Publications by authors named "Wei Shen"

1,444 Publications

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Comparative analysis of the clinical outcomes between wavefront-guided and conventional femtosecond LASIK in myopia and myopia astigmatism.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(10):1581-1588. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Aim: To compare the clinical outcomes of wavefront guided femtosecond LASIK (WFG LASIK) and conventional femtosecond LASIK (NWFG LASIK) in eyes with myopia and myopia astigmatism.

Methods: This was a retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative investigation enrolling 236 eyes of 122 patients (18-50y) with low & moderate and high myopia. The WFG group including 97 eyes (50 patients) undergone WFG LASIK and the NWFG group including 139 eyes (72 patients) undergone conventional LASIK. Mean efficacy index, high order aberrations (HOAs), pupil size and the quality of visual questionnaire were evaluated 6mo postoperatively.

Results: There is no difference between WFG group (-0.054±0.049 in logMAR) and NWFG group (-0.040±0.056) in uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) postoperatively. The myopia astigmatism is higher in WFG group than that in NWFG group (<0.05). However, the mean efficacy index (MEI) in the WFG group (1.09±0.106) is better than that in the NWFG group (1.036±0.124; <0.001). Increased HOAs were observed in NWFG group (0.30±0.196) than that in WFG group (0.146±0.188; <0.001). The pupil size is larger in WFG group (5.15±0.76 mm) than that in NWFG group (4.32±0.52 mm). The patients are satisfied with the clinical surgery, yet WFG group showed better visual quality using the questionnaire survey. Meanwhile, high myopia would result in worse MEI, HOAs and visual quality than low & moderate myopia.

Conclusion: WFG and NWFG FS-LASIK are both effective and safe procedures to correct low & moderate and high myopia, but WFG FS-LASIK gives a better postoperative MEI, aberrometric control and predictable outcome. Meanwhile, WFG FS-LASIK is better than NWFG FS-LASIK in correction of myopia astigmatism. Low & moderate myopia allow better clinical outcomes than high myopia using any surgical method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.10.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481996PMC
October 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis B Mass Screening and Management in High-Prevalent Rural China: A Model Study From 2020 to 2049.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is highly prevalent among adults in rural China and better management of those populations is of vital importance for viral hepatitis elimination. Adult immunization has been the subject of much controversy in previous studies. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of population-based hepatitis B screening, treatment, and immunization strategy (comprehensive strategy) in rural areas with high prevalence under the national policy of sharp-drop drug prices.

Methods: We constructed a Markov model comparing 4 strategies in a 30-year horizon from the healthcare payer perspective: (1) the conventional pattern; (2) screening and treating infected (treatment); (3) screening and immunizing susceptible individuals (immunization); and (4) the comprehensive strategy. Screening intensity ranged from 50% to 100%. Outcomes were measured by costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes.

Results: The costs for the conventional pattern, treatment strategy, immunization strategy, and comprehensive strategy were US$ 341, 351, 318, and 323, respectively. In addition, effects were 17.45, 17.57, 17.46, and 17.58 QALYs, respectively. The ICER of the comprehensive strategy was US$ 35/QALY gained at 50% screening intensity and 420 US$/QALY gained at 100%. The net monetary benefit increased with increasing screening intensity and declined after 90%, with the highest value of US$40 693. All new infections and 52.5% mortality could be avoided from 2020 to 2049 if all patients were properly treated and all susceptible individuals were immunized. The results were stable within a wide range of parameters.

Conclusion: It was cost-effective to implement the mass hepatitis B screening, treatment, and immunization strategy in areas of rural China with high prevalence, and the strategy gained the most net monetary benefit at a screening intensity of 90%. Although it was impractical to fulfill 100% coverage, efforts should be made to obtain more people screened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.126DOI Listing
September 2021

Presumed Recurrent MEWDS following Covid-19 Vaccination.

Authors:
Yao Xu Wei Shen

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Oct 18:1-4. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Soochow University Affiliated No 1 People's Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: To present an unusual case of recurrent multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) following the coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) vaccination.

Methods: Review of the clinical, laboratory, photographic, and angiographic records of a patient with MEWDS.

Results: A 49-year-old female who had MEWDS nine years ago presented to our clinic with blurred vision in her left eye. These symptoms occurred 2 days following Covid-19 vaccination. Fundus examinations and diagnostic testing were consistent with recurrent MEWDS.

Conclusion: While rare, MEWDS can reoccur following Covid-19 vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1985524DOI Listing
October 2021

RNA Editing and Its Roles in Plant Organelles.

Front Genet 2021 29;12:757109. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Biological Breeding, Henan Institute of Sciences and Technology, Xinxiang, China.

RNA editing, a vital supplement to the central dogma, yields genetic information on RNA products that are different from their DNA templates. The conversion of C-to-U in mitochondria and plastids is the main kind of RNA editing in plants. Various factors have been demonstrated to be involved in RNA editing. In this minireview, we summarized the factors and mechanisms involved in RNA editing in plant organelles. Recently, the rapid development of deep sequencing has revealed many RNA editing events in plant organelles, and we further reviewed these events identified through deep sequencing data. Numerous studies have shown that RNA editing plays essential roles in diverse processes, such as the biogenesis of chloroplasts and mitochondria, seed development, and stress and hormone responses. Finally, we discussed the functions of RNA editing in plant organelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.757109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511385PMC
September 2021

Residual olfactory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 patients after long term recovery.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Nov 28;93:31-35. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, Puai Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430033, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Hyposmia is among the most common symptoms of COVID-19 patients. Previous research has mainly described this issue at the disease's early stages. Because olfactory impairment can indicate neurological degeneration, we investigated the possibility of permanent olfactory damage by assessing hyposmia during the late recovery stage of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Ninety-five patients were assessed with the Brief Smell Identification Test for Chinese (B-SITC) and Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS) after 16 weeks from disease onset. Five weeks later, 41 patients were retested with B-SITC.

Results: At the first visit, hyposmia was identified in 26/82 (31.7%) and 22/95 (23.2%) of participants by HRS (HRS score ≤22) and B-SITC (B-SITC score <8), respectively. The rates of hyposmia in patients who performed B-SITC after 14-15 weeks, 16-17 weeks, and ≥18 weeks from disease onset were 7/25 (28%), 8/35 (23%) and 7/35 (20%), respectively, which demonstrated a trend of olfaction improvement as recovery time prolonging. Hyposmia percentages decreased from the first visit (34.1%) to the second visit (24.4%) for the 41 patients who completed 2 visits. B-SITC scores of the first-visit hyposmia participants increased significantly at the second visit (5.29 ± 2.02 to 8.29 ± 2.40; n = 14, P = 0.001). Severe cases tended to recover less than common cases.

Conclusions: Hyposmia was present in up to one-third of COVID-19 patients after about 3 months from disease onset. Notable recovery of olfactory function was observed at a next 5-weeks follow-up. Clinical severity had little influence on olfactory impairment and recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.07.050DOI Listing
November 2021

Old silver mirror in qualitative analysis with new shoots in quantification: Nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) as fluorescent probes for "off-on" sensing of formalin in food samples.

Talanta 2022 Jan 10;236:122862. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

A novel fluorometric assay for selective and sensitive determination of formalin (FA) was developed based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) coupled with silver mirror reaction. N-CDs was synthesized using the hydrothermal method with the ethylene glycol and ammonia solution as carbon and nitrogen precursors, respectively. The detection principle was based on "off-on" fluorescence switching. Specifically, the fluorescence signal of N-CDs was first turned off after incorporating the Ag and Tollens' reagents. Then, in the presence of FA, the Ag species on the N-CDs surface were reduced to Ag species and the fluorescence signal of N-CDs was switched back on. The fluorescence intensity due to the N-CDs signal linearly increased with the increasing FA concentrations in the range of 5-100 mg L, with the detection limit of 1.5 mg L. The proposed approach provides rapid, simple, sensitive, and selective detection of FA in various food samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122862DOI Listing
January 2022

Electrophysiological and Morphological Features of Rebound Depolarization Characterized Interneurons in Rat Superficial Spinal Dorsal Horn.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 21;15:736879. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Center for Experimental Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, which are located in the spinal dorsal horn (lamina II), have been identified as the "central gate" for the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information. Rebound depolarization (RD), a biophysical property mediated by membrane hyperpolarization that is frequently recorded in the central nervous system, contributes to shaping neuronal intrinsic excitability and, in turn, contributes to neuronal output and network function. However, the electrophysiological and morphological properties of SG neurons exhibiting RD remain unclarified. In this study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on SG neurons from parasagittal spinal cord slices. RD was detected in 44.44% (84 out of 189) of the SG neurons recorded. We found that RD-expressing neurons had more depolarized resting membrane potentials, more hyperpolarized action potential (AP) thresholds, higher AP amplitudes, shorter AP durations, and higher spike frequencies in response to depolarizing current injection than neurons without RD. Based on their firing patterns and morphological characteristics, we propose that most of the SG neurons with RD mainly displayed tonic firing (69.05%) and corresponded to islet cell morphology (58.82%). Meanwhile, subthreshold currents, including the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I ) and T-type calcium current (I ), were identified in SG neurons with RD. Blockage of I delayed the onset of the first spike in RD, while abolishment of I significantly blunted the amplitude of RD. Regarding synaptic inputs, SG neurons with RD showed lower frequencies in both spontaneous and miniature excitatory synaptic currents. Furthermore, RD-expressing neurons received either Aδ- or C-afferent-mediated monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs. However, RD-lacking neurons received afferents from monosynaptic and polysynaptic Aδ fibers and predominantly polysynaptic C-fibers. These findings demonstrate that SG neurons with RD have a specific cell-type distribution, and may differentially process somatosensory information compared to those without RD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.736879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490703PMC
September 2021

Ni/Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheet/G-quadruplex as a new complex DNAzyme with highly enhanced peroxidase-mimic activity.

Analyst 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, Jiangsu Province, PR China.

A novel and low-cost DNAzyme, Ni/Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet/G-quadruplex (without hemin) with enhanced peroxidase-mimic activity was designed. The catalytic mechanism was investigated. The detection of Cu(II) in actual serum samples could be realized sensitively this efficient DNAzyme-based method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01405fDOI Listing
October 2021

Preparation of monoclonal antibody and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of ceftiofur in animal-derived foods.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Nov 17;206:114378. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MOA Key Laboratory for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. Electronic address:

Ceftiofur (CEF) residues in animal-derived foods are of great concern to farmers, regulatory agencies and consumers. In this study, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) method was established to quickly monitor CEF residues in edible animal tissues using an easy sample preparation procedure. A monoclonal antibody, 4D5, against CEF has been produced at first, which had IC values for CEF, ceftriaxone, cefquinome, cefotaxime and desfuroylceftiofur of 0.78 μg/L, 0.73 μg/L, 13.6 μg/L, 8.99 μg/L and 8.89 μg/L, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) in artificially contaminated animal-derived foods were 0.12-0.19 μg/L and 0.20-0.30 μg/L. The recovery rates were in the range of 89.7-109.0%. The CVs were less than 6.7%. A good correlation (R= 0.9994) between the ic-ELISA and UPLC-MS/MS showed the reliability of the developed ic-ELISA. The ic-ELISA produces a sensitive, accurate and low-cost tool for the screening of residues of CEF in animal-derived foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114378DOI Listing
November 2021

YAP regulates porcine skin-derived stem cells self-renewal partly by repressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

College of Life Sciences, Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China.

Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) are a class of adult stem cells (ASCs) that have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. The regulation mechanisms involved in the differentiation of SDSCs are a hot topic. In this paper, we explore the link between the transcriptional regulator yes-associated protein (YAP) and the fate of porcine SDSCs (pSDSCs). We found that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) activates YAP, promotes pSDSCs pluripotency, and counteracts transdifferentiation of pSDSCs into porcine primordial germ cell-like cells (pPGCLCs). YAP promotes the pluripotent state of pSDSCs by maintaining the high expression of the pluripotency genes Oct4 and Sox2. The overexpression of YAP prevented the differentiation of pSDSCs, and the depletion of YAP by small interfering RNA (siRNAs) suppressed the self-renewal of pSDSCs. In addition, we found that YAP regulates the fate of pSDSCs through a mechanism related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. When an activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, CHIR99021, was added to pSDSCs overexpressing YAP, the ability of pSDSCs to differentiate was partially restored. Conversely, when XAV939, an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was added to YAP knockdown pSDSCs a higher self-renewal ability resulted. Taken together, our results suggested that YAP and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interact to regulate the fate of pSDSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-021-02034-4DOI Listing
September 2021

iRGD Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Nanoparticles with Photoacoustic/Ultrasound Dual-Modality Imaging for Precision Theranostics Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 21;16:6455-6475. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Prepare a multifunctional ultrasound molecular probe, cell-penetrating peptide-modified 10-hydroxycamptothecin-loaded phase-transformation lipid nanoparticles (iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs), and to combine iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP -NPs with low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for precision theranostics against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: The morphology of nanoparticles (NPs) and iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs was detected. In vitro, we examined targeting ability by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), assessed penetration ability into hepatoma cells, and assessed killing ability. In vivo, we examined the targeting ability of the NPs with a photoacoustic (PA) imager and fluorometer (FL), while LIFU irradiation was used to trigger the release of chemotherapeutic drugs, which had a therapeutic effect on tumors.

Results: The particle size of iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs was 298.4 ± 10.42 nm. In vitro, iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs bound more to SK-Hep1 cells than ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs. iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs could achieve PA/ultrasound imaging. The percentage of antiproliferative and apoptotic cells in the iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs+LIFU group was significantly higher. In vivo, iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs can target tumor sites and achieve PA/ultrasound imaging. The tumor volume in the iRGD-ICG-10-HCPT-PFP-NPs+LIFU group was significantly smaller, and the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were higher.

Conclusion: We successfully prepared a novel molecular probe that has good targeting, can perform ultrasound/PA dual-modality imaging, and can penetrate deep into tumors to achieve better therapeutic tumor effects, providing a new idea and method for theranostics of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S325891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464346PMC
September 2021

[Situation analysis of outcome indicators of randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in recent three years].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Sep;46(18):4601-4614

Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine,Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

The study aims to analyze the outcome indicators of randomized controlled trial(RCT) of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage(HICH) in recent three years, and thus provide suggestions for the future studies in this field. Four English databases, four Chinese databases and two online registration websites of clinical trials were searched. The RCTs published between January 2018 and September 2020 were screened. The risk of bias was assessed and outcome measures were classified. A total of 151 839 articles were retrieved, of which 44 RCTs were included for analysis after screening. The outcome measures of the included RCTs were classified into 7 categories, among which the symptoms/signs category showed the highest reporting rate. National Institute of Health stroke scale(72.73%) was the most frequently reported outcome indicator, while the vo-lume of intracerebral hemorrhage determined by computerized tomography(36.36%) was the most frequently reported lab test outcome. Most studies collect the outcomes at the end of treatment, while 9 studies reported long-term outcomes 3 months or more after onset. Compared with those of international clinical trials, the application of some of the outcomes was reasonable, focusing on patients' symptoms, quality of life and objective outcomes. However, there were still several problems: unclear primary and secondary outcome measures, insufficient attention to long-term prognosis, insufficient attention to social function, few TCM outcomes, lack of measurement blindness and the use of unreasonable composite outcomes. It is recommended that researchers should rationally design the outcome indicators of clinical trials and develop the core outcome set.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210618.501DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization of gastric cancer stem-like molecular features, immune and pharmacogenomic landscapes.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) actively reprogram their tumor microenvironment (TME) to sustain a supportive niche, which may have a dramatic impact on prognosis and immunotherapy. However, our knowledge of the landscape of the gastric cancer stem-like cell (GCSC) microenvironment needs to be further improved. A multi-step process of machine learning approaches was performed to develop and validate the prognostic and predictive potential of the GCSC-related score (GCScore). The high GCScore subgroup was not only associated with stem cell characteristics, but also with a potential immune escape mechanism. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the upregulated infiltration of CD206+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the invasive margin region, which in turn maintained the stem cell properties of tumor cells. Finally, we proposed that the GCScore showed a robust capacity for prediction for immunotherapy, and investigated potential therapeutic targets and compounds for patients with a high GCScore. The results indicate that the proposed GCScore can be a promising predictor of prognosis and responses to immunotherapy, which provides new strategies for the precision treatment of GCSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab386DOI Listing
September 2021

Design and implementation of a jellyfish otolith-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone for low-frequency detection.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 1;7. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

State Key Laboratory of Dynamic Testing Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, China.

Detecting low-frequency underwater acoustic signals can be a challenge for marine applications. Inspired by the notably strong response of the auditory organs of pectis jellyfish to ultralow frequencies, a kind of otolith-inspired vector hydrophone (OVH) is developed, enabled by hollow buoyant spheres atop cilia. Full parametric analysis is performed to optimize the cilium structure in order to balance the resonance frequency and sensitivity. After the structural parameters of the OVH are determined, the stress distributions of various vector hydrophones are simulated and analyzed. The shock resistance of the OVH is also investigated. Finally, the OVH is fabricated and calibrated. The receiving sensitivity of the OVH is measured to be as high as -202.1 [email protected] Hz (0 [email protected] V/μPa), and the average equivalent pressure sensitivity over the frequency range of interest of the OVH reaches -173.8 dB when the frequency ranges from 20 to 200 Hz. The 3 dB polar width of the directivity pattern for the OVH is measured as 87°. Moreover, the OVH is demonstrated to operate under 10 MPa hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the OVH is promising in low-frequency underwater acoustic detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-020-00227-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433173PMC
January 2021

Protective Mechanism of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Against Nicotine-Induced Damage of Mouse Early Folliculogenesis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:723388. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Previous studies have shown that nicotine could impair the germ cell cyst breakdown and the primordial follicle assembly by autophagy. In this paper, we discovered that luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could counteract the damage caused by nicotine of mouse germ cell cyst breakdown. The neonatal mice were separately intraperitoneally injected with nicotine, nicotine plus LH, nicotine plus FSH, and saline (control) for 4 days. Compared with the nicotine group, the quality of oocytes and the number of follicles were remarkably increased in the nicotine plus LH group or nicotine plus FSH group. LH and FSH could alleviate nicotine-induced oocyte autophagy by different pathways. LH reduced the nicotine-induced autophagy by restoring the phosphorylation level of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase α-1, while FSH by downregulating the phosphorylation level of Forkhead box class O 1. In addition, in a subsequent study of 6-week mice in different treated groups, we found that LH and FSH supplementation significantly improved normal maturation rates, fertilization rates, and embryo's developmental potential of oocytes in oocytes exposed to nicotine. Taken together, these results suggested that LH and FSH could counteract the damage caused by nicotine and finally ensure normal germ cell cyst breakdown and early embryo development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.723388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452944PMC
September 2021

Single-Cell Transcriptome Sequencing and Proteomics Reveal Neonatal Ileum Dynamic Developmental Potentials.

mSystems 2021 Sep 21:e0072521. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The neonatal period is a crucial time during development of the mammalian small intestine. Moreover, neonatal development and maturation of the small intestine are exceptionally important for early growth, successful weaning, and postweaning growth and development, in order to achieve species-specific milestones. Although several publications recently characterized intestinal epithelial cell diversity at the single-cell level, it remains unclear how differentiation and molecular interactions take place between types and subtypes of epithelial cells during the neonatal period. A single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) survey of 40,186 ileal epithelial cells and proteomics analysis of ileal samples at 6 time points in the swine neonatal period were performed. The results revealed previously unknown developmental changes: specific increases in undifferentiated cells, unique enterocyte differentiation, and time-dependent reduction in secretory cells. Moreover, we observed specific transcriptional factors, ligand-receptor pairs, G protein-coupled receptors, transforming growth factor β, bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways, and gut mucosal microbiota playing vital roles in ileal development during the neonatal window. This work offers new comprehensive information regarding ileal development throughout the neonatal period. Reference to this data set may assist in the creation of novel interventions for inflammation-, metabolism-, and proliferation-related gut pathologies. We found previously unknown neonatal ileum developmental potentials: specific increases in undifferentiated cells, unique enterocyte differentiation, and time dependent reduction in secretory cells. Specific transcriptional factors (TFs), ligand-receptor pairs, G protein-coupled receptors, transforming growth factor β, bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways, and the gut mucosal microbiota are involved in this process. Our results may assist in the creation of novel interventions for inflammation-, metabolism-, and proliferation-related gut pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00725-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Development of thermostable sucrose phosphorylase by semi-rational design for efficient biosynthesis of alpha-D-glucosylglycerol.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 20;105(19):7309-7319. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) can specifically catalyze transglycosylation reactions and can be used to enzymatically synthesize α-D-glycosides. However, the low thermostability of SPase has been a bottleneck for its industrial application. In this study, a SPase gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 12,291 (LmSPase) was synthesized with optimized codons and overexpressed successfully in Escherichia coli. A semi-rational design strategy that combined the FireProt (a web server designing thermostable proteins), structure-function analysis, and molecular dynamic simulations was used to improve the thermostability of LmSPase. Finally, one single-point mutation T219L and a combination mutation I31F/T219L/T263L/S360A (Mut4) with improved thermostability were obtained. The half-lives at 50 °C of T219L and Mut4 both increased approximately two-fold compared to that of wild-type LmSPase (WT). Furthermore, the two variants T219L and Mut4 were used to produce α-D-glucosylglycerol (αGG) from sucrose and glycerol by incubating with 40 U/mL crude extracts at 37 °C for 60 h and achieved the product concentration of 193.2 ± 12.9 g/L and 195.8 ± 13.1 g/L, respectively, which were approximately 1.3-fold higher than that of WT (150.4 ± 10.0 g/L). This study provides an effective strategy for improving the thermostability of an industrial enzyme. KEY POINTS: • Predicted potential hotspot residues directing the thermostability of LmSPase by semi-rational design • Screened two positive variants with higher thermostability and higher activity • Synthesized α-D-glucosylglycerol to a high level by two screened positive variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11551-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494705PMC
October 2021

A Single-cell Transcriptome Atlas of Cashmere Goat Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Cashmere, also known as soft gold, is produced from the secondary hair follicles (SHFs) of cashmere goats. The number of SHFs determines the yield and quality of cashmere, therefore, it is of interest to investigate the transcriptional profiles present during cashmere goat hair follicle development. However, mechanisms underlying this development remain largely unexplored and studies regarding hair follicle development mostly use a murine research model. To provide a comprehensive understanding of cellular heterogeneity and cell fate decisions, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on 19,705 single cells of the dorsal skin from cashmere goat fetuses at induction (embryonic day 60), organogenesis (embryonic day 90), and cytodifferentiation (embryonic day 120) stages. For the first time, unsupervised clustering analysis identified 16 cell clusters, and their corresponding cell types were also characterized. Based on lineage inference, a detailed molecular landscape was revealed along the dermal and epidermal cell lineage developmental pathways. Notably, our current data also confirmed the heterogeneity of dermal papilla cells from different hair follicle types, which was further validated by immunohistochemical staining analysis. The current study identifies different biomarkers during cashmere goat hair follicle development and has implications for cashmere goat breeding in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2021.07.003DOI Listing
September 2021

in the Treatment for Patients with VCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:8787684. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Center for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, China.

Background: extract (EGb) is widely used to treat impairments in memory, cognition, activities of daily living, inflammation, edema, stroke, Alzheimer's dementia, and aging.

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGb in treating vascular cognitive impairment (VCI).

Methods: The systematic review was performed using the latest guidelines. We searched for EGb-related trials up to March 1, 2021, in four Chinese databases, three English databases, and clinical trial registry platforms. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if the study enrolled participants with VCI. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and critically appraised the study quality. Heterogeneity was quantified with . Both sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to identify the sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to rate the evidence quality. Outcomes included assessments using the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS), Barthel Index (BI), Functional Activity Questionnaire (FAQ), and adverse events.

Results: In this study, a total of 2019 patients in 23 RCTs were included. EGb appeared to be more effective than control conditions as assessed by the results of cognitive function evaluation, including MMSE (MD = 3.04, 95% CI: 0.10-5.98; MD = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.39-4.01; MD = 5.90, 95% CI: 4.21-7.59; and MD = 3.14, 95% CI: 2.14-4.15), MoCA (MD = 5.30, 95% CI: 2.15-8.46; MD = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.82-3.50; and MD = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.85-3.27), HDS (MD = 6.50; 95% CI: 4.86-8.14; MD = 3.60, 95% CI: 2.50-4.70), ADL (MD = 7.20, 95% CI: 3.28-11.12; MD = 10.00, 95% CI: 7.51-12.49; and MD = 9.20, 95% CI: 7.26-11.14), BI (MD = 5.71, 95% CI: 2.99-8.43; MD = -1.43, 95% CI: -2.78 to 0.08), and FAQ (MD = -2.17, 95% CI: -4.13 to 0.21). Evidence of certainty ranged from medium certainty to very low certainty.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that EGb may be an effective and safe treatment in improving MMSE, MOCA, ADL, and BI for VCI patients within three months of diagnosis. However, given the quality of the included RCTs, more preregistered trials are needed that explicitly examine the efficacy of EGb. This systematic review has been registered on PROSPERO, with the registration number CRD42021232967.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8787684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422158PMC
August 2021

Mechanism of lncRNA-ANRIL/miR-181b in autophagy of cardiomyocytes in mice with uremia by targeting ATG5.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(9):e0256734. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: This study is to investigate whether the cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) can regulate the autophagy of cardiomyocytes (CMs) by secreting lncRNA-ANRIL/miR-181b exosomes, thus participating in the occurrence of uremic cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: A 5/6 nephrectomy uremia model was established, with the mice injected with ANRIL-shRNA lentivirus vector, miR-181b agomir, and related control reagents, containing the serum creatinine and urea nitrogen measured. The renal tissue sections of mice were stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), TUNEL, and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) performed on myocardial tissue sections of mice. ANRIL-shRNA, miR-181b mimics, and related control reagents were transfected into CMECs, in which the exosomes were extracted and co-cultured with CMs. The expressions of ANRIL, miR-181b and ATG5 were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expressions of autophagy related proteins by Western blot, as well as the binding of ANRIL and miR-181b by the double luciferase reporter gene experiment.

Results: ANRIL down-regulation or miR-181b up-regulation can increase the weight of mice with uremia, as well as the expressions of p62 and miR-181b, and reduce the content of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen, the damage of kidney and myocardial tissues, the number of apoptotic cells in myocardial tissues, as well as the expressions of ANRIL, ATG5, Beclin1, and LC3. CMs can absorb the exosomes of CMECs. Compared with IS+ CMEC-Exo group, the expressions of ANRIL and ATG5 in CMs of IS+ CMEC-Exo + sh lncRNA ANRIL and IS+CMEC-Exo+miR-181b mimics groups was down-regulated, as well as the expressions of ATG5, Beclin1, and LC3, while miR-181b expression was up-regulated as well as P62 expression.

Conclusions: CMECs can regulate autophagy of CMs by releasing exosomes containing ANRIL and miR-181b.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256734PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410126PMC
September 2021

An overview and future prospects of recombinant protein production in Bacillus subtilis.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Sep 1;105(18):6607-6626. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized Gram-positive bacterium and a valuable host for recombinant protein production because of its efficient secretion ability, high yield, and non-toxicity. Here, we comprehensively review the recent studies on recombinant protein production in B. subtilis to update and supplement other previous reviews. We have focused on several aspects, including optimization of B. subtilis strains, enhancement and regulation of expression, improvement of secretion level, surface display of proteins, and fermentation optimization. Among them, optimization of B. subtilis strains mainly involves undirected chemical/physical mutagenesis and selection and genetic manipulation; enhancement and regulation of expression comprises autonomous plasmid and integrated expression, promoter regulation and engineering, and fine-tuning gene expression based on proteases and molecular chaperones; improvement of secretion level predominantly involves secretion pathway and signal peptide screening and optimization; surface display of proteins includes surface display of proteins on spores or vegetative cells; and fermentation optimization incorporates medium optimization, process condition optimization, and feeding strategy optimization. Furthermore, we propose some novel methods and future challenges for recombinant protein production in B. subtilis.Key points• A comprehensive review on recombinant protein production in Bacillus subtilis.• Novel techniques facilitate recombinant protein expression and secretion.• Surface display of proteins has significant potential for different applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11533-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Logarithmic Data Processing Can Be Used Justifiably in the Plotting of a Calibration Curve.

Anal Chem 2021 09 29;93(36):12156-12161. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

The article is a response to a recent opinion piece that log concentration values should not be applied in analytical chemistry. An essential aim in the development of analytical chemistry methods is to obtain more sensitive and accurate detection values. For the application of chemical analysis methods, the obtained experiment data need to fit with the mathematical functions in the first place. As influenced by different detection principles and analytical methods, data can be displayed in a coordinate system with two linear axes for linear function fitting, or the data can first be taken through a logarithmic transformation and then for function fitting. Using raw data or data after logarithmic transformation primarily depends on analytical principles, without special rules of data formats. For example, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric data are more suitable for direct linear fitting. However, enzyme-catalyzed reaction or electrochemical data in logarithmic form are more appropriate for function fitting. This transformation of data form will not affect the soundness of fit statistics; rather, it simplifies the complexity of function analysis and calculation, which are the essence of analytical chemistry. In this brief article, we provide justification and legitimacy of the application of logarithmic processing in various fields of quantitative analytical chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02011DOI Listing
September 2021

The Curing Kinetics of E-Glass Fiber/Epoxy Resin Prepreg and the Bending Properties of Its Products.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 19;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

College of Textile Science and Engineering (International Institute of Silk), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

The curing kinetics can influence the final macroscopic properties, particularly the three-point bending of the fiber-reinforced composite materials. In this research, the curing kinetics of commercially available glass fiber/epoxy resin prepregs were studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The curing kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting and the apparent activation energy E of the prepreg, the pre-exponent factor, and the reaction order value obtained. A phenomenological th-order curing reaction kinetic model was established according to Kissinger equation and Crane equation. Furthermore, the optimal curing temperature of the prepregs was obtained by the T-β extrapolation method. A vacuum hot pressing technique was applied to prepare composite laminates. The pre-curing, curing, and post-curing temperatures were 116, 130, and 153 °C respectively. In addition, three-point bending was used to test the specimens' fracture behavior, and the surface morphology was analyzed. The results show that the differences in the mechanical properties of the samples are relatively small, indicating that the process settings are reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399898PMC
August 2021

Construction of an immune-related lncRNA signature as a novel prognosis biomarker for LUAD.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 08 26;13(16):20684-20697. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

The tumor immune microenvironment of lung cancer is associated with prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy. Long noncoding RNAs are identified as prognostic biomarkers associated with immune functions. We constructed a signature comprising differentially expressed immune-related lncRNAs to predict the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We established the immune-related lncRNA signature by pairing immune-related lncRNAs regardless of expression level and lung adenocarcinoma patients were divided into high- and low-risk groups. The prognosis of patients in the two groups was significantly different; The immune-related lncRNA signature could serve as an independent lung adenocarcinoma prognostic indicator. The signature correlated negatively with B cell, CD4+ T cell, M2 macrophage, neutrophil, and monocyte immune infiltration. Patients with low risk scores had a higher abundance of immune cells and stromal cells around the tumor. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that samples from low-risk group were more active in the IgA production in intestinal immune network and the T and B cell receptor signaling pathway. High-risk groups had significant involvement of the cell cycle, DNA replication, adherens junction, actin cytoskeleton regulation, pathways in cancer, and TGF-β signaling pathways. High risk scores correlated significantly negatively with high CTLA-4 and HAVCR2 expression and higher median inhibitory concentration of common anti-tumor chemotherapeutics (e.g., cisplatin, paclitaxel, gemcitabine) and targeted therapy (e.g., erlotinib and gefitinib). We identified a reliable immune-related lncRNA lung adenocarcinoma prognosis model, and the immune-related lncRNA signature showed promising clinical prediction value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436904PMC
August 2021

Ileal hemorrhagic infarction after carotid artery stenting: A case report and review of the literature.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Aug;9(22):6410-6417

Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan Fourth Hospital, Wuhan 430000, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Ileal hemorrhagic infarction after carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a fatal complication. The prognosis of ileal hemorrhagic infarction after CAS is very poor if not treated in a timely manner. We describe a rare case of ileal hemorrhagic infarction due to acute embolism of the mesenteric artery after CAS.

Case Summary: A 67-year-old man with acute ischemic stroke underwent CAS the right femoral artery approach 21 d after intensive medical treatment. On the first day after surgery, the patient had abdominal distension and abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography revealed intestinal obstruction, severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery, and poor distal angiography. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and pathological examination showed hemorrhagic ileal infarction. It was subsequently found that the patient had intestinal flatulence. With the guidance of an ultrasound scan, the patient underwent abdominal puncture, drainage, and catheterization. After 58 d of treatment, the patient was discharged from hospital with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 2 points, and a Modified Rankin Scale score of 1 point. At the 6-mo follow-up, the patient had an excellent functional outcome without stroke or mesenteric ischemia. Furthermore, computed tomography angiography showed that the carotid stent was patent.

Conclusion: Ileal hemorrhagic infarction is a fatal complication after CAS, usually caused by mesenteric artery embolism. Thus, more attention should be paid to the complications of embolism in the vascular system as well as the nervous system after CAS, and the complications should be identified and treated as early as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i22.6410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362577PMC
August 2021

miRNA-26-5p inhibits cyclosporine A-induced overgrowth of gingival fibroblasts by regulating PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.

Growth Factors 2020 Dec 24;38(5-6):291-301. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Hangzhou West Dental Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

We evaluated the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) administration on the level of miR-26-5p in rat gingival tissues and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by qRT-PCR assay. Further, we conducted Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis to assess the expressions of PTEN, PI3K, and p-AKT, and evaluated cell proliferation of HGFs by MTT assay. CsA treatment significantly downregulated the expressions of miR-26-5p and PTEN and upregulated the expressions of PI3K and p-AKT in both rat gingival tissues and HGFs. Overexpression of miR-26-5p inhibited CsA-induced overgrowth of HGFs, whereas knockdown of miR-26-5p promoted the overgrowth. PTEN knockdown not only promoted CsA-induced overgrowth of human HGFs but also reversed the repressive effects of miR-26-5p on CsA-induced overgrowth of HGFs. Our results revealed that miRNA-26-5p could repress CsA-induced overgrowth of human HGFs by regulating PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08977194.2021.1967343DOI Listing
December 2020

Rationally tuning ratio of micro- to meso-pores of biomass-derived ultrathin carbon sheets toward supercapacitors with high energy and high power density.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 14;606(Pt 1):817-825. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China; Chongqing Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Technologies of Clean Energies, Chongqing 400715, PR China; Institute for Materials Science & Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, PR China; Institute for Advanced Cross-field Science & College of Life Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 200671, PR China. Electronic address:

The carbon pore structure could have a significant effect on supercapacitor performance; however, this effect has not yet been systematically studied. A facile approach for synthesizing porous, ultrathin carbon sheets while rationally tuning the ratio of micro-to meso-pores via partial corrosion has been developed for the fabrication of high-performance devices. The prepared carbon from biomass with an optimal ratio of micro- to meso-pores has a large specific surface area of 1785 m g , a high specific capacitance of 447F g  at 0.5 A g, a high energy density of 15.5-9.7 Wh kg, and an excellent power density of 0.062-6.24 kW kg. After 10,000 charge-discharge cycles, the capacitance retention was maintained at 95%, which exceeded most of the biomass-carbon-based capacitors. Volcano relationships were found to exist through plots of both specific surface area and specific capacitance versus the micro-to meso-pore ratio. An enhancement mechanism with a rational pore structure is proposed, which not only networks micropores to remove died-end micropores to achieve the largest specific active surface area and high specific capacitance but also realizes fast mass-transport channels, resulting in high power density. This work provides an effective approach based on waste re-use by tuning a rational pore structure for achieving high energy/power density toward green energy applications with universal significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.042DOI Listing
August 2021

Controllable dried patterns of colloidal drops.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 14;606(Pt 1):758-767. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Rd, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: When an aqueous colloidal drop dries on a solid substrate, the final pattern of the dried deposit can be manipulated through controlling the internal flow states of the drop.

Experiments: We report a strategy to control the dried patterns of aqueous colloidal drop by controlling the drop configurations and relative humidity. For this purpose, both sessile and pendant drops are studied.

Finding: The capillary flow, which is responsible for coffee-ring, is suppressed by increasing the relative humidity. Then, surprisingly, the internal convection in the pendant drop is significantly stronger than that in the sessile drop. This phenomenon leads to the formation of the disc-like and spot-like dried patterns in the sessile and pendant drop, respectively, which are the results of different interactions between the Marangoni and (buoyancy-induced) natural convections in the sessile and pendant drops. In the sessile drop, the Marangoni and natural convections mutually restrain each other due to their opposite flow directions. In contrast, in the pendant drop, the two convections mutually enhance each other, due to their same flow directions. Thisnew strategy offers a foreign-material-free and external-force-free means to control the dried patterns of the drop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.089DOI Listing
August 2021

Global Survey of Alternative Splicing in Rice by Direct RNA Sequencing During Reproductive Development: Landscape and Genetic Regulation.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Aug 12;14(1):75. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon, which generates multiple isoforms of the gene product. Reproductive development is the key process for crop production. Although numerous forms of alternative splicing have been identified in model plants, large-scale study of alternative splicing dynamics during reproductive development in rice has not been conducted. Here, we investigated alternative splicing of reproductive development of young panicles (YP), unfertilized florets (UF) and fertilized florets (F) in rice using direct RNA sequencing, small RNA sequencing, and degradome sequencing. We identified a total of 35,317 alternative splicing (AS) events, among which 67.2% splicing events were identified as novel alternative splicing events. Intron retention (IR) was the most abundant alternative splicing subtype. Splicing factors that differentially expressed and alternatively spliced could result in global alternative splicing. Global analysis of miRNAs-targets prediction revealed that alternative spliced transcripts affected miRNAs' targets during development. Degradome sequencing detected only 6.8% of the differentially alternative splicing transcripts, suggesting a productive transcripts generation during development. In addition, alternative splicing isoforms of Co-like, a transcription factor, interacted with Casein kinase 1-like protein HD1 (CKI) examined in luciferase assay, which could modulate normal male-floral organs development and flowering time. These results reveal that alternative splicing is intensely associated with developmental stages, and a high complexity of gene regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00516-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360254PMC
August 2021

Diabetic Uterine Environment Leads to Disorders in Metabolism of Offspring.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:706879. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Fertility Preservation Lab, Reproductive Medicine Center, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Aims: Research evidence indicates that epigenetic modifications of gametes in obese or diabetic parents may contribute to metabolic disorders in offspring. In the present study, we sought to address the effect of diabetic uterine environment on the offspring metabolism.

Methods: Type 2 diabetes mouse model was induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ) administration. We maintained other effect factors constant and changed uterine environment by zygote transfers, and then determined and compared the offspring numbers, symptoms, body weight trajectories, and metabolism indices from different groups.

Result: We found that maternal type 2 diabetes mice had lower fertility and a higher dystocia rate, accompanying the increased risk of offspring malformations and death. Compared to only a pre-gestational exposure to hyperglycemia, exposure to hyperglycemia both pre- and during pregnancy resulted in offspring growth restriction and impaired metabolism in adulthood. But there was no significant difference between a pre-gestational exposure group and a no exposure group. The deleterious effects, no matter bodyweight or glucose tolerance, could be rescued by transferring the embryos from diabetic mothers into normal uterine environment.

Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that uterine environment of maternal diabetes makes critical impact on the offspring health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.706879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350518PMC
July 2021
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