Publications by authors named "Wei Zhao"

3,723 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Integrative Neuromuscular Training for Injury Prevention and Sports Performance of Female Badminton Players.

Biomed Res Int 2021 23;2021:5555853. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: Investigate the effects of integrated neuromuscular training (INT) on injury prevention and the performance of professional female badminton athletes by comparing their preintervention and postintervention tests. The study hypothesized that integrated neuromuscular training can improve the asymmetry and improve the sport performance of female badminton players.

Methods: According to pretest value based on functional movement screening, 38 participants were divided into a high-risk group (HG) and a low-risk group (LG) with 22 and 16 people in each group. Two groups of athletes took part in an 8-week INT program consisting of four 90-min sessions each week. The asymmetries in movement, physical fitness, and special abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Independent sample -test was used for the statistical analysis.

Results: This research found indicated that 8 weeks of INT influenced FMS scores in both groups (HG and LG). The change of inline lunge (ES = 0.42, ES = 0.21) and trunk stability push-up (ES = -0.58, ES = -0.20) showed significant differences ( < 0.05), and the change of the FMS scores (ES = 0.81, ES = 0.65), deep squat (ES = 0.6, ES = 0.3), and rotation stability (ES = -0.65, ES = -0.72) showed very significant differences ( < 0.01). Compared to the pretest, most of the physical fitness parameters improved significantly in the HG and LG groups except strength index, and special abilities of the HG and LG group women badminton athletes showed a substantial increase.

Conclusion: Integrated neuromuscular training can effectively improve the asymmetry of female badminton athletes' limbs, prevent sports injury, and improve the athlete's performance ability. However, athletes in different risk groups have certain differences in the degree of improvement in their motor skills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5555853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093055PMC
April 2021

Dispersed pulses created by aperiodic binary spectral phase jump and applications for pulse shaping.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):12319-12329

Inspired by pulse-pair generation with periodic phase jump, the generation of dispersed pulses with aperiodic binary spectral phase jump (ABSPJ) is proposed and theoretically investigated. It is presented by the numerical simulations that two dispersed pulses can be generated by ABSPJ of π. The dispersion of one pulse is opposite to the other and can be tuned freely with engineering of the phase jump. The generated dispersed pulse-pair is potentially of great interest for various applications, such as two-dimensional spectroscopy, double pulses laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and chirp management in dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) system to generate TW single-cycle mid-infrared (MIR) pulses. Furthermore, a pulse shaper configured as a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) located at the Fourier plane of a 4-f dispersion-free compressor is suggested and the implementation in a high repetition optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) system with picosecond pump has been numerically studied. The simulations showed that MEMS of 900 pixels is enough to pre-compensate TOD of 200000 fs for a pulse of 20 fs. Because pixel with only two piston-levels is necessary for such MEMS, the pulse shaper is expected to be compact and reliable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419450DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel volume based cone beam computed tomography periapical index.

J Endod 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variations in volume of periapical lesions scored using cone beam computed tomography periapical index (CBCTPAI) and develop a new volume based periapical index.

Methods: Cone beam computed tomography images were obtained from InteleViewer. Teeth with a periapical radiolucency or with a history of endodontic treatment were included in this study. Using three-dimensional medical imaging processing software (Mimics Research), the maximum diameter of 273 periapical lesions and their corresponding CBCTPAI score was determined. The software was then used to determine the volume of the lesions using a semi-automatic segmentation technique.

Results: There was a substantial variation in the volume for CBCTPAI scores 3, 4 and 5, which was demonstrated by the variance and range, thus making it difficult to use the current CBCTPAI as a method to predict volume and treatment outcomes. A new index, cone beam computed tomography periapical volume index (CBCTPAVI), was developed using partition classification analysis. The results for the new index demonstrated high levels of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and area under the curve, all at 0.90 or more, except one sensitivity for CBCTPAVI 1 at 0.875. Overall, the accurate classification rate was 98.169% and root mean square error rate was low at 0.07.

Conclusions: The proposed CBCTPAVI will allow clinicians to classify lesions based on their true three-dimensional size, accurately assess healing of lesions, and predict treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.04.027DOI Listing
May 2021

[Formulation of technical guidelines in line with characteristics and principles of traditional Chinese medicine changes to improve quality of such preparations--interpretation of Technical guidelines for the study of pharmaceutical changes in traditional Chinese medicines].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):2016-2019

Center for Drug Evaluation, National Medical Products Administration Beijing 100022.

In leading the high-quality development of Chinese medicine preparations, it is an important link to formulate the scientific, reasonable, and feasible guidelines for the change of Chinese medicines in accordance with the change characteristics and principles of the Chinese medicines is an important work to promote the Technical guidelines for the study of pharmaceutical changes in traditional Chinese medicines was formed by a broad consensus based on the characteristics and research results of the pharmaceutical changes in Traditional Chinese Medicines(TCM)with the principles of science and risk management. This guideline has clarified the basic principles and requirements for the evaluation of changes in TCM, specified the research and verification work of common change scenarios, defined the boundaries of changes in TCM, and proposed to encourage the use of new technologies, new methods, and new excipients that meet product characteristics. It will definitely promote the quality improvement and the secondary development of TCM. In this article, the revision background and main content of the guideline were introduced, and the main features of the Guideline were analyzed, in order to provide references for the industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210402.601DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of a novel autophagy signature for predicting survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11074. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Geriatric Thoracic Surgery, The First Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, P.R. China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most commonhistological lung cancer subtype, with an overall five-year survivalrate of only 17%. In this study, we aimed to identify autophagy-related genes (ARGs) and develop an LUAD prognostic signature.

Methods: In this study, we obtained ARGs from three databases and downloaded gene expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We used TCGA-LUAD ( = 490) for a training and testing dataset, and GSE50081 ( = 127) as the external validation dataset.The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox and multivariate Cox regression models were used to generate an autophagy-related signature. We performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and immune cell analysis between the high- and low-risk groups. A nomogram was built to guide the individual treatment for LUAD patients.

Results: We identified a total of 83 differentially expressed ARGs (DEARGs) from the TCGA-LUAD dataset, including 33 upregulated DEARGs and 50 downregulated DEARGs, both with thresholds of adjusted  < 0.05 and |Fold change| > 1.5. Using LASSO and multivariate Cox regression analyses, we identified 10 ARGs that we used to build a prognostic signature with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.705, 0.715, and 0.778 at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Using the risk score formula, the LUAD patients were divided into low- or high-risk groups. Our GSEA results suggested that the low-risk group were enriched in metabolism and immune-related pathways, while the high-risk group was involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression pathways. Immune cell analysis revealed that, when compared to the high-risk group, the low-risk group had a lower cell fraction of M0- and M1- macrophages, and higher CD4 and PD-L1 expression levels.

Conclusion: Our identified robust signature may provide novel insight into underlying autophagy mechanisms as well as therapeutic strategies for LUAD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067911PMC
April 2021

TP53-Activated lncRNA GHRLOS Regulates Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Apoptosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Modulating the miR-346/APC Axis.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:676202. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Laboratory Medicine/Sichuan Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Prevention and Control Technology of Veterinary Drug Residue in Animal-origin Food, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main type of lung cancer with high mortality worldwide. To improve NSCLC therapy, the exploration of molecular mechanisms involved in NSCLC progression and identification of their potential therapy targeting is important. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have shown important roles in regulating various tumors progression, including NSCLC. We found lncRNA GHRLOS was decreased in NSCLC cell lines and tissues which correlated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. However, the role and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA GHRLOS in NSCLC progression remains elusive. The expression of lncRNA GHRLOS was examined in NSCLC cell lines and biopsy specimens of patients with NSCLC by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effects of GHRLOS on proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of NSCLC cells were determined by both and experiments. The interaction between GHRLOS and TP53 was determined by dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with qRT-PCR analysis. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was conducted to validate the binding between GHRLOS and microRNA-346 (miR-346). Dual-luciferase reporter assays were also carried out to reveal the interaction between miR-346 and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mRNA.Our data demonstrated that overexpression of lncRNA GHRLOS suppressed cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as promoted cell apoptosis by regulating the expression of CDK2, PCNA, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Bax, and Bcl-2 in NSCLC cells. Moreover, lncRNA GHRLOS was upregulated by the binding of TP53 to the promoter. The binding target of lncRNA GHRLOS was identified to be miR-346. Impressively, overexpression of miR-346 promoted cell proliferation and invasion, as well as inhibited cell apoptosis, however, these effects can be blocked by overexpression of lncRNA GHRLOS both and . In summary, this study reveals lncRNA GHRLOS, upregulated by TP53, acts as a molecule sponge of miR-346 to cooperatively modulates expression of APC, a miR-346 target, and potentially inhibits NSCLC progression TP53/lncRNA GHRLOS/miR-346/APC axis, which represents a novel pathway that could be useful in targeted therapy against NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.676202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097184PMC
April 2021

Serum Creatinine and Serum Cystatin C are Both Relevant Renal Markers to Estimate Vancomycin Clearance in Critically Ill Neonates.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:634686. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Pediatric Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, University Children's Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Serum creatinine (SCr) is used as a marker of kidney function to guide dosing of renally eliminated drugs. Serum Cystatin C (S-CysC) has been suggested as a more reliable kidney marker than SCr in adults and children. Purpose of this study was to investigate S-CysC as alternative renal marker to SCr for estimating vancomycin clearance in neonates undergoing intensive care. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK), SCr and S-CysC data were collected in patients undergoing vancomycin treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit of Robert Debré Hospital - Paris. A population PK analysis was performed utilizing routine therapeutic drug monitoring samples. S-CysC and SCr were compared as covariates on vancomycin clearance using stepwise covariate modeling (forward inclusion [ < 0.05] and backward elimination [ < 0.01]). Model performance was evaluated by graphical and statistical criteria. A total of 108 vancomycin concentrations from 66 patients (postmenstrual age [PMA] of 26-46 weeks) were modeled with an allometric one-compartment model. The median (range) values for SCr and S-CysC were 41 (12-153) µmol/l and 1.43 (0.95-2.83) mg/l, respectively. Following stepwise covariate model building, SCr was retained as single marker of kidney function (after accounting for weight and PMA) in the final model. Compared to the final model based on SCr, the alternative model based on S-CysC showed very similar performance (e.g. BIC of 578.3 vs. 576.4) but included one additional covariate: impact of mechanical ventilation on vancomycin clearance, in addition to the effects of size and maturation. ill neonates. However, if using S-CysC for this purpose mechanical ventilation needs to be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.634686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104087PMC
March 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children aged 2-5 years in China.

Vaccine 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Experimental Center for Basic Medical Teaching, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has significantly decreased pneumococcal disease worldwide. However, China has not adopted PCVs in their national immunization schedules and had only approved these vaccines for children aged 2-15 months by 2020.

Methods: In an open-label trial, enrolled healthy children aged 2-5 years old were randomized 1:1 and divided into a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) group and a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib) group. Children in the PCV7 group received a single dose of PCV7, and the Hib group received a single dose of Hib vaccine. Blood samples were collected before and 6 months after vaccination. Immunogenicity and safety of PCV7 were assessed at prespecified time points.

Results: Six months after a single dose of PCV7, children in the PCV7 group for all 7 serotypes, IgG mean concentrations (GMCs) and opsonophagocytic geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly higher (P < .001) than at baseline, and the proportion of IgG ≥ 0.35 µg/mL ranged from 90.0% to 100%. Although the antibody level increased with age, preexisting antibodies did not induce hyporesponsiveness to PCV7. In the Hib group, the antibody levels were not significantly different or had changed slightly at 6 months. PCV7 was well tolerated in all age groups, and no serious adverse events (AEs) emerged during this study.

Conclusions: A single dose of PCV7 was immunogenic and safe for Chinese children aged 2-5 years, and the preexisting antibodies against the PCV7 serotypes did not change the response to vaccination. The findingssupported the effectiveness of PCV7 in this age group. PCVs with broader serotype coverage are expected to expand pneumococcal disease protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.037DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting QT interval prolongation in patients diagnosed with the 2019 novel coronavirus infection.

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2021 May 7:e12853. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ascension St. John Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.

Introduction: 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients frequently develop QT interval prolongation that predisposes them to Torsades de Pointes and sudden cardiac death. Continuous cardiac monitoring has been recommended for any COVID-19 patient with a Tisdale Score of seven or more. This recommendation, however, has not been validated.

Methods: We included 178 COVID-19 patients admitted to a non-intensive care unit setting of a tertiary academic medical center. A receiver operating characteristics curve was plotted to determine the accuracy of the Tisdale Score to predict QT interval prolongation. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify additional predictors.

Results: The area under the curve of the Tisdale Score was 0.60 (CI 95%, 0.46-0.75). Using the cutoff of seven to stratify COVID-19, patients had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 7.6%. Risk factors independently associated with QT interval prolongation included a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (OR, 6.42; CI 95%, 1.28-32.13), QTc ≥450 ms on admission (OR, 5.90; CI 95%, 1.62-21.50), and serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L during hospitalization (OR, 4.97; CI 95%, 1.51-16.36).

Conclusion: The Tisdale Score is not a useful tool to stratify hospitalized non-critical COVID-19 patients based on their risks of developing QT interval prolongation. Clinicians should initiate continuous cardiac monitoring for patients who present with a history of ESRD, QTc ≥450 ms on admission or serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anec.12853DOI Listing
May 2021

Galectin-9 Targets NLRP3 for Autophagic Degradation to Limit Inflammation.

J Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Basic Medical Science, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China;

NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory disorders, and its activation should be tightly controlled to avoid detrimental effects. NLRP3 protein expression is considered as the rate-limiting step for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In this study, we show that galectin-9 (encoded by ) attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting the protein degradation of NLRP3 in primary peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6J mice. deficiency enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activation and promotes NLRP3-dependent inflammation in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. Mechanistically, galectin-9 interacts with NLRP3, promotes the formation of NLRP3/p62 (an autophagic cargo receptor, also known as SQSTM1) complex, and thus facilitates p62-dependent autophagic degradation of NLRP3 in primary peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6J mice and HEK293T cells. Therefore, we identify galectin-9 as an "eat-me" signal for selective autophagy of NLRP3 and uncover the potential roles of galectins in controlling host protein degradation. Furthermore, our work suggests galectin-9 as a priming therapeutic target for the diseases caused by improper NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001404DOI Listing
May 2021

A viral genome packaging motor transitions between cyclic and helical symmetry to translocate dsDNA.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Molecular segregation and biopolymer manipulation require the action of molecular motors to do work by applying directional forces to macromolecules. The additional strand conserved E (ASCE) ring motors are an ancient family of molecular motors responsible for diverse biological polymer manipulation tasks. Viruses use ASCE segregation motors to package their genomes into their protein capsids and provide accessible experimental systems due to their relative simplicity. We show by cryo-EM-focused image reconstruction that ASCE ATPases in viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) packaging motors adopt helical symmetry complementary to their dsDNA substrates. Together with previous data, our results suggest that these motors cycle between helical and planar configurations, providing a possible mechanism for directional translocation of DNA. Similar changes in quaternary structure have been observed for proteasome and helicase motors, suggesting an ancient and common mechanism of force generation that has been adapted for specific tasks over the course of evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc1955DOI Listing
May 2021

Displacement Error Propagation From Embedded Markers to Brain Strain.

J Biomech Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA.

Head injury model validation has evolved from against pressure to relative brain-skull displacement, and more recently, against marker-based strain. However, there are concerns on strain data quality. In this study, we parametrically investigate how displacement random errors and synchronization errors propagate into strain. Embedded markers from four representative configurations are used to form unique and non-overlapping tetrahedrons, triangles, and linear elements. Marker displacements are then separately subjected to up to +/-10% random displacement errors and up to +/-2 ms synchronization errors. Based on 100 random trials in each perturbation test, we find that smaller strain errors relative to the baseline peak strains are significantly associated with larger element sizes (volume, area, or length; p<0.05). When displacement errors are capped at the two extreme levels, the earlier "column" and "cluster" configurations provide few usable elements with relative strain error under an empirical threshold of 20%, while about 30-80% of elements in recent "repeatable" and "uniform" configurations are considered otherwise usable. Overall, denser markers are desired to provide pairwise linear elements with a range of sizes to balance the need for larger elements to minimize strain error but smaller elements to increase the spatial resolution in strain sampling. Their signed strains also provide unique and unambiguous information on tissue tension and compression. This study may provide useful insights into the scrutinization of existing experimental data for head injury model strain validation and to inform how best to design new experiments in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4051050DOI Listing
May 2021

SMARCAD1-mediated active replication fork stability maintains genome integrity.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands.

The stalled fork protection pathway mediated by breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2) proteins is critical for replication fork stability. However, it is unclear whether additional mechanisms are required to maintain replication fork stability. We describe a hitherto unknown mechanism, by which the SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily-A containing DEAD/H box-1 (SMARCAD1) stabilizes active replication forks, that is essential to maintaining resistance towards replication poisons. We find that SMARCAD1 prevents accumulation of 53BP1-associated nucleosomes to preclude toxic enrichment of 53BP1 at the forks. In the absence of SMARCAD1, 53BP1 mediates untimely dissociation of PCNA via the PCNA-unloader ATAD5, causing frequent fork stalling, inefficient fork restart, and accumulation of single-stranded DNA. Although loss of 53BP1 in SMARCAD1 mutants rescues these defects and restores genome stability, this rescued stabilization also requires BRCA1-mediated fork protection. Notably, fork protection-challenged BRCA1-deficient naïve- or chemoresistant tumors require SMARCAD1-mediated active fork stabilization to maintain unperturbed fork progression and cellular proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe7804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099181PMC
May 2021

Population pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of ceftazidime in neonates and young infants: Dosing optimization for neonatal sepsis.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 2;163:105868. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Trial Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong Engineering and Technology Research Center for Pediatric Drug Development, Shandong Medicine and Health Key Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy, Jinan 250014, China. Electronic address:

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin with high activity against many pathogens. But the ambiguity and diversity of the dosing regimens in neonates and young infants impair access to effective treatment. Thus, we conducted a population pharmacokinetic study of ceftazidime in this vulnerable population and recommended a model-based dosage regimen to optimize sepsis therapy. Totally 146 neonates and young infants (gestational age (GA): 36-43.4 weeks, postnatal age (PNA): 1-81 days, current weight (CW): 900-4500 g) were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ceftazidime bloods samples (203) were obtained using the opportunistic sampling strategy and determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted by nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination best described the pharmacokinetic data. Covariate analysis showed the significance of GA, PNA, and CW on developmental pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation was performed based on above covariates and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In the newborns with PNA ≤ 3 days (MIC=8 mg/L), the dose regimen was 25 mg/kg twice daily (BID). For the newborns with PNA > 3 days (MIC=16 mg/L), the optimal dose was 30 mg/kg three times daily (TID) for those with GA ≤ 37 weeks and 40 mg/kg TID for those with GA > 37 weeks. Overall, on the basis of the developmental population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis covering the whole range of neonates and young infants, the evidence-based ceftazidime dosage regimens were proposed to optimize neonatal early-onset and late-onset sepsis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105868DOI Listing
May 2021

Nano-enabled coordination platform of bismuth nitrate and cisplatin prodrug potentiates cancer chemoradiotherapy DNA damage enhancement.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3401-3409

Zhuhai Interventional Medical Center, Zhuhai Precision Medical Center, Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Zhuhai 519000, China.

The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) is a promising strategy, extensively studied and applied clinically. Meanwhile, radiosensitizers play an important role in improving clinical radiotherapy therapeutic efficacy. There are still some disadvantages in practical applications, because radiosensitizers and drugs are difficult to deliver spatio-temporally to tumor sites and work simultaneously with low efficiency for DNA damage and repair inhibition, leading to an inferior synergistic effect. Herein, a suitable radiosensitizer of nano-enabled coordination platform (NP@PVP) with bismuth nitrate and cisplatin prodrug is developed by a simple synthetic route to improve the effectiveness of chemo-radiation synergistic therapy. When NP@PVP is internalized by a tumor cell, the bismuth in NP@PVP can sensitize radiation therapy (RT) by increasing the amount of reactive oxygen species generation to enhance DNA damage after X-ray radiation; meanwhile, the cisplatin in NP@PVP can inhibit DNA damage repair with spatio-temporal synchronization. NP@PVP is demonstrated to exhibit higher sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) of 2.29 and excellent tumor ablation capability upon irradiation in vivo in comparison with cisplatin (SER of 1.78). Our strategy demonstrates that the RT sensitization effect of bismuth and cisplatin based NP@PVP has great anticancer potential in chemo-radiation synergistic therapy, which is promising for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00157dDOI Listing
May 2021

DNA-Based pH Nanosensor with Adjustable FRET Responses to Track Lysosomes and pH Fluctuations.

Anal Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and KLMDASR of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tongyan Road, Haihe Education Park, Tianjin 300350, People's Republic of China.

Extensive attention has been recently focused on designing signal adjustable biosensors. However, there are limited approaches available in this field. In this work, to visually track lysosomes with high contrast, we used the i-motif structure as a pH-responsive unit and proposed a novel strategy to regulate the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) response of the pH sensor. By simply splitting the i-motif into two parts and modulating the split parameters, we can tune the pH transition midpoint (pH) from 5.71 to 6.81 and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from 1.94 to 18.11. To facilitate the lysosome tracking, we combined the i-motif split design with tetrahedral DNA (Td). The obtained pH nanosensor (pH-Td) displays appropriate pH (6.12) to trace lysosomes with high S/N (10.3). Benefited from the improved stability, the superior cell uptake and lysosomal location of pH-Td, the visualization of the distribution of lysosomes, the lysosome-mitochondria interaction, and the pH changes of lysosomes in response to different stimuli were successfully achieved in NIH 3T3 cells. We believe that the design concept of controlling the split sequence distance will provide a novel insight into the design of i-motif-based nanosensors and even inspire the construction of smart DNA nanodevices for sensing, disease diagnosis, and controllable drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00436DOI Listing
May 2021

Construction of nanomaterials as contrast agents or probes for glioma imaging.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 3;19(1):125. Epub 2021 May 3.

Zhuhai Precision Medical Center, Zhuhai Interventional Medical Center, Zhuhai People's Hospital (Affiliated With Jinan University), Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

Malignant glioma remains incurable largely due to the aggressive and infiltrative nature, as well as the existence of blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Precise diagnosis of glioma, which aims to accurately delineate the tumor boundary for guiding surgical resection and provide reliable feedback of the therapeutic outcomes, is the critical step for successful treatment. Numerous imaging modalities have been developed for the efficient diagnosis of tumors from structural or functional aspects. However, the presence of BBB largely hampers the entrance of contrast agents (Cas) or probes into the brain, rendering the imaging performance highly compromised. The development of nanomaterials provides promising strategies for constructing nano-sized Cas or probes for accurate imaging of glioma owing to the BBB crossing ability and other unique advantages of nanomaterials, such as high loading capacity and stimuli-responsive properties. In this review, the recent progress of nanomaterials applied in single modal imaging modality and multimodal imaging for a comprehensive diagnosis is thoroughly summarized. Finally, the prospects and challenges are offered with the hope for its better development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00866-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091158PMC
May 2021

Improving Anticoagulant Treatment Strategies of Atrial Fibrillation Using Reinforcement Learning.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:1431-1440. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Big Data-Based Precision Medicine for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China.

In this paper, we developed a personalized anticoagulant treatment recommendation model for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients based on reinforcement learning (RL) and evaluated the effectiveness of the model in terms of short-term and long-term outcomes. The data used in our work were baseline and follow-up data of 8,540 AF patients with high risk of stroke, enrolled in the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry (CAFR) study during 2011 to 2018. We found that in 64.98% of patient visits, the anticoagulant treatment recommended by the RL model were concordant with the actual prescriptions of the clinicians. Model-concordant treatments were associated with less ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) event compared with non-concordant ones, but no significant difference on the occurrence rate of major bleeding. We also found that higher proportion of model-concordant treatments were associated with lower risk of death. Our approach identified several high-confidence rules, which were interpreted by clinical experts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075452PMC
January 2021

An underlying mechanism of qE deficiency in marine angiosperm Zostera marina.

Photosynth Res 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Ocean School, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005, People's Republic of China.

Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence is one of the most important protective mechanisms enabling the survival of phototropic organisms under high-light conditions. A low-efficiency NPQ, characterized by weak NPQ induction capacity and a low level of protective NPQ, was observed in the marine angiosperm Zostera marina, which inhabits the shallow water regions. Furthermore, chlorophyll fluorescence and Western blot analysis verified that the fast-inducted component of NPQ, i.e., the energy-dependent quenching (qE), was not present in this species. In contrast with the lack of PSII antenna quenching sites for qE induction in brown algae and the lack of functional XC in Ulvophyceae belonging to green algae, all the antenna proteins and the functional XC are present in Z. marina. A novel underlying mechanism was observed that the limited construction of the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH) caused by photoinactivation of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) did not induce protonation of PsbS, thus explaining the inability to form quenching sites for qE induction. Although the ΔpH established under light exposure activated violaxanthin (V) de-epoxidase enzyme to catalyze conversion of V via antheraxanthin (A) and then to zeaxanthin (Z), the quenching capacity of de-epoxidized pigment was weak in Z. marina. We suggest that the low-efficiency NPQ was conducive to efficiently utilize the limited electrons to perform photosynthesis, resisting the adverse effect of OEC photoinactivation on the photosynthetic rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-021-00836-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Dark-field microscopic real-time monitoring the growth of Au on CuO nanocubes for ultra-sensitive glucose detection.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 12;1162:338503. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticle plasmon scattering can provide real-time imaging information on the formation process of noble metal-based nanomaterials. Due to the synergistic effect of the interface between metal and oxide supporting pores, metal nanoparticles (NPs), especially Au NPs, generally exhibit higher catalytic activity on oxide carriers than single-component NPs. Here, we use the dark field scattering microscope to in situ monitor the growth of Au on CuO surface by oxidation-reduction reactions and the nanostructures could be precisely controlled via the scattering signal. The prepared CuO/Au nanocomposite has a higher electrocatalytic activity toward Glucose. When being used as a potential biosensor for nonenzyme glucose detection, excellent performance, such as high sensitivity with a detection limit of 4 μM, high selectivity and outstanding stability, was obtained. The scattering imaging strategy is a convenient and universal approach in controllable synthesis of plasmonic heterostructures, and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysts in biosensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338503DOI Listing
June 2021

Treatments and Outcomes in Stage I Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma in the United States.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

A considerable number of patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) are diagnosed with stage I disease. Information on treatments and survival by primary location remains limited. We extracted data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to assess treatment, primary location, and survival of patients with stage I EMZL. Results show that 7961 patients met inclusion criteria. Observation (no treatment) was the most common approach (31%) followed by radiation therapy (RT, 23%). The median overall survival (OS) was 17.3 years (95%CI 16.3 to 18.3). Shorter survival was observed in patients with stage I EMZL compared to expected survival in a cohort derived from the general U.S. population matched by sex, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. However, similar survival was observed in RT-treated patients. We identified age ≥ 60 years (SHR = 4.00, 95%CI 3.10-5.15; < 0.001), higher grade transformation (SHR = 4.63, 95%CI 3.29-6.52; < 0.001), and primary lung EMZL (SHR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.05-1.96; = 0.022) as factors associated with shorter lymphoma-specific survival (LSS). Conversely, primary skin location (SHR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.33-0.77; = 0.002) was associated with longer LSS. Our results support the use of RT as the preferred approach in localized EMZL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069638PMC
April 2021

Nuclear respiratory factor 1 protects H9C2 cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis via the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Basic Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Yinchuan, 750004.

Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the leading causes of heart failure. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) was suggested as a protector against cell apoptosis. however, the mechanism is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of NRF-1 in hypoxia-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and to explore its effect on regulating the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathways. NRF-1 was overexpressed or knocked-down in H9C2 cells, which were then exposed to a hypoxia condition for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Changes in cell proliferation, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were investigated. The activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9, apoptosis rate, and the gene and protein expression levels of the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway were analyzed. Under hypoxia exposure, NRF-1 overexpression improved the proliferation and viability of H9C2 cells, and decreased ROS generation, MMP loss, caspase activities, and the apoptosis rate. However, the NRF-1 knockdown group showed the opposite results. Additionally, NRF-1 upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules involved in the death receptor and mitochondrial pathways, such as CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large, and cytochrome-C. Conversely, the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules such as caspase-8, BH3-interacting domain death agonist, Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-9, and caspase-3 was down-regulated by NRF-1 overexpression in hypoxia-induced H9C2 cells. These results suggest that NRF-1 functions as an anti-apoptotic factor in the death receptor and mitochondrial pathways to mitigate hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11619DOI Listing
April 2021

Virus Caused Imbalance of Type I IFN Responses and Inflammation in COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:633769. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

The global expansion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as one of the greatest public health challenges and imposes a great threat to human health. Innate immunity plays vital roles in eliminating viruses through initiating type I interferons (IFNs)-dependent antiviral responses and inducing inflammation. Therefore, optimal activation of innate immunity and balanced type I IFN responses and inflammation are beneficial for efficient elimination of invading viruses. However, SARS-CoV-2 manipulates the host's innate immune system by multiple mechanisms, leading to aberrant type I IFN responses and excessive inflammation. In this review, we will emphasize the recent advances in the understanding of the crosstalk between host innate immunity and SARS-CoV-2 to explain the imbalance between inflammation and type I IFN responses caused by viral infection, and explore potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.633769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071932PMC
May 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Oral Tetra-Arsenic Tetra-Sulfide Formula in Pediatric Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 21;15:1633-1640. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatric, State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Background: An oral tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (ASS) formula has been recommended as an outpatient post-remission treatment for Chinese adults with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but limited data are available for children. In this exploratory study, we aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of the ASS formula in children.

Methods: Eleven newly diagnosed and one relapsed pediatric patient (4-14 years of age) treated with the ASS formula were included. Blood samples were collected from 12 children, and drug concentrations were quantified by ICP-MS. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation were performed using NONMEM software. Toxic effects were graded according to the NCI-CTCAE, Version 3.

Results: A total of 107 arsenic concentrations (0.1-75.0 µg L) were used for population pharmacokinetic analysis. The median (range) of estimated weight-normalized CL and volume distribution at steady-state were 45.26 (35.63-82.18) L h kg and 230.37 (85.96-495.68) L kg, respectively. No patients discontinued ASS treatment owing to adverse events, and there were no drug-related adverse events over grades 3-4. All newly diagnosed APL patients were in MCR with a median follow-up of 28 months (range, 23 to 37 months). Both the estimated 3-year EFS and OS rates were 100%.

Conclusion: The pharmacokinetics and safety oral ASS formula was evaluated for the first time in pediatric APL. The pharmacokinetic assessment demonstrated that the dosing regimen of 60 mg/kg/d TID resulted in a higher steady-state through concentration in children than that which was achieved in adults. The results of this study indicate that the ASS formula is safe in newly diagnosed pediatric APL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S305244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071704PMC
April 2021

A novel approach for efficient fabrication of chitosan nanoparticles-embedded bacterial nanocellulose conduits.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 27;264:118002. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, No. 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai, 201620, China; Scientific Research Base of Bacterial Nanofiber Manufacturing and Composite Technology, China Textile Engineering Society, China. Electronic address:

Incorporation of chitosan (CS) into Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) matrix is of great interests in biomedical field due to the advantageous properties of each material. However, the conventional strategies result in poor composite effect with low efficiency. In this study, the three-dimensional fibrillar network of BNC was utilized as a template for the first time to homogeneously disperse CS to form nanoparticles (CSNPs) in BNC matrix via ionic gelation method, to develop chitosan nanoparticles-embedded bacterial nanocellulose (CSNPs-BNC) composites. This composite method is simple and efficient, without introducing dispersants and crosslinking agents, while retaining the mechanical properties and native 3D network structure of BNC. The CSNPs-BNC composites had excellent antibacterial activity to support potential clinical application. The CSNPs-BNC composites could promote the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells, and demonstrate good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that CSNPs-BNC can provide a promising candidate for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118002DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic variants predictive of reproductive aging are associated with vasomotor symptoms in a multiracial/ethnic cohort.

Menopause 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Objective: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), hot flashes, and night sweats are cardinal symptoms of the menopausal transition. Little is known about genetic influences on VMS. This study evaluated whether previously identified genetic factors predictive of VMS, age at menarche, and age at menopause were associated with VMS in a multiracial/ethnic cohort.

Methods: For 702 White, 306 Black, 126 Chinese, and 129 Japanese women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genomic Substudy, we created polygenic risk scores (PRSs) from genome-wide association studies of VMS and ages at menarche and menopause. PRSs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a previously identified VMS locus (tachykinin receptor 3 [TACR3]) were evaluated for associations with frequent VMS (VMS ≥6 days in the past 2 weeks at any visit) and with VMS trajectories (persistently low, early onset, final menstrual period onset, persistently high).

Results: The C-allele of rs74827081 in TACR3 was associated with reduced likelihood of frequent VMS in White women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49 [95% CI, 0.29-0.83]). With higher menarche PRS (later menarche), Black women were less likely (OR = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.38-0.78]) to report frequent VMS. With higher PRS for age at menarche, Black women were also less likely to have a persistently high VMS trajectory (OR = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.91]), whereas White women (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.98]) were less likely to have a final menstrual period onset trajectory (vs persistently low). Chinese women with higher menopause PRS were more likely to have frequent VMS (OR = 2.29 [95% CI, 1.39-3.78]). Associations were substantively similar after excluding rs74827081 C-allele carriers.

Conclusions: Genetic factors predictive of reproductive aging are also associated with VMS, suggesting that VMS have a polygenic architecture. Further study in this area may help to identify new targets for novel VMS therapies.

Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A761.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001785DOI Listing
April 2021

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 26;13(1):48. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Geriatrics, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As most diabetic patients with ASCVD are asymptomatic, it is most neglected in clinical practice. For this reason, identifying high-risk ASCVD population with intensified treatment is very important. In recent years, the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and ASCVD has caused much academic concern, but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, whether all grades of DR increase the risk of ASCVD remains controversial. Most importantly, very few data can be found in China.

Objective: Our aim is to discuss whether all grades of DR increase the risk of ASCVD after adjustment for the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the independent contribution of DR to cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM, hoping to provide more evidence for early identification of ASCVD.

Research Design And Methods: A total of 425 T2DM patients with complete physical and biochemical data were included in the study. The grade of DR was assessed with two 45 color digital retinal images. Based on the presence of history of ASCVD, 425 T2DM patients were divided into 2 groups: ASCVD group and non-ASCVD group.

Results: ASCVD patients were older and had a significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and proportion of history of ASCVD. At the same time, they were more likely to be females, and had lower level of alcohol and calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than non-ASCVD patients. Their trend to develop DR with ASCVD was significantly higher than patients with non-ASCVD (χ = 5.805, P  = 0.016). DR was an independent statistical indicator of the presence of ASCVD [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.321 (1.152-4.678), P = 0.018]. Furthermore, when DR was divided into non-proliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative retinopathy (PDR) according to its severity, only PDR was significantly associated with incident ASCVD [OR (95% CI): 8.333 (1.813-38.304), P = 0.006]. After adjusting for traditional ASCVD risk factors, such an association still existed [OR (95% CI): 7.466 (1.355-41.137), P = 0.021].

Conclusion: DR associates strongly with ASCVD in the Chinese population with T2DM. With the increasing severity of DR, the risk of ASCVD also increases. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, PDR is still an independent risk marker for ASCVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00666-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077820PMC
April 2021

A Stable NanoPAA-ZnO/ZnCl Composite with Variable 3D Structured Morphology and Sustained Superhydrophilicity.

Langmuir 2021 May 26;37(18):5457-5463. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Science, Engineering and Environment, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT, U.K.

A ZnO/ZnCl composite with stable 3D structural morphologies and long lasting superhydrophilicity was synthesized on the top surface of a nano porous anodic alumina (nanoPAA) substrate. The wettability of a nanoPAA-ZnO/ZnCl was systematically characterized and the experimental data indicated that the water contact angle (WCA) of 0° could be achieved as well as maintained over 7 days and still remained at 4.36° after 50 days, and its 3D structural morphology had no clearly observable change during this period. The mechanism for the superhydrophilicity of the composites was interpreted in terms of the inherent hydrophilicity of ZnO/ZnCl nanofilm, the three-dimensional structures of wrinkled nanoflakes, the nanogaps between neighbor nanoflakes, the difference of structual morphologies (i.e., size, shape, and upright posture of nanoflakes), and the measured True Volume of voids in the nanocomposite. The structural morphologies were mainly determined by the parameters such as the original concentration of precursor ZnCl and the pore diameter of nanoPAA substrate. The study proposes a promising superhydrophilic nanomaterial and a cost-effective synthesis method, which will play a practical role in the fields of biomedical molecular sensors and micro/nanofluidic chips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03257DOI Listing
May 2021

Translating 2D Director Profile to 3D Topography in a Liquid Crystal Polymer.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 24;8(8):2004749. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

SCNU-TUE Joint Lab of Device Integrated Responsive Materials (DIRM) National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics South China Normal University No 378, West Waihuan Road, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center Guangzhou 510006 China.

Morphological properties of surfaces play a key role in natural and man-made objects. The development of robust methods to fabricate micro/nano surface structures has been a long pursuit. Herein, an approach based on molecular self-assembling of liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is presented to directly translate 2D molecular director profiles obtained by a photoalignment procedure into 3D topographies, without involving further multi-step lithographic processes. The principle of surface deformation from a flat morphology into complex topographies is based on the coupling between electrostatic interactions and the anisotropic flow in LCPs. When activated by an electric field, the LCP melts and is driven by electrohydrodynamic instabilities to connect the electrode plates of a capacitor, inducing topographies governed by the director profile of the LCP. Upon switching off the electric field, the formed structures vitrify as the temperature decreases below the glass transition. When heated, the process is reversible as the formed topographies disappear. By pre-programming the molecular director a variety of structures could be made with increasing complexity. The height, pitch, and the aspect ratio of the textures are further regulated by the conditions of the applied electric field. The proposed approach will open new opportunities for optical and electrical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061370PMC
April 2021

Effects of Time-Dependent Protein Restriction on Growth Performance, Digestibility, and mTOR Signaling Pathways in Juvenile White Shrimp .

Front Physiol 2021 9;12:661107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of Oceanology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

A 6-week feeding strategy experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of time-dependent protein restriction and subsequent recovery on shrimp. Diets with protein levels of 43 and 36% were used as adequate and restricted diets, respectively. Shrimp with an initial body weight of 6.52 ± 0.46 g were given four feeding strategies: feeding on an adequate diet for six weeks (T1, the control), having protein-restricted diet in weeks 1 and 4 (T2), being given a protein-restricted diet in weeks 1, 3, and 5 (T3), and having protein-restricted diet in weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5 (T4). WG, SGR, FE, and PER of shrimp in T1-T3 showed no significant difference ( > 0.05), these indicators of T4 were significantly reduced ( < 0.05). No significant differences were found in digestive enzyme activities of shrimp among all treatments ( > 0.05). Crude protein content of shrimp muscle in T4 was lower than that of T1-T3. The expression level of in T4 was lower than that in other treatments, while was higher than that of other treatments. To balance saving on feeding cost and growth performance, giving the shrimp a protein-restricted diet for 1 week with subsequent refeeding (T2 and T3) is suitable for shrimp under high-density conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.661107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064121PMC
April 2021