Publications by authors named "Wei Ren"

716 Publications

A systematic review on Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases: Pharmacological actions, molecular mechanisms and clinical outcomes.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 24;277:114234. Epub 2021 May 24.

National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, China; Drug Research Center of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have become a severe threat for human health worldwide, however, optimal therapeutic options are still developed. Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule (ZL capsule) is mainly composed of Astragalus membranaceus, Leech, Earthworm, Cinnamomum cassia and Sargentodoxa cuneata, having functions of replenishing qi and activating blood, dispelling wind and reducing phlegm. It is an expanded application on the basis of traditional uses of above TCMs, acquiring a satisfactory curative effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases over twenty years.

Aim Of The Study: To comprehensively summarize the main components of ZL capsule, understand the mechanisms of ZL capsule, and conclude clinical regimens of ZL capsule for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Materials And Methods: We selected network pharmacology technology to analyze main active compounds and predict underlying mechanism of ZL capsule against atherosclerosis. Molecular docking was performed to simulate the interaction pattern between the active components of ZL capsule and putative targets. Further, PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Google Scholar were used to search literatures, with the key words of "Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu capsule", "cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases", "atherosclerosis", "clinical study" and their combinations, mainly from 2000 to 2020.

Results: Both network pharmacology analysis, molecular docking and animal experiments studies confirmed that mechanisms of ZL capsule plays the role of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by multi-components acting on multi-targets via multi-pathways. Over 1000 clinical cases were benefited from the treatment of ZL capsule, suggesting a holistic concept of "the same therapy for different myocardial and cerebral diseases".

Conclusions: For the first time, this systematic review may supply meaningful information for further studies to explore material basis and pharmacodynamics of ZL capsule and also provide a basis for sharing the "Chinese patent medicine" for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114234DOI Listing
May 2021

Emotional State and Feedback-Related Negativity Induced by Positive, Negative, and Combined Reinforcement.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:647263. Epub 2021 May 10.

MOE Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Reinforcement learning relies on the reward prediction error (RPE) signals conveyed by the midbrain dopamine system. Previous studies showed that dopamine plays an important role in both positive and negative reinforcement. However, whether various reinforcement processes will induce distinct learning signals is still unclear. In a probabilistic learning task, we examined RPE signals in different reinforcement types using an electrophysiology index, namely, the feedback-related negativity (FRN). Ninety-four participants were randomly assigned into four groups: base (no money incentive), positive reinforcement (presentation of money rewards), negative reinforcement (removal of money losses), and combined reinforcement (money rewards and removal of money losses) groups. In addition, in order to evaluate the engagement of emotional activity in the different reinforcement processes, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS-X) scales were applied before and after the experiment to detect the emotional changes. The results showed that there was no difference between groups in the dopamine-related learning bias. However, compared to the other three groups, negative reinforcement elicited smaller FRN (the difference-wave measure) during the learning, stronger positive affect and joviality, and less fatigue after the learning, in which the difference between the negative and positive reinforcement groups was smaller. The results indicated that pure avoidance motivation may induce distinct emotional fluctuations, which influence the feedback processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141566PMC
May 2021

Ultrastrong magnon-magnon coupling dominated by antiresonant interactions.

Nat Commun 2021 May 25;12(1):3115. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Exotic quantum vacuum phenomena are predicted in cavity quantum electrodynamics systems with ultrastrong light-matter interactions. Their ground states are predicted to be vacuum squeezed states with suppressed quantum fluctuations owing to antiresonant terms in the Hamiltonian. However, such predictions have not been realized because antiresonant interactions are typically negligible compared to resonant interactions in light-matter systems. Here we report an unusual, ultrastrongly coupled matter-matter system of magnons that is analytically described by a unique Hamiltonian in which the relative importance of resonant and antiresonant interactions can be easily tuned and the latter can be made vastly dominant. We found a regime where vacuum Bloch-Siegert shifts, the hallmark of antiresonant interactions, greatly exceed analogous frequency shifts from resonant interactions. Further, we theoretically explored the system's ground state and calculated up to 5.9 dB of quantum fluctuation suppression. These observations demonstrate that magnonic systems provide an ideal platform for exploring exotic quantum vacuum phenomena predicted in ultrastrongly coupled light-matter systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23159-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149649PMC
May 2021

Stress controllability modulates basal activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra compacta.

eNeuro 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

MOE Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China

Prolonged stress induces neural maladaptations in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and produces emotional and behavioral disorders. However, the effects of stress on activity of DA neurons are diverse and complex that hinge on the type, duration, intensity, and controllability of stressors. Here, controlling the duration, intensity, and type of the stressors to be identical, we observed effects of stressor controllability on the activity of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) DA neurons in mice. We found that both lack and loss of control over shock enhance the basal activity and intrinsic excitability of SNc DA neurons via modulation of I current, but not via corticosterone serum level. Moreover, loss of control over shock produces more significant enhancement in the basal activity of SNc DA neurons than that produced shock per se, and therefore attenuates the response to natural reward. This attenuation can be reversed by control over shock. These results indicate that although chronic stress per se tends to enhance the basal activity of SNc DA neurons, loss of control over the stressor is able to induce a larger enhancement in basal activity of SNc DA neurons and produce more severe behavioral deficits. However, control over stress ameliorates the deleterious effects of stress, highlighting the role of stress controllability.The impact of stress on the DA system significantly modifies immediate and guide future behaviors. Stress does not have unitary effects on VTA DA neurons, but the effects of stress controllability on SNc DA neurons are unclear. The present work studied the effects of controllability on the activity of SNc DA neurons by controlling the duration, intensity, and pattern of footshocks to be identical. The results show that loss of control over shock produces larger enhancement in basal activity of SNc DA neurons and worse behavioral deficits than what caused by uncontrollable shock per se. The results demonstrate the critical role of stress controllability in modulating activity of SNc DA neurons and inducing behavioral deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0044-21.2021DOI Listing
May 2021

EpiMC: Detecting Epistatic Interactions using Multiple Clusterings.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 May 14;PP. Epub 2021 May 14.

Detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interactions is crucial to identify susceptibility genes associated with complex human diseases. Clustering-based approaches are widely used in epistasis analysis. However, these approaches all only use a single measure to filter out nonsignificant SNP combinations, which may be significant ones from another perspective. We propose a two-stage approach named EpiMC that employs multiple clusterings to obtain more precise candidate sets and more comprehensively detect high-order interactions based on these sets. A matrix factorization based multiple clusterings algorithm is proposed to generate multiple diverse clusterings, which aims to reduce the chance of filtering out potential candidates overlooked by a single clustering and groups associated SNPs together from different clustering perspectives. Then, EpiMC combins both the single-locus effects and interaction effects to select high-quality disease associated SNPs, and uses Jaccard similarity to get candidate sets. Finally, EpiMC uses exhaustive search on the obtained small candidate sets to precisely detect epsitatic interactions. Extensive simulation experiments show that EpiMC has a better performance in detecting high-order interactions than state-of-the-art solutions. EpiMC also detects several significant epistatic interactions associated with breast cancer (BC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which again corroborate the effectiveness of EpiMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2021.3080462DOI Listing
May 2021

Enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate nanoplastics analyzed in real time by isothermal titration calorimetry.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;773:145111. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Environmental Microbiology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Plastics are globally used for a variety of benefits. As a consequence of poor recycling or reuse, improperly disposed plastic waste accumulates in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to a considerable extent. Large plastic waste items become fragmented to small particles through mechanical and (photo)chemical processes. Particles with sizes ranging from millimeter (microplastics, <5 mm) to nanometer (nanoplastics, NP, <100 nm) are apparently persistent and have adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. Current research therefore focuses on whether and to what extent microorganisms or enzymes can degrade these NP. In this study, we addressed the question of what information isothermal titration calorimetry, which tracks the heat of reaction of the chain scission of a polyester, can provide about the kinetics and completeness of the degradation process. The majority of the heat represents the cleavage energy of the ester bonds in polymer backbones providing real-time kinetic information. Calorimetry operates even in complex matrices. Using the example of the cutinase-catalyzed degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanoparticles, we found that calorimetry (isothermal titration calorimetry-ITC) in combination with thermokinetic models is excellently suited for an in-depth analysis of the degradation processes of NP. For instance, we can separately quantify i) the enthalpy of surface adsorption ∆H = 129 ± 2 kJ mol, ii) the enthalpy of the cleavage of the ester bonds ∆H = -58 ± 1.9 kJ mol and the apparent equilibrium constant of the enzyme substrate complex K = 0.046 ± 0.015 g L. It could be determined that the heat production of PET NP degradation depends to 95% on the reaction heat and only to 5% on the adsorption heat. The fact that the percentage of cleaved ester bonds (η = 12.9 ± 2.4%) is quantifiable with the new method is of particular practical importance. The new method promises a quantification of enzymatic and microbial adsorption to NP and their degradation in mimicked real-world aquatic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145111DOI Listing
June 2021

Doping tuned spin reorientation and spin switching in praseodymium-samarium orthoferrite single crystals.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 28;33(27). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Physics, Materials Genome Institute, International Center for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, People's Republic of China.

We investigate the detailed analysis of the magnetic properties in a series of PrSmFeOsingle crystals from= 0 to 1 with an interval of 0.1. Doping controlled spin reorientation transition temperatureΓ(,,) to Γ(,,) covers a wide temperature range including room temperature. A 'butterfly'-shape type-I spin switching with 180° magnetization reversal occurs below and above the magnetization compensation points in= 0.4 to 0.8 compounds. Interestingly, in PrSmFeOsingle crystal, we find an inadequate spin reorientation transition accompanied by uncompleted type-I spin switching in the temperature region from 138 to 174 K. Furthermore, a type-II spin switching appears at 23 K, as evidenced from the magnetization curve in field-cooled-cooling (FCC) mode initially bifurcate from zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curve at 40 K and finally drops back to coincide the ZFC magnetization value at 23 K. Our current research reveals a strong and complex competition between Pr-Feand Sm-Feexchange interactions and more importantly renders a window to design spintronic device materials for future potential applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abfd53DOI Listing
May 2021

Differential effects of traditional and social media use on COVID-19 preventive behaviors: The mediating role of risk and efficacy perceptions.

J Health Psychol 2021 Apr 28:13591053211003125. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.

The study explored how traditional and social media use produced various cognitive responses toward COVID-19, including perceived severity, susceptibility, and efficacy, and direct and indirect facilitation of COVID-19 preventive behaviors. We tested the hypotheses on data collected from 433 university students in Wuhan, China, using structural equation modeling. We found that traditional media enhanced engagement for preventive behaviors both directly and indirectly by enhancing perceived severity and efficacy, whereas social media showed no impact on preventive behaviors, either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the direct effect of traditional media on preventive behaviors was markedly stronger than the indirect effect through perceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13591053211003125DOI Listing
April 2021

Single Exposure to Cocaine Impairs Reinforcement Learning by Potentiating the Activity of Neurons in the Direct Striatal Pathway in Mice.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China.

Plasticity in the glutamatergic synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is not only essential for behavioral adaptation but also extremely vulnerable to drugs of abuse. Modulation on these synapses by even a single exposure to an addictive drug may interfere with the plasticity required by behavioral learning and thus produce impairment. In the present work, we found that the negative reinforcement learning, escaping mild foot-shocks by correct nose-poking, was impaired by a single in vivo exposure to 20 mg/kg cocaine 24 h before the learning in mice. Either a single exposure to cocaine or reinforcement learning potentiates the glutamatergic synapses on MSNs expressing the striatal dopamine 1 (D1) receptor (D1-MSNs). However, 24 h after the cocaine exposure, the potentiation required for reinforcement learning was disrupted. Specific manipulation of the activity of striatal D1-MSNs in D1-cre mice demonstrated that activation of these MSNs impaired reinforcement learning in normal D1-cre mice, but inhibition of these neurons reversed the reinforcement learning impairment induced by cocaine. The results suggest that cocaine potentiates the activity of direct pathway neurons in the dorsomedial striatum and this potentiation might disrupt the potentiation produced during and required for reinforcement learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00687-8DOI Listing
April 2021

The CdTiO/BaTiO superlattice interface from first principles.

Nanoscale 2021 May 27;13(18):8506-8513. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Materials Genome Institute, International Center for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

The oxide interface has been studied extensively in the past decades and exhibits different physical properties from the constituent bulks. Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we investigated the interface of CdTiO/BaTiO (CTO/BTO) superlattice with ferroelectric BaTiO. In this case, the conduction bands of CdTiO are composed of Cd-5s orbitals with low electron effective mass and nondegenerate dispersion, and thus expected to have high mobility. We predicted a controllable conductivity at the interface, and further analyzed how the polarization direction and strength affect the conductivity. We also explored the relationship between two components: thickness and polarization. Intriguingly, the total polarization in CTO/BTO might be even larger than that of ferroelectric bulk BaTiO. Therefore, we found a way to maximize the superlattice polarization by increasing the fraction of the CdTiO layers, based on the interesting dependence of the total polarization and CTO/BTO ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00374gDOI Listing
May 2021

Maternal folic acid supplementation prevents autistic behaviors in a rat model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

Food Funct 2021 May 27;12(10):4544-4555. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710062, China.

Maternal vitamin supplementation has been demonstrated to reduce the risks of a number of neurodevelopmental diseases in children. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopment defects with high prevalence but without satisfactory therapy. The present work detected the effects of pregnancy supplementation with folic acid (FA) at different doses on rat models of ASD induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic increasing the risk of ASD when administered during pregnancy. The results show that maternal FA supplementation at a high dose (4 mg kg) prevented the delay in growth and development, and the deficits in social communicative behaviors and repetitive behaviors, possibly by restoring the increased dendritic spine density and rectifying the over-expression of synaptic proteins associated with excitatory neurons and the lower expression with inhibitory ones. The results provided experimental evidence suggesting a possible role of maternal FA supplementation in preventing ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02926bDOI Listing
May 2021

Towards bio-upcycling of polyethylene terephthalate.

Metab Eng 2021 Jul 16;66:167-178. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

iAMB - Institute of Applied Microbiology. ABBt - Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, D-52074, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Over 359 million tons of plastics were produced worldwide in 2018, with significant growth expected in the near future, resulting in the global challenge of end-of-life management. The recent identification of enzymes that degrade plastics previously considered non-biodegradable opens up opportunities to steer the plastic recycling industry into the realm of biotechnology. Here, the sequential conversion of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into two types of bioplastics is presented: a medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and a novel bio-based poly(amide urethane) (bio-PU). PET films are hydrolyzed by a thermostable polyester hydrolase yielding highly pure terephthalate and ethylene glycol. The obtained hydrolysate is used directly as a feedstock for a terephthalate-degrading Pseudomonas umsongensis GO16, also evolved to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, to produce PHA. The strain is further modified to secrete hydroxyalkanoyloxy-alkanoates (HAAs), which are used as monomers for the chemo-catalytic synthesis of bio-PU. In short, a novel value-chain for PET upcycling is shown that circumvents the costly purification of PET monomers, adding technological flexibility to the global challenge of end-of-life management of plastics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2021.03.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanical agitation accelerated ultrasonication for wastewater treatment: Sustainable production of hydroxyl radicals.

Water Res 2021 Jun 5;198:117124. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

Low efficiency in energy conversion has long been the bottleneck in sonochemistry-based water treatment technologies. In this work, we reported a simple and efficient strategy by introducing mechanical agitation into a low powered ultrasonic system to facilitate the production of cavitation bubbles. The coupled system remarkably intensifies the evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for degradation of refractory organic pollutants. We in-situ monitored the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) by selective scavenging tests and chemical trapping experiments. The operational factors such as rotation speed, gas atmosphere, solution temperature and pH were carefully evaluated for their impacts on the degradation of a plastic microcontaminant, diethyl phthalate (DEP). It was found that the degradation efficiency is closely related to the population of cavitation bubbles in the solution, which was collaboratively governed by the aforementioned factors. A high mechanical agitation speed (600 rpm), great solubility of inert gas atmosphere (Argon), and low reaction temperature (15 ºC) are beneficial to the generation of cavitation bubbles and the associated production of ROS. This work shows a facile strategy to intensify the mechanical energy-to-chemical conversion and provides new mechanistic insights into the ultrasound-based advanced oxidation without external chemical inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117124DOI Listing
June 2021

Upregulation of TRIB2 by Wnt/β-catenin activation in BRAF papillary thyroid carcinoma cells confers resistance to BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Jul 16;88(1):155-164. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, No. 28 Guiyi Street, Guiyang City, 550004, Guizhou Province, China.

Purpose: The BRAF mutation is an oncogenic driver associated with aggressive tumor behaviors and increased mortality among patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Although the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib gave promising results in BRAF-mutant PTC, resistance development remains a major clinical challenge. This study aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in PTC.

Methods: Two vemurafenib-resistant PTC cell lines (KTC1 and BCPAP) were established by continuous treatment with vemurafenib for 5 months. The knockdown and upregulation of Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) in PTC cells were achieved by the transfection with short hairpin RNA against TRIB2 or recombinant lentiviral vector carrying TRIB2, respectively. The β-catenin inhibitor, ICG-001, was used for the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in PTC cells.

Results: Vemurafenib-resistant PTC cells showed higher TRIB2 expression, upregulated ERK and AKT activation, enhanced invasive capacity, and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition compared to the drug-sensitive groups. TRIB2 knockdown repressed the activation of ERK and AKT, inhibited invasion and EMT, and induced apoptosis of PTC cells. TRIB2 deficiency also enhanced the sensitivity of both PTC cells to vemurafenib. Vemurafenib-resistant PTC cells showed elevated expression of β-catenin in both cytoplasm and nucleus. The pre-incubation of cells with β-catenin inhibitor significantly inhibited TRIB2 expression, suppressed EMT, and repressed the activation of ERK and AKT in vemurafenib-resistant cells.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the upregulation of TRIB2 by the Wnt/β-catenin activation confers resistance to vemurafenib in PTC with BRAF mutation. These findings support the potential use of TRIB2 as a therapeutic target for resistant PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04270-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of olmesartan medoxomil solid dispersion with sustained release performance by mechanochemical technology.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Engineering Research Center for Process Development of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, People's Republic of China.

Hypertension is a common disease for human with high morbidity and mortality, and olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is widely used in the therapy of hypertension. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability limit its widespread use. To improve the effect of OM, a ternary OM solid dispersion consisting of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was prepared by mechanochemical method. The best preparation parameters were OM/HP-β-CD/HPMC-E5 with mass ratio of 1:2.6:1 and milling time of 4 h. Under the optimal preparation conditions, the solubility of the ternary solid dispersion could be increased by 12 times as compared with pure OM. Due to the addition of HPMC-E5, the solid dispersion had sustained release performance with prolonged release time of 12 h. Furthermore, in vivo study demonstrated that the prepared solid dispersion could afford significantly improved bioavailability of ~ 3-fold in comparison with pure drug. Hence, the prepared ternary solid dispersion of OM may be a promise delivery system for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-021-00959-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Molybdenum Carbide Buried in D-Shaped Fibers as a Novel Saturable Absorber Device for Ultrafast Photonics Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 13;13(16):19128-19137. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710119, China.

Study of nonlinear laser-matter interactions in 2D materials has promoted development of photonics applications. As a typical MXene material, molybdenum carbide (MoC) has attracted much attention because of its graphene-like structure. Here, a type of D-shaped fiber (DF)-buried MoC saturable absorber (SA) fabricated by magnetron-sputtering deposition (MSD) and sol-gel technique is reported. The MoC material was buried between the bottom DF and the upper amorphous silica fabricated by sol-gel technology. Therefore, the DF-based SA effectively solves the problem of material shedding and aging, thus improving the stability and damage threshold of the fiber laser. Application of the SA in erbium-doped fiber laser and stable passive Q-switched operation with a maximum pulse energy of 430.47 nJ is realized. By adjusting the polarization state and pump power, high-power mode-locked pulses are generated with a pulse duration and output power of 199 fs and 54.13 mW, respectively. Further, bound-state soliton pulses are obtained with a pulse width of 312 fs and soliton interval of 1.26 ps for the first time based on MXene materials. Moreover, by application of the SA in ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, a stable dissipative soliton mode-locked pulse is obtained with a pulse width of 23 ps. These results indicate that the DF-based buried MoC as a novel SA provides a reliable method for all-fiber and multifunctional high-power ultrafast laser.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01345DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultrafine RhNi Nanocatalysts Confined in Hollow Mesoporous Carbons for a Highly Efficient Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Borane.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 12;60(9):6820-6828. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Ammonia borane (AB) has received growing research interest as one of the most promising hydrogen-storage carrier materials. However, fast dehydrogenation of AB is still limited by sluggish catalytic kinetics over current catalysts. Herein, highly uniform and ultrafine bimetallic RhNi alloy nanoclusters encapsulated within nitrogen-functionalized hollow mesoporous carbons (defined as [email protected]) are developed as highly active, durable, and selective nanocatalysts for fast hydrolysis of AB under mild conditions. Remarkable activity with a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 1294 mol mol min and low activation energy () of 18.6 kJ mol is observed at room temperature, surpassing the previous Rh-based catalysts. The detailed mechanism studies reveal that when catalyzed by [email protected], a covalently stable O-H bond by HO first cleaves in electropositive H* and further attacks B-H bond of AB to stoichiometrically produce 3 equiv of H, whose catalytic kinetics is restricted by the oxidation cleavage of the O-H bond. Compositional and structural features of [email protected] result in synergic electronic, functional, and support add-in advantages, kinetically accelerating the cleavage of the attacked HO (O-H bond) and remarkably promoting the catalytic hydrolysis of AB accordingly. This present work represents a new and effective strategy for exploring high-performance supported metal-based alloy nanoclusters for (electro)catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00721DOI Listing
May 2021

Reporting quality of clinical practice guidelines regarding gout and hyperuricemia according to the RIGHT checklist: systematic review.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 5;10(1):99. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Gout Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No.16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao, China.

Background: The Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT) checklist was used to assess the reporting quality of 2009-2019 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) regarding gout and hyperuricemia, aimed to improve the reporting quality of future guidelines.

Methods: We searched PubMed, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the Wanfang Database, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure from January 2009 to June 2019 for guidelines regarding gout and hyperuricemia. We also searched the websites of guideline development organizations (the Guidelines International Network, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the American College of Rheumatology, and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)). Furthermore, supplementary guidelines reported in included articles were systematically searched, as well as Google Scholar.

Results: Seventeen guidelines were included, of which one was in Chinese and 16 were in English. The mean reporting rate of the 35 items specified was 14.9 (42.5%); only five CPGs (29.4%) had a reporting rate >50%. Of the 35 items, three were very frequently reported. The reporting proportion of the seven domains (basic information, background, evidence, recommendations, review and quality assurance, funding and declaration and management of interests, and other information) were 64.7%, 36.8%, 50.6%, 42.9%, 8.82%, 33.8%, and 31.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: The reporting quality of the present guidelines for gout and hyperuricemia is relatively poor. We suggest that the RIGHT reporting checklist should be used by CPG developers to ensure higher reporting quality of future guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01645-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022392PMC
April 2021

Phenotypic similarities in pigs with SOX10 and SOX10 mutations implied the correlation of SOX10 haploinsufficiency with Waardenburg syndrome.

J Genet Genomics 2020 Dec 17;47(12):770-780. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, College of Basic Medical Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

SOX10 is a causative gene of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) that is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss and pigment disturbance. More than 100 mutations of SOX10 have been found in patients with Type 2 WS (WS2), Type 4 WS (WS4), and more complex syndromes. However, no mutation hotspot has been detected in SOX10, and most cases are sporadic, making it difficult to establish a correlation between the high phenotypic and genetic variability. In this study, a duplication of the 321th cytosine (c.321dupC) was introduced into SOX10 in pigs, which induced premature termination of the translation of SOX10 (p.K108QfsX45). The premature stop codon in Exon 3 triggered the degradation of mutant mRNA through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. However, SOX10 induced a highly similar phenotype of WS2 with heterogeneous inner ear malformation compared with its adjacent missense mutation SOX10. In addition, a site-saturation mutation analysis of the SOX10 N-terminal nuclear localization signal (n-NLS), where these two mutations located, revealed the correlation between SOX10 haploinsufficiency and WS by an in vitro reporter assay. The analysis combining the in vitro assay with clinical cases may provide a clue to clinical diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2020.12.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine against COVID-19.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 3;137:111310. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China; Drug Research Center of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Currently, the number of confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 worldwide continues to rise, receiving great concern from the international community. However, there is no specific and widely accepted effective vaccines. The experience in controlling the outbreak in China has proven the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Objectives: This review aims to evaluate the role of TCM in COVID-19 treatment, hoping to provide references for prevention and control of global pandemic.

Data Sources: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, ScienceDirect, Elsevier and PubMed were used to search literatures published from December 2019 to December 2020 by entering the keywords "Traditional Chinese medicine", "COVID-19″, "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2″, "Pathogenesis", "Syndrome differentiation", "Prescriptions" and their combinations. Hence, we have performed an extensive review of research articles, reviews and primary scientific studies to identify TCM against COVID-19.

Results: Among clinical treatments of COVID-19, several TCM prescriptions and characteristic therapies have been effectively suggested, the underlying mechanisms of which are mainly involved in antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and organ-protective effects of multi-components acting on multi-targets at multi-pathways.

Conclusions: This review may provide meaningful and feasible information that can be considered for the treatment of COVID-19 pandemic globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857050PMC
May 2021

Curcumin Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Human Urethral Scar Fibroblasts by Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest and Downregulation of Smad4 via Autophagy.

Radiat Res 2021 May;195(5):452-462

Department of a Urology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an 710068, China.

The goals of this study were to determine whether curcumin can radiosensitize human urethral scar fibroblasts (HUSFs) and inhibit the synthesis of collagen, and to explore the molecular mechanism. Here, HUSFs were established and cultured in vitro and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) experiment and plate clone formation assay were performed to determine the appropriate concentration of curcumin and radiation dose. The radiosensitization of curcumin was confirmed by plate clone formation assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry and apoptosis rate by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Western blot was used to detect the levels of collagen I, collagen III, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), Beclin1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), as a means of determining the mechanism. Our findings showed that curcumin enhanced radiosensitivity of HUSFs in vitro (sensitization enhancement ratio = 2.030). Furthermore, curcumin and radiation treatments promoted the apoptosis of HUSFs and blocked the cells in G2/M phase. In addition, curcumin combined with radiation inhibited the synthesis of collagen I and collagen III through Smad4 pathway, with possible involvement of autophagy. These results suggest that curcumin could be a radiosensitizer of HUSFs, inhibit the proliferation of HUSFs and suppress fibrosis by downregulation of Smad4 via autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RADE-20-00239.1DOI Listing
May 2021

Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of bacterial community diversity in different types of sandy lands: the case of Minqin County, China.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Mar 22;21(1):87. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Minqin is suffering from a serious desertification, whereas the knowledge about its bacterial community is limited. Herein, based on Nitraria tangutorum and Haloxylon ammodendron from Minqin, the bacterial community diversities in fixed sandy land, semi-fixed sandy land and shifting sandy land were investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

Results: Minqin stressed with high salinity and poor nutrition is an oligotrophic environment. Bacterial community in Minqin was shaped primarily by the presence of host plants, whereas the type of plant and sandy land had no marked effect on those, which displayed a better survival in the rhizospheres of N. tangutorum and H. ammodendron. The dominant groups at phyla level were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Candidate_division_TM7. The abundance of Firmicutes with ability of desiccation-tolerance was significantly higher in harsh environment, whereas Bacteroidetes were mainly distributed in areas with high nutrient content. The abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were relatively high in the rhizospheres of N. tangutorum and H. ammodendron, which had more plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. A large number of Actinobacteria were detected, of which the most abundant genus was Streptomyces. The physicochemical factors related to the diversity and distribution of the bacterial community were comprehensively analyzed, such as pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, C/N and sand, and the results indicated that Minqin was more suitable for the growth of N. tangutorum, which should be one of most important sand-fixing plants in Minqin.

Conclusions: The bacterial community diversities in different types of sandy lands of Minqin were comprehensively and systematically investigated by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, which has a great significance in maintaining/restoring biological diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02150-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986352PMC
March 2021

Efficacy and safety of short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for advanced rectal cancer.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(7):1524-1531

Department of General Surgery, Hebei Provincial People's Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050003, Hebei Province, China.

Background: Radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is widely used for the treatment of rectal cancer preoperatively. Although the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as an established preoperative neoadjuvant therapy shows high efficacy in the treatment of rectal cancer, some patients experience a response of poor tolerance and outcomes due to the long duration radiotherapy. The study compared short duration radiotherapy plus chemotherapy long duration radiotherapy plus chemotherapy for rectal cancer to determine whether short duration radiation treatment should be considered to diminish complications, reduce risk of recurrence and improve survival in patients with rectal cancer.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced rectal cancer.

Methods: One hundred patients with stage IIIB or higher severe rectal cancer were selected as the study subjects at The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University between December 2018 and December 2019. The patients were assigned to different groups based on the treatment regimens. Fifty patients who received preoperative short durations of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were enrolled in an observation group and fifty patients who received conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy were enrolled in a control group. Colonoscopic biopsy was performed for all patients with pathological diagnosis of rectal cancer. The expression of tumor-related factors such as RUNX3 and Ki-67 was quantitatively analyzed using immunohistochemistry in the tissues of the patients before and after treatment. Moreover, the duration of procedure, the amount of bleeding during the operation, the anus-conserving rate, the incidence of postoperative complications (wound infection, anastomotic leakage, postoperative intestinal obstruction, .) and postoperative pathology were compared between the two groups. The overall survival rate, recurrence rate and distant metastasis rate were also compared through postoperative reexamination and regular follow-up.

Results: There was no significant difference in the positive expression rate of RUNX3 and Ki-67 between the two groups before the treatment ( > 0.05). Compared with the pretreatment value, the positive rate of RUNX3 was increased and the positive rate of Ki-67 was decreased in both groups after the treatment (all < 0.05). The incidence of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and diarrhea were higher in the observation group than in the control group (all < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of anemia, fatigue, neurotoxicity and nausea and vomiting between the two groups (all > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the duration of procedure, intraoperative bleeding, the anus-conserving rate and the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups ( > 0.05). After 1 year of follow-up, the 1-yr survival rate was 80.0% in the observation group and 68.0% in the control group, the recurrence rate was 8.0% in the observation group and 10.0% in the control group, the distant metastasis rate was 6.0% in the observation group and 8.0% in the control group difference (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: Short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy can improve the cure rate, prolong the survival time and reduce the incidence of complications in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i7.1524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942029PMC
March 2021

Application of polymeric porcelain color-masking cast posts in the aesthetic repair of anterior teeth: a case report.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;39(1):115-120

State Key La-boratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Stomatological Technology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Many patients with large-area tooth defect need cast post-core crown restoration. However, the color defect of the cast post-core will affect the final restorative result, especially that of the anterior teeth. A new technology of color masking by applying CERAMAGE polymeric porcelain to the cast metal post-core surface improves the color of a full-ceramic restoration of anterior teeth and may provide a new alternative for the aesthetic repair of anterior teeth with a large area of defective tooth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905404PMC
February 2021

Biodegradation and up-cycling of polyurethanes: Progress, challenges, and prospects.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 May-Jun;48:107730. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, PR China.

Polyurethanes (PUR) are ranked globally as the 6th most abundant synthetic polymer material. Most PUR materials are specifically designed to ensure long-term durability and high resistance to environmental factors. As the demand for diverse PUR materials is increasing annually in many industrial sectors, a large amount of PUR waste is also being generated, which requires proper disposal. In contrast to other mass-produced plastics such as PE, PP, and PET, PUR is a family of synthetic polymers, which differ considerably in their physical properties due to different building blocks (for example, polyester- or polyether-polyol) used in the synthesis. Despite its xenobiotic properties, PUR has been found to be susceptible to biodegradation by different microorganisms, albeit at very low rate under environmental and laboratory conditions. Discovery and characterization of highly efficient PUR-degrading microbes and enzymes capable of disassembling PUR polymer chains into oligo- and monomeric compounds is of fundamental importance for a circular plastic economy. In this review, the main methods used for screening PUR-degrading microbes and enzymes are summarized and compared in terms of their catalytic mechanisms. Furthermore, recycling and upcycling strategies of waste PUR polymers, including microbial conversion of PUR monomers into value added products, are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2021.107730DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Fenofibrate Therapy on Renal Function in Primary Gout Patients.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases and Qingdao Key Laboratory of Gout, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.

Objective: To investigate the incidence and potential risk factors for development of fenofibrate-associated nephrotoxicity in gout patients.

Methods: 983 gout patients with fenofibrate treatment were retrospectively enrolled from the electronic record system who visited the dedicated Gout Clinic at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University between September 2016 and June 2020. Fenofibrate-associated nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) ≥0.3 mg/dL within 6 months of fenofibrate initiation. The change trend of SCr and uric acid levels during treatment period were assessed by generalised additive mixed model (GAMM). Multivariate analysis was performed for risk factors affecting elevated SCr.

Results: 100 (10.2%) patients experienced an increase in SCr ≥0.3 mg/dL within 6 months after fenofibrate initiation. The median (quartile) change of SCr in the whole cohort was 0.11 (0.03-0.20) mg/dL, whereas it was 0.36 (0.33-0.45) mg/dL in the fenofibrate-associated nephrotoxicity group. In a multivariable regression model, chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 2.39, 95% CI,1.48-3.86) and tophus (OR, 2.29, 95% CI, 1.39-3.78) were identified to be risk predictors, independent of measured covariates, of fenofibrate-associated nephrotoxicity. During the treatment period, although SCr temporarily elevated, serum urate and triglyceride concentrations decreased resulted from the interaction analysis of GAMM. Of those with fenofibrate withdrawal records, 65% of patients' SCr was reversible after an average of 49 days off the drug.

Conclusions: This observational study implied that fenofibrate-associated nephrotoxicity occurs frequently in gout patients, especially in patients with tophi or CKD. The potential renal risks of fenofibrate usage in gout need additional focus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab231DOI Listing
March 2021

PYCR1 promotes bladder cancer by affecting the Akt/Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Apr 10;53(2):247-258. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Urology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, 710068, China.

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) plays a significant role in the malignant progression of various cancers. However, the role of PYCR1 in bladder cancer has not been well studied. This study was performed to evaluate the potential relevance of PYCR1 in bladder cancer. Our data revealed that PYCR1 expression was increased in bladder cancer tissues, and increased expression of PYCR1 was predictive of decreased survival rates. In bladder cancer cell lines, knockdown of PYCR1 caused significantly retarded cell growth and invasion, while PYCR1 overexpression accelerated cellular proliferation and invasion. Moreover, PYCR1 knockdown decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt, and enhanced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Akt inhibition markedly abrogated of PYCR1 overexpression-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, overexpression of β-catenin partially reversed PYCR1 knockdown-mediated tumor suppression. Notably, PYCR1 knockdown significantly impeded tumor formation and growth in bladder cancer cells in vivo. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that PYCR1 is highly expressed in bladder cancer and knockdown of PYCR1 exerts a remarkable inhibitory effect on tumor formation via downregulation of Akt/Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our study suggests a potential role for PYCR1 in promoting bladder cancer progression and indicates that PYCR1 may be utilized as an attractive and promising anticancer target for treatment of bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09887-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Roles of rpoN in biofilm formation of Vibrio alginolyticus HN08155 at different cell densities.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 26;247:126728. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in the South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan Province, China; Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Tropical Hydrobiology and Biotechnology, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan Province, China; College of Marine Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan Province, China. Electronic address:

RpoN (δ54) as a global regulator controls crucialvirulence-associated phenotype, which can regulate flagellum and exopolysaccharides (EPS) during pathogenic biofilm formation. However, the knowledge of the roles of rpoN in biofilm formation of V. alginolyticus is limited, especially at different cell densities. Herein, deletion mutant strain ΔrpoN, complementary strain ΔrpoN-C and negative control strain ΔrpoN-Z were constructed to investigate the effects of rpoN on biofilm formation of V. alginolyticus HN08155 based on flagellum and EPS at different cell density conditions. The results showed that all of strains can form biofilm, and biofilms of strains with rpoN were formed at low cell density (LCD) and detached at high cell density (HCD), while those of ΔrpoN and ΔrpoN-Z were absent at LCD and accumulated excessively with a spotty pellicle at HCD without detaching. The EPS contents of strains with rpoN was greater than that of ΔrpoN and ΔrpoN-Z at LCD, while the opposite trends were observed at HCD. The expression levels of rpoN were quantified, which were consistent with the trend of biofilm formation. It's worth noting that absence of rpoN resulted in the failure of biofilm detachment, lacking of flagellum and decreasing motility, indicating that rpoN was not necessary for biofilm formation, but it was essential for biofilm detachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126728DOI Listing
June 2021

Predicting the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of few atomic-layer polar perovskite.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar;23(9):5578-5582

Physics Department, International Center for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. and Materials Genome Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to predict the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of electrically neutral or charged few-atomic-layer (AL) oxides based on polar perovskite KTaO3. Their properties vary greatly with the number of ALs (nAL) and the stoichiometric ratio. In the few-AL limit (nAL ≤ 14), the even AL (EL) systems with the chemical formula (KTaO3)n are semiconductors, while the odd AL (OL) systems with the formula Kn+1TanO3n+1 or KnTan+1O3n+2 are half-metal except for the unique KTa2O5 case which is a semiconductor due to the large Peierls distortions. After reaching a certain critical thickness (nAL > 14), the EL systems show ferromagnetic surface states, while ferromagnetism disappears in the OL systems. These predictions from fundamental complexity of polar perovskite when approaching the two-dimensional (2D) limit may be helpful for interpreting experimental observations later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06671kDOI Listing
March 2021

The development of an on-chip microinitiator with a built-in safety-and-arming device.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Feb;92(2):025007

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

With the development of small size and high energy output of initiators, how to improve the safety of the system becomes an urgent problem. Therefore, a novel Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS) initiator with a built-in safety-and-arming (S&A) device is introduced in this paper. The MEMS initiator is composed of the MEMS ignitor and the MEMS S&A device. A movable barrier with a fire hole is controlled by the MEMS S&A device. Driven by the electro-thermal principle, the barrier can be moved backward or forward to open or close the fire channel, and the status conversion between the armed mode and the safe mode can be realized. The test results show that under specific control signals, the MEMS S&A device can generate 1 mm output displacement. Under the armed mode, the flame can burst out from the fire channel when stimulated by 64 V pulse voltage. Under the safe mode, the barrier hit by the flame can stay intact, and the explosion energy is blocked in the fire channel successfully. The silicon wafer and silicon-on-insulator wafer are used to fabricate the MEMS S&A device. Integrated with the MEMS ignitor, the total chip size is 11 × 12 × 1.2 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0032550DOI Listing
February 2021