methylene blue (MB), 10 M for dopamine (DA), 10 M for bovine serum albumin (BSA), and 10 M for melamine (Mel), which is superior to most reported graphene-based SERS substrates. Besides, the proposed 3D-Gr/Si heterojunction SERS substrates can achieve a high uniformity with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 5%. Moreover, the 3D-Gr/Si SERS substrates are reusable after washing with ethyl alcohol to remove the adsorbed molecules. These excellent SERS performances are attributed to the novel 3D structure and abundantly exposed atomically thin edges, which facilitate charge transfer between 3D-Gr and probe molecules. We believe that the 3D-Gr/Si heterojunction SERS substrates offer potential for practical applications in biochemical molecule detection and provide insight into the design of high-performance SERS substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02182DOI Listing
May 2021

Framework to Classify Reverse Cardiac Remodeling With Mechanical Circulatory Support: The Utah-Inova Stages.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 May 5:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007991. Epub 2021 May 5.

Utah Transplant Affiliated Hospitals, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, Virginia. (U.T.A.H.) Cardiac Transplant Program, University of Utah Health and School of Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, Virginia. (I.T., R.A., O.W.-P., M.Y., J.S., J.C.F., C.P.K., L.B.C., S.S.D., C.H.S., A.K., S.G.D.).

Background: Variable definitions and an incomplete understanding of the gradient of reverse cardiac remodeling following continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has limited the field of myocardial plasticity. We evaluated the continuum of LV remodeling by serial echocardiographic imaging to define 3 stages of reverse cardiac remodeling following LVAD.

Methods: The study enrolled consecutive LVAD patients across 4 study sites. A blinded echocardiographer evaluated the degree of structural (LV internal dimension at end-diastole [LVIDd]) and functional (LV ejection fraction [LVEF]) change after LVAD. Patients experiencing an improvement in LVEF ≥40% and LVIDd ≤6.0 cm were termed responders, absolute change in LVEF of ≥5% and LVEF <40% were termed partial responders, and the remaining patients with no significant improvement in LVEF were termed nonresponders.

Results: Among 358 LVAD patients, 34 (10%) were responders, 112 (31%) partial responders, and the remaining 212 (59%) were nonresponders. The use of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure was higher in partial responders and responders. Structural changes (LVIDd) followed a different pattern with significant improvements even in patients who had minimal LVEF improvement. With mechanical unloading, the median reduction in LVIDd was -0.6 cm (interquartile range [IQR], -1.1 to -0.1 cm; nonresponders), -1.1 cm (IQR, -1.8 to -0.4 cm; partial responders), and -1.9 cm (IQR, -2.9 to -1.1 cm; responders). Similarly, the median change in LVEF was -2% (IQR, -6% to 1%), 9% (IQR, 6%-14%), and 27% (IQR, 23%-33%), respectively.

Conclusions: Reverse cardiac remodeling associated with durable LVAD support is not an all-or-none phenomenon and manifests in a continuous spectrum. Defining 3 stages across this continuum can inform clinical management, facilitate the field of myocardial plasticity, and improve the design of future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007991DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic Significance of Autophagy-Relevant Gene Markers in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:566539. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant solid tumor with an extremely low survival rate after relapse. Previous investigations have shown that autophagy possesses a crucial function in tumors. However, there is no consensus on the value of autophagy-associated genes in predicting the prognosis of CRC patients. This work screens autophagy-related markers and signaling pathways that may participate in the development of CRC, and establishes a prognostic model of CRC based on autophagy-associated genes.

Methods: Gene transcripts from the TCGA database and autophagy-associated gene data from the GeneCards database were used to obtain expression levels of autophagy-associated genes, followed by Wilcox tests to screen for autophagy-related differentially expressed genes. Then, 11 key autophagy-associated genes were identified through univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and used to establish prognostic models. Additionally, immunohistochemical and CRC cell line data were used to evaluate the results of our three autophagy-associated genes EPHB2, NOL3, and SNAI1 in TCGA. Based on the multivariate Cox analysis, risk scores were calculated and used to classify samples into high-risk and low-risk groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, risk profiling, and independent prognosis analysis were carried out. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the prognostic model. Finally, GSEA, GO, and KEGG analysis were performed to identify the relevant signaling pathways.

Results: A total of 301 autophagy-related genes were differentially expressed in CRC. The areas under the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year receiver operating characteristic curves of the autophagy-based prognostic model for CRC were 0.764, 0.751, and 0.729, respectively. GSEA analysis of the model showed significant enrichment in several tumor-relevant pathways and cellular protective biological processes. The expression of EPHB2, IL-13, MAP2, RPN2, and TRAF5 was correlated with microsatellite instability (MSI), while the expression of IL-13, RPN2, and TRAF5 was related to tumor mutation burden (TMB). GO analysis showed that the 11 target autophagy genes were chiefly enriched in mRNA processing, RNA splicing, and regulation of the mRNA metabolic process. KEGG analysis showed enrichment mainly in spliceosomes. We constructed a prognostic risk assessment model based on 11 autophagy-related genes in CRC.

Conclusion: A prognostic risk assessment model based on 11 autophagy-associated genes was constructed in CRC. The new model suggests directions and ideas for evaluating prognosis and provides guidance to choose better treatment strategies for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.566539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081889PMC
April 2021

Knockdown of MCM8 inhibits development and progression of bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 30;21(1):242. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 299 Qingyang Rd, Wuxi, 214023, China.

Background: Bladder cancer is a frequently diagnosed urinary system tumor, whose mortality remains rising. Minichromosome maintenance eight homologous recombination repair factor (MCM8), a newly discovered MCM family member, has been shown to be required for DNA replication. Unfortunately, little is known concerning the roles of MCM8 in bladder cancer.

Methods: The present study, we aimed at probing into the impacts and detailed mechanisms of MCM8 in bladder cancer progression. In this study, MCM8 expression level was detected through immunohistochemistry staining (IHC), qRT-PCR and Western blot assay. Silenced MCM8 cell models were constructed by lentivirus transfection. In vitro, the cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. The wound-healing assay and the transwell assay were utilized to assess the cell migration. Also, the cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, the Human Apoptosis Antibody Array assay was performed to analyze the alterations of apoptosis-related proteins. The in vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effects of MCM8 knockdown on the tumor growth of bladder cancer.

Results: The results demonstrated that compared with normal adjacent tissues, MCM8 expression in bladder cancer tissues was strongly up-regulated. The up-regulation of MCM8 expression in bladder cancer may be a valuable independent prognostic indicator. Of note, MCM8 inhibition modulated the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer cells. In terms of mechanism, it was validated that MCM8 knockdown made Akt, P-Akt, CCND1 and CDK6 levels down-regulated, as well as MAPK9 up-regulated.

Conclusions: Taken together, our study demonstrated an important role of MCM8 in bladder cancer and created a rationale for the therapeutic potential of MCM8 inhibition in human bladder cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01948-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086360PMC
April 2021

Cost-Effective Machine Learning Based Clinical Pre-Test Probability Strategy for DVT Diagnosis in Neurological Intensive Care Unit.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211008650

439679West China School of Nursing, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

In order to overcome the shortage of the current costly DVT diagnosis and reduce the waste of valuable healthcare resources, we proposed a new diagnostic approach based on machine learning pre-test prediction models using EHRs. We examined the sociodemographic and clinical factors in the prediction of DVT with 518 NICU admitted patients, including 189 patients who eventually developed DVT. We used cross-validation on the training data to determine the optimal parameters, and finally, the applied ROC analysis is adopted to evaluate the predictive strength of each model. Two models (GLM and SVM) with the strongest ROC were selected for DVT prediction, based on which, we optimized the current intervention and diagnostic process of DVT and examined the performance of the proposed approach through simulations. The use of machine learning based pre-test prediction models can simplify and improve the intervention and diagnostic process of patients in NICU with suspected DVT, and reduce the valuable healthcare resource occupation/usage and medical costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10760296211008650DOI Listing
April 2021

A heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded P(LLA-CL) nanofiber-covered stent inhibits inflammatory smooth-muscle cell viability to reduce in-stent stenosis and thrombosis.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Apr 29;19(1):123. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: An endovascular covered-stent has unique advantages in treating complex intracranial aneurysms; however, in-stent stenosis and late thrombosis have become the main factors affecting the efficacy of covered-stent treatment. Smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation plays an important role in late in-stent stenosis and thrombosis. Here, we determined the efficacy of using covered stents loaded with drugs to inhibit smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation and potentially lower the incidence of long-term complications.

Methods: Nanofiber-covered stents were prepared using coaxial electrospinning, with the core solution prepared with 15% heparin and 20 µM rosuvastatin solution (400: 100 µL), and the shell solution prepared with 120 mg/mL hexafluoroisopropanol. We established a rabbit carotid-artery aneurysm model, which was treated with covered stents. Angiography and histology were performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and incidence rate of in-stent stenosis and thrombosis. Phenotype, function, and inflammatory factors of smooth-muscle cells were studied to explore the mechanism of rosuvastatin action in smooth-muscle cells.

Result: Heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded nanofiber scaffold mats inhibited the proliferation of synthetic smooth-muscle cells, and the nanofiber-covered stent effectively treated aneurysms in the absence of notable in-stent stenosis. Additionally, in vitro experiments showed that rosuvastatin inhibited the smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB induction and decreased synthetic smooth-muscle-cell viability, as well as secretion of inflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion: Rosuvastatin inhibited the abnormal proliferation of synthetic smooth-muscle cells, and heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded covered stents reduced the incidence of stenosis and late thrombosis, thereby improving the healing rates of stents used for aneurysm treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00867-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086342PMC
April 2021

The Factors Affecting Volunteers' Willingness to Participate in Disaster Preparedness.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 14;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Social Development and Public Policy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Disaster preparedness is crucial for providing an effective response to, and reducing the possible impacts of, disasters. Although volunteers' participation plays an important role in disaster preparedness, their actual participation in disaster preparedness activities is still low. To find ways to encourage more volunteers to participate, this study analyzed the social background and organizational and attitudinal factors affecting the volunteers' willingness to participate. Questionnaires were distributed to 990 registered disaster volunteers across Beijing and the data were analyzed using linear regression models. Results revealed a weak willingness to participate in disaster preparedness. Only 28.08% of the respondents indicated that they were "very ready" to participate in voluntary disaster preparedness, and 14.65% showed "a little bit" of interest. The following was concluded: (1) Disaster volunteers' social background variables were related to their willingness to participate in disaster preparedness. Compared to male volunteers, female volunteers were more willing to participate. Chinese Communist Party members were more willing to participate than non-members. (2) Providing accidental life insurance for the volunteers had a positive effect on their willingness to participate in disaster preparedness. Provision of more training had a negative effect on the volunteers' willingness to participate, indicating a low quality of training. (3) Organizational identification was positively related to the volunteers' willingness to participate. According to these results, we suggest that volunteer organizations should improve their standards and procedures for disaster volunteer recruitment and selection, and gain a deeper understanding of the needs of the disaster volunteers in order to better motivate them to participate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070767PMC
April 2021

Galectin-3 Derived from HucMSC Exosomes Promoted Myocardial Fibroblast-to-Myofibroblast Differentiation Associated with -catenin Upregulation.

Int J Stem Cells 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Background And Objectives: Galectin-3 promotes fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and facilitates injury repair. Previous studies have shown that exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) promote the differentiation of myocardial fibroblasts into myofibroblasts under inflammatory environment. Whether hucMSC-ex derived Galectin-3 (hucMSC-ex-Galectin-3) plays an important role in fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation is the focus of this study.

Methods And Results: Galectin-3 was knocked-down by siRNA in hucMSCs, and then exosomes were extracted. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS, LPS+hucMSC-ex, LPS+negative control-siRNA-ex (NC-ex), or LPS+ Galectin-3-siRNA-ex (si-ex) . The coronary artery of the left anterior descending (LAD) branch was permanently ligated, followed by intramyocardial injection with phosphate buffered saline(PBS), hucMSC-ex, hucMSC-NC-ex, or hucMSC-si-ex . Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of markers related to fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and inflammatory factors. Migration and contraction functions of fibroblasts were evaluated using Transwell migration and collagen contraction assays, respectively. -catenin expression was detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. The results showed that hucMSC-ex increased the protein expression of myofibroblast markers, anti-inflammatory factors, and -catenin. HucMSC-ex also reduced the migration and promoted the contractility of fibroblasts. However, hucMSC-si-ex did not show these activities.

Conclusions: HucMSC-ex-Galectin-3 promoted the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in an inflammatory environment, which was associated with increased -catenin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15283/ijsc20186DOI Listing
April 2021

Influencing factors for delayed discharge following day surgery: A retrospective case-control study.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 26:e12951. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu City, China.

Aim: We aimed to identify the risk factors for delayed discharge in a day surgery centre in west China.

Background: Delayed discharge affected by various factors is a key indicator for healthcare quality of day surgery. However, few studies have focused on this issue in developing countries where the day surgery started much later.

Design: A retrospective case-control design.

Method: A random sample of 169 delayed discharge cases and 514 normal discharge cases was randomly selected from 38,021 day surgery cases from May 2011 to May 2019 in a tertiary teaching hospital in west China. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected through the hospital electronic database and a chart review. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for delayed discharge.

Results: The urban employee basic medical insurance, comorbidity, general anaesthesia, pain, fever, bleeding and metabolic disorder were identified as the risk factors for delayed discharge. Living in the city where the hospital located was a protective factor for delayed discharge.

Conclusion: Post-operative complications including fever, pain, bleeding and metabolic disorder were the most important risk factors for delayed discharge. The pre-operative prevention, careful monitoring and rapid reactions to post-operative complications may reduce delayed discharge.

Summary Statement: What is already known about this topic? Day surgery is conducted worldwide due to its time-saving, cost-effectiveness and low risk for post-operative infection. Delayed discharge is considered as one of the most important indicators for healthcare quality of a day surgery centre. Most of the identified risk factors for delayed discharge are from the developed countries' experience of day surgery and remain controversial. What this paper adds? The insurance reimbursement rate influenced patients' willingness for discharge. Living in the same city where the hospital is located was a protective factor for delayed discharge. Post-operative metabolic disorder was a risk factor for delayed discharge. The implications of this paper: Reducing the insurance reimbursement rate of patients who meet discharge criteria but ask for longer hospital stays may be helpful to reduce delayed discharge. Careful monitoring and rapid response to post-operative complications may be simple but useful measures to reduce the risk of delayed discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12951DOI Listing
April 2021

Three plasma-based microRNAs as potent diagnostic biomarkers for endometrial cancer.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with noticeable stability and unique expression pattern in plasma of patients with various diseases, are powerful non-invasive biomarkers for cancer detection including endometrial cancer (EC).

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify promising miRNA biomarkers in plasma to assist the clinical screening of EC.

Methods: A total of 93 EC and 79 normal control (NC) plasma samples were analyzed using Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in this four-stage experiment. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value. Additionally, the expression features of the identified miRNAs were further explored in tissues and plasma exosomes samples.

Results: The expression of miR-142-3p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-151a-5p was significantly overexpressed in the plasma of EC patients compared with NCs. Areas under the ROC curve of the 3-miRNA signature were 0.729, 0.751, and 0.789 for the training, testing, and external validation phases, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the identified signature proved to be stable in the three public datasets and superior to the other miRNA biomarkers in EC diagnosis. Moreover, the expression of miR-151a-5p was significantly elevated in EC plasma exosomes.

Conclusions: A signature consisting of 3 plasma miRNAs was identified and showed potential for the non-invasive diagnosis of EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-200972DOI Listing
April 2021

Galloyl Group in B-type Proanthocyanidin Dimers Was Responsible for Its Differential Inhibitory Activity on 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes due to the Strong Lipid Raft-Perturbing Potency.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 23;69(17):5216-5225. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

The effects of three B-type proanthocyanidin (PA) dimers covering procyanidin B2 (B-0g), procyanidin B2 3'-O-gallate (B-1g), and procyanidin B2 3,3'-di-O-gallate (B-2g) on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that digalloylated B-type PA dimers (B-2g) strongly inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through disrupting the integrity of the lipid raft structure and inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and then downregulating the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) factors, followed by B-1g, while B-0g had little effect. The different inhibitory effects were mainly due to the difference in the B-type PA dimer structure and the ability to interfere with lipid rafts. The greater the galloylation degree of B-type PA dimers, the stronger the ability to disrupt the lipid raft structure and oppose 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, galloylated B-type PA dimers had greater molecular hydrophobicity and topological polarity surface area and could penetrate into the lipid rafts to form multiple hydrogen bonds with the rafts by molecular dynamics simulation. These findings highlighted that the strong lipid raft-perturbing potency of galloylated B-type PA dimers was responsible for inhibition of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00364DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: Sirt7-p21 Signaling Pathway Mediates Glucocorticoid-Induced Inhibition of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.

Neurotox Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-021-00360-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Distinguishing Rectal Cancer from Colon Cancer Based on the Support Vector Machine Method and RNA-sequencing Data.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):368-374. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Several studies have indicated that rectal cancer is significantly different from colon cancer in terms of treatment, prognosis, and metastasis. Recently, the differential mRNA expression of colon cancer and rectal cancer has received a great deal of attention. The current study aimed to identify significant differences between colon cancer and rectal cancer based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data via support vector machines (SVM). Here, 393 CRC samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were investigated, including 298 patients with colon cancer and 95 with rectal cancer. Following the random forest (RF) analysis of the mRNA expression data, 96 genes such as HOXB13, PRAC, and BCLAF1 were identified and utilized to build the SVM classification model with the Leave-One-Out Cross-validation (LOOCV) algorithm. In the training (n=196) and the validation cohorts (n=197), the accuracy (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively) and the AUC (0.87 and 0.91, respectively) indicated that the established optimal SVM classification model distinguished colon cancer from rectal cancer reasonably. However, additional experiments are required to validate the predicted gene expression levels and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2356-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Mechanism of separation and removal of water from oily sludge using liquid dimethyl ether to dissolve hydrocarbons.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 31;279:130452. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concern. The primary difficulty for the reduction and resource utilization of oily sludge is dewatering. Therefore, finding an efficient and energy-saving dewatering technology is an urgent need for the treatment of oily sludge. In this study, an innovative developed method using liquefied dimethyl ether (L-DME) for dewatering is employed to deal with oily sludge for the first time. Oily sludge from a refinery was used to conduct experiments in sequencing dissolution-separation reactors. Changes in the dehydration rate, oil recovery, group components (hydrocarbon series of petroleum, including saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) at different extraction time, temperatures and L-DME additions were measured. The results revealed that L-DME removed 90% of the water and recovered 40% of the oil, which was an amazing dehydration effect for oily sludge. The water-binding form of oily sludge is different from sewage sludge and other biomass and the water in oily sludge is in a stable water-in-oil (W/O) suspension emulsified state. L-DME was mixed with semi-colloidal like oily sludge to break the structure of the water-in-oil emulsion, making the mixture into a solid-liquid two phase substances that were easy to separate, thus achieving a high degree of separation of water. The dissolution of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and small amounts of colloid by L-DME played an important auxiliary role in water removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130452DOI Listing
March 2021

Serum metabolic signatures of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a preliminary study.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Aims: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among patients with diabetes. Early identification of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for the management of diabetic patients. This study aimed to characterize serum metabolic signatures associated with carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: After 1:1 matching by sex, age, body mass index, glycated haemoglobin A, and other clinical parameters, a total of 462 T2DM patients were enrolled, consisting of 231 patients with C-IMT of ≥ 1 mm (abnormal C-IMT) and 231 patients with C-IMT of < 1 mm (normal C-IMT). C-IMT was assessed using ultrasonography. The serum metabolic profiling of fasting blood samples was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with the multivariate and univariate statistical analysis.

Results: Patients with abnormal C-IMT had significantly higher deoxycholic acid (DCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) levels, and lower levels of taurocholic acid (TCA) than those with normal C-IMT. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that per 1-standard deviation increase of DCA, TDCA and TCA were significantly associated with 64.7% (95% CI: 1.234-2.196) and 38.5% (95% CI: 1.124-1.706) higher, and 26.8% (95% CI: 0.597-0.897) lower risk of abnormal C-IMT, after adjustment of confounders. The addition of DCA, TCA, or DCA × TDCA/TCA ratio significantly improved the discrimination of abnormal C-IMT over traditional risk factors.

Conclusions: Serum bile acids may be potential biomarkers for subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM patients, which needs further confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01717-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Injectable tricalcium phosphate/calcium sulfate granule enhances bone repair by reversible setting reaction.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 14;557:151-158. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Engineering Sciences: Applied Materials Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, SE-751 21, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Towards repairing bone defects, calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate cement have been recognized as promising bone grafts. However, the current bone cements are generally lack of proper porosity for cell migration and new tissue formation. On the other hand, porous scaffold cannot be delivered by injection, which limits its use its clinical use. Herein, we develop a novel tricalcium phosphate/calcium sulfate granule to overcome the limitations of injectable cements and traditional scaffolds. The biocompatible granule underwent in situ self-setting to form scaffold with porous structure after injection. It contributes to calcium deposition and upregulation of osteogenic genes of mesenchymal stem cells in a time-dependent manner. Within three months, cavitary bone defects of distal rabbit femurs implanted the granules exhibited better bone formation than those with those implanted with autologous bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.145DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic diversity of Asian and European common wheat lines assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Genome 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Sichuan Agricultural University, 12529, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;

Understanding the genetic diversity of wheat is important for wheat breeding and improvement. However, there have been limited attempts to evaluate wheat diversity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this study, the chromosomal structures of 149 wheat accessions from 13 countries located between the latitudes of 30° and 45°N, the principal growing region for wheat, were characterized using FISH with pTa535 and pSc119.2 probes. The ranges of the numbers of FISH types in the A-, B-, and D-genomes were 2-8, 3-7, and 2-4, respectively, and the average numbers in the A- and B-genomes were greater than in the D-genome. Chromosomal translocations were detected by these probes, and previously undescribed translocations were also observed. Using the FISH, the genetic relationships among the 149 common wheat lines were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). G1 mainly consisted of Southern European lines, G2 consisted of most lines from Japan and some lines from Western Asia, China, and Korea, and G3 consisted of the other lines from Southern Europe and most of the lines from Western Asia, China, and Korea. FISH karyotypes of wheat chromosomes distinguished chromosomal structural variations, revealed the genetic diversity among wheat varieties. Furthermore, these results provide valuable information for the further genetic improvement of wheat in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2020-0161DOI Listing
April 2021

Engineering Ag-N Single-Atom Sites on Porous Concave N-Doped Carbon for Boosting CO Electroreduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 8;13(15):17736-17744. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

State Key Lab of Organic-Inorganic Composites and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

The electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CORR) offers an environmentally benign pathway for renewable energy conversion and further regulation of the environmental CO concentration to achieve carbon cycling. However, developing desired electrocatalysts with high CO Faradaic efficiency (FE) at an ultralow overpotential remains a grand challenge. Herein, we report an effective CORR electrocatalyst that features Ag single-atom coordinated with three nitrogen atoms (Ag-N) anchored on porous concave N-doped carbon (Ag-N/PCNC), which is identified by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Ag-N/PCNC shows a low CORR onset potential of -0.24 V, high maximum FE of 95% at -0.37 V, and high CO partial current density of 7.6 mA cm at -0.55 V, exceeding most of the previous Ag electrocatalysts. The in situ infrared absorption spectra technique proves that Ag-N single-atom sites have sole linear-adsorbed CO and can easily desorb *CO species to achieve the highest CO selectivity in comparison with the corresponding counterparts. This work provides significant inspiration on boosting CORR by tuning the active center at an atomic level to achieve a specific absorption with an intermediate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03638DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioinspired Cell Silicification: From Extracellular to Intracellular.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 7;143(17):6305-6322. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, United States.

In nature, biosilicification directs the formation of elaborate amorphous silica exoskeletons that provide diatoms mechanically strong, chemically inert, non-decomposable silica armor conferring chemical and thermal stability as well as resistance to microbial attack, without changing the optical transparency or adversely effecting nutrient and waste exchange required for growth. These extraordinary silica/cell biocomposites have inspired decades of biomimetic research aimed at replication of diatoms' hierarchically organized exoskeletons, immobilization of cells or living organisms within silica matrices and coatings to protect them against harmful external stresses, genetic re-programming of cellular functions by virtue of physico-chemical confinement within silica, cellular integration into devices, and endowment of cells with non-native, abiotic properties through facile silica functionalization. In this Perspective, we focus our discussions on the development and concomitant challenges of bioinspired cell silicification ranging from "cells encapsulated within 3D silica matrices" and "cells encapsulated within 2D silica shells" to extra- and intracellular silica replication, wherein all biomolecular interfaces are encased within nanoscopic layers of amorphous silica. We highlight notable examples of advances in the science and technology of biosilicification and consider challenges to advancing the field, where we propose cellular "mineralization" with arbitrary nanoparticle exoskeletons as a generalizable means to impart limitless abiotic properties and functions to cells, and, based on the interchangeability of water and silicic acid and analogies between amorphous ice and amorphous silica, we consider "freezing" cells within amorphous silica as an alternative to cryo-preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00814DOI Listing
May 2021

Imbalanced flow changes of distal arteries: An important factor in process of delayed ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage after flow diversion in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 7:15910199211009120. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background And Objective: Hemodynamic forces may play a role in symptomatic delayed ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (DIPH) of intracranial aneurysm (IA) after flow diverter placement. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic risk factors in the postsurgical DIPH process.

Methods: Six patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm developed to DIPH and 12 patients without DIPH (1:2 matched controls) after flow diverter were included between January 2015 to January 2019. Postsurgical hemodynamics of distal arteries (terminal ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA)) were investigated using computational fluid dynamics, as well as the hemodynamic alteration between pre- and post-treatment. The DIPH related and unrelated distal arteries (either MCA or ACA) were discriminated and compared. Definition of imbalance index is the difference in increased velocity post-flow diverter between MCA and ACA and was used to evaluate the blood flow distribution of distal arteries.

Results: The mean and maximum flow velocities in the terminal ICA increased significantly after treatment in both groups. In DIPH group, the increase rate of mean velocity in the DIPH-related artery was significantly higher than that in DIPH-unrelated artery after the treatment (20.98 ± 15.38% vs -6.40 ± 7.74%; p = 0.028). Between the DIPH and control group, the baseline characteristics were well matched. However, a higher imbalance index of mean velocity was found in DIPH group (27.38 ± 13.03% vs 10.85 ± 14.12%; p = 0.031).

Conclusion: The mean velocity of DIPH related artery increased more, and the imbalance in increased blood flow distribution of distal arteries might play an important role in DIPH after flow diverter of IAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15910199211009120DOI Listing
April 2021