Publications by authors named "Wei Rao"

137 Publications

Magnetic liquid metal loaded nano-in-micro spheres as fully flexible theranostic agents for SMART embolization.

Nanoscale 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has become one of the preferred choices for advanced liver cancer patients. Current clinically used microsphere embolic agents, such as PVA, gelatin, and alginate microspheres, have limited therapeutic efficacy and lack the function of real-time imaging. In this work, we fabricated magnetic liquid metal nanoparticle (Fe@EGaIn NP) loaded calcium alginate (CA) microspheres (denoted as Fe@EGaIn/CA microspheres), which integrate CT/MR dual-modality imaging and photothermal/photodynamic functions of the Fe@EGaIn NP core, as well as embolization and drug-loading functions of CA microspheres. Namely, such nano-in-micro spheres can be used as fully flexible theranostic agents to achieve smart-chemoembolization. It has been confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Fe@EGaIn/CA microspheres have advantageous morphology, favorable biocompatibility, splendid versatility, and advanced embolic efficacy. Benefiting from these properties, excellent therapeutic efficiency was achieved with a tumor growth-inhibiting value of 100% in tumor-bearing rabbits. As a novel microsphere embolic agent with promising therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic capability, Fe@EGaIn/CA microspheres have shown potential applications in clinical transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. And the preparation strategy presented here provides a generalized paradigm for achieving multifunctional and fully flexible theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01268aDOI Listing
May 2021

Correlation analysis of pleural effusion and lung infection after liver transplantation.

Minerva Surg 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Organ Transplantation Center, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao City, Shandong, China -

Background: To probe the association of pleural effusion with lung infection of patients with liver transplantation, and to provide a theoretical foundation for preventing, diagnosing and remedying pulmonary complications after liver transplantation.

Methods: Our team harvested clinical data of patients undergoing orthotopic allogeneic liver transplantation complicated with pleural effusion after surgery in our institution from May 2018 to July 2019. Based on whether puncture drainage was needed, patients were allocated to either control group or observation group. The differences in pleural effusion depth, lung function, lung infection, serum inflammatory factor levels and 6-month survival before and after surgery were compared. Finally, ROC curves were constructed for dissecting the correlation of pleural effusion with lung infection.

Results: On day 3 after surgery, (1) pleural effusion depth of the observation group was (5.70±1.20) cm, which was saliently greater than that of control group (P<0.05); (2) in comparison to control group, lung function indexes FVC, FEV1.0, MVV and PaO2 of observation group declined (all P<0.05); (3) sputum culture evinced that the lung infection rates of control group and observation group were 17.24% and 71.70% separately, and observation group harbored brilliantly higher infection rate (P<0.05); (4) in comparison to control group, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α contents in observation group augmented (P<0.05); (5) AUC of pleural effusion depth and lung infection was 0.849, 0.805 and 0.853 separately on days 1, 2, 3 after surgery.

Conclusions: A positive correlation is existed between pleural effusion and lung infection after liver transplantation. When patients have persistent pleural effusion, the incidence of lung infection should be prevented and reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08654-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Simple and robust differentiation of Ganoderma species by high performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry QDa.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Apr;19(4):295-304

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a high performance thin-layer chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry QDa (HPTLC-QDa) method for robust authentication of Ganoderma lucidum, a popular and valuable herbal medicine, has been developed. This method is simple and practical, which allows direct generation of characteristic mass spectra from the HPTLC plates automatically with the application of in situ solvent desorption interface. The HPTLC silica gel plates were developed with toluene-ethyl formate-formic acid (5 : 5 : 0.2, V/V) and all bands were transferred to QDa system directly in situ using 80% methanol with 0.1% formic acid as desorption solvent. The acquired HPTLC-QDa spectra showed that luminous yellow band b3, containing ganoderic acid B/G/H and ganodeneric acid B, the major active components of Ganoderma, could be found only in G. lucidum and G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. sinense and G. applanatum. Moreover, bands b13 and b14 with m/z 475/477 and m/z 475/491/495, respectively, could be detected in G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. lucidum, thus allowing simple and robust authentication of G. lucidum with confused species. This method is proved to be simple, practical and reproducible, which can be extended to analyze other herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60030-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Cellulose Nanocrystals Facilitate Needle-like Ice Crystal Growth and Modulate Molecular Targeted Ice Crystal Nucleation.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Ice nucleators are of crucial and important implications in various fields including chemistry, climate, agriculture, and cryobiology. However, the complicated extract and biocompatibility of ice nucleators remain unresolved, and the mechanism of ice nucleation remains largely unknown. Herein, we show that natural nanocrystalline cellulose materials possess special properties to enhance ice nucleation and facilitate needle-like ice crystal growth. We reveal the molecular level mechanism that the efficient exposure of cellulose hydroxyl groups on (-110) surface leads to faster nucleation of water. We further design chitosan-decorated cellulose nanocrystals to accomplish molecular cryoablation in CD 44 high-expression cells; the cell viability shows more than ∼10 times decrease compared to cryoablation alone and does not show evident systematic toxicity. Collectively, our findings also offer improved knowledge in molecular level ice nucleation, which may benefit multiple research communities and disciplines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00514DOI Listing
April 2021

An FDG PET/CT metabolic parameter-based nomogram for predicting the early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Purpose: To construct an FDG PET/CT metabolic parameter-based model to predict early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT).

Methods: A total of 62 patients with HCC after LT were enrolled with a follow-up period of 1 year. Basic clinical, pathology, and laboratory data, CT features (CPLC), and PET metabolic parameters (CPLCP) were collected for model construction. A CPLC nomogram without metabolic parameters and a CPLCP nomogram with metabolic parameters were established. The net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of the two models were calculated. The constructed model was compared with Milan criteria and University of California San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. The time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (time-AUC) was used to compare the efficiency of the models, and the bootstrap method was used to for verification. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) was used to evaluate the performance of these models. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to evaluate the clinical practicability of each model.

Results: Thirty out of 62 patients experienced a recurrence during the 1-year follow-up. BCLC stage (P = 0.009), MVI (P = 0.032), AFP (P = 0.004), CTdmax (P = 0.033), and MTV (P = 0.039) were the independent predictors. The CPLC nomogram and the CPLCP nomogram were established. Compared with the CPLC nomogram, the NRI of the CPLCP nomogram increased by 38.98% (95% CI = -18.77-60.43%) and the IDI increased by 4.40% (95% CI = -1.00-16.62%). The AUC value of the CPLCP nomogram was higher than those of Milan criteria and UCSF criteria in the time-AUC curve. Moreover, the CPLCP nomogram had a higher C-index (0.774) than other models. Finally, the DCA curve showed that clinical practicability of the CPLCP nomogram outperformed the Milan criteria and UCSF criteria.

Conclusions: The CPLCP nomogram combining basic clinical data, pathology data, laboratory data, CT features, and PET metabolic parameters showed good efficacy and high clinical practicability in predicting the early recurrence of HCC after LT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05328-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Mini/Micro/Nano Scale Liquid Metal Motors.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Swimming motors navigating in complex fluidic environments have received tremendous attention over the last decade. In particular, liquid metal (LM) as a new emerging material has shown considerable potential in furthering the development of swimming motors, due to their unique features such as fluidity, softness, reconfigurability, stimuli responsiveness, and good biocompatibility. LM motors can not only achieve directional motion but also deformation due to their liquid nature, thus providing new and unique capabilities to the field of swimming motors. This review aims to provide an overview of the recent advances of LM motors and compare the difference in LM macro and micromotors from fabrication, propulsion, and application. Here, LM motors below 1 cm, named mini/micro/nano scale liquid metal motors (MLMTs) will be discussed. This work will present physicochemical characteristics of LMs and summarize the state-of-the-art progress in MLMTs. Finally, future outlooks including both opportunities and challenges of mini/micro/nano scale liquid metal motors are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12030280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001611PMC
March 2021

Intra-articular injection of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats by inhibiting cartilage degradation and inflammation.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Mar;10(3):226-236

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) can prevent articular cartilage degradation and explore the underlying mechanisms in a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA).

Methods: Human UC-MSCs were characterized by their phenotype and multilineage differentiation potential. Two weeks after MIA induction in rats, human UC-MSCs were intra-articularly injected once a week for three weeks. The therapeutic effect of human UC-MSCs was evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, Safranin-O/Fast green staining, and Mankin scores. Markers of joint cartilage injury and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were detected by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Histopathological analysis showed that intra-articular injection of human UC-MSCs significantly inhibited the progression of OA, as demonstrated by reduced cartilage degradation, increased Safranin-O staining, and lower Mankin scores. Immunohistochemistry showed that human UC-MSC treatment down-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS-5), and enhanced the expression of type II collagen and ki67 in the articular cartilage. Furthermore, human UC-MSCs significantly decreased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), while increasing TNF-α-induced protein 6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that human UC-MSCs ameliorate MIA-induced OA by preventing cartilage degradation, restoring the proliferation of chondrocytes, and inhibiting the inflammatory response, which implies that human UC-MSCs may be a promising strategy for the treatment of OA. Cite this article: 2021;10(3):226-236.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.103.BJR-2020-0206.R2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998343PMC
March 2021

Visualizing Cholesterol in the Brain by On-Tissue Derivatization and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

Anal Chem 2021 03 9;93(11):4932-4943. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Medical School, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.

Despite being a critical molecule in the brain, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of cholesterol has been under-reported compared to other lipids due to the difficulty in ionizing the sterol molecule. In the present work, we have employed an on-tissue enzyme-assisted derivatization strategy to improve detection of cholesterol in brain tissue sections. We report distribution and levels of cholesterol across specific structures of the mouse brain, in a model of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, and during brain development. MSI revealed that in the adult mouse, cholesterol is the highest in the pons and medulla and how its distribution changes during development. Cholesterol was significantly reduced in the corpus callosum and other brain regions in the null mouse, confirming hypomyelination at the molecular level. Our study demonstrates the potential of MSI to the study of sterols in neuroscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992047PMC
March 2021

Association between kidney stones and risk of developing stroke: a meta-analysis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, No. 152, Aiguo Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Many studies have described the relationship between kidney stones and stroke, but the results are controversial, so we conducted this meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between kidney stones and the risk of developing stroke.

Methods: Studies were marked with a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Google, and ISI Web of Science databases through 25 March 2020. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted, and a random-effects model or fix-effects model was used to compute the pooled combined risk estimate. Heterogeneity was reported as I. We performed subgroup and sensitivity analysis to assess potential sources of heterogeneity.

Results: Eight studies of seven articles involving 3,526,808 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, kidney stones were associated with a moderate risk of stroke incidence (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40; I=79.6%; p=0.000). We conducted a sensitivity analysis by removing the studies that had a high risk of bias. Heterogeneity subsequently decreased significantly, while an increased risk of stroke in patient with kidney stones was again demonstrated (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.23; I=28.7%; p=0.000). Stratifying analysis showed that the results were more pronounced for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.22; I=15.6%; p=0.00) and the follow-up duration ≥10 years (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.27; I=31.6%; p=0.003).

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that patients with kidney stones may have a modestly increased risk of developing stroke, especially in ischemic stroke. More large-scaled and clinical trials should be done to identify the relative impact of kidney stones on stroke outcomes in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05113-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Preliminary single-center experience of Helicobacter pylori eradication among the liver transplant recipients.

Helicobacter 2021 Jun 18;26(3):e12791. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Hepatology, Liver Disease Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among orthotopic liver transplant (LT) recipients and explore the efficacy and safety of H. pylori eradication therapy.

Methods: Liver transplant recipients receiving regular follow-up in our center were assessed by 13C-urea breath test between February 2018 and July 2020. A group of healthy tested patients were selected as control group at a rate of 1:3. All LT recipients with H. pylori were recommended to receive eradication therapy with bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (BQT), which included esomeprazole 20 mg + clarithromycin 500 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + bismuth 220 mg, twice daily for 14 days.

Results: The prevalence of H. pylori infection among the LT recipients was 19.6% (30/153), which was significantly lower than the control group (30/153 [19.6%] vs. 200/459 [43.6%], p < 0.001). In LT recipients who received transplantation at <1 year, 1-3 years, and >3 years, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 10.6% (5/47), 17.5% (10/57), and 30.6% (15/49), respectively, which increased with the time after transplantation (p = 0.04). With BQT, the eradication rate of H. pylori was 91.3% (21/23). During the process of eradication, the blood trough concentration of immunosuppressants increased from 1.7 to 3.6 times, and reducing the dose of the drugs to one-third of what they were before the eradication therapy could avoid excessively elevated concentration of immunosuppressants. Adverse effects occurred in 55.2% (11/23), of the LT recipients and 21.0% (42/200) of the control group (p < 0.01), which was probably caused by the increased blood concentration of immunosuppressants. Normal liver function was observed, while transient abnormal kidney function was occurred in one recipient.

Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 19.6% among the LT recipients, which increased with the postoperative time. With BQT, H. pylori eradication was safe and effective in LT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12791DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinically significant genomic alterations in the Chinese and Western patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Feb 12;21(1):152. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Organ Transplant Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Haier Road No. 59, Qingdao, 266000, Laoshan District, China.

Background: The goal of this study is to disclose the clinically significant genomic alterations in the Chinese and Western patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Methods: A total of 86 Chinese patients were enrolled in this study. A panel of 579 pan-cancer genes was sequenced for the qualified samples from these patients. Driver genes, actionability, and tumor mutational burden were inferred and compared to a cohort of Western patients.

Results: Totally, 36 and 12 driver genes were identified in the Chinese and Western cohorts, respectively. Of them, seven driver genes (IDH1, KRAS, TP53, BAP1, PBRM1, ARID1A, and NRAS) were shared by the two cohorts. Four driver genes (SPTA1, ARID2, TP53, and GATA1) were found significantly correlated with the tumor mutational burden. For both cohorts, half of the patients had actionable mutations. The two cohorts shared the most actionable genes but differed much in their frequency. Though KRAS mutations were at the first and second actionable rank respectively for the Chinese and Western populations, they were still at a relatively low level of actionable evidence.

Conclusions: The study on the clinical significance of genomic alterations directs the future development of precision medicine for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07792-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879680PMC
February 2021

Successful withdrawal of antiviral treatment in two HBV-related liver transplant recipients after hepatitis B vaccination with long-term follow-up.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Hepatology, Liver Disease Center, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266600, China; Department of Organ Transplantation, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266600, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbpd.2021.01.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Microwave-Induced Thermal Lesion Detection via Ultrasonic Scatterer Center Frequency Analysis with Autoregressive Cepstrum.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2020 ;48(2):85-93

Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

We proposed a new method for microwave-induced thermal lesion detection using the autoregressive spectrum analysis of ultrasonic backscattered signals in this paper. Eighteen cases of microwave ablation experiments and twenty cases of water bath heating experiments were conducted. Ultrasonic radiofrequency data of normal and coagulated porcine liver tissues were collected through these two experiments. Then, autoregressive spectrum analysis was performed; the mean frequency of the dominant peak in the autoregressive spectrum was computed based on water bath experiments; and a method for recognizing normal and solidified tissues was obtained by comparing the difference of the dominant peak in the autoregressive spectrum. Two bandpass finite impulse response filters, whose passbands corresponded respectively to the dominant peak in the autoregressive spectrum of normal and coagulated tissues, were used to compute the power spectral integration for the microwave-induced experiments. Microwave-induced thermal lesions were detected based on the differences between the power spectral integrations from the two filters. Compared to the caliper-measured area, the power spectral integration detected area had an error of (10.25 ± 3.59). Experimental results indicated that the proposed method may be used in preliminary detection of microwave-induced thermal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2020033670DOI Listing
January 2020

Efficient COI barcoding using high throughput single-end 400 bp sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2020 Dec 4;21(1):862. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China.

Background: Over the last decade, the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing platforms has accelerated species description and assisted morphological classification through DNA barcoding. However, the current high-throughput DNA barcoding methods cannot obtain full-length barcode sequences due to read length limitations (e.g. a maximum read length of 300 bp for the Illumina's MiSeq system), or are hindered by a relatively high cost or low sequencing output (e.g. a maximum number of eight million reads per cell for the PacBio's SEQUEL II system).

Results: Pooled cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes from individual specimens were sequenced on the MGISEQ-2000 platform using the single-end 400 bp (SE400) module. We present a bioinformatic pipeline, HIFI-SE, that takes reads generated from the 5' and 3' ends of the COI barcode region and assembles them into full-length barcodes. HIFI-SE is written in Python and includes four function modules of filter, assign, assembly and taxonomy. We applied the HIFI-SE to a set of 845 samples (30 marine invertebrates, 815 insects) and delivered a total of 747 fully assembled COI barcodes as well as 70 Wolbachia and fungi symbionts. Compared to their corresponding Sanger sequences (72 sequences available), nearly all samples (71/72) were correctly and accurately assembled, including 46 samples that had a similarity score of 100% and 25 of ca. 99%.

Conclusions: The HIFI-SE pipeline represents an efficient way to produce standard full-length barcodes, while the reasonable cost and high sensitivity of our method can contribute considerably more DNA barcodes under the same budget. Our method thereby advances DNA-based species identification from diverse ecosystems and increases the number of relevant applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07255-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716423PMC
December 2020

Chronic atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection status in liver transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Nov 18:e13513. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Aim: To investigate the abnormalities of the upper gastrointestinal tract in liver transplant (LT) recipients, especially the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and to explore the efficacy and safety of H pylori eradication treatment.

Methods: Endoscopic screening was performed prospectively on LT recipients who received regular follow-up in our center. A group of healthy subjects with same age and sex was selected as a control group at a ratio of 1:3 with propensity score matching. All H pylori-positive recipients received Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg + clarithromycin 500 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + bismuth 220 mg, all of the medicines were applied twice daily, for 14 days).

Result: The prevalence of H pylori infection was significantly lower in LT group than control group [12/102 (11.8%) vs 98/306 (32.0%), P < .001], whereas the prevalence of CAG was similar between the two groups [48/102 (47.1%) vs 138/306 (45.1%), P = .731]. Meanwhile, the incidence of reflux esophagitis [18/102 (17.6%) vs 31/306 (10.1%), P = .043] and bile regurgitation [19/102 (18.6%) vs 30/306 (9.8%), P = .018] were higher in LT group. No correlation between the incidence of upper gastroduodenal abnormalities and postoperative time after liver transplantation was found. The success rate of H pylori eradication therapy was 100% (10/10). The blood concentration of immunosuppressants was 1.7-3.6 times above baseline values during H pylori eradication therapy; however, no severe adverse effects were observed during the proceed with dose adjustments of the immunosuppressants.

Conclusion: Although the prevalence of H pylori infection was lower in LT recipients than in control subjects, the prevalence of CAG was like that of the general population. H pylori eradication therapy was safe and effective after liver transplantation in our preliminary study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13513DOI Listing
November 2020

Liquid Metal Based Flexible and Implantable Biosensors.

Biosensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 10;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Beijing 100190, China.

Biosensors are the core elements for obtaining significant physiological information from living organisms. To better sense life information, flexible biosensors and implantable sensors that are highly compatible with organisms are favored by researchers. Moreover, materials for preparing a new generation of flexible sensors have also received attention. Liquid metal is a liquid-state metallic material with a low melting point at or around room temperature. Owing to its high electrical conductivity, low toxicity, and superior fluidity, liquid metal is emerging as a highly desirable candidate in biosensors. This paper is dedicated to reviewing state-of-the-art applications in biosensors that are expounded from seven aspects, including pressure sensor, strain sensor, gas sensor, temperature sensor, electrical sensor, optical sensor, and multifunctional sensor, respectively. The fundamental scientific and technological challenges lying behind these recommendations are outlined. Finally, the perspective of liquid metal-based biosensors is present, which stimulates the upcoming design of biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios10110170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696291PMC
November 2020

Superior antibacterial activity of gallium based liquid metals due to Ga induced intracellular ROS generation.

J Mater Chem B 2021 01 12;9(1):85-93. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

CAS Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Gallium-based liquid metals have increasing applications in a wide variety of emerging areas and they are involved more in frontier studies, the energy industry and additive manufacturing production, and even in daily life. When exposed to open air, large amounts of microorganisms may interact with liquid metals. However, the research of the relationship between pure gallium-based liquid metals and bacterial cells is still limited. In this study, the antibacterial properties of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) alloys were tested against the typical Gram-negative bacteria-Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus and the experimental results displayed that the antibacterial rates reached 100%. We also explored the mechanism of the anti-bacterial properties of EGaIn alloys by measuring the surface composition of the EGaIn film and the concentration of dissolved metal ions. The morphology of the bacterial cells showed that the cell growth and division were influenced by exposure to EGaIn. We also found that the synergistic antibacterial effect came along with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the EGaIn film showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to gallium nitrate at the same initial ion concentration in the solution. This study shows the enormous potential of the anti-bacterial effect of liquid metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb00174kDOI Listing
January 2021

Protocol for Cloning Epithelial Stem Cell Variants from Human Lung.

STAR Protoc 2020 Sep 9;1(2). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Stem Cell Center, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.

The plurality of clonogenic cells derived from human lung includes a spectrum of diverse p63+ stem cells responsible for the regeneration of normal epithelial tissue and disease-associated metaplastic lesions. Here, we report protocols for the cloning, expansion, and characterization of these stem cell variants, which in general assist in analyses of stem cell heterogeneity, genome editing, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Kumar et al. (2011), Zuo et al. (2015), and Rao et al. (2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2020.100063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529324PMC
September 2020

Somatic Mutation Profiling of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison between Primary and Metastasis Tumor Tissues.

J Oncol 2020 17;2020:5675020. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Organ Transplant Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Introduction: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) exhibited increasing incidence and mortality around the world, with a 35% five-year survival rate. In this study, the genetic alteration of primary ICC and metastasis ICC was exhibited to discover novel personalized treatment strategies to improve the clinical prognosis.

Methods: Based on 153 primary and 49 metastasis formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ICC samples, comprehensive genomic profiling was carried out.

Results: In primary tumor samples (PSs) and metastasis tumor samples (MSs), the top alteration genes were TP53 (41.8% vs 36.7%), KRAS (30.7% vs 36.7%), and ARID1A (22.2% vs 14.2%). In the top 20 most frequent alteration genes, BRAF showed lower mutation frequency in MSs as compared to PSs (0 vs 11.1%, =0.015), while LRP1B exhibited opposed trend (22.4% vs 10.4%, =0.032). In PSs, patients with MSI-H showed all PDL1 negative, and patients with PDL1 positive exhibited MSS both in PSs and MSs. It was found that the Notch pathway had more alteration genes in MSI-H patients (=0.027). Furthermore, the patients with mutated immune genes in PSs were more than that in MSs (28.8% vs 8.2%, =0.003, odd ratio = 0.2). Interestingly, the platinum drug resistance pathway was only enriched by mutated genes of MSs.

Conclusions: In this study, the identification of two meaningful mutated genes, BRAF and LRP1B, highly mutated immune gene harbored by primary ICC patients. Both in PSs and MSs, no patients with MSI-H showed PDL1 positive. The Notch pathway had more alteration genes in patients with MSI-H. And the enrichment of the platinum drug resistance pathway in MSs might offer reference for the novel therapeutic strategy of ICC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5675020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519439PMC
September 2020

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent the progression of early diabetic nephropathy through inhibiting inflammation and fibrosis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2020 08 3;11(1):336. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease. Currently, there are no effective drugs for treating DN. Therefore, novel and effective strategies to ameliorate DN at the early stage should be identified. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in DN.

Methods: We identified the basic biological properties and examined the multilineage differentiation potential of UC-MSCs. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN rats were infused with 2 × 10 UC-MSCs via the tail vein at week 6. After 2 weeks, we measured blood glucose level, levels of renal function parameters in the blood and urine, and cytokine levels in the kidney and blood, and analyzed renal pathological changes after UC-MSC treatment. We also determined the colonization of UC-MSCs in the kidney with or without STZ injection. Moreover, in vitro experiments were performed to analyze cytokine levels of renal tubular epithelial cell lines (NRK-52E, HK2) and human renal glomerular endothelial cell line (hrGECs).

Results: UC-MSCs significantly ameliorated functional parameters, such as 24-h urinary protein, creatinine clearance rate, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and renal hypertrophy index. Pathological changes in the kidney were manifested by significant reductions in renal vacuole degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, and renal interstitial fibrosis after UC-MSC treatment. We observed that the number of UC-MSCs recruited to the injured kidneys was increased compared with the controls. UC-MSCs apparently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) and pro-fibrotic factor (TGF-β) in the kidney and blood of DN rats. In vitro experiments showed that UC-MSC conditioned medium and UC-MSC-derived exosomes decreased the production of these cytokines in high glucose-injured renal tubular epithelial cells, and renal glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, UC-MSCs secreted large amounts of growth factors including epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor.

Conclusion: UC-MSCs can effectively improve the renal function, inhibit inflammation and fibrosis, and prevent its progression in a model of diabetes-induced chronic renal injury, indicating that UC-MSCs could be a promising treatment strategy for DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01852-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397631PMC
August 2020

Liquid Metal Hybrid Platform-Mediated Ice-Fire Dual Noninvasive Conformable Melanoma Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 11;12(25):27984-27993. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Cryoablation and photothermal therapy are anticancer therapeutic strategies that destroy tumors by external energy intervention of achieving extremely low temperature and very high temperature in a short time. Compared to traditional surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, they have the advantages of being minimally invasive and having less side effects. However, single cryoablation or photothermal therapy itself has limited therapeutic accuracy, which greatly restricts its clinical application. There is still a common phenomenon that the energy transport at the tumor target site cannot be accurately controlled in space and time dimensions, resulting in limited thermal effect and difficulty to form a conformable treatment area, which will result in low targeted killing efficiency, and tumor cells will become residual and undergo metastasis and recurrence. Herein, a multimodal therapy of cryoablation combined with photothermal therapy was proposed. To further enhance the therapeutic performance, a liquid metal hybrid platform, which is composed of a high-thermal-conductivity liquid metal paste and high-photothermal-conversion-efficiency liquid metal nanoparticles, is mediated for cryoablation and photothermal therapy. Cold and heat synergistic effects are realized through this multimodal therapy. Due to the liquid metal hybrid platform, enhanced antitumor efficacy is achieved and . More importantly, the liquid metal hybrid platform-mediated dual therapy is totally noninvasive and does not show obvious systemic toxicity. Collectively, this study has first realized ice (cryoablation)-fire (photothermal therapy) dual noninvasive therapy by one liquid metal platform and demonstrated superior antitumor effect for melanoma treatment. This work explores a new promising multimodal cancer therapy strategy based on the liquid metal platform, which has great potential application in cancer treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06023DOI Listing
June 2020

Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Nephrocyte Injury and Proteinuria in a Diabetic Nephropathy Rat Model.

J Diabetes Res 2020 29;2020:8035853. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown to alleviate renal injury of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of this beneficial effect is not fully understood. The aims of this study are to evaluate effects of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) on renal cell apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanisms. Characteristics of UC-MSCs were identified by flow cytometry and differentiation capability. Six weeks after DN induction by STZ injection in Sprague-Dawley rats, the DN rats received UC-MSCs once a week for consecutive two weeks. DN-related physical and biochemical parameters were measured at 2 weeks after UC-MSC infusion. Renal histological changes were also assessed. Moreover, the apoptosis of renal cells and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. Compared with DN rats, rats treated with UC-MSCs showed suppressed increase in 24-hour urinary total protein, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. UC-MSC treatment ameliorated pathological abnormalities in the kidney of DN rats as evidenced by H&E, PAS, and Masson Trichrome staining. Furthermore, UC-MSC treatment reduced apoptosis of renal cells in DN rats. UC-MSCs promoted expression of antiapoptosis protein Bcl-xl and suppressed expression of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in the kidney of DN rats. Most importantly, UC-MSCs suppressed upregulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), downregulation of thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and P38 MAPK in the kidney of DN rats. Our results suggest that UC-MSCs could alleviate nephrocyte injury and albuminuria of DN rats through their antiapoptotic property. The protective effects of UC-MSCs may be mediated by inhibiting TXNIP upregulation in part.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8035853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206880PMC
March 2021

Regenerative Metaplastic Clones in COPD Lung Drive Inflammation and Fibrosis.

Cell 2020 05 15;181(4):848-864.e18. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Stem Cell Center, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77003, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition of chronic bronchitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema that represents a leading cause of death worldwide. While inflammation, fibrosis, mucus hypersecretion, and metaplastic epithelial lesions are hallmarks of this disease, their origins and dependent relationships remain unclear. Here we apply single-cell cloning technologies to lung tissue of patients with and without COPD. Unlike control lungs, which were dominated by normal distal airway progenitor cells, COPD lungs were inundated by three variant progenitors epigenetically committed to distinct metaplastic lesions. When transplanted to immunodeficient mice, these variant clones induced pathology akin to the mucous and squamous metaplasia, neutrophilic inflammation, and fibrosis seen in COPD. Remarkably, similar variants pre-exist as minor constituents of control and fetal lung and conceivably act in normal processes of immune surveillance. However, these same variants likely catalyze the pathologic and progressive features of COPD when expanded to high numbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294989PMC
May 2020

Cloning of ground-state intestinal stem cells from endoscopic biopsy samples.

Nat Protoc 2020 05 1;15(5):1612-1627. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Stem Cell Center, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

'Adult' or 'somatic' stem cells harbor an intrinsic ability to regenerate tissues. Heterogeneity of such stem cells along the gastrointestinal tract yields the known segmental specificity of this organ and may contribute to the pathology of certain enteric conditions. Here we detail technology for the generation of 'libraries' of clonogenic cells from 1-mm-diamter endoscopic biopsy samples from the human gastrointestinal tract. Each of the 150-300 independent clones in a typical stem cell library can be clonally expanded to billions of cells in a few weeks while maintaining genomic stability and the ability to undergo multipotent differentiation to the specific epithelia from which the sample originated. The key to this methodology is the intrinsic immortality of normal intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and culture systems that maintain them as highly immature, ground-state ISCs marked by a single-cell clonogenicity of 70% and a corresponding 250-fold proliferative advantage over spheroid technologies. Clonal approaches such as this enhance the resolution of molecular genetics, make genome editing easier, and may be useful in regenerative medicine, unravelling heterogeneity in disease, and facilitating drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0298-4DOI Listing
May 2020

A Universal Approach to Aqueous Energy Storage via Ultralow-Cost Electrolyte with Super-Concentrated Sugar as Hydrogen-Bond-Regulated Solute.

Adv Mater 2020 Apr 4;32(16):e2000074. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Aqueous energy-storage systems have attracted wide attention due to their advantages such as high security, low cost, and environmental friendliness. However, the specific chemical properties of water induce the problems of narrow electrochemical stability window, low stability of water-electrode interface reactions, and dissolution of electrode materials and intermediate products. Therefore, new low-cost aqueous electrolytes with different water chemistry are required. The nature of water depends largely on its hydroxyl-based hydrogen bonding structure. Therefore, the super-concentrated hydroxyl-rich sugar solutions are designed to change the original hydrogen bonding structure of water. The super-concentrated sugars can reduce the free water molecules and destroy the tetrahedral structure, thus lowering the binding degree of water molecules by breaking the hydrogen bonds. The ionic electrolytes based on super-concentrated sugars have the expanded electrochemical stability window (up to 2.812 V), wide temperature adaptability (-50 to 80 °C), and fair ionic conductivity (8.536 mS cm ). Aqueous lithium-, sodium-, potassium-ion batteries and supercapacitors using super-concentrated sugar-based electrolytes demonstrate an excellent electrochemical performance. The advantages of ultralow cost and high universality enable a great practical application potential of the super-concentrated sugar-based aqueous electrolytes, which can also provide great experimental and theoretical assistance for further research in water chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000074DOI Listing
April 2020

Recoverable Liquid Metal Paste with Reversible Rheological Characteristic for Electronics Printing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 21;12(12):14125-14135. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Gallium-based liquid metals are applied in the fabrication of soft electronics because of their conductivity and flexibility. However, the large surface tension and weak adhesion of liquid metals limit the available printing substrates. Recent researches indicate that amalgamating metal particles can turn liquid metal from fluid into a paste which has superb electrical conductivity, plasticity, and strong adhesion to substrates. In this work, a recoverable liquid metal paste was made by mixing eutectic Ga-In alloy and nonmetallic SiO (quartz) particles (Ga-In-SiO paste, called GIS). GIS has excellent conductivity and printable properties similar to those of previously reported liquid metal pastes. Furthermore, the bonding between Ga-In alloy and quartz particles is reversible. In acidic or alkaline solution, Ga-In alloy can be separated from quartz particles and agglomerated to bulk by stirring. Moreover, the study of the mechanism of adhesion behavior suggests that extruding fresh liquid metal droplets to form more oxide and shearing friction are the critical factors for adhesion. This work proposed a new liquid metal paste with a reversible rheological property and promoted the understanding of the working principle of liquid metal paste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b20430DOI Listing
March 2020

A single component self-assembled thermally activated delayed fluorescence nanoprobe.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Feb;56(17):2550-2553

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Function of Natural Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Active Substances Discovery and Drugability Evaluation, Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100050, China. and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

A novel versatile thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) nanoprobe, AI-Cz-NP, was designed and fabricated through self-assembly of a single-component amphiphilic monomer for potential applications in confocal imaging and time-resolved fluorescence imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc09957cDOI Listing
February 2020

Cryoablation-activated enhanced nanodoxorubicin release for the therapy of chemoresistant mammary cancer stem-like cells.

J Mater Chem B 2020 02 28;8(5):908-918. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA and Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Chemoresistance is a common property of tumor-initiating cancer stem-like cells. Overcoming chemoresistance, particularly in cancer stem-like cells, can markedly enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy and prevent cancer recurrence and metastasis. This study demonstrates that temperature-negative expansion nanodrugs could achieve the controllable and enhanced release of anticancer drugs when combined with cryoablation and effectively overcome chemoresistance in mammary cancer stem-like cells. The enhanced destruction of both cancer stem-like cells and cancer cells resulted in the improved inhibition of second-generation tumor formation in vitro. Furthermore, nanodrug-mediated cryosurgery did not produce systemic toxicity and had superior antitumor effects in a xenograft tumor model. Collectively, this study demonstrates the strong potential of thermally sensitive nanodrug-mediated cryoablation for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer stem-like cells and markedly improving the overall treatment efficacy against breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb01922gDOI Listing
February 2020

Injectable and Radiopaque Liquid Metal/Calcium Alginate Hydrogels for Endovascular Embolization and Tumor Embolotherapy.

Small 2020 01 25;16(2):e1903421. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Improved endovascular embolization can contribute to assistant treatment for patients. However, many traditional embolic materials, such as metal microcoils or liquid embolic agents, are associated with limitations of coil migration or recanalization. Herein, as the first trial, an injectable and radiopaque liquid metal/calcium alginate (LM/CA) hydrogel is introduced and fabricated as a candidate for endovascular embolization and tumor embolotherapy through developing LM droplets as radiopaque units into biocompatible calcium alginate cross-linked network. The adoption of LM droplets makes hydrogels radiopaque under X-ray and CT scan, which significantly facilitates the tracking of material location during surgical vascular operation. In addition, in vitro and in vivo experiments prove that such smart hydrogel could convert from liquid to solid rapidly via cross-linking, showing pretty flexible and controllable functions. Benefiting from these properties, the hydrogel can be performed in blood vessels through injection via syringes and then served as an embolic material for endovascular embolization procedures. In vivo experiments demonstrate that such hydrogels can occlude arteries and block blood flow until they ultimately lead to ischemic necrosis of tumors and partial healthy tissues. Overall, the present LM/CA hydrogels are promising to be developed as new generation embolic materials for future tumor embolotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201903421DOI Listing
January 2020

Soft liquid metal nanoparticles achieve reduced crystal nucleation and ultrarapid rewarming for human bone marrow stromal cell and blood vessel cryopreservation.

Acta Biomater 2020 01 14;102:403-415. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Cryo-Biomedical Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

High warming rates during cryopreservation are crucial and essential for successful vitrification. However, realizing a faster warming rate in low-concentration cryoprotective agents appears to be challenging for conventional warming process through convective heat transfer. Herein, we developed a liquid metal (LM) nanosystem that can act as a spatial source to significantly enhance the warming rates with near-infrared laser irradiation during the warming process. The synthetic Pluronic F127-liquid metal nanoparticles (PLM NPs) displayed multiple performances with uniform particle size, superior photothermal conversion efficiency (52%), repeatable photothermal stability, and low cytotoxicity. Particularly, it is more difficult for the liquid PLM NPs with less surface free energy to form crystal nucleation than other solid NPs such as gold and FeO, which is beneficial for the cooling process during cryopreservation. The viability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells postcryopreservation reached 78±3%, which is threefold higher than that obtained by the conventional warming method (25±6%). Additionally, the cells postcryopreservation maintained their normal attachment, proliferation, surface marker expression, and intact multilineage differentiation properties. Moreover, the results of mouse tails including blood vessel cryopreservation showed a relatively improved intact structure when using PLM NP rewarming compared with the results of conventional warming. The new LM nanosystem provides a universal platform for cryopreservation that is expected to have potential for widespread applications including bioengineering, cell-based medicine, and clinical translation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we fabricated soft liquid metal nanoparticles with high photothermal conversion efficiency, repeatable photothermal stability, and low cytotoxicity. Particularly, soft liquid metal nanoparticles with less surface free energy and suppression effects of ice formation were first introduced to mediate cryopreservation. Superior ice-crystallization inhibition is achieved as a result of less crystal nucleation and ultrarapid rewarming during the freezing and warming processes of cryopreservation, respectively. Collectively, cryopreservation of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and mouse tails including blood vessels can be successfully performed using this new nanoplatform, showing great potential in the application of soft nanoparticles in cryopreservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.11.023DOI Listing
January 2020