Publications by authors named "Wei XU"

4,564 Publications

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Theoretical study of SnS2 encapsulated in Graphene as a promising anode material for K-ion batteries.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Jiangbei District, Ningbo, Ningbo, 315211, CHINA.

Rechargeable batteries with superior electronic conductivity, large capacity, low diffusion barriers and moderate open circuit voltage have attracted amount attention. Due to abundant resources and safety, as well as the high voltage and energy density, potassium ion batteries (KIBs) could be an ideal alternative to next-generation of rechargeable batteries. Based on the density functional theory calculations, we find that the SnS2 monolayer expands greatly during the potassiumization, which limits its practical application. The construction of graphene/SnS2/graphene (G/SnS2/G) heterojunction effectively prevents SnS2 sheet from deformation, and enhances the electronic conductivity. Moreover, the G/SnS2/G has not only a high theoretical special capacity of 680 mAh/g, but an ultra-low K diffusion barrier (0.08 eV) and an average open circuit voltage (0.22 V). Our results predict that the G/SnS2/G heterostructure could be used as a promising anode material for KIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac3db5DOI Listing
November 2021

Anterograde transneuronal tracing and genetic control with engineered yellow fever vaccine YFV-17D.

Nat Methods 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Transneuronal viruses are powerful tools for tracing neuronal circuits or delivering genes to specific neurons in the brain. While there are multiple retrograde viruses, few anterograde viruses are available. Further, available anterograde viruses often have limitations such as retrograde transport, high neuronal toxicity or weak signals. We developed an anterograde viral system based on a live attenuated vaccine for yellow fever-YFV-17D. Replication- or packaging-deficient mutants of YFV-17D can be reconstituted in the brain, leading to efficient synapse-specific and anterograde-only transneuronal spreading, which can be controlled to achieve either monosynaptic or polysynaptic tracing. Moreover, inducible transient replication of YFV-17D mutant is sufficient to induce permanent transneuronal genetic modifications without causing neuronal toxicity. The engineered YFV-17D systems can be used to express fluorescent markers, sensors or effectors in downstream neurons, thus providing versatile tools for mapping and functionally controlling neuronal circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01319-9DOI Listing
November 2021

Correction to: Hsa_circ_0001361 facilitates the progress of lung adenocarcinoma cells via targeting miR-525-5p/VMA21 axis.

J Transl Med 2021 Nov 25;19(1):476. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Geriatric Lung Cancer Laboratory, Geriatric Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Geriatric Hospital, No.65 Jiangsu Road, Gulou District, Nanjing, 210000, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03140-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Randomized quantile residuals for diagnosing zero-inflated generalized linear mixed models with applications to microbiome count data.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Nov 25;22(1):564. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, CA, Canada.

Background: For differential abundance analysis, zero-inflated generalized linear models, typically zero-inflated NB models, have been increasingly used to model microbiome and other sequencing count data. A common assumption in estimating the false discovery rate is that the p values are uniformly distributed under the null hypothesis, which demands that the postulated model fit the count data adequately. Mis-specification of the distribution of the count data may lead to excess false discoveries. Therefore, model checking is critical to control the FDR at a nominal level in differential abundance analysis. Increasing studies show that the method of randomized quantile residual (RQR) performs well in diagnosing count regression models. However, the performance of RQR in diagnosing zero-inflated GLMMs for sequencing count data has not been extensively investigated in the literature.

Results: We conduct large-scale simulation studies to investigate the performance of the RQRs for zero-inflated GLMMs. The simulation studies show that the type I error rates of the GOF tests with RQRs are very close to the nominal level; in addition, the scatter-plots and Q-Q plots of RQRs are useful in discerning the good and bad models. We also apply the RQRs to diagnose six GLMMs to a real microbiome dataset. The results show that the OTU counts at the genus level of this dataset (after a truncation treatment) can be modelled well by zero-inflated and zero-modified NB models.

Conclusion: RQR is an excellent tool for diagnosing GLMMs for zero-inflated count data, particularly the sequencing count data arising in microbiome studies. In the supplementary materials, we provided two generic R functions, called rqr.glmmtmb and rqr.hurdle.glmmtmb, for calculating the RQRs given fitting outputs of the R package glmmTMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04371-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Olfactory Sensilla and Olfactory Genes in the Parasitoid Wasp Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

Insects 2021 Nov 5;12(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Food Futures Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is a tiny natural egg parasitoid of several agricultural pest insects, which has been widely used in the biological control for , , and . However, limited studies have been conducted on olfactory system, which is critical in regulating insect behaviours. In this study, adult antennae were investigated under ascanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four types of olfactory sensilla were observed, including chaetica sensilla (CS), trichoid sensilla (TS), faleate sensilla (FS) and placoid sensilla (PS). Using genome, 22 putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 105 odorant receptors (ORs) were identified, which were further compared with olfactory genes of , and . The expression patterns of OBPs between male and female adults were examined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) approaches. Three female-specific OBPs (TpreOBP19, TpreOBP15 and TpreOBP3) were identified, which may play crucial roles in host-seeking and oviposition behaviours. This study enriches our knowledge of olfactory genes and improves our understanding of its olfactory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12110998DOI Listing
November 2021

Enhanced Molecular Infrared Spectroscopy Employing Bilayer Graphene Acoustic Plasmon Resonator.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 31;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

Graphene plasmon resonators with the ability to support plasmonic resonances in the infrared region make them a promising platform for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy techniques. Here we propose a resonant graphene plasmonic system for infrared spectroscopy sensing that consists of continuous graphene and graphene ribbons separated by a nanometric gap. Such a bilayer graphene resonator can support acoustic graphene plasmons (AGPs) that provide ultraconfined electromagnetic fields and strong field enhancement inside the nano-gap. This allows us to selectively enhance the infrared absorption of protein molecules and precisely resolve the molecular structural information by sweeping graphene Fermi energy. Compared to the conventional graphene plasmonic sensors, the proposed bilayer AGP sensor provides better sensitivity and improvement of molecular vibrational fingerprints of nanoscale analyte samples. Our work provides a novel avenue for enhanced infrared spectroscopy sensing with ultrasmall volumes of molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11110431DOI Listing
October 2021

LPS Stimulation Induces Small Heterodimer Partner Expression Through the AMPK-NRF2 Pathway in Large Yellow Croaker ().

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:753681. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs) & Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

The mall heterodimer partner (SHP) plays an important regulatory role in mammal inflammation. The main objective of this study was to investigate the response of SHP to inflammatory stimulation and its underlying mechanism. The gene from large yellow croakers, was cloned, and this gene is mainly expressed in the liver and intestine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced the mRNA expression and protein level of SHP in macrophages of large yellow croakers. Overexpression of SHP significantly decreased mRNA expression of , , and induced by LPS treatment in macrophages. LPS stimulation increased the phosphorylation level of Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in macrophages. AMPK inhibitor treatment significantly decreased the expression of SHP induced by LPS while AMPK activator significantly increased the expression of SHP. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) increased the promoter activity of SHP in large yellow croakers and the level of nuclear NRF2 was increased by LPS stimulation and AMPK activation. NRF2 inhibitor treatment significantly decreased mRNA expression of induced by LPS and AMPK activator. In conclusion, LPS can induce SHP expression by activating the AMPK-NRF2 pathway while SHP could negatively regulate LPS-induced inflammation in large yellow croakers. This study may be benefit to the development of immunology of marine fish and provide new ideas for inflammation-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.753681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607525PMC
November 2021

Electrically tunable absorber based on a graphene integrated lithium niobate resonant metasurface.

Opt Express 2021 Oct;29(21):32796-32803

Perfect absorbers are of great importance in various applications such as photodetectors, optical sensors and optical modulators. Recently, perfect absorption metasurface based on monolayer graphene has attracted lots of research interest. In this paper, a graphene-lithium niobate (LN) perfect absorption metasurface is constructed, where graphene works as a thin absorptive layer as well as a conductive electrode. The proposed device achieves 99.99% absorption at 798.42 nm and 1.14 nm redshift of the absorption peak is realized at 300 V(from -150 V to 150 V) external bias voltage through the electro-optical effect of LN, which enables the proposed device work as a electrically tunable absorber in the visible and near infrared range. The switching ratio of reflected light R/R could reach -44.08 dB with an applied voltage tuning from -150 V to 0 V at 798.42 nm. Our work demonstrates the potential of LN integrated high-Q resonant metasurface in realizing electro-optic tunable nanophotonic devices in the visible and near infrared band. It will promote the research of graphene integrated optoelectronic devices as well as LN based tunable nanophotonic devices which have widespread applications such as modulators and optical phase arrays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.433890DOI Listing
October 2021

Review of Budd-Chiari Syndrome.

J Interv Med 2020 May 31;3(2):65-76. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of XuZhou Medical University, Province Jiangsu, PR China.

This study aims to report the Budd-Chiari syndrome clinical research status and progress that has occurred in over nearly 30 years in China, and emphasize the value of imaging in facilitating the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome based on more than 2500 cases. Findings on ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography images are used to propose new Budd-Chiari syndrome types and subtypes. The new subtype classification presented here has important value for guiding interventional treatment. This study also proposes a new concept of anatomical and functional obstruction of hepatic vein that stresses the compensatory value of accessory hepatic vein and azygos vein and describes the risk of manipulation of the communication branch of inferior vena cava obstruction in interventional therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jimed.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562171PMC
May 2020

The application and efficacy of stent place for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

J Interv Med 2018 Aug 30;1(3):170-175. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University.

To evaluate the application value and efficacy on stent place for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). From January 1990 to May 2017, 2228 patients with BCS were admitted to our institution. The mean age was 43.3 years. Stents were placed in inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein (HV), or both after balloon dilation. During follow-up period, the patency of stent was evaluated by ultrasound regularly and the clinic sign was surveyed by letter, telephone or clinic visit. The restenosis of stent were treated with balloon dilatation and thrombolysis to restore the its function. IVC type was diagnosed in 1492 cases, HV type in 510 cases, and mixed type in 226 cases. Eighteen patients aborted treatment because of economic reasons, advanced liver cancer, severe scoliosis, or both bilateral iliac veins and total IVC occlusion. Among the other 2210 cases who underwent endovascular therapy, stents were implanted into IVC in 339 cases, HV in 97 cases, mixed type in 64 cases. The rate of restenosis in IVC stent was 11.50% (39/339). After repeat angioplasty, the long-term patency rate reached to 98.12%. The incidence of HV occlusion caused by IVC stent was 12.09% (n = 41). Restenosis occurred in 47 cases (48.45%) after HV stent placement. However, the 5-year patency rate was 91.75% (89/97) after repeat dilatation and stent re-implantation. The incidence of IVC obstruction caused by HV was 3.33% (3 cases). IVC stent placement appears to be an effective treatment for the cases of IVC segmental occlusion, and at the same time, the stent has the dual role of compression and fixation of thrombus and support of lumen. The HV and accessory hepatic vein obstruction could happen when the IVC stent crossed these veins ostium. The incidence of the stent restenosis in the HV was higher than that in the IVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19779/j.cnki.2096-3602.2018.03.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586564PMC
August 2018

A Multi-Center, Real-World Study of Chidamide for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas in China.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:750323. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Hematology, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Chidamide has demonstrated significant clinical benefits for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) PTCL in previous studies. This multi-center observational study was aimed to evaluate the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety of chidamide. From February 2015 to December 2017, 548 patients with R/R PTCL from 186 research centers in China were included in the study. Among the 261 patients treated with chidamide monotherapy, ORR was 58.6% and 55 patients (21.1%) achieved complete response (CR). Among the 287 patients receiving chidamide-containing combination therapies, ORR was 73.2% and 73 patients (25.4%) achieved CR. The median OS of all patients was 15.1 months. The median OS of patients receiving chidamide monotherapy and combination therapies was 433 and 463 days, respectively. These results demonstrate a significant survival advantage of chidamide treatments as compared with international historical records. Common adverse effects (AEs) were hematological toxicities. Most AEs in both monotherapy and combined treatments were grade 1-2. No unanticipated AEs occurred. In conclusion, chidamide-based therapy led to a favorable efficacy and survival benefit for R/R PTCL. Future studies should explore the potential advantage of chidamide treatment combined with chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.750323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8602952PMC
November 2021

SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools: An updated living systematic review (version 2; November 2020).

J Glob Health 2021 10;11:10004. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: Better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risks is needed to support decision-making around mitigation measures for COVID-19 in schools.

Methods: We updated a living systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools. In this update we modified our inclusion criteria to include: 1) cohort studies; 2) cross-sectional studies that investigated and cross-assessed SARS-COV-2 positivity rates in schools and communities; and 3) pre-post studies. We performed risk of bias evaluation for all included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).

Results: 6270 articles were retrieved and six new studies were added in this update. In total from the two updates and using the new inclusion criteria, we identified 11 cohort studies (1 update: n = 5; 2 update: n = 6) and one cross-sectional study (1 update: n = 1; 2 update: n = 0). We performed a meta-analysis on nine of the 11 cohort studies investigating IAR in schools. Nine cohort studies reported a total of 91 student and 52 staff index cases that exposed 5698 contacts with 101 secondary infections (overall infection attack rate (IAR) = 1.45%, 95% CI = 0.31%-3.26%). IARs for students and school staff were 1.66% (95% CI = 0.08%-4.78%) and 1.18% (95% CI = 0.00%-4.43%) respectively. The risk of bias was found to be high for most studies identified, limiting the confidence in results.

Conclusions: There is limited high-quality evidence available to quantify the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools or to compare it to community transmission. Emerging evidence suggests the overall IAR and SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate in school settings are low. Higher IAR were found in students, compared to staff.

Note: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. This is the second version of the original article published on 23 December 2020 (J Glob Health 2020;11:021104), and previous versions can be found as data supplements. When citing this paper please consider adding the version number and date of access for clarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.10004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590829PMC
November 2021

Intestinal CD11b B Cells Ameliorate Colitis by Secreting Immunoglobulin A.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:697725. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The intestinal mucosal immune environment requires multiple immune cells to maintain homeostasis. Although intestinal B cells are among the most important immune cells, little is known about the mechanism that they employ to regulate immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that CD11b B cells significantly accumulated in the gut lamina propria and Peyer's patches in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mouse models and patients with ulcerative colitis. Adoptive transfer of CD11b B cells, but not CD11b B cells, effectively ameliorated colitis and exhibited therapeutic effects. Furthermore, CD11b B cells were found to produce higher levels of IgA than CD11b B cells. CD11b deficiency in B cells dampened IgA production, resulting in the loss of their ability to ameliorate colitis. Mechanistically, CD11b B cells expressed abundant TGF-β and TGF-β receptor II, as well as highly activate phosphorylated Smad2/3 signaling pathway, consequently promoting the class switch to IgA. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CD11b B cells are essential intestinal suppressive immune cells and the primary source of intestinal IgA, which plays an indispensable role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.697725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595478PMC
November 2021

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from cooking emissions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 16:151700. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710061, China.

Air pollution studies have often overlooked the contribution from cooking to the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient environment, despite cooking emissions have been identified as an important source of organic aerosol in most urban areas, known as the cooking-like organic aerosol factor (i.e., COA). In this study, a Long-Time-of-Flight (LToF) soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed to evaluate the impact of cooking emissions on outdoor particle-bound PAHs levels during a summer campaign in 2019 in Xi'an China. Combined with the robust receptor model, cooking emission was found to be the major source of ambient PAHs, on average, accounting for 90% of PAHs, 9 times higher than traffic (10%). The ambient cooking PAH profile was well correlated (r of 0.87) with that for frying oil fume, suggesting cooking oil was the major source of PAHs instead of the food being cooked. We further evaluated the health risk associated with the cooking PAHs and estimated the cooking PAH levels in some of the major cities in the world where COA factor has been reported. The results show the particle-bound PAHs from cooking can be an important source of ambient PAHs in most Chinese cities. The findings from this study hold important implications for public health and are informing for policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151700DOI Listing
November 2021

5' Half of specific tRNAs feeds back to promote corresponding tRNA gene transcription in vertebrate embryos.

Sci Adv 2021 Nov 19;7(47):eabh0494. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh0494DOI Listing
November 2021

Tracking Confined Reaction Based on Host-Guest Interaction Using Single-Molecule Conductance Measurement.

Small 2021 Nov 19:e2104554. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Pen-Tung Sah Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

The host-guest interaction acts as an essential part of supramolecular chemistry, which can be applied in confined reaction. However, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic process during confined reactions below micromolar concentrations. In this work, a new method is provided to characterize the dimerization process of the guest 1,2-bis(4-pyridinyl) ethylene in host cucurbit[8]curil using scanning tunneling microscope-break junction (STM-BJ) technique. The guest reaction kinetics is quantitatively by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and in situ single-molecule junctions. It is found that in the single-molecule conductance measurements, the electrical signals of the reactants with a concentration as low as 5 × 10  m are clearly detected, and the reaction kinetics at micromolar concentrations are further obtained. However, in NMR measurements, the characteristic peak signal of the reactants is undetectable when the concentration of the reactants is lower than 0.5 × 10  m and it cannot be quantified. In addition, the strong electric field from the nanogap accelerates the reaction. This work reveals that single-molecule STM-BJ techniques are more sensitive for tracking confined reactions than that by NMR techniques and can be used to study effect of extremely strong electric field on kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104554DOI Listing
November 2021

First dorsal metacarpal artery flap with dorsal digital nerve with or without dorsal branch of the proper digital nerve produces comparable short-term sensory outcomes.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Nov 18;16(1):685. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No. 1055, the Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, 215004, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: The first dorsal metacarpal artery flap, including dorsal digital nerves with or without dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves, can be used to reconstruct thumb pulp defects with good results. However, it is still unclear whether there are differences in the sensory outcomes between preserving or not preserving the dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 137 thumb pulp defect patients who underwent first dorsal metacarpal artery flap reconstruction procedure from October 2015 to June 2019. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether the dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves were preserved. In the non-preservation group (n = 80), the dorsal digital nerves were included in the flap for sensory reconstruction. In the preservation group (n = 57), the dorsal digital nerves and the dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves of the index finger were included in the flap. The stump of the proper digital nerves in the defect was coaptated to the donor nerves of the flap using the end-to-end fashion. At the last follow-up, static two-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament scores, pain, cold intolerance of the reconstructed finger, and patient satisfaction in both groups were compared.

Results: All patients were followed up for at least 17 months. No significant differences were found regarding pain of thumb pulp, static two-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score, cold intolerance in the injured finger, and patient satisfaction. The non-preservation group presented slightly shorter operative times (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: There are no differences at 2 years in postoperative clinical outcomes when dorsal digital nerves are used to reconstruct flap sensation regardless of preservation of the dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves in the first dorsal metacarpal artery flap.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02838-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600886PMC
November 2021

Treatment outcomes and survival following definitive (chemo) radiotherapy in HPV-positive oropharynx cancer: Large-scale comparison of DAHANCA vs PMH cohorts.

Int J Cancer 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Århus Universitetshospital, Eksperimentel Klinisk Onkologi.

We compare outcomes in two large-scale contemporaneously-treated HPV-positive (HPV+) oropharynx cancer (OPC) cohorts treated with definitive radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy (RT/CRT). p16-confirmed HPV+ OPC treated between 2007-2015 at PMH and DAHANCA were identified. Locoregional failure (LRF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) were compared. Multivariable analysis (MVA) calculated adjusted-hazard-ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), adjusting for cohort, age, gender, performance status, smoking pack-years, T- and N-category and chemotherapy. Compared to PMH (n = 701), DAHANCA (n = 1174) contained lower TNM-8 T-categories (T1-2:77% vs 56%), N-categories (N0-N1: 77% vs 67%), and stages (stage I: 63% vs 44% (all P < 0.001). PMH used standard-fractionation CRT in 69% (481) while 31% (220) received hypo-fractionated or moderately-accelerated RT-alone. All DAHANCA patients were treated with moderately-accelerated RT; 96% (1129) received Nimorazole (NIM) and 73% (856) concurrent weekly Cisplatin. DAHANCA had shorter overall-treatment-time (P < 0.001), lower gross tumor (66-68 vs 70 Gy) and elective neck (50 vs 56 Gy) doses. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. DAHANCA had higher 5-year LRF (13% vs 7%, aHR = 0.47 [0.34-0.67]), comparable DM (7% vs 12%, aHR = 1.32 [0.95-1.82]), but better OS (85% vs 80%, aHR = 1.30 [1.01-1.68]). CRT patients had a lower risk of LRF (aHR 0.56 [0.39-0.82]), DM (aHR 0.70 [0.50-1.00]) and death (aHR 0.39 [0.29-0.52]) vs RT-alone. We observed exemplary outcomes for two large-scale trans-Atlantic HPV+ OPC cohorts treated in a similar manner. Concurrent chemotherapy was a strong, independent prognostic factor for all endpoints. Our findings underscore the need for a very careful approach to de-intensification of treatment for this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33876DOI Listing
November 2021

Effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ 2021 11 17;375:e068302. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, 3004 VIC, Australia.

Objective: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis, Joanna Briggs, Global Health, and World Health Organization COVID-19 database (preprints).

Eligibility Criteria For Study Selection: Observational and interventional studies that assessed the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality.

Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measure was incidence of covid-19. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 transmission and covid-19 mortality.

Data Synthesis: DerSimonian Laird random effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of mask wearing, handwashing, and physical distancing measures on incidence of covid-19. Pooled effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed, and heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and the I metrics, with two tailed P values.

Results: 72 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 evaluated individual public health measures and 37 assessed multiple public health measures as a "package of interventions." Eight of 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which indicated a reduction in incidence of covid-19 associated with handwashing (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.12, I=12%), mask wearing (0.47, 0.29 to 0.75, I=84%), and physical distancing (0.75, 0.59 to 0.95, I=87%). Owing to heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of quarantine and isolation, universal lockdowns, and closures of borders, schools, and workplaces. The effects of these interventions were synthesised descriptively.

Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that several personal protective and social measures, including handwashing, mask wearing, and physical distancing are associated with reductions in the incidence covid-19. Public health efforts to implement public health measures should consider community health and sociocultural needs, and future research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of public health measures in the context of covid-19 vaccination.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42020178692.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-068302DOI Listing
November 2021

Polyhedral Micromotors of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Symmetry Breaking and Propulsion.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Colloidal micromotors can autonomously propel due to their broken symmetry that leads to unbalanced local mechanical forces. Most commonly, micromotors are synthesized to possess a Janus structure or its variants, having two components distinct in shape, composition, or surface joined together on opposite sides. Here, we report on an alternative approach for creating micromotors, where microcrystals of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with various polyhedral shapes are propelled under an AC electric field. In these cases, symmetry breaking is realized by orienting the polyhedral particles in a unique direction to generate uneven electrohydrodynamic flow. The particle orientations are controlled by a delicate competition between the electric and gravitational forces exerted on the particle, which we rationalize using experiments and a theoretical model. Furthermore, by leveraging the MOF types and shapes, or surface properties, we show that the propulsion of MOF motors can be tuned or reversed. Because of the flexibility in designing MOFs and their one-step scalable synthesis, our strategy is simple yet versatile for making well-defined functional micromotors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c09439DOI Listing
November 2021

Dysfunctions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus induce hypersomnia in mice.

Elife 2021 Nov 17;10. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Hypersomnolence disorder (HD) is characterized by excessive sleep, which is a common sequela following stroke, infection or tumorigenesis. HD is traditionally thought to be associated with lesions of wake-promoting nuclei. However, lesions of a single wake-promoting nucleus, or even two simultaneously, did not exert serious HD. Therefore, the specific nucleus and neural circuitry for HD remain unknown. Here, we observed that the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) exhibited higher c-fos expression during the active period (23:00) than during the inactive period (11:00) in mice. Therefore, we speculated that the PVH, in which most neurons are glutamatergic, may represent one of the key arousal-controlling centers. By using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vglut2) mice together with fiber photometry, multichannel electrophysiological recordings, and genetic approaches, we found that PVH neurons were most active during wakefulness. Chemogenetic activation of PVH neurons induced wakefulness for 9 h, and photostimulation of PVH→parabrachial complex/ventral lateral septum circuits immediately drove transitions from sleep to wakefulness. Moreover, lesioning or chemogenetic inhibition of PVH neurons dramatically decreased wakefulness. These results indicate that the PVH is critical for arousal promotion and maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69909DOI Listing
November 2021

COVID-19 and Eating Problems in Daily Life: The Mediating Roles of Stress, Negative Affect and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

Psychol Rep 2021 Nov 16:332941211045315. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to individuals' mental health. People worldwide are experiencing increased stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms, which may lead to eating problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the perceived severity of COVID-19 on eating problems and the mediating effects of stress/negative affect/posttraumatic stress symptoms both at the personal level and interpersonal level. During the COVID-19 outbreak, a total of 108 college students were recruited to report their perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and eating problems three times a day for seven consecutive days using Ecological Momentary Assessment. State perceived severity of COVID-19 predicted fewer subsequent eating problems in daily life at the personal level. Both state negative affect and posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with eating problems in daily life. At the interpersonal level, trait-like perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with overall eating problems. There were no mediating effects of stress/negative affect/posttraumatic stress symptoms on the relations between perceived severity of COVID-19 and eating problems at the personal/interpersonal level. The perceived severity of COVID-19, stress, negative affect, and posttraumatic stress symptoms might increase the risk of eating problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00332941211045315DOI Listing
November 2021

Assessment of rural ecological environment development in China's moderately developed areas: a case study of Xinxiang, Henan province.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Nov 13;193(12):801. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

School of Government Audit, Nanjing Audit University, Nanjing, 211815, China.

The reforming and opening-up has brought about the rapid development of China's economy, greatly improved the living standards of rural residents, and also caused the destruction of the rural ecological environment. Due to the backward production technology and pollution control technology, many township enterprises discharge excessive pollutants, and excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural production causes serious agricultural non-point source pollution. These pollution sources that cannot be effectively controlled cause a large number of water and land resource function decline. Not only the loss of agricultural production, but they also bring hidden danger to the survival of many rural residents. Taking Xinxiang city of Hunan province as an example, this paper selects 28 indicators and mainly uses AHP, entropy weight method, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate and analyze the development level of rural ecological environment. This study can provide a reference for the Chinese government to formulate rural development planning and can also be used as a reference for the evaluation of rural ecological environment in developed and underdeveloped areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09383-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Rapid screening of glycosyltransferases in plants using a linear DNA expression template based cell-free transcription-translation system.

Phytochemistry 2021 Nov 9;193:113007. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

College of Biological Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Medical Instrument and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China.

Plants have an extensively large number of enzymes including glycosyltransferases that are important in the biosynthesis of natural products. However, it is time-consuming and challenging to study these enzymes and only a small percentage of them have been well-characterized. Here, we report a rapid method to screen plant glycosyltransferases using a linear DNA expression template (LET) based cell-free transcription-translation system (TX-TL). As a proof of concept, we amplified and tested glycosyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that the catalytic activity results of these glycosyltransferases from LET-based-TX-TL were consistent with previous studies. We then chose a local medicinal plant Anoectochilus roxburghii, acquired its transcriptome sequences, and applied this method to study its glycosyltransferases. We rapidly expressed all the putative UDP-glucose glycosyltransferases using LET-based-TX-TL and discovered 6 unreported active glycosyltransferases which can catalyze the glycosylation of quercetin into isoquercitrin. Thus, LET-based-TX-TL was shown to be a powerful tool for researchers to rapidly screen plant glycosyltransferases for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.113007DOI Listing
November 2021

Cloning, expression and characterization of metalloproteinase HypZn from Aspergillus niger.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(11):e0259809. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

School of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

A predicted metalloproteinase gene, HypZn, was cloned from Aspergillus niger CGMCC 3.7193 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the physicochemical characteristics of recombinant HypZn were investigated after separation and purification. The results showed that the specific activity of the purified HypZn reached 1859.2 U/mg, and the optimum temperature and pH value of HypZn were 35°C and 7.0, respectively. HypZn remained stable both at 40°C and at pH values between 5.0 and 8.0. The preferred substrate of HypZn was soybean protein isolates, and the Km and Vmax values were 21.5 μmol/mL and 4926.6 μmol/(mL∙min), respectively. HypZn was activated by Co2+ and Zn2+ and inhibited by Cu2+ and Fe2+. The degree of soybean protein isolate hydrolysis reached 14.7%, and the hydrolysates were of uniform molecular weight. HypZn could tolerate 5000 mM NaCl and completely lost its activity after 30 min at 50°C. The enzymological characterizations indicated that HypZn has great application potential in the food industry, especially in fermented food processing.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259809PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584677PMC
November 2021

Mechanistic Investigation of Drug Supersaturation in the Presence of Polysorbates as Solubilizing Additives by Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Mol Pharm 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Analytical Research and Development, Merck & Co., Rahway, New Jersey 07065, United States.

The introduction of solubilizing additives has historically been an attractive approach to address the ever-growing proportion of poorly water-soluble drug (PWSD) compounds within the modern drug discovery pipeline. Lipid-formulations, and more specifically micelle formulations, have garnered particular interest because of their simplicity, size, scalability, and avoidance of solid-state limitations. Although micelle formulations have been widely utilized, the molecular mechanism of drug solubilization in surfactant micelles is still poorly understood. In this study, a series of modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods are utilized to gain a molecular-level understanding of intermolecular interactions and kinetics in a model system. This approach enabled the understanding of how a PWSD, 17β-Estradiol (E2), solubilizes within a nonionic micelle system composed of polysorbate 80 (PS80). Based on one-dimensional (1D) H chemical shift differences of E2 in PS80 solutions, as well as intermolecular correlations established from 1D selective nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and two-dimensional NOE spectroscopy experiments, E2 was found to accumulate within the palisade layer of PS80 micelles. A potential hydrogen-bonding interaction between a hydroxyl group of E2 and a carbonyl group of PS80 alkane chains may allow for stabilizing E2-PS80 mixed micelles. Diffusion and relaxation NMR analysis and particle size measurements using dynamic light scattering indicate a slight increase in the micellar size with increasing degrees of supersaturation, resulting in slower mobility of the drug molecule. Based on these structural findings, a theoretical orientation model of E2 molecules with PS80 molecules was developed and validated by computational docking simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00477DOI Listing
November 2021

SMALL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, a SUPERMAN-like transcription factor, regulates stamen and pistil growth in rice.

New Phytol 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Organ size is mainly determined by cell division and cell expansion. Several genetic factors regulating development of plant lateral organs have been characterised, but those involved in determining reproductive organ size and separation in rice (Oryza sativa) remain unknown. We have isolated the rice gene SMALL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS (SRO) encoding a nucleus-localised C H zinc finger protein orthologous to Arabidopsis transcription factor SUPERMAN (SUP). Combined developmental, genetic, histological and transcriptomic analyses were used to determine the function of SRO in regulating reproductive organ size. SRO affects genes involved in cell division, cell expansion and phytohormone signalling in the rice flower. SRO is specifically expressed in the first stages of stamen filament development to regulate their correct formation and separation. In addition, SRO non-cell-autonomously regulates the size and functionality of male and female reproductive organs. The B-class MADS-box gene OsMADS16/SPW1 is epistatic to SRO, while SRO regulates reproductive organ specification and floral meristem determinacy synergistically with C-class genes OsMADS3 and OsMADS58. These findings provide insights into how an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor has a pivotal role in reproductive organ development in core eudicots and monocots, through partially conserved expression, function, and regulatory network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17849DOI Listing
November 2021

Mild behavioral impairment correlates of cognitive impairments in older adults without dementia: mediation by amyloid pathology.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Nov 10;11(1):577. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The relationship between mild behavioral impairment (MBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is intricate and still not well investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the roles of the AD imaging pathologies in modulating the associations of MBI with cognitive impairments. We analyzed 1129 participants (563 [49.86%] female), who had measures of Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), cognition, and amyloid PET AD biomarkers from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We assess the longitudinal neuropathological and clinical correlates of baseline MBI via linear mixed effects and Cox proportional hazard models. The mediation analyses were used to test the mediation effects of AD pathologies on cognition. We found that MBI was associated with worse global cognition as represented by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (p < 0.001), and higher β-amyloid burden (p < 0.001). β-amyloid partially mediated the effects of MBI on cognition with the mediation percentage varied from 14.67 to 40.86% for general cognition, memory, executive, and language functions for non-dementia individuals. However, no significant associations were discovered between MBI and tau burden or neurodegeneration. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses revealed that individuals with MBI had a faster increase in brain amyloid burden (p < 0.001) and a higher risk of clinical conversion (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.45 to 4.01 p < 0.001). In conclusion, MBI could be an imperative prediction indicator of clinical and pathological progression. In addition, amyloid pathologies might partially mediate the influences of MBI on cognitive impairments and AD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01675-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580970PMC
November 2021

A study on relationship of Hounsfield Units value on non-contrast computer tomography and recanalization of intravenous thrombolysis.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan. China.

Objective: To determine whether the administration of intravenous alteplase would be beneficial or futile to patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO) before endovascular treatment (EVT), we conducted this study to determine the relationship between Hounsfield units (HU) in non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and recanalization by alteplase.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by LVO received intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or followed by EVT at our center during November 2016 and October 2020. The clinical characteristics and imaging features of patients who achieved recanalization after IVT, and those who did not, were compared.

Results: Forty-three eligible patients were enrolled; 12 achieved recanalization by IVT. Baseline clinical characteristics did not differ between patients of the recanalization and non-recanalization groups. HU in the NCCT were estimated and statistically significant maximum and mean values of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) were found between the groups (P< 0.05). The results hint that patients in the non-recanalization group have a higher rHU and δHU value of the ipsilateral MCA compared with recanalization group (P< 0.05). With regards the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, we demonstrated that a high HU value of the ipsilateral MCA could be a predictor for non-recanalization by IVT.

Conclusion: Patients suffering LVO stroke are less likely to obtain recanalization by IVT with a high HU value of the ipsilateral MCA. It is feasible to screen patients with LVO using HU for direct EVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202618666211110112602DOI Listing
November 2021

Corrigendum to "Comparative mitogenomes of three species in Moenkhausia: Rare irregular gene rearrangement within Characidae" [Int. J. Biol. Macromol. Volume 183 (2021) 1079-1086].

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.10.147DOI Listing
October 2021
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