Publications by authors named "Wei Tao"

898 Publications

Does Preoperative Waiting Time Affect the Short-Term Outcomes and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients? A Retrospective Study from the West of China.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 30;2022:8235736. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of preoperative waiting time on the short-term outcomes and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 3744 CRC patients who underwent primary CRC surgery at a single clinical medical center from Jan 2011 to Jan 2020. The baseline information, short-term outcomes, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared among the short-waiting group, the intermediate-waiting group, and the long-waiting group.

Results: A total of 3744 eligible CRC patients were enrolled for analysis. There were no significant differences in all of the baseline information and short-term outcomes among the three groups. In multivariate analysis, older age (OS: =0.000, HR = 1.947, 95% CI = 1.631-2.324; DFS: =0.000, HR = 1.693, 95% CI = 1.445-1.983), advanced clinical stage (OS: =0.000, HR = 1.301, 95% CI = 1.161-1.457; DFS: =0.000, HR = 1.262, 95% CI = 1.139-1.400), overall complications (OS: =0.000, HR = 1.613, 95% CI = 1.303-1.895; DFS: =0.000, HR = 1.560, 95% CI = 1.312-1.855), and major complications (OS: =0.001, HR = 1.812, 95% CI = 1.338-2.945; DFS: =0.006, HR = 1.647, 95% CI = 1.153-2.352) were independent factors of OS and DFS. In addition, no significant difference was found in all stages (OS, =0.203; DFS, =0.108), stage I (OS, =0.419; DFS, =0.579), stage II (OS, =0.465; DFS, =0.385), or stage III (OS, =0.539; DFS, =0.259) in terms of OS and DFS among the three groups.

Conclusion: Preoperative waiting time did not affect the short-term outcomes or prognosis in CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8235736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9078846PMC
May 2022

Prognostic impact of perineural invasion in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: multicentre study.

Br J Surg 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of perineural invasion (PNI) on tumour recurrence and survival among patients with resected intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).

Methods: This was a multicentre, retrospective study of patients who underwent resection with curative intent for ICC between 2000 and 2017. The relationship between PNI, clinicopathological characteristics, and long-term survival was analysed in the overall cohort and the subset of patients with early-stage ICC.

Results: Among 1095 patients who underwent resection of ICC, PNI was present in 239 (21.8 per cent). In univariable analysis, PNI was associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS) (median 13.2 versus 16.1 months for patients with and without PNI respectively; P = 0.038) and overall survival (OS) (26.4 versus 41.5 months; P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, PNI was an independent risk factor associated with reduced DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95 per cent c.i. 1.06 to 2.13; P = 0.019) and OS (HR 1.74, 1.16 to 2.60; P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis of patients with early-stage disease (AJCC T1-2, 981 patients; or N0, 249 patients), PNI remained associated with worse DFS (T1-2: median 13.7 versus 16.6 months in patients with and without PNI respectively, P = 0.019; N0: 11.7 versus 17.5 months, P = 0.022) and OS (T1-2: 28.5 versus 45.7 months, P < 0.001; N0: 34.9 versus 47.5 months, P = 0.036).

Conclusion: PNI is a strong independent predictor of tumour recurrence and long-term survival following resection of ICC with curative intent, even among patients with early-stage disease. The presence of PNI should be assessed routinely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znac098DOI Listing
May 2022

The comparison study of anatomic vapor-incision technique (AVIT) using the 180W-XPS Greenlight laser and photoselective vaporization of the prostate(PVP) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Urology 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To prospective compared the preoperative parameters and post-operative functional outcomes between anatomic vapor-incision technique (AVIT) and the photoselective vaporization of prostate(PVP) with GreenLight 180W-XPS.

Methods: Total 174 BPH patients were enrolled in the study and 86 cases, 88 cases were underwent with traditional PVP and AVIT, respectively. The relevant pre-, intra- and post-operative data were recorded and compared between the both groups.

Results: No significant differences were observed between both groups in baseline characteristics and no major complications (capsule perforation and TUR syndrome) occurred intraoperatively. In AVIT group, the energy consumption and energy density were greater than those in PVP group. The operative time and laser time were longer in AVIT group than it in PVP group. Compared to the AVIT group, the incidence of irritative symptoms after operation was higher in the PVP group. During the follow-up period, the functional outcomes (IPSS, QoL, prostate volume and PSA level) in both groups were significant improved compared to the baseline. The reduction of prostate volume and PSA level were significant greater in AVIT group than it in PVP group.

Conclusions: Compared to PVP, AVIT is safe and efficacious treatment for BPH patients with more adenoma removal and more improvements of clinical outcomes. But the long-term follow-up data is needed to evaluate the functional outcomes and re-treatment rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2022.03.034DOI Listing
April 2022

Role of Necroptosis and Immune Infiltration in Human Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection: Novel Insights from Bioinformatics Analyses.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 16;2022:6184802. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Background: Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) is one of the most life-threatening cardiovascular emergencies with high mortality and morbidity, and necroptosis is a newly identified type of programmed cell death and contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of necroptosis in TAAD has not been elucidated. This study was aimed at determining the role of necroptosis in TAAD using bioinformatics analyses.

Methods: The RNA sequencing dataset GSE153434 and the microarray dataset GSE52093 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes of necroptosis (NRDEGs) were identified based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and necroptosis gene set. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was applied to evaluate the gene enrichment signaling pathway in TAAD. The STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to establish and visualize protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and identify the key functional modules of NRDEGs. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of NRDEGs were also performed. Additionally, Spearman correlations were used to construct the necroptosis-related transcription factor-target genes regulatory network, immune infiltration patterns were analyzed using the ImmuCellAI algorithm, and the correlation between immune cell-type abundance and NRDEGs expression was investigated. The expression levels of NRDEGs and immune infiltration were additionally verified in the GSE52093 dataset.

Results: We found that the necroptosis pathway was considerably enriched and activated in TAAD samples. Overall, 25 NRDEGs were identified including MLKL, RIPK1, and FADD, and among them, 18 were verified in the validation set. Moreover, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses found that NRDEGs were primarily involved in the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling pathway, and interleukin-17 signaling pathway. The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells was identified in the TAAD samples. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that expression of NRDEGs was positively associated with proinflammatory immune-cell infiltrations and negatively associated with anti-inflammatory or regulatory immune-cell infiltrations.

Conclusions: The present findings suggest that necroptosis phenomenon exists in TAAD and correlates with immune cell infiltration, which indicate necroptosis may promote the development of TAAD through activating immune infiltration and immune response. This study paves a new road to future investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for TAAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6184802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9036163PMC
April 2022

Non-Invasive Thermal Therapy for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

Small 2022 Apr 27:e2107705. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, United States.

Owing to the development of nanotechnology and noninvasive treatment, thermal therapy in combination with external stimuli has been applied for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM), which has attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this review, the recent progress of applying a variety of non-invasive thermal therapeutic modalities for TERM, including photothermal therapy, magnetic thermotherapy, and ultrasound thermotherapy, as well as other thermal therapeutics are discussed. The parameters and conditions that need to be considered and regulated to realize a well-controlled thermal therapy for tissue regeneration are also discussed. Afterwards, the current concerns and challenges of putting thermal therapy into clinical applications are pointed out. At last, perspectives are provided for the future development directions, aiming to providing opportunities and a novel pathway for TERM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202107705DOI Listing
April 2022

Comparison of surgical and oncologic outcomes in very elderly patients (≥ 80 years old) and elderly (65-79 years old) colorectal cancer patients: a propensity score matching.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Apr 25;22(1):205. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing, Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term outcomes and prognosis of elderly and very elderly colorectal cancer (CRC) patients after primary CRC surgery using propensity score matching (PSM).

Methods: This study retrospectively collected the medical records of CRC patients ≥ 65 years old undergoing primary CRC surgery from Jan 2011 to Jan 2020. Short-term outcomes, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between very elderly CRC patients (≥ 80 years old) and elderly CRC patients (65-79 years old).

Results: A total of 2084 patients were enrolled for analysis. After PSM, 331 very elderly patients were matched to 331 elderly patients. In terms of short-term outcomes, the very elderly patients had longer postoperative hospital stays (p = 0.007) after PSM. In terms of OS, it was found that age (p < 0.01, HR = 1.878, 95% CI 1.488-2.371), tumor stage (p < 0.01, HR = 1.865, 95% CI 1.603-2.170), overall complications (p < 0.01, HR = 1.514, 95% CI 1.224-1.872) and major complications (p = 0.001, HR = 2.012, 95% CI 1.319-3.069) were independent prognostic factors. For DFS, age (p < 0.01, HR = 1.816, 95% CI 1.579-2.088), tumor stage (p < 0.01, HR = 1.816, 95% CI 1.579-2.088), overall complications (p = 0.002, HR = 1.379, 95% CI 1.128-1.685) and major complications (p = 0.002, HR = 1.902, 95% CI 1.259-2.874) were found to be independent prognostic factors. Moreover, elderly patients had a better OS and DFS than very elderly patients.

Conclusion: Very elderly patients had a poorer prognosis than elderly patients after primary CRC surgery. Surgeons should be cautious when treating very elderly CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02277-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9036748PMC
April 2022

Does Chronic Kidney Disease Really Affect the Complications and Prognosis After Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? A Meta-Analysis.

Front Surg 2022 6;9:870946. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected the complications and prognosis after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to 22 February 2022 to find eligible studies. Complications, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were collected, and this meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3.

Results: A total of nine studies including 6,541 patients were included in this meta-analysis. After pooling all baseline information, the CKD group had a higher rate of Child-Pugh grade B than the Non-CKD group (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.93, < 0.00001). As for surgery-related information, the CKD group had larger blood loss (MD = -404.79, 95% CI = -509.70 to -299.88, < 0.00001), and higher rate of blood transfusion (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.85 to 3.3, < 0.00001). In terms of complications, the CKD group had a higher rate of overall complications (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.57 to 2.81, < 0.00001) and a higher rate of ≥ grade III complications (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.57 to 2.81, = 0.0002). The CKD group had poor OS compared with the non-CKD group (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.49, = 0.001). However, in terms of DFS, no significant difference was found (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.28, = 0.16).

Conclusion: Preexisting CKD was associated with higher ratio of complications and poor OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.870946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019129PMC
April 2022

All-Nanofiber Network Structure for Ultrasensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 21;14(17):19949-19957. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, China.

Sensing materials with fiber structures are excellent candidates for the fabrication of flexible pressure sensors due to their large specific surface area and abundant contact points. Here, an ultrathin, flexible piezoresistive pressure sensor that consists of a multilayer nanofiber network structure prepared via a simple electrospinning technique is reported. The ultrathin sensitive layer is composite nanofiber films composed of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) and polyamide 6 (PEDOT:PSS/PA6) prepared by simultaneous electrospinning. PEDOT:PSS conductive fibers and PA6 elastic fibers are interwoven to form a multilayer network structure that can achieve ultrahigh sensitivity by forming a wealth of contact points during loading. In particular, gold-deposited PA6 fibers as upper and lower flexible electrodes can effectively increase the initial resistance. Due to this special fiber electrode structure, the sensor is able to generate a large electrical signal variability when subjected to a weak external force. The devices with different sensing properties can be obtained by controlling the electrospinning time. The sensor based on the PEDOT:PSS/PA6 nanofiber network has high sensitivity (6554.6 kPa at 0-1.4 kPa), fast response time (53 ms), and wide detection range (0-60 kPa). Significantly, the device maintains ultrahigh sensitivity when cyclically loaded over 10,000 cycles at 5 kPa, which makes it have great prospects for applications in human health monitoring and motion monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c24257DOI Listing
May 2022

Development and Validation of Ferroptosis- and Immune-Related lncRNAs Signatures for Breast Infiltrating Duct and Lobular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2022 4;12:844642. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

School of Public Health and Laboratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Medicine, Huaihua, China.

Background: Heterogeneity of breast cancer (BRCA) is significantly correlated with its prognosis. Target therapy for ferroptosis and immunity is a new cancer treatment option discovered in recent years. In the present study, we aimed to identify ferroptosis- and immune-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to accurately predict the prognosis and diagnosis of patients with breast infiltrating duct and lobular carcinoma by integrated analyses.

Methods: The corresponding data for the patients with breast infiltrating duct and lobular carcinoma by integrated analyses were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Analyses of univariate and multivariate Cox regressions were used to identify the suitable candidate biomarkers.

Results: We found that seven ferroptosis- and immune-related differentially expressed lncRNAs (FI-DELs) (AC007686.3, AC078883.1, ADAMTS9-AS1, AL035661.1, CBR3-AS1, FTX, and TMEM105) were correlated with the overall survival of patients with breast infiltrating duct and lobular carcinoma. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUCs) value of the prognosis model were all over 0.6 in training, validation, and entire groups. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis model was 87.84% and 97.06%, respectively.

Conclusions: Through a series of bioinformatics analyses, we found that the seven FI-DELs could serve as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for patients with breast infiltrating duct and lobular carcinoma. However, whether these seven biomarkers could be really applied to the clinic requires further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.844642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015165PMC
April 2022

Blood-brain barrier-penetrating single CRISPR-Cas9 nanocapsules for effective and safe glioblastoma gene therapy.

Sci Adv 2022 04 20;8(16):eabm8011. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Henan-Macquarie Uni Joint Centre for Biomedical Innovation, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Targeted Bio-nanomedicine, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China.

We designed a unique nanocapsule for efficient single CRISPR-Cas9 capsuling, noninvasive brain delivery and tumor cell targeting, demonstrating an effective and safe strategy for glioblastoma gene therapy. Our CRISPR-Cas9 nanocapsules can be simply fabricated by encapsulating the single Cas9/sgRNA complex within a glutathione-sensitive polymer shell incorporating a dual-action ligand that facilitates BBB penetration, tumor cell targeting, and Cas9/sgRNA selective release. Our encapsulating nanocapsules evidenced promising glioblastoma tissue targeting that led to high PLK1 gene editing efficiency in a brain tumor (up to 38.1%) with negligible (less than 0.5%) off-target gene editing in high-risk tissues. Treatment with nanocapsules extended median survival time (68 days versus 24 days in nonfunctional sgRNA-treated mice). Our new CRISPR-Cas9 delivery system thus addresses various delivery challenges to demonstrate safe and tumor-specific delivery of gene editing Cas9 ribonucleoprotein for improved glioblastoma treatment that may potentially be therapeutically useful in other brain diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abm8011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9020780PMC
April 2022

Emerging mRNA technologies: delivery strategies and biomedical applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

The great success achieved by the two highly-effective messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the great potential of mRNA technology. Through the evolution of mRNA technology, chemistry has played an important role from mRNA modification to the synthesis of mRNA delivery platforms, which allows various applications of mRNA to be achieved both and . In this tutorial review, we provide a summary and discussion on the significant progress of emerging mRNA technologies, as well as the underlying chemical designs and principles. Various nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery strategies including protein-mRNA complex, lipid-based carriers, polymer-based carriers, and hybrid carriers for the efficient delivery of mRNA molecules are presented. Furthermore, typical mRNA delivery platforms for various biomedical applications (, functional protein expression, vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, and genome editing) are highlighted. Finally, our insights into the challenges and future development towards clinical translation of these mRNA technologies are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00617gDOI Listing
April 2022

Hawk tea prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice by activating the AMPK/ACC/SREBP1c signaling pathways and regulating the gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

: Hawk tea, a non-Camellia tea, is an ancient tea drink from southwest China and has been proven to exhibit significant hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Hawk tea extract (HTE) can improve obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in a mouse model and to determine whether its anti-obesity effects are related to improvements in lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota. : We tested the ability of HTE to prevent obesity and regulate gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed with a HFD. We found that HTE significantly reduced body weight, fat deposition, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and significantly increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) induced by HFD. HTE also increased the levels of AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, up-regulated the expression of CPT-1, and downregulated the expression of SREBP1c and FAS. In addition, the administration of HTE significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiota, reduced the ratio of to , increased the relative abundance of , , and , and decreased the relative abundance of and . : Collectively, our data demonstrate that HTE can prevent HFD-induced obesity by regulating the AMPK/ACC/SREBP1c signaling pathways and the gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo04260bDOI Listing
April 2022

Sequential occurrence of T790M mutation and small cell lung cancer transformation in EGFR-positive lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Mar;10(9):2836-2843

Department of Radiology, Ningbo Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Ningbo 315000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: The emergence of secondary drug resistance when treating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), seriously affects the therapeutic efficacy and survival of patients. Here, we report a case of advanced NSCLC focusing on the application of multiple biopsy modalities to reveal the development of multiple resistance mechanisms during targeted therapies.

Case Summary: A 54-year-old male patient presented with EGFR 19Del-mutated advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and exhibited the development of a T790M mutation during initial TKI treatment. Following 3 mo of Osimertinib treatment, a mixed response was observed. Tissue biopsy of the progressive lesion showed transformation to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) harboring RB1 and TP53 mutations, with loss of the original T790M mutation. A standard chemotherapy regimen with Anlotinib for SCLC was administered. Repeat biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma combined with SCLC after tumor progression. The patient's overall survival was 24 mo.

Conclusion: Multiple biopsy modalities can reveal the development of multiple resistance mechanisms which help with treatment decision-making. Comprehensive treatment regimens according to the drug resistance mechanism significantly improved the prognosis of such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i9.2836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8968804PMC
March 2022

Repurposing antiparasitic antimonials to noncovalently rescue temperature-sensitive p53 mutations.

Cell Rep 2022 04;39(2):110622

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine at Shanghai, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

The tumor suppressor p53 is inactivated by over hundreds of heterogenous mutations in cancer. Here, we purposefully selected phenotypically reversible temperature-sensitive (TS) p53 mutations for pharmacological rescue with thermostability as the compound-screening readout. This rational screening identified antiparasitic drug potassium antimony tartrate (PAT) as an agent that can thermostabilize the representative TS mutant p53-V272M via noncovalent binding. PAT met the three basic criteria for a targeted drug: availability of a co-crystal structure, compatible structure-activity relationship, and intracellular target specificity, consequently exhibiting antitumor activity in a xenograft mouse model. At the antimony dose in clinical antiparasitic therapy, PAT effectively and specifically rescued p53-V272M in patient-derived primary leukemia cells in single-cell RNA sequencing. Further scanning of 815 frequent p53-missense mutations identified 65 potential PAT-treatable mutations, most of which were temperature sensitive. These results lay the groundwork for repurposing noncovalent antiparasitic antimonials for precisely treating cancers with the 65 p53 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110622DOI Listing
April 2022

Two distinct males absent on the first (MOF)-containing histone acetyltransferases are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in different ways in human cells.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2022 Apr 13;79(5):238. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Human males absent on the first (MOF), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), forms male-specific lethal (MSL) and non-specific lethal (NSL), two multiprotein HATs, in cells. MSL was originally discovered in dosage compensation study in Drosophila that can specifically acetylate H4K16, while NSL can simultaneously catalyze the H4 at K5, K8, and K16 sites. However, comparative studies of the two HATs in regulating specific biological functions are rarely reported. Here, we present evidence to argue that MSL and NSL function in different ways in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. At first, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MSL1 (a key subunit of the MSL)-knockout (KO) and NSL3 (a key subunit of the NSL)-KO cells seem to prefer to grow in clusters. Interestingly, the former promotes cell survival and clonal formation, while the latter has the opposite effect on it. Cell staining revealed that MSL1-KO leads to multipolarized spindles, while NSL3-KO causes more lumen-like cells. Furthermore, in Transwell experiments, silencing of MSL1 promotes cell invasion in 293 T, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, the inhibitory effects on cell invasion are observed in the same NSL3-silenced cells. Consistent with this, mesenchymal biomarkers, like N-cadherin, vimentin, and snail, are negatively correlated with the expression level of MSL1; however, a positive relationship between these proteins and NSL3 in cells has been found. Further studies have clarified that MSL1, but not NSL3, can specifically bind to the E-box-containing Snail promoter region and thereby negatively regulate Snail transactivation. Also, silencing of MSL1 promotes the lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in mice. Finally, ChIP-Seq analysis indicated that the NSL may be mainly involved in phosphoinositide-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, the MOF-containing MSL and NSL HATs may regulate the EMT process in different ways in order to respond to different stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-022-04258-6DOI Listing
April 2022

A facile and general method for synthesis of antibiotic-free protein-based hydrogel: Wound dressing for the eradication of drug-resistant bacteria and biofilms.

Bioact Mater 2022 Dec 29;18:446-458. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Antibacterial protein hydrogels are receiving increasing attention in the aspect of bacteria-infected-wound healing. However, bacterial drug resistance and biofilm infections lead to hard healing of wounds, thus the construction of biological agents that can overcome these issues is essential. Here, a simple and universal method to construct antibiotic-free protein hydrogel with excellent biocompatibility and superior antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacteria and biofilms was developed. The green industrial microbicide tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) as cross-linking agent can be quickly cross-linked with model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form antibacterial hydrogel through simple mixing without any other initiators, subsequently promoting drug-resistance bacteria-infected wound healing. This simple gelatinization strategy allows at least ten different proteins to form hydrogels (e.g. BSA, human serum albumin (HSA), egg albumin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, lysozyme, transferrin, myohemoglobin, hemoglobin, and phycocyanin) under the same conditions, showing prominent universality. Furthermore, drug-resistance bacteria and biofilm could be efficiently destroyed by the representative BSA hydrogel (B-Hydrogel) with antibacterial activity, overcoming biofilm-induced bacterial resistance. The in vivo study demonstrated that the B-Hydrogel as wound dressing can promote reepithelization to accelerate the healing of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-infected skin wounds without inducing significant side-effect. This readily accessible antibiotic-free protein-based hydrogel not only opens an avenue to provide a facile, feasible and general gelation strategy, but also exhibits promising application in hospital and community MRSA disinfection and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.03.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971583PMC
December 2022

The Non-Specific Lethal (NSL) Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Transcriptionally Regulates Yin Yang 1-Mediated Cell Proliferation in Human Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 30;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 30.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

The human males absent on the first (MOF)-containing non-specific lethal (NSL) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex acetylates histone H4 at lysine K5, K8, and K16. This complex shares several subunits with other epigenetic regulatory enzymes, which highlights the complexity of its intracellular function. However, the effect of the NSL HAT complex on the genome and target genes in human cells is still unclear. By using a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated NSL3-knockout 293T cell line and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) approaches, we identified more than 100 genes as NSL HAT transcriptional targets, including several transcription factors, such as () which are mainly involved in cell proliferation, biological adhesion, and metabolic processes. We found here that the ChIP-Seq peaks of MOF and NSL3 co-localized with H4K16ac, H3K4me2, and H3K4me3 at the transcriptional start site of YY1. In addition, both the mRNA and protein expression levels of YY1 were regulated by silencing or overexpressing NSL HAT. Interestingly, the expression levels of cell division cycle 6, a downstream target gene of YY1, were regulated by MOF or NSL3. In addition, the suppressed clonogenic ability of HepG2 cells caused by siNSL3 was reversed by overexpressing YY1, suggesting the involvement of YY1 in NSL HAT functioning. Additionally, de novo motif analysis of MOF and NSL3 targets indicated that the NSL HAT complex may recognize the specific DNA-binding sites in the promoter region of target genes in order to regulate their transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998616PMC
March 2022

2D materials-based nanomedicine: From discovery to applications.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 Jun 8;185:114268. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Liangzhu Laboratory, Zhejiang University Medical Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311121, China; Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Due to their unique physicochemical characteristics, 2D materials have attracted more and more attention in the biomedicine field. Currently, 2D materials-based nanomedicines have been extensively applied in various diseases including cancer, bacterial infection, tissue engineering, biological protection, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Depending on their various characteristics, these 2D nanomedicines exert their therapeutic effect in different ways, showing great clinical application prospects. Herein, we focus on the various biomedical applications of 2D materials-based nanomedicine. The structures and characteristics of several typical 2D nanomaterials with different configurations and their corresponding biomedical applications are first introduced. Then, the potential of 2D nanomedicines on therapeutic and imaging and their biological functionalization are discussed. Furthermore, the therapeutic potentials of 2D nanomedicines in various diseases are also comprehensively summarized. At last, the challenges and perspectives for the advancement of 2D nanomedicines in clinical transformation are outlooks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2022.114268DOI Listing
June 2022

Multiple yet switchable hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks with white-light emission.

Nat Commun 2022 Apr 6;13(1):1882. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Shenzhen Institute of Aggregate Science and Technology, School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518172, China.

The development of new strategies to construct on-demand porous lattice frameworks from simple motifs is desirable. However, mitigating complexity while combing multiplicity and reversibility in the porous architectures is a challenging task. Herein, based on the synergy of dynamic intermolecular interactions and flexible molecular conformation of a simple cyano-modified tetraphenylethylene tecton, eleven kinetic-stable hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) with various shapes and two thermo-stable non-porous structures with rare perpendicular conformation are obtained. Multimode reversible structural transformations along with visible fluorescence output between porous and non-porous or between different porous forms is realized under different external stimuli. Furthermore, the collaborative of flexible framework and soft long-chain guests facilitate the relaxation from intrinsic blue emission to yellow emission in the excited state, which represents a strategy for generating white-light emission. The dynamic intermolecular interactions, facilitated by flexible molecular conformation and soft guests, diversifies the strategies of construction of versatile smart molecular frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29565-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987099PMC
April 2022

Polyphenol-based hydrogels: Pyramid evolution from crosslinked structures to biomedical applications and the reverse design.

Bioact Mater 2022 Nov 1;17:49-70. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Institute of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.

As a kind of nature-derived bioactive materials, polyphenol-based hydrogels possess many unique and outstanding properties such as adhesion, toughness, and self-healing due to their specific crosslinking structures, which have been widely used in biomedical fields including wound healing, antitumor, treatment of motor system injury, digestive system disease, oculopathy, and bioelectronics. In this review, starting with the classification of common polyphenol-based hydrogels, the pyramid evolution process of polyphenol-based hydrogels from crosslinking structures to derived properties and then to biomedical applications is elaborated, as well as the efficient reverse design considerations of polyphenol-based hydrogel systems are proposed. Finally, the existing problems and development prospects of these hydrogel materials are discussed. It is hoped that the unique perspective of the review can promote further innovation and breakthroughs of polyphenol-based hydrogels in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.01.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8958331PMC
November 2022

The Therapeutic Effect of Exogenous Melatonin on Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2022 17;13:737972. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

School of Basic Medical Science, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, China.

Background: Depression-related mortality and morbidity pose growing public health burdens worldwide. Although the therapeutic effect of exogenous melatonin on depression has been investigated, findings remain inconsistent. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the effectiveness of melatonin in the treatment of depression, including primary and secondary depression symptoms.

Methods: We searched the online databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for original studies published up to May 2021. We used STATA 14.0 software to synthesize the results of included studies. To evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin, we calculated the standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression scores between the melatonin and placebo groups.

Results: Our literature search returned 754 publications, among which 19 studies with 1,178 patients (715 women, 463 men; mean age: 56.77 years) met inclusion criteria. Melatonin dosages ranged from 2 to 25 mg per day; treatment durations were between 10 days and 3.5 years. Our synthesized results showed that melatonin was not found significantly beneficial for alleviating depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI = [-0.38, 0.05]). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the decrease in depression scores measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was significant (SMD = -0.52, 95% CI = [-0.73, -0.31]).

Conclusions: There is very limited evidence for effects of melatonin on depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.737972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8968118PMC
March 2022

A review on recent advances in LED-based non-thermal technique for food safety: current applications and future trends.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Apr 4:1-16. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

College of Food Science & Institute of Food Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is an eco-friendly light source with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Recent studies have extensively been conducted to evaluate its efficacy in microbiological safety and the potential as a preservation method to extend the shelf-life of foods. This review aims to present the latest update of recent studies on the basics (physical, biochemical and mechanical basics) and antimicrobial activity of LEDs, as well as its application in the food industry. The highlight will be focused on the effects of LEDs on different types (bacteria, yeast/molds, viruses) and forms (planktonic cells, biofilms, endospores, fungal toxin) of microorganisms. The antimicrobial activity of LEDs on various food matrices was also evaluated, together with further analysis on the food-related factors that lead to the differences in LEDs efficiency. Besides, the applications of LEDs on the food-related conditions, packaged food, and equipment that could enhance LEDs efficiency were discussed to explore the future trends of LEDs technology in the food industry. Overall, the present review provides important insights for future research and the application of LEDs in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2049201DOI Listing
April 2022

Five Major Psychiatric Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Innovation Center for Neurological Disorders, Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical.

Background: Extensive studies put forward the association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and psychiatric disorders; however, it remains unclear whether these associations are causal.

Objective: We aimed to assess the potential causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and AD.

Methods: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was applied to evaluate potential causality between five psychiatric disorders and AD by selecting the single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the genome-wide association studies as instrumental variables. Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the main analyzing approach to estimate possible causal effects, alternative methods including MR-Egger, the MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier, and leave-one-out analysis method were implemented as sensitivity analyzing approaches to ensure the robustness of results.

Results: All forward and reverse MR analyses consistently suggested absent causal relations between psychiatric disorders and AD risk [forward IVW: ORADHD, 1.030, 95% CI, 0.908-1.168, p = 0.674; ORanxiety disorders, 0.904, 95% CI, 0.722-1.131, p = 0.377; ORASD, 0.973, 95% CI, 0.746-1.272, p = 0.846; ORBIP, 1.033, 95% CI, 0.925-1.153, p = 0.564; and ORschizophrenia, 1.039, 95% CI, 0.986-1.095, p = 0.156; reverse IVW: ORADHD, 0.993, 95% CI, 0.954-1.034, p = 0.746; ORanxiety disorders, 1.000, 95% CI, 0.999-1.000, p = 0.898; ORASD, 1.001, 95% CI, 0.962-1.042, p = 0.949; ORBIP, 0.997, 95% CI, 0.966-1.028, p = 0.831; and ORschizophrenia, 1.013, 95% CI, 0.978-1.051, p = 0.466].

Conclusion: There is no significant evidence supporting the causal association between the five major psychiatric disorders and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220010DOI Listing
March 2022

Impact of Preoperative Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients Following Gastrectomy: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

Front Surg 2022 8;9:850265. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Purpose: The current study aims to explore the outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on gastric cancer patients following gastrectomy through propensity score matching (PSM) analysis.

Methods: A retrospective study of gastric cancer patients following gastrectomy was conducted in a single clinical center from January 2014 to December 2019. The short-term outcomes, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed between T2DM group and Non-T2DM group.

Results: A total of 703 patients were enrolled in this study. After 1:1 PSM, 84 patients in T2DM group and 84 patients in Non-T2DM were matched for final analysis. No significant difference was found in terms of operation time, intra-operative blood loss, retrieved lymph nodes, postoperative stay, blood transfusion and complications between T2DM group and Non-T2DM group ( > 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier curve implied that T2DM had no impact on OS or DFS. Cox regression was conducted to identify predictive factors for prognosis. Body mass index (BMI) ( = 0.039 < 0.05, HR = 0.725, 95% CI = 0.534-0.983), pre-operative lymphocyte ( = 0.017 < 0.05, HR = 0.678, 95% CI = 0.493-0.932), pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM) stage ( = 0.000 < 0.05, HR = 2.619, 95% CI = 2.048-3.349) and complications ( = 0.006 < 0.05, HR = 1.528, 95% CI = 1.132-2.061) were predictive factors for OS, and BMI ( = 0.013 < 0.05, HR = 0.524, 95% CI = 0.315-0.872), pTNM stage ( = 0.000 < 0.05, HR = 2.619, 95% CI = 2.048-3.349) and complications ( = 0.008 < 0.05, HR = 1.892, 95% CI = 1.179-3.036) were independent predictive factors for DFS.

Conclusion: T2DM did not have an impact on gastric cancer patients following gastrectomy in terms of short-term outcomes and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.850265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8957786PMC
March 2022

Understanding the Increasing Trend of Sensor Signal with Decreasing Oxygen Partial Pressure by a Sensing-Reaction Model Based on O Species.

ACS Sens 2022 Apr 29;7(4):1095-1104. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

State Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Although the increasing trend of sensor signal with decreasing oxygen partial pressure was observed quite early, the underlying mechanism is still elusive, which is a hindrance to accurate gas detection under varying oxygen partial pressure. In this work, a sensing model based on previous experimental and theoretical results is proposed, in which the O species is determined to be the main oxygen species because O species has not been observed by direct spectroscopic studies. On this basis, combined with the band bending of SnO at different oxygen partial pressures, the functional relationship between the surface electron concentration, oxygen partial pressure, and reducing gas concentration is established, which includes three forms corresponding to the depletion layer, accumulation layer, and flat band. In the depletion layer case, the variation of the sensor resistance to different concentrations of CO and oxygen can be well fitted with our function model. Besides, this model predicts that the response of sensors will no longer maintain the increasing trend in an extremely hypoxic atmosphere but will decrease and approach 1 with the background oxygen content further going down to 0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c02753DOI Listing
April 2022

Different computational relations in language are captured by distinct brain systems.

Cereb Cortex 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

A critical way for humans to acquire information is through language, yet whether and how language experience drives specific neural semantic representations is still poorly understood. We considered statistical properties captured by 3 different computational principles of language (simple co-occurrence, network-(graph)-topological relations, and neural-network-vector-embedding relations) and tested the extent to which they can explain the neural patterns of semantic representations, measured by 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that shared common semantic processes. Distinct graph-topological word relations, and not simple co-occurrence or neural-network-vector-embedding relations, had unique explanatory power for the neural patterns in the anterior temporal lobe (capturing graph-common-neighbors), inferior frontal gyrus, and posterior middle/inferior temporal gyrus (capturing graph-shortest-path). These results were relatively specific to language: they were not explained by sensory-motor similarities and the same computational relations of visual objects (based on visual image database) showed effects in the visual cortex in the picture naming experiment. That is, different topological properties within language and the same topological computations (common-neighbors) for language and visual inputs are captured by different brain regions. These findings reveal the specific neural semantic representations along graph-topological properties of language, highlighting the information type-specific and statistical property-specific manner of semantic representations in the human brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhac117DOI Listing
March 2022

Medium-Entropy SrVFeMoO with High Conductivity and Strong Stability as SOFCs High-Performance Anode.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 20;15(6). Epub 2022 Mar 20.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China.

Perovskite oxides using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anodes should possess high chemical stability, adequate electronic conductivity and excellent catalytic oxidation for fuel gas. In this work, the medium-entropy SrVFeMoO (SVFMO) with Fe, V and Mo co-existing in the B site of a perovskite structure was fabricated in reducing 5% H/Ar mixed gas: (1) SVFMO demonstrates more stable physicochemical properties when using SOFCs anodes in a reducing environment; (2) the co-existence of Fe, V and Mo in SVFMO forms more small-polaron couples, demonstrating greatly enhanced electronic conductivity. With SVFMO in a porous structure (simulating the porous anode layer), its electronic conductivity can also reach 70 S cm when testing at 800 °C in an H atmosphere; (3) SVFMO with more oxygen vacancies achieves higher catalytic ability for fuel gas, as an SOFCs anode layer demonstrates 720 mW cm at 850 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15062298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8953221PMC
March 2022

Deconstructive Insertion of Oximes into Coumarins: Modular Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofuran-Fused Pyridones.

Org Lett 2022 04 23;24(12):2282-2287. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

In the presence of a copper catalyst, a series of oximes undergo deconstructive insertion into coumarins to afford structurally interesting dihydrobenzofuran-fused pyridones in moderate to good yields with good functional group compatibility. The reaction likely involves a radical relay annulation, leading to the ring opening of the lactone moiety of the coumarins, and simultaneous formation of three new bonds. The investigation of photoluminescent properties reveals that several obtained compounds may have potential as fluorescent materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c00384DOI Listing
April 2022

Theranostic Nanomedicine in the NIR-II Window: Classification, Fabrication, and Biomedical Applications.

Chem Rev 2022 03;122(6):5405-5407

Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.2c00089DOI Listing
March 2022

Landscape and perspectives of macrophage -targeted cancer therapy in clinical trials.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2022 Mar 22;24:799-813. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

National Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exert integrated effects in all aspects of tumor progression, including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Recently, considerable preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated that TAM-targeted therapy is an effective antitumor therapeutic approach, especially as a complementary strategy in combination with conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or emerging immunotherapy. Here, we review all of the current clinical trials targeting TAMs worldwide up to May 2021 and highlight instances of the synergetic therapeutic efficacy of TAM-targeted combined therapeutic strategies. In total, 606 clinical trials were conducted, including 143 tested products. There has been explosive growth in macrophage-targeted therapy around the world during the past decade. Most trials were at early phase, and two-thirds used macrophage-targeting therapy as part of a combination approach. The most common combination is that of traditional chemotherapy with TAM-targeted therapy, followed by immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted drugs. TAM-targeted therapeutic approaches are a newly emerging but rapidly developing area of anticancer therapy, especially as a combinatorial therapeutic approach. Further investigation of promising combination strategies will pave the way to more effective anticancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2022.02.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8908037PMC
March 2022
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