Publications by authors named "Wei Wang"

19,523 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early human B cell signatures of the primary antibody response to mRNA vaccination.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 27;119(28):e2204607119. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2204607119DOI Listing
July 2022

Mixed-Dimensional Anti-ambipolar Phototransistors Based on 1D GaAsSb/2D MoS Heterojunctions.

ACS Nano 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon 999077, Hong Kong SAR, China.

The incapability of modulating the photoresponse of assembled heterostructure devices has remained a challenge for the development of optoelectronics with multifunctionality. Here, a gate-tunable and anti-ambipolar phototransistor is reported based on 1D GaAsSb nanowire/2D MoS nanoflake mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterojunctions. The resulting heterojunction shows apparently asymmetric control over the anti-ambipolar transfer characteristics, possessing potential to implement electronic functions in logic circuits. Meanwhile, such an anti-ambipolar device allows the synchronous adjustment of band slope and depletion regions by gating in both components, thereby giving rise to the gate-tunability of the photoresponse. Coupled with the synergistic effect of the materials in different dimensionality, the hybrid heterojunction can be readily modulated by the external gate to achieve a high-performance photodetector exhibiting a large on/off current ratio of 4 × 10, fast response of 50 μs, and high detectivity of 1.64 × 10 Jones. Due to the formation of type-II band alignment and strong interfacial coupling, a prominent photovoltaic response is explored in the heterojunction as well. Finally, a visible image sensor based on this hybrid device is demonstrated with good imaging capability, suggesting the promising application prospect in future optoelectronic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c03673DOI Listing
June 2022

Elastic Kernmantle E-Braids for High-Impact Sports Monitoring.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jun 27:e2202489. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101400, China.

The kernmantle construction, a kind of braiding structure that is characterized by the kern absorbing most of the stress and the mantle protecting the kern, is widely employed in the field of loading and rescue services, but rarely in flexible electronics. Here, a novel kernmantle electronic braid (E-braid) for high-impact sports monitoring, is proposed. The as-fabricated E-braids not only demonstrate high strength (31 Mpa), customized elasticity, and nice machine washability (>500 washes) but also exhibit excellent electrical stability (>200 000 cycles) during stretching. For demonstration, the E-braids are mounted to different parts of the trampoline for athletes' locomotor behavior monitoring. Furthermore, the E-braids are proved to act as multifarious intelligent sports gear or wearable equipment such as electronic jump rope and respiration monitoring belt. This study expands the kernmantle structure to soft flexible electronics and then accelerates the development of quantitative analysis in modern sports industry and athletes' healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202202489DOI Listing
June 2022

High Fall Risk Associated With Memory Deficit and Brain Lobes Atrophy Among Elderly With Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2022 8;16:896437. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology, First People's Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to primarily examine the association between memory deficit and increased fall risk, second, explore the underlying neuroanatomical linkage of this association in the elderly with aMCI and mild AD.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 103 older adults were included (55 cognitively normal, CN; 48 cognitive impairment, CI, elderly with aMCI, and mild AD). Memory was assessed by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Fall risk was evaluated by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, heel strike angles, and stride speed, which were collected by an inertial-sensor-based wearable instrument (the JiBuEn™ gait analysis system). Brain volumes were full-automatic segmented and quantified using AccuBrain v1.2 from three-dimensional T1-weighted (3D T1W) MR images. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine the extent of the association between memory deficit and fall risk, the association of brain volumes with memory, and fall risk. Age, sex, education, BMI, and HAMD scores were adjusted. Sensitivity analysis was conducted.

Results: Compared to CN, participants with aMCI and mild AD had poorer cognitive performance ( < 0.001), longer TUG time ( = 0.018), and smaller hippocampus and medial temporal volumes ( = 0.037 and 0.029). In the CI group, compared to good short delayed memory (SDM) performance (AVLT > 5), the elderly with bad SDM performance (AVLT ≤ 3) had longer TUG time, smaller heel strike angles, and slower stride speed. Multivariable regression analysis showed that elderly with poor memory had higher fall risk than relative good memory performance among cognitive impairment elderly. The TUG time increased by 2.1 s, 95% CI, 0.54∼3.67; left heel strike angle reduced by 3.22°, 95% CI, -6.05 to -0.39; and stride speed reduced by 0.09 m/s, 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.00 for the poor memory elderly among the CI group, but not found the association in CN group. In addition, serious medial temporal atrophy (MTA), small volumes of the frontal lobe and occipital lobe were associated with long TUG time and small heel strike angles; small volumes of the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, and parietal lobe were associated with slow stride speed.

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that memory deficit was associated with increased fall risk in the elderly with aMCI and mild AD. The association might be mediated by the atrophy of medial temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. Additionally, increased fall risk, tested by TUG time, heel stride angles, and stride speed, might be objective and convenient kinematics markers for dynamic monitoring of both memory function and fall risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.896437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9213689PMC
June 2022

Synergistic Antitumor Effects of Anlotinib Combined with Oral 5-Fluorouracil/S-1 via Inhibiting Src/AKT Signaling Pathway in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2022 16;2022:4484211. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology of Taizhou, Radiation Oncology Institute of Enze Medical Health Academy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Taizhou Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou, 317000 Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Small-molecule tyrosine inhibitor anlotinib which developed in China has been approved as a third-line treatment for patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our previous clinical study found that anlotinib combined with S-1 has better short-term ORR than the single-agent anlotinib of SCLC and other small-molecule vascular targeted drug therapies in the treatment of SCLC. However, the molecular mechanism of those effect remains unclear.

Methods: SCLC cell line H446 was treated with either anlotinib, 5-FU alone, or combination. The cellular effects including cell viability, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, cell migration, and invasion were explored to evaluate the cell proliferation level. Western blot was performed to determine the protein levels of the combined action of the two drugs. The xenograft mouse model was established by injection of H446 cells into mouse, and the animals were randomized and assigned for the drug treatments. Body weights and tumor sizes were recorded. WB was conducted using tumor tissues. All data were collected and statistically analyzed using -test to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism.

Results: When anlotinib was combined with 5-FU, the IC50 value of cells was significantly reduced. And apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cell motility rates were stronger when anlotinib combined with 5-FU than in the anlotinib or 5-FU alone. In H446 cell-derived xenograft mouse model, tumor volumes were significantly decreased in Anlo/5-FU combination group than anlotinib or 5-FU alone group. Western blot showed the decreasing expression of p-Src/p-AKT in the Anlo/5-FU group.

Conclusion: Our data revealed that the treatment of combination of antitumor angiogenesis agent anlotinib with chemotherapy drug 5-FU may have synergistic cytotoxicity to SCLC in vitro and in vivo. This treatment modality reduced cell proliferation and migration via Src/AKT pathway. This new strategy may be a promising treatment for SCLC but needs to be confirmed in future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4484211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225918PMC
June 2022

Sequencing of the complete chloroplast genome of Diels and its phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 20;7(6):1087-1089. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, West Anhui University, Lu'an, P.R. China.

Diels, an important medicinal herb, is mainly distributed in Yunnan province, Southwest China. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of was successfully sequenced. The assembled chloroplast genome was 155,108 bp in length with an overall GC content of 36.98%, including a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (26,573 bp, each), respectively, a large single-copy (LSC) region (84,848 bp) and a small single-copy (SSC) region (17,114 bp). The genome contained 131 genes, comprising 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes, and one pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that was closely related to
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2086496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225772PMC
June 2022

The Measurement and Preliminary Application of the Concept of Family Centrality.

Front Psychol 2022 10;13:911292. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Education, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, China.

Family centrality refers to value judgment regarding the relative importance of family in an individual's life. In contrast to bidirectional research in the field of work-family relationships, much work had been done about the work centrality, whereas few works of research discussed family centrality as an independent concept. Thus, the present study systematically discussed the concept of family centrality in Chinese culture and the preliminary validation of its measurement through two cross-sectional studies. In study 1, questionnaires were distributed to two sub-samples through convenient sampling; one included 185 participants (mean age of 35.51 ± 10.30) and other included 189 participants (mean age of 31.39 ± 6.82). In study 2, through convenient sampling, questionnaires were distributed to 351 participants with a mean age of 35.15 ( = 9.44) years. Results of Study 1 supported that the Family Centrality Questionnaire (FCQ) has a single-factor structure with good reliability and validity. Additionally, family centrality and work centrality are two independent concepts that can be distinguished on conceptional and applicational levels. Results of Study 2 showed that family centrality had an indirect effect on life wellbeing through life involvement (β = 0.073, 95% CI [0.032, 0128]), and work centrality had an indirect effect on work wellbeing through work involvement (β = 0.089, 95% CI [0.046, 0.142]). Further, family centrality had a spillover effect on work wellbeing through work involvement (β = -0.079, 95% CI [-0.125, -0.42]), and work centrality has a spillover effect on life wellbeing through family involvement (β = -0.053, 95% CI [-0.095, -0.22]). Overall, the results showed that the FCQ can be used as a scientific measurement for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.911292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9226669PMC
June 2022

Uncover the reasons for performance differences between measurement functions (Provably).

Appl Intell (Dordr) 2022 Jun 20:1-20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Data Science, School of Computer Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Recently, an exciting experimental conclusion in Li et al. (Knowl Inf Syst 62(2):611-637, 1) about measures of uncertainty for knowledge bases has attracted great research interest for many scholars. However, these efforts lack solid theoretical interpretations for the experimental conclusion. The main limitation of their research is that the final experimental conclusions are only derived from experiments on three datasets, which makes it still unknown whether the conclusion is universal. In our work, we first review the mathematical theories, definitions, and tools for measuring the uncertainty of knowledge bases. Then, we provide a series of rigorous theoretical proofs to reveal the reasons for the superiority of using the knowledge amount of knowledge structure to measure the uncertainty of the knowledge bases. Combining with experiment results, we verify that knowledge amount has much better performance for measuring uncertainty of knowledge bases. Hence, we prove an empirical conclusion established through experiments from a mathematical point of view. In addition, we find that for some knowledge bases that cannot be classified by entity attributes, such as ProBase (a probabilistic taxonomy), our conclusion is still applicable. Therefore, our conclusions have a certain degree of universality and interpretability and provide a theoretical basis for measuring the uncertainty of many different types of knowledge bases, and the findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10489-022-03726-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207183PMC
June 2022

Do Non-climacteric Fruits Share a Common Ripening Mechanism of Hormonal Regulation?

Front Plant Sci 2022 9;13:923484. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Fleshy fruits have been traditionally categorized into climacteric (CL) and non-climacteric (NC) groups. CL fruits share a common ripening mechanism of hormonal regulation, i.e., the ethylene regulation, whereas whether NC fruits share a common mechanism remains controversial. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been commonly thought to be a key regulator in NC fruit ripening; however, besides ABA, many other hormones have been increasingly suggested to play crucial roles in NC fruit ripening. NC fruits vary greatly in their organ origin, constitution, and structure. Development of different organs may be different in the pattern of hormonal regulation. It has been well demonstrated that the growth and development of strawberry, the model of NC fruits, is largely controlled by a hormonal communication between the achenes and receptacle; however, not all NC fruits contain achenes. Accordingly, it is particularly important to understand whether strawberry is indeed able to represent a universal mechanism for the hormonal regulation of NC fruit ripening. In this mini-review, we summarized the recent research advance on the hormone regulation of NC ripening in relation to fruit organ origination, constitution, and structure, whereby analyzing and discussing whether NC fruits may share a common mechanism of hormonal regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.923484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218805PMC
June 2022

Prediction of lipid nanoparticles for mRNA vaccines by the machine learning algorithm.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2022 Jun 2;12(6):2950-2962. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China.

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) is commonly used to deliver mRNA vaccines. Currently, LNP optimization primarily relies on screening ionizable lipids by traditional experiments which consumes intensive cost and time. Current study attempts to apply computational methods to accelerate the LNP development for mRNA vaccines. Firstly, 325 data samples of mRNA vaccine LNP formulations with IgG titer were collected. The machine learning algorithm, lightGBM, was used to build a prediction model with good performance (  > 0.87). More importantly, the critical substructures of ionizable lipids in LNPs were identified by the algorithm, which well agreed with published results. The animal experimental results showed that LNP using DLin-MC3-DMA (MC3) as ionizable lipid with an / ratio at 6:1 induced higher efficiency in mice than LNP with SM-102, which was consistent with the model prediction. Molecular dynamic modeling further investigated the molecular mechanism of LNPs used in the experiment. The result showed that the lipid molecules aggregated to form LNPs, and mRNA molecules twined around the LNPs. In summary, the machine learning predictive model for LNP-based mRNA vaccines was first developed, validated by experiments, and further integrated with molecular modeling. The prediction model can be used for virtual screening of LNP formulations in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214321PMC
June 2022

Waterborne superamphiphobic coatings with network structure for enhancing mechanical durability.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 6;12(26):16510-16516. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University Nanjing 211189 PR China

Superamphiphobic coatings may significantly change the wettability of a substrate, and so are attractive for applications in aero/marine engineering, biotechnology, and heat transfer. However, the coatings are caught in a double bind when their durability is considered, as they are vulnerable to mechanical abrasion. Meanwhile, the wide use of organic solvents for preparing the coatings generates environmental pollution. Here, we present a waterborne superamphiphobic coating through one-step spraying that repels a wide range of liquids. By tailoring the repellence of the nano-silica to waterborne resin, a network structure is constructed to protect the embedded nano-silica from damage. Thus, the coatings are durable against 725 cycles of friction tester abrasion under a load of 250 g, showing a significant improvement in the mechanical durability by 3-25 times. Moreover, our coating also shows excellent comprehensive durability, including resistance to oil-flow erosion, falling sand impact, chemical attack, thermal treatment, This strategy can be introduced to various waterborne resins, demonstrating its universality, and may offer a new insight to design sustainable superamphiphobic coatings for long-term practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02853kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168828PMC
June 2022

Effects of acute high intraocular pressure on red-green and blue-yellow cortical color responses in non-human primates.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 Jun 21;35:103092. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence Technology, Shanghai, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, and intraocular pressure (IOP) is an established and modifiable risk factor for both chronic and acute glaucoma. The relationship between color vision deficits and chronic glaucoma has been described previously. However, the effects of acute glaucoma or acute primary angle closure, which has high prevalence in China, on color vision remains unclear. To address the above question, red-green or blue-yellow color responses in V1, V2, and V4 of seven rhesus macaques were monitored using intrinsic-signal optical imaging while monocular anterior chamber perfusions were performed to reversibly elevate IOP acutely over a clinically observed range of 30 to 90 mmHg. We found that the cortical population responses to both red-green and blue-yellow grating stimuli, systematically decreased as IOP increased from 30 to 90 mmHg. Although a similar decrement in magnitude was noted in V1, V2, and V4, blue-yellow responses were consistently more impaired than red-green responses at all levels of acute IOP elevation and in all monitored visual areas. This physiological study in non-human primates demonstrates that acute IOP elevations substantially depress the ability of the visual cortex to register color information. This effect is more severe for blue-yellow responses than for red-green responses, suggesting selective impairment of the koniocellular pathways compared with the parvocellular pathways. Together, we infer that blue-yellow color vision might be the most vulnerable visual function in acute glaucoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103092DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical significance of pancreatic calcifications: a 15-year single-center observational study.

Eur J Med Res 2022 Jun 25;27(1):99. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Pancreatic calcifications (PC) are considered specific for chronic pancreatitis (CP), but PC may also be present in non-CP diseases. The aims are to understand the pattern of calcifications in different diseases and to determine they were related to malignant diseases.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed including patients with PC or CP undergoing surgery in the Department of General Surgery of Ruijin Hospital from January 2003 to June 2018.

Results: PC were observed in 168 (4.5%) of the 3755 patients with pancreatic lesions treated during the study period. The majority of patients with PC had three kinds of CP (73.2%) while 26.8% had other five kinds of non-CP diseases. In patients with non-CP diseases, the incidence of PC in malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) was significantly higher than benign IPMN (8.3% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.004). In patients of CP with pancreatic mass (n = 81), PC (Odds ratio = 28.6, p = 0.000), advanced age (> 55 years) and parenchymal atrophy were independent predictors for malignancy. In patients of CP without pancreatic mass (n = 110), there were 82 cases (74.5%) with PC and 5 cases (4.5%) with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The regression model of risk factors was not successful.

Conclusions: The disease spectrum with PC was very diverse. PC may be related to malignant IPMN in non-CP diseases and is related to malignancy in the patients of CP with pancreatic mass and indications for resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-022-00725-9DOI Listing
June 2022

The current situation and future directions for the study on time-to-pregnancy: a scoping review.

Reprod Health 2022 Jun 25;19(1):150. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, No.87 Dingjiaqiao Rd, Gulou District, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Introduction: As problems associated with infertility and population aging increase, there is a growing interest in the factors that cause a decline in human fertility. Time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is a good indicator with which to reflect human fecundability. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of this topic.

Methods: Relevant qualitative and quantitative studies were identified by searching the Web of science and PubMed electronic databases. We included all literature, written in English, from inception to the 10th April 2021 providing the focus was on TTP. We conducted a narrative synthesis using thematic analysis.

Results: Traditional TTP-related study protocols include prospective and retrospective cohorts that provide a wealth of data to reveal potential influences on TTP. Thus far, a variety of factors have been shown to be associated with TTP in couples preparing for pregnancy, including basic demographic characteristics, menstrual status, chronic disease status, environmental endocrine disruptor exposure, and lifestyles. However, there are inevitable epidemiological bias in the existing studies, including recall bias, selection bias and measurement bias. Some methodological advances have brought new opportunities to TTP research, which make it possible to develop precision interventions for population fertility. Future TTP studies should take advantage of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and high-throughput sequencing technologies, and apply medical big data to fully consider and avoid possible bias in the design.

Conclusion: There are many opportunities and future challenges for TTP related studies which would provide a scientific basis for the "precise health management" of the population preparing for pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-022-01450-6DOI Listing
June 2022

RUNDC3A regulates SNAP25-mediated chemotherapy resistance by binding AKT in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (GNEC).

Cell Death Discov 2022 Jun 25;8(1):296. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Cancer Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau SAR, China.

Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (GNEC) is a common type of neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance in patients with GNEC and those with NEC are largely unknown, and thus, reliable biomarkers and therapeutic targets that could improve treatment outcomes in patients with NECs are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify specific targets and investigate their roles in GNEC progression and treatment resistance. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in GNEC specimens and were further analysed by focusing on their roles in chemoresistance. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses of GNEC DEGs revealed that synapse-related function was the most prominent cellular function perturbed in GNEC. SNAP25 was identified as the target gene involved in most of the enriched pathways. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that SNAP25 plays a role in proliferation and chemoresistance in GNEC cell lines. AKT has been identified as a downstream target, and SNAP25 binds to AKT protein and promotes AKT protein half-life. Further analysis of other types of NEC as well as small cell lung cancer, which resembles NEC on a molecular level, has identified RUNDC3A as an upstream molecule that regulates SNAP25 expression and the associated phenotypes that could enhance chemoresistance in NECs. Our results show that SNAP25 expression in GNEC is mediated by RUNDC3A and promotes GNEC progression and chemoresistance via posttranslational modification of AKT. Thus, our results suggest that the RUNDC3A/SNAP25/Akt axis could be a potential therapeutic target in GNEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-022-01084-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 promotes acute kidney injury by alleviating poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 degradation.

Kidney Int 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, the Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory of Immune Medicines, Ministry of Education, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

The novel biomarker, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), is used clinically to predict different types of acute kidney injury (AKI) and has drawn significant attention as a urinary biomarker. However, as a secreted protein in the circulation of patients with AKI, it is unclear whether IGFBP7 acts as a key regulator in AKI progression, and if mechanisms underlying its upregulation still need to be determined. Here we found that IGFBP7 is highly expressed in the blood and urine of patients and mice with AKI possibly via a c-Jun-dependent mechanism, and is positively correlated with kidney dysfunction. Global knockout of IGFBP7 ameliorated kidney dysfunction, inflammatory responses, and programmed cell death in murine models of cisplatin-, kidney ischemia/reperfusion-, and lipopolysaccharide-induced AKI. IGFBP7 mainly originated from kidney tubular epithelial cells. Conditional knockout of IGFBP7 from the kidney protected against AKI. By contrast, rescue of IGFBP7 expression in IGFBP7-knockout mice restored kidney damage and inflammation. IGFBP7 function was determined in vitro using recombinant IGFBP7 protein, IGFBP7 knockdown, or overexpression. Additionally, IGFBP7 was found to bind to poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and inhibit its degradation by antagonizing the E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 4 (RNF4). Thus, IGFBP7 in circulation acts as a biomarker and key mediator of AKI by inhibiting RNF4/PARP1-mediated tubular injury and inflammation. Hence, over-activation of the IGFBP7/PARP1 axis represents a promising target for AKI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2022.05.026DOI Listing
June 2022

Association between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and diabetes mellitus among the US population: a cross-sectional study.

Int Health 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Toxicology and Occupational health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Background: The primary aim of this study is to examine the association between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among the US population.

Methods: We used data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-16, which is a nationally representative population-based survey of the US non-institutionalized population. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between urinary PAHs and the prevalence of DM using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The study sample including 13 792 individuals ≥18 y of age. The average ages of the three PAH tertiles were 42.56±19.67, 42.21±19.51 and 43.39±17.99 y. An increased risk of DM was found with increased odds for the second (OR 1.56 [95% CI 1.36 to 1.79]) and third tertile (OR 1.79 [95% CI 1.55 to 2.06)] of urinary PAH as compared with the first tertile. Similarly, higher chances of DM were observed in the second (men: OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.71]; women: OR 1.76 [95% CI 1.44 to 2.14]) and third tertile (men: OR 1.69 [95% CI 1.38 to 2.08]; women: OR 1.79 [95% CI 1.46 to 2.19]) of urinary PAHs as compared with the first tertile in both men and women.

Conclusions: A population-based cross-sectional study found a positive association between urinary PAHs and DM in the US population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihac029DOI Listing
June 2022

Reef-dwelling brachiopods record paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes within the Changhsingian (late Permian) platform-margin sponge reef in eastern Sichuan Basin, China.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

The eastern Sichuan Basin area (China) is the representative locality for studies of the Late Permian Changhsingian platform to basin transition. However, details of the paleoecology and paleoenvironment of rich brachiopod fauna in this area are still unclear, especially regarding the reef-dwelling brachiopods. The reef-dwelling brachiopod specimens from the Panlongdong platform-margin reefal environment are first described herein. A detailed comparison is presented with the paleoecological features and sedimentological characteristics of the reef-dwelling brachiopods and brachiopods of the reported Zhongliang Hill and Huayingshan intraplatform nonreefal environments in the transitional zone. The reef-dwelling brachiopods are dominated by the spiriferids, such as Martinia and Permophricodothyris, which are mainly found in hypercalcified sponge-calcareous algae binding framestone from the second reef-building process of the Panlongdong reef. The brachiopods in the first and third reef-building processes of the Panlongdong reef often show clear indications of transportation. The comparison of paleoecological and sedimentological evidence indicates that the reef-dwelling brachiopod specimens, which have strong pedicle-attached convex shells and supporting body spines, are commonly preserved in live positions and form a hard-bottom fauna, showing low evenness, and high dominance in both taxonomical and lifestyle diversity. The association among reef-dwelling brachiopod individuals also represents potential biological interactions to prevent the shells from being swept away by constant currents and waves, forming extremely dense concentrations on the sea floor as reef ecosystem engineers. This case study of reef-dwelling brachiopods preserved within the platform-margin reefal environment was critical for filling various gaps in our knowledge of the complexity of the Changhsingian reef-related ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.25023DOI Listing
June 2022

Internal mammary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients based on anatomical imaging and functional imaging.

Breast Cancer 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan, 250117, China.

Internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) metastasis forms part of the clinical node classification for primary breast cancer, which influences the treatment strategy. However, because of the IMLNs' complicated anatomical structures and relationships with adjacent structures, IMLN biopsy or resection is associated with a limited improvement in prognosis and a high complication rate. The positivity rate also varies broadly according to imaging modality, and there is a low rate of agreement between the imaging and pathological diagnoses, which creates imprecision in the preoperative staging. The IMLN positivity rate also varies remarkably, and there are no clear, accurate, and non-invasive modalities for diagnosing the pre-mastectomy IMLN status. Nevertheless, medical imaging modalities continue to evolve, with functional imaging and image-guided thoracoscopic biopsy of sentinel IMLNs being well established. Thus, personalized decision-making and treatment selection should be based on the modality-specific differences in the diagnosis of IMLN metastasis/recurrence and the patient's specific risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-022-01377-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Transcriptome dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in macaques across the lifespan and aged humans.

Cell Res 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Whether adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) persists in adult and aged humans continues to be extensively debated. A major question is whether the markers identified in rodents are reliable enough to reveal new neurons and the neurogenic trajectory in primates. Here, to provide a better understanding of AHN in primates and to reveal more novel markers for distinct cell types, droplet-based single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) is used to investigate the cellular heterogeneity and molecular characteristics of the hippocampi in macaques across the lifespan and in aged humans. All of the major cell types in the hippocampus and their expression profiles were identified. The dynamics of the neurogenic lineage was revealed and the diversity of astrocytes and microglia was delineated. In the neurogenic lineage, the regulatory continuum from adult neural stem cells (NSCs) to immature and mature granule cells was investigated. A group of primate-specific markers were identified. We validated ETNPPL as a primate-specific NSC marker and verified STMN1 and STMN2 as immature neuron markers in primates. Furthermore, we illustrate a cluster of active astrocytes and microglia exhibiting proinflammatory responses in aged samples. The interaction analysis and the comparative investigation on published datasets and ours imply that astrocytes provide signals inducing the proliferation, quiescence and inflammation of adult NSCs at different stages and that the proinflammatory status of astrocytes probably contributes to the decrease and variability of AHN in adults and elderly individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-022-00678-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Dual effects of nZVI on maize growth and water use are positively mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi via rhizosphere interactions.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 21;308:119661. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agroecosystems, College of Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) might generate positive and negative effects on plant growth, since it acts as either hazardous or growth-promotion role. It is still unclear whether such dual roles can be mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant-AMF symbiosis. We first identified that in 1.5 g kg nZVI (≤1.5 g kg positively), maize biomass was increased by 15.83%; yet in 2.0 g kg nZVI, it turned to be declined by 6.83%, relative to non-nZVI condition (CK, p < 0.05), showing a negative effect. Interestingly, the inoculation of AMF massively improved biomass by 45.18% in 1.5 g kg nZVI, and relieved the growth inhibition by 2.0 g kg nZVI. The event of water use efficiency followed similar trend as that of biomass. We found that proper concentration of nZVI can positively interact with rhizosphere AMF carrier, enabling more plant photosynthetic carbon to be remobilized to mycorrhiza. The scanning of transmission electron microscopy showed that excessive nZVI can infiltrate into root cortical cells and disrupt cellular homeostasis mechanism, significantly increasing iron content in roots by 76.01% (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, the images of scanning electron microscopy showed that nZVI were attached on root surface to form an insoluble iron ion (Fe) layer, hindering water absorption. However, they were efficiently immobilized and in situ intercepted by extraradical hyphae in mycorrhizal-nZVI symbiosis, lowering iron translocation efficiency by 6.07% (p < 0.05). Herein, the optimized structure remarkably diminished aperture blockage at root surface and improved root activities by 30.06% (p < 0.05). Particularly, next-generation sequencing demonstrated that appropriate amount of nZVI promoted the colonization and development of Funneliformis mosseae as dominant species in rhizosphere, confirming the positive interaction between AMF and nZVI, and its regulatory mechanism. Therefore, dual effects of nZVI can be actively mediated by AMF via rhizosphere interactions. The findings provided new insights into the safe and efficient application of nanomaterials in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119661DOI Listing
June 2022

Regulating DNA methylation could reduce neuronal ischemia response and apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Gene 2022 Jun 21:146689. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord, Tianjin 300052, P.R. China; Department of Orthopaedics, Shandong University Centre for Orthopaedics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important pathophysiological condition that can cause cell injury and large-scale tissue injury in the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that epigenetic regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of IRI.

Methods: In this study, we isolated mouse cortical neurons and constructed an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) model to explore the change in DNA methylation and its effect on the expression of corresponding genes.

Results: We found that DNA methylation in neurons increased with hypoxia duration and that hypermethylation of numerous promoters and 3'-untranslated regions increased. We performed Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to study gene function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis to identify the pathways associated with gene regulation. The results showed that hypermethylation-related genes expressed after OGD were related to physiological pathways such as neuronal projection, ion transport, growth and development, while hypomethylation-related genes were related to pathological pathways such as the external apoptosis signaling pathway, neuronal death regulation, and regulation of oxidative stress. However, the changes in DNA methylation were specific for certain genes and may have been related to OGD-induced neuronal damage. Importantly, we integrated transcription and DNA methylation data to identify several candidate target genes, including hypomethylated Apoe, Pax6, Bmp4, and Ptch1 and hypermethylated Adora2a, Crhr1, Stxbp1, and Tac1. This study further indicated the effect of DNA methylation on gene function in brain IRI from the perspective of epigenetics, and the identified genes may become new targets for achieving neuroprotection in the brain after IRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146689DOI Listing
June 2022

A Light-Permeable Solar Evaporator with Three-Dimensional Photocatalytic Sites to Boost Volatile-Organic-Compound Rejection for Water Purification.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

Solar-driven interfacial evaporation (SIE) is emerging as an energy-efficient technology to alleviate the global water shortages. However, there is a fatal disadvantage in using SIE, that is, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) widely present in feedwater would concurrently evaporate and transport in distilled water, which threatens the water safety. Photocatalysis is a sustainable technology for pollution control, and after years of development, it has become a mature method. Considering the restriction by the insufficient reaction of the permeating VOCs on the two-dimensional (2D) light-available interface of conventional materials, a 3D photocatalytic approach can be established to boost VOC rejection for photothermal evaporation. In the present work, a light-permeable solar evaporator with 3D photocatalytic sites is constructed by a porous sponge decorated with BiOBrI nanosheets with oxygen-rich vacancies. The 3D microchannels in the evaporator provide a light-permeable path with the deepest irradiation depth of about 580 μm, and the reactive interface is increased by tens of times compared with the traditional 2D membrane, resulting in suppression of VOC remnants in distilled water by around four orders of magnitude. When evaporating river water containing 5 mg L extra added phenol, no phenol residues (below 0.001 mg/L) were detected in the produced freshwater. This development is believed to provide a powerful strategy to resolve the VOC bottleneck of SIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c01874DOI Listing
June 2022

Serum prolactin level as a predictive factor for abiraterone response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Prostate 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: To investigate the prognostic value and potential therapeutic target of the baseline serum hormones in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone.

Methods: This retrospective study was performed in patients with mCRPC receiving abiraterone acetate (AA) from July 2016 to September 2020. Patients who had serum hormone tests within 2 weeks before AA treatment were included. Univariate analysis and Cox regression were performed to evaluate the correlation of sex hormones with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Prolactin (PRL) expression in the clinical specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Bone metastases were quantified by automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI).

Results: The study included 61 patients with a median follow-up of 19.0 months. Patients with lower baseline PRL levels (median) responded better to AA than those with higher baseline PRL levels as indicated by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduction (PSA90, 66.7% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.001), PFS (19.6 vs. 7.9 months), and OS (52.8 vs. 19.2 months). Cox regression adjusted for clinical factors also confirmed that baseline PRL level was an independent predictive factor for PFS (hazard ratio = 1.096, p = 0.007). Prostatic PRL expression increased as the disease progressed. PRL expression was also detected in biopsy samples from bone metastasis but not in normal bone tissue, and the serum PRL levels were positively correlated with aBSIs (r = 0.28, p = 0.037).

Conclusions: Serum PRL levels are predictive of response to AA in patients with mCRPC. Serum PRL levels are positively correlated with the volume of metastatic bone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24402DOI Listing
June 2022

Gross Tumor Volume Predicts Survival and Pathological Complete Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2022 7;12:898383. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT) plus surgery has greatly improved the prognosis of locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC) patients. But which factors may influence the pathological tumor response and long-term survival remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic biomarkers of locally advanced EC patients receiving neo-CRT.

Methods: We reviewed the data of 72 patients with cT2-4N0-3M0 EC who underwent neo-CRT at our hospital. The patients received intensity-modulated radiation therapy with a total radiation dose of 41.4-60.0 Gy. Most patients received platinum + paclitaxel-based combination regimens every three weeks for 2-4 cycles. The recorded data included age, sex, smoking history, alcohol use, histology, tumor location, clinical TNM stage, tumor length, gross tumor volume (GTV), GTV of primary tumor (GTVp), GTV of lymph nodes (GTVn), radiation dose, and number of chemotherapy cycles. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and pathological complete response (pCR) were analyzed.

Results: The 3-year OS and PFS rates of these patients who underwent neo-CRT were 51.14% and 43.28%, respectively. In the univariate analyses, smoking history, clinical stage, GTV, GTVp, and GTVn were significantly associated with OS, whereas alcohol use, GTV, GTVp, and GTVn were significantly associated with PFS. Furthermore, in the multivariate analysis, GTV was an independent prognostic predictor of OS (hazard ratio (HR): 14.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.747-53.33, < 0.0001) and PFS (HR: 6.090, 95% CI: 2.398-15.47, < 0.0001). In addition, GTV < 60.50 cm compared to > 60.50 cm was significantly associated with higher pCR rate (59.3% and 27.8%, respectively, = 0.038). High dose (> 50 Gy) and increased number of chemotherapy cycles (≥ 3) didn't improve the OS or PFS in patients with GTV > 60.50 cm.

Conclusion: GTV was an independent prognostic factor of long-term survival in EC patients, which may be because GTV is associated with histological response to neo-CRT. Additionally, patients with GTV > 60.50 cm didn't benefit from increased radiation dose or increased number of chemotherapy cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.898383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9209710PMC
June 2022

Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections and Associated Risk Factors in Hospitalized Patients before Transfusion in Jinling Hospital Nanjing University: A Three-Year Retrospective Study.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 20;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine, School of Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210016, China.

Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and treponema pallidum (TP), must be detected before blood transfusion. However, few studies have been conducted on the prevalence and accuracy of positive results in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the real seroprevalence of TTIs among patients before blood transfusion and analyze the characteristics of false-positive results in Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, China. TTI results were collected from medical records and analyzed retrospectively. Additionally, we also used confirmatory assays to verify the accuracy of positive results. The overall prevalence of TTI was 8.96%, which was related to gender and age. The real positive rates were 86.67% (HBV), 35.09% (HCV), 20.75% (HIV), and 100% (TP). Our results also showed that high-speed centrifugation can reduce the false-positive rate of HBsAg. In summary, the results demonstrated that the positive rates of TTIs in hospitalized patients are higher than those in the general population. We also confirmed the existence of false-positive results in serological screening for TTIs. The method of processing specimens through high-speed centrifugation could reduce the false-positive results of detecting antigens effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060710DOI Listing
June 2022

Utilization of Recombinant Baculovirus Expression System to Produce the RBD Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 10;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Continuous outbreaks of viral diseases in humans facilitates a need for the rapid development of viral test kits and vaccines. These require expression systems to produce a pure and high yield of target viral proteins. We utilized a baculovirus-silkworm expression system to produce the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. First, we had to develop a strategy for constructing a recombinant baculovirus for RBD expression. For this, the coding region of the cypovirus (BmCPV) polyhedron was assembled with the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) promoter. We demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus has the ability to form polyhedrons within host silkworm cells. In addition, the encapsulated BVs are able to infect silkworms by ingestion and induce foreign protein expression. In this way, we utilized this novel system to obtain a high yield of the target foreign protein, the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. However, the viral infection rate of our recombinant BV needs to be improved. Our study shed light on developing a highly efficient expression system for the production of antigens and subsequent immunoassays and vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060672DOI Listing
June 2022

A Review of Cobalt-Containing Nanomaterials, Carbon Nanomaterials and Their Composites in Preparation Methods and Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

A Key Laboratory of Dielectric and Electrolyte Functional Material Hebei Province, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004, China.

With the increasing demand for sustainable and green energy, electric energy storage technologies have received enough attention and extensive research. Among them, Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used because of their excellent performance, but in practical applications, the electrochemical performance of electrode materials is not satisfactory. Carbon-based materials with high chemical stability, strong conductivity, high specific surface area, and good capacity retention are traditional anode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, while cobalt-based nano-materials have been widely used in LIBs anodes because of their high theoretical specific capacity. This paper gives a systematic summary of the state of research of cobalt-containing nanomaterials, carbon nanomaterials, and their composites in LIBs anodes. Moreover, the preparation methods of electrode materials and measures to improve electrochemical performance are also summarized. The electrochemical performance of anode materials can be significantly improved by compounding carbon nanomaterials with cobalt nanomaterials. Composite materials have better electrical conductivity, as well as higher cycle ability and reversibility than single materials, and the synergistic effect between them can explain this phenomenon. In addition, the electrochemical performance of materials can be significantly improved by adjusting the microstructure of materials (especially preparing them into porous structures). Among the different microscopic morphologies of materials, porous structure can provide more positions for chimerism of lithium ions, shorten the diffusion distance between electrons and ions, and thus promote the transfer of lithium ions and the diffusion of electrolytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12122042DOI Listing
June 2022

New Terpenoids from Bornm. and Their Cytotoxic Activities.

Molecules 2022 Jun 7;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development International Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China.

Two new A-ring contracted triterpenoids, madengaisu A and madengaisu B, and one undescribed -kaurane diterpenoid, madengaisu C, along with 20 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Bornm. The structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, ECD spectra, IR, and UV analysis. Moreover, all isolated constituents were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity against RA-FLS cells and cytotoxic activities against the human cancer cell lines Hep-G2, HCT-116, BGC-823, and MCF-7. Ursolic acid and pomolic acid displayed moderate inhibitory activity in RA-FLS cells with IC values of 24.63 ± 1.96 and 25.12 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Hyptadienic acid and 2,3-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28---d-glucopyranoside exhibited good cytotoxicity against Hep-G2 cells with IC values of 25.16 ± 2.55 and 17.66 ± 1.82 μM, respectively. In addition, 2,3-dihydroxyolean-13(18)-en-28-oic acid and alphitolic acid were observed to inhibit HCT-116 cells (13.25 ± 1.65 and 21.62 ± 0.33 μM, respectively), while madengaisu B and 2,3-dihydroxyolean-13(18)-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxic activities against BGC-823 cells with IC values of 24.76 ± 0.94 and 26.83 ± 2.52 μM, respectively, which demonstrated that triterpenes from may serve as therapeutic agents for RA and cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123665DOI Listing
June 2022

Zebrafish Xenograft Model for Studying Pancreatic Cancer-Instructed Innate Immune Microenvironment.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 9;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Engineering Research Center of Cell & Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has up to half the tumor mass of tumor-associated myeloid cells. Myeloid innate immune cells play important roles in regulating cancer cell recognition and tumor growth. PDAC cells often mold myeloid cells into pro-tumoral state to fuel cancer growth and induce immune suppression. However, how tumor cells educate the innate immune responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we used four different human PDAC cell lines (PANC1, BxPC3, AsPC1, and CFPAC1) to establish the zebrafish xenograft model and investigated the interaction between pancreatic cancer and innate immune cells. The primary tumor-derived cancer cells PANC1 and BxPC3 activated innate immune anti-tumoral responses efficiently, while cancer cells from metastatic tissues AsPC1 and CFPAC1 induced an innate immune suppression and educated innate immune cells towards pro-tumoral state. Chemical conversion of innate immune cells to anti-tumoral state inhibited tumor growth for AsPC1 and CFPAC1. Moreover, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of macrophages also significantly reduced tumor growth, supporting the important roles of macrophages in innate immune suppression. REG4 expression is high in AsPC1 and CFPAC1. Knockdown of REG4 induced innate immune activation and reduced tumor growth in the xenografts, indicating that REG4 is a beneficial target for PDAC therapy. Our study provides a fast in-vivo model to study PDAC-innate immune interaction and their plasticity that could be used to study the related mechanism as well as identify new drugs to enhance immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126442DOI Listing
June 2022
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