Publications by authors named "Wei Ma"

1,324 Publications

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Transcriptome Analysis of Antennal Chemosensory Genes in Faust. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

Front Physiol 2022 9;13:896793. Epub 2022 May 9.

College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

The olfactory system plays a key role in regulating insect behaviors, such as locating host plants, spawning sites, and mating partners and avoiding predators. Chemosensory genes are required for olfactory recognition in insects. Faust. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damages hazelnuts and causes severe economic losses. There are no effective control measures, but understanding the olfaction mechanisms of this insect could lead to a new approach for population management. However, the genes that perform chemosensory functions in are still unclear. Using high-throughput sequencing, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of and annotated the major chemosensory gene families. Of the chemosensory gene families, we found 23 odorant-binding proteins, 15 chemosensory proteins, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins, 15 odorant receptors, 23 ionotropic receptors, and nine gustatory receptors. Using Blast sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, the sequences of these proteins were identified. Male- and female-specific chemosensory genes involved in odorant detection and recognition were validated by qRT-PCR. Among the chemosensory genes, we found significant differences in the expression of CdieOBP8, CdieOBP9, CdieOBP19, CdieOBP20, CdieOBP21, CdieCSP15, CdieOR13, and CdieOR15 between adult male and female . A total of 87 expressed chemosensory proteins were found in . Investigating these proteins will help reveal the molecular mechanism of odorant recognition in and may aid the development of novel control strategies for this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.896793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124802PMC
May 2022

Ccl3 enhances docetaxel chemosensitivity in breast cancer by triggering proinflammatory macrophage polarization.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 May;10(5)

Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center & Institutes of Biomedical Sciences; Cancer Institutes; Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer in Shanghai; The Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology; The International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai Medical College; Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: Although the antitumor efficacy of docetaxel (DTX) has long been attributed to the antimitotic activities, its impact on the tumor microenvironment (TME) has recently gained more attention. Macrophages are a major component of the TME and play a critical role in DTX efficacy; however, the underlying action mechanisms remain unclear.

Methods: DTX chemotherapeutic efficacy was demonstrated via both macrophage depletion and C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (Ccl3)-knockout transgenic allograft mouse model. Ccl3-knockdown and Ccl3-overexpressing breast cancer cell allografts were used for the in vivo study. Combination therapy was used to evaluate the effect of Ccl3 induction on DTX chemosensitivity. Vital regulatory molecules and pathways were identified using RNA sequencing. Macrophage phagocytosis of cancer cells and its influence on cancer cell proliferation under DTX treatment were assessed using an in vitro coculture assay. Serum and tumor samples from patients with breast cancer were used to demonstrate the clinical relevance of our study.

Results: Our study revealed that Ccl3 induced by DTX in macrophages and cancer cells was indispensable for the chemotherapeutic efficacy of DTX. DTX-induced Ccl3 promoted proinflammatory macrophage polarization and subsequently facilitated phagocytosis of breast cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Ccl3 overexpression in cancer cells promoted proinflammatory macrophage polarization to suppress tumor progression and increase DTX chemosensitivity. Mechanistically, DTX induced Ccl3 by relieving the inhibition of cAMP-response element binding protein on Ccl3 via reactive oxygen species accumulation, and Ccl3 then promoted proinflammatory macrophage polarization via activation of the Ccl3-C-C motif chemokine receptor 5-p38/interferon regulatory factor 5 pathway. High CCL3 expression predicted better prognosis, and high CCL3 induction revealed better DTX chemosensitivity in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, both the Creb inhibitor and recombinant mouse Ccl3 significantly enhanced DTX chemosensitivity.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that Ccl3 induced by DTX triggers proinflammatory macrophage polarization and subsequently facilitates phagocytosis of cancer cells. Ccl3 induction in combination with DTX may provide a promising therapeutic rationale for increasing DTX chemosensitivity in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-003793DOI Listing
May 2022

Derivatization-free multi-step extraction for trace haloacetic acids analysis with ion chromatography: Performance and mechanisms.

J Hazard Mater 2022 May 17;436:129166. Epub 2022 May 17.

Civil and Environmental Engineering Programs, The Pennsylvania State University, Middletown, PA 17057, USA.

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are a type of disinfection byproducts commonly found in drinking water with carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic risks to humans. Currently, the analytical methods of trace HAAs are either labor-intensive or very expensive. We herein propose a facile multiple-step extraction strategy for HAAs analysis with common ion chromatography (IC). This study is based on a fundamental water chemistry principle that HAAs become protonated featuring positive logK values (> 0.34) under pH < pK but deprotonated featuring negative logK values (< -2.37) under pH > pK. By taking advantage of the species and property switches, HAAs can be extracted and enriched into methyl tert-butyl ether first at pH < 0.5 and then back-extracted into neutral water and enriched again. Equally important, interfering anions in IC chromatogram are eliminated because they have negative logK values. Verification results show that HAAs were enriched by 11.4 times in average while interfering anions were almost eliminated (> 99%). Although similar to USEPA Method 552.3 in method detection limits (0.033-0.246 μg/L), recoveries (70%~110%), and relative standard deviations (< 9.91%), this method took ≤ 70 min to run a batch of samples without derivatization, which takes over 2 h. The methodology may be applicable to other pollutants that also have contrasting K values at different pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129166DOI Listing
May 2022

Influence of maternal obesity on the multi-omics profiles of the maternal body, gestational tissue, and offspring.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 20;151:113103. Epub 2022 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Health Ministry for Congenital Malformation, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China. Electronic address:

Epidemiological studies show that obesity during pregnancy affects more than half of the pregnancies in the developed countries and is associated with obstetric problems and poor outcomes. Obesity tends to increase the incidence of complications. Furthermore, the resulting offspring are also adversely affected. However, the molecular mechanisms of obesity leading to poor pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. Omics methods are used for genetic diagnosis and marker discovery. The aim of this review was to summarize the maternal and fetal pathophysiological alterations induced by gestational obesity,identified using multi-omics detection techniques, and to generalize the biological functions and potential mechanisms of the differentially expressed molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113103DOI Listing
May 2022

Transcriptional regulation of oil biosynthesis in seed plants: Current understanding, applications, and perspectives.

Plant Commun 2022 Apr 20:100328. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:

Plants produce and accumulate triacylglycerol (TAG) in their seeds as an energy reservoir to support the processes of seed germination and seedling development. Plant seed oils are vital not only for the human diet but also as renewable feedstocks for industrial use. TAG biosynthesis consists of two major steps: de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in the plastids and TAG assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. The latest advances in unraveling transcriptional regulation have shed light on the molecular mechanisms of plant oil biosynthesis. We summarize recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of well-characterized and newly discovered transcription factors and other types of regulators that control plant fatty acid biosynthesis. The emerging picture shows that plant oil biosynthesis responds to developmental and environmental cues that stimulate a network of interacting transcriptional activators and repressors, which in turn fine-tune the spatiotemporal regulation of the pathway genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2022.100328DOI Listing
April 2022

Protective Effect of Schisandrin on CORT-Induced PC12 Depression Cell Model by Inhibiting Cell Apoptosis In Vitro.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2022 11;2022:6113352. Epub 2022 May 11.

College of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, China.

Background: In recent years, the incidence of depression is on the rise. Our paper proposed to study the protective effects of Schisandrin on CORT-induced PC12 depressive cell model and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The in vitro models of PC12 were established using corticosterone (CORT). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used to screen the effective concentration of Schisandrin, and the models of PC12 were treated with low, medium, and high concentrations of Schisandrin. The cell activity of each group was detected by MTT assay. The LDH activity in each group of cells was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) kit. Apoptosis rate of each group was detected by Annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay kit. Mitochondrial membrane potential of each group of cells was detected by mitochondrial membrane potential kit. The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 in each group of cells were detected by western blot.

Results: The treatment of Schisandrin significantly increased the cell viability in models of PC12. In addition, the results of LDH activity suggested that Schisandrin significantly reduced LDH content in models of PC12. Consistently, Schisandrin reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of CORT-induced PC12 depressive cell model. Furthermore, Schisandrin effectively reduced the number of apoptotic cells and inhibited the expression of proapoptotic-related proteins (cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax) but increased the antiapoptotic-related protein (Bcl-2) in the models of PC12.

Conclusions: Protective effects of Schisandrin on CORT-induced PC12 depressive cell model by inhibiting cells apoptosis in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6113352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117060PMC
May 2022

Unraveling the Photovoltaic, Mechanical, and Microstructural Properties and Their Correlations in Simple Poly(3-pentylthiophene) Solar Cells.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2022 May 19:e2200229. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300350, China.

The power conversion efficiency of polythiophene organic solar cells is constantly refreshed. Despite the renewed device efficiency, very few efforts have been devoted to understanding how the type of electron acceptor alters the photovoltaic and mechanical properties of these low-cost solar cells. Herein, the authors conduct a thorough investigation of photovoltaic and mechanical characteristics of a simple yet less-explored polythiophene, namely poly(3-pentylthiophene) (P3PT), in three different types of organic solar cells, where ZY-4Cl, PC BM, and N2200 are employed as three representative acceptors, respectively. Compared with the reference poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based solar cells, P3PT-based devices, all perform more efficiently. Particularly, the P3PT:ZY-4Cl blend exhibits the highest efficiency (ca. 10%) among the six combinations and outperforms the prior top-performance system P3HT:ZY-4Cl. Furthermore, the blend films based on N2200 exhibit a high crack-onset strain of ∼38% on average, which is approximately 15- and 17-times higher than those of ZY-4Cl and PC BM, respectively. The microstructural origins for the above difference are well elucidated by detailed grazing incidence X-ray scattering and microscopy analysis. This work not only underlines the potential of P3PT in prolific solar cell research but also demonstrates the superior tensile properties of polythiophene-based all-polymer blends for the preparation of stretchable solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202200229DOI Listing
May 2022

Left atrial phasic function remodeling during its enlargement: a two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2022 May 19;22(1):231. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku St, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: Left atrial (LA) size is often used as a surrogate marker of LA function in clinical practice, with larger atrial thought to represent a "dysfunctioning" atrium, since there is no accepted 'gold' standard to evaluate LA function. The exact relationship between LA size and phasic function, and whether LA dysfunction occur before LA enlargement (LAE) may be of clinical interest while have not been fully studied. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D STE) was showed a promising method in measuring LA physical deformation.

Materials And Methods: A community cohort of 715 subjects at cardiovascular disease high risk accepted comprehensive echocardiography. LA longitudinal phasic strain Sa (absolute peak strain during atrial contraction), Se (peak strain at early diastole) and Stot (total atrial strain = Sa + Se), representing contractile, conduit, and reservoir function respectively, were measured using off-line 2D STE software in apical 4 chamber view, and data were compared among groups at different LA size and between subgroups in normal LA size with and without hypertension (HT).

Results: With LAE (from normal size, mild, moderate to severe LAE), the Stot (21.74 ± 5.97, 20.75 ± 4.99, 20.49 ± 5.27, 17.75 ± 4.71, respectively, ANOVA P = 0.003) and Sa (11.84 ± 3.92, 11.00 ± 3.29, 10.11 ± 2.57, 8.55 ± 2.88, respectively, ANOVA P < 0.001) reduced while Se had no change. Stot of Severe LAE group was significantly lower than that of Normal LA size group (P = 0.002). Sa of the three LAE groups were all significantly lower than that of Normal LA size group (P = 0.024, P = 0.002, P < 0.001, respectively). In normal sized LA subgroups, Stot (21.35 ± 5.91 vs. 23.01 ± 6.02, P = 0.008) and Se (9.51 ± 4.41 vs. 11.17 ± 4.89, P < 0.001) reduced in subjects with HT comparing with those without.

Conclusion: LA phasic function remodeling occurs before LAE and continues with LAE, with reservoir, conduit and contractile function being affected unparalleled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02672-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118856PMC
May 2022

Single-nucleus chromatin accessibility profiling highlights regulatory mechanisms of coronary artery disease risk.

Nat Genet 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex inflammatory disease involving genetic influences across cell types. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 200 loci associated with CAD, where the majority of risk variants reside in noncoding DNA sequences impacting cis-regulatory elements. Here, we applied single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing to profile 28,316 nuclei across coronary artery segments from 41 patients with varying stages of CAD, which revealed 14 distinct cellular clusters. We mapped ~320,000 accessible sites across all cells, identified cell-type-specific elements and transcription factors, and prioritized functional CAD risk variants. We identified elements in smooth muscle cell transition states (for example, fibromyocytes) and functional variants predicted to alter smooth muscle cell- and macrophage-specific regulation of MRAS (3q22) and LIPA (10q23), respectively. We further nominated key driver transcription factors such as PRDM16 and TBX2. Together, this single-nucleus atlas provides a critical step towards interpreting regulatory mechanisms across the continuum of CAD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01069-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Oil plant genomes: current state of the science.

J Exp Bot 2022 May;73(9):2859-2874

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Vegetable oils are an indispensable nutritional component of the human diet as well as important raw materials for a variety of industrial applications such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, oleochemicals, and biofuels. Oil plant genomes are highly diverse, and their genetic variation leads to a diversity in oil biosynthesis and accumulation along with agronomic traits. This review discusses plant oil biosynthetic pathways, current state of genome assembly, polyploidy and asymmetric evolution of genomes of oil plants and their wild relatives, and research progress of pan-genomics in oil plants. The availability of complete high-resolution genomes and pan-genomes has enabled the identification of structural variations in the genomes that are associated with the diversity of agronomic and environment fitness traits. These and future genomes also provide powerful tools to understand crop evolution and to harvest the rich natural variations to improve oil crops for enhanced productivity, oil quality, and adaptability to changing environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab472DOI Listing
May 2022

Asymmetric electron acceptor enables highly luminescent organic solar cells with certified efficiency over 18.

Nat Commun 2022 May 11;13(1):2598. Epub 2022 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

Enhancing the luminescence property without sacrificing the charge collection is one key to high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs), while limited by the severe non-radiative charge recombination. Here, we demonstrate efficient OSCs with high luminescence via the design and synthesis of an asymmetric non-fullerene acceptor, BO-5Cl. Blending BO-5Cl with the PM6 donor leads to a record-high electroluminescence external quantum efficiency of 0.1%, which results in a low non-radiative voltage loss of 0.178 eV and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 15%. Importantly, incorporating BO-5Cl as the third component into a widely-studied donor:acceptor (D:A) blend, PM6:BO-4Cl, allows device displaying a high certified PCE of 18.2%. Our joint experimental and theoretical studies unveil that more diverse D:A interfacial conformations formed by asymmetric acceptor induce optimized blend interfacial energetics, which contributes to the improved device performance via balancing charge generation and recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30225-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9095617PMC
May 2022

Object-Specific Four-Path Network for Stroke Risk Stratification of Carotid Arteries in Ultrasound Images.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 25;2022:2014349. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Medical Ultrasound Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Atherosclerotic carotid plaques have been shown to be closely associated with the risk of stroke. Since patients with symptomatic carotid plaques have a greater risk for stroke, stroke risk stratification based on the classification of carotid plaques into symptomatic or asymptomatic types is crucial in diagnosis, treatment planning, and medical treatment monitoring. A deep learning technique would be a good choice for implementing classification. Usually, to acquire a high-accuracy classification, a specific network architecture needs to be designed for a given classification task. In this study, we propose an object-specific four-path network (OSFP-Net) for stroke risk assessment by integrating ultrasound carotid plaques in both transverse and longitudinal sections of the bilateral carotid arteries. Each path of the OSFP-Net comprises of a feature extraction subnetwork (FE) and a feature downsampling subnetwork (FD). The FEs in the four paths use the same network structure to automatically extract features from ultrasound images of carotid plaques. The FDs use different object-specific pooling strategies for feature downsampling based on the observation that the sizes and shapes in the feature maps obtained from FEs should be different. The object-specific pooling strategies enable the network to accept arbitrarily sized carotid plaques as input and to capture a more informative context for improving the classification accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on a clinical dataset consisting of 333 subjects with 1332 carotid plaques show the superiority of our OSFP-Net against several state-of-the-art deep learning-based methods. The experimental results demonstrate better clinical agreement between the ground truth and the prediction, which indicates its great potential for use as a risk stratification and as a monitoring tool in the management of patients at risk for stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2014349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9061007PMC
May 2022

Replacing liquid chromatography with tailored ion chromatography: A green method for detecting furfuryl alcohol and understanding its properties.

J Chromatogr A 2022 Apr 26;1673:463090. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a furan derivative potentially hazardous to human health, and it is now ubiquitously found in foods and used for identifying singlet oxygen (O) in environmental studies. However, current analytical methods for FFA in water are mostly based on gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (LC), which inevitably employ organic solvents as extractants or eluents that can result in harmful wastes production and extra treatment costs. To solve this issue, we herein developed a green analytical method to measure FFA without using organic solvents by a tailored ion chromatography (IC) equipped with ultraviolet (UV) detector. The method demonstrated a calibration curve fitting well (R > 0.99) for a wide FFA concentration range (i.e., 0.1 ∼ 10.0 mg/L) and a method detection limit (0.031 mg/L) comparable to LC method. The recoveries of FFA dosed into real samples exceeded 86.4% with the relative standard deviations below 2.5%. Next, we examined the property and reactivity of FFA through the method. It was found that FFA's acid-dissociation coefficient (i.e., pK) was not 9.55, which disagrees with an earlier report. FFA was resistant to 254 nm UV or hydrogen peroxide (HO) but vulnerable to HO-assisted 254 nm UV or 185 nm vacuum UV, confirming that FFA was sensitive to hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, FFA was degraded to less extent in water dosed with both sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and HO than that dosed with NaOCl only, suggesting that the reaction between NaOCl and HO does not produce O. Given that this IC method can analyze FFA, NaOCl, and HO simultaneously in one run, the evidences presented here may have helped clear a controversy about the O formation possibility by NaOCl and HO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2022.463090DOI Listing
April 2022

Changes of Iodine Nutritional Status in the Elderly after Replacing Iodized Salt with Non-Iodized Salt for Half a Year.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

The Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nan Wei Road, Xuanwu District, Beijing, 100050, China.

China has issued the "Reform Plan of the Salt Industry System" in 2016 and it is necessary to attach the importance to the changes of iodine nutritional status of those people who might consume non-iodized salt for a long time. Forty-six elderly subjects were recruited and replaced iodized salt with non-iodized salt for 6 months. Urine iodine concentration (UIC), dietary iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid B-ultrasound, and plasma iodine were monitored during the follow-up period. The median dietary iodine intakes of the baseline, the 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, and 6th month were 255.3 µg/d, 183.6 µg/d, 164.6 µg/d, 179.2 µg/d, 139.4 µg/d, and 146.9 µg/d, respectively. The median UIC of baseline and follow-up was 155.7 (111.0-263.1) µg/L and 69.7(36.7-119.8) µg/L, respectively. The proportion of urinary iodine less than 50 g/L at the baseline and follow-up was 3.0 (0 ~ 8.9)% and 36.0 (33.1 ~ 38.9)%, respectively. Dietary iodine intake had a significant correlation with urine iodine. Six subjects (15.4%) had abnormal thyroid function. Three subjects (7.7%) had first-onset new nodules or enlarged solid nodules and the median UIC of these three subjects during the follow-up period was 39.8 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that of other subject (74.0 µg/L). T4 and T3 had a significant correlation with plasma iodine. The importance of monitoring and evaluating iodine nutrition of people consuming non-iodized salt should be stressed to prevent the potential poor iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03216-4DOI Listing
May 2022

Overestimated gains in water-use efficiency by global forests.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Increases in terrestrial water-use efficiency (WUE) have been reported in many studies, pointing to potential changes in physiological forcing of global carbon and hydrological cycles. However, gains in WUE are of uncertain magnitude over longer (i.e. >10 years) periods of time largely owing to difficulties in accounting for structural and physiological acclimation. C signatures (i.e. δ C) of plant organic matter have long been used to estimate WUE at temporal scales ranging from days to centuries. Mesophyll conductance is a key uncertainty in estimated WUE owing to its influence on diffusion of CO to sites of carboxylation. Here we apply new knowledge of mesophyll conductance to 464 δ C chronologies in tree-rings of 143 species spanning global biomes. Adjusted for mesophyll conductance, gains in WUE during the 20th century (0.15 ppm year ) were considerably smaller than those estimated from conventional modelling (0.26 ppm year ). Across the globe, mean sensitivity of WUE to atmospheric CO was 0.15 ppm ppm . Ratios of internal-to-atmospheric CO (on a mole fraction basis; c /c ) in leaves were mostly constant over time but differed among biomes and plant taxa-highlighting the significance of both plant structure and physiology. Together with synchronized responses in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, our results suggest that ratios of chloroplastic-to-atmospheric CO (c /c ) are constrained over time. We conclude that forest WUE may have not increased as much as previously suggested and that projections of future climate forcing via CO fertilization may need to be adjusted accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16221DOI Listing
April 2022

[Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of acupuncture combined with moxibustion in treatment of allergic rhinitis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 Apr;47(4):336-42

The Third Clinical College, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan 030024.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with moxibustion on allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Using the random number table, 80 patients with allergic rhinitis were divided into a medication group and an acupuncture combined with moxibustion (acu-mox) group, 40 cases in each one. In the medication group, ioratadine tables were prescribed for oral administration, one tablet daily for 10 days as 1 session , 3 sessions of treatment were required. In the acupuncture combined with moxibustion group, bilateral Yingxiang (LI20), Yintang (EX-HN3), bilateral Hegu (LI4) and bilateral Shenshu (BL23) were selected as the main points and stimulated with acupuncture and moxibustion; and the acupoint prescription was modified according to symptoms. This combined treatment was given once every day, stimulating for 30 min each time, and 10 treatments made 1 course, for 3 courses of treatment totally. Before and after treatment, the scores for symptoms and physical signs, as well as the score of rhino-conjunctivitis related quality of life scale (R-QOL) were evaluated separately. The sample of the inferior turbinate mucosa tissue was collected and the distribution of eosinophil (EOS) was scored using HE staining and Sheldeny evaluation. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the contents of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3), interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-27 and IL-33 were determined. The clinical efficacy was evaluated in the patients with allergic rhinitis of two groups and all the adverse reactions were recorded during treatment.

Results: The scores of symptoms and physical signs as well as the score of R-QOL, and EOS distribution score and the contents of serum IgE, RORγt, IL-17 and IL-33 were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in each group (<0.05), and the contents of serum Foxp3 and IL-27 were increased as compared with those before treatment in each group (<0.05). After treatment, the scores of symptoms and physical signs as well as the score of R-QOL, and the contents of serum IgE, RORγt and IL-33 in the acu-mox group were lower than those in the medication group (<0.05), and the contents of serum Foxp3 and IL-27 were higher than those of the medication group (<0.05). The total effective rate of the acu-mox group was 100.0% (40/40), significantly higher than 82.5% (33/40) in the medication group (<0.05). No ob-vious adverse reaction was found in either group during and after treatment.

Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with moxibustion is significantly effective and safe in treatment of allergic rhinitis. Its effect mechanism may be related to the balance modulation of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells mediated by naive CD4T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.20210315DOI Listing
April 2022

[Analysis of related factors in secondary erythrocytosis of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in Gansu province].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 May;36(5):338-342

Department of Sleep Medicine Center,Gansu Provincial Hospital,Lanzhou,730000,China.

To analyze the related factors of secondary erythrocytosis of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) in Gansu province. Polysomnography recording and analysis from January 2013 to January 2021, A total of 448 OSA patients of long-resident Han nationality in Gansu province. Hemoglobin(Hb) values were divided into group A(Hb 120-160 g/L) 41 cases, B(Hb 161-179 g/L) 142 cases, C(Hb 180-199 g/L) 152 cases, D(Hb 200-219 g/L) 79 cases, and E(Hb ≥220 g/L) 30 cases. General clinical data, altitude of residence, disease course, apnea hypopnea index (AHI), and Lowest oxyhemoglobin(LSpO₂) were compared among these groups. Multivariate regression and ROC curves were used to analyze the influencing factors of OSA secondary erythrocytosis. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and course of disease among groups A, B, C, D, and E (>0.05).The altitude of group E was higher than that of groups A, B, C, and D (<0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups A, B, C and D (>0.05).AHI was significantly different among groups A, B, C, D, and E (<0.05), groups C, D, and E were significantly higher than A; group D was significantly higher than B, C.LSpO₂ was significantly different among groups A, B, C, D, and E (P <0.05), groups B, C, D, and E was significantly lower than A; group D, E was significantly lower than B, C.MSpO₂ was significantly different among groups A, B, C, D, and E (<0.05), groups B, C, D, and E was significantly lower A; groups D, E was significantly lower than B , C.Multivariate regression showed that the higher the altitude, the lower the MSpO₂, the more serious the secondary hyperhemoglobinemia.Age, course of the disease, AHI, and LSpO₂ were not the influencing factors of OSA secondary hemoglobin increase.The areas under the ROC curve for MSpO₂ and altitude to predict Hb≥180 g/L were 0.694(<0.001) and 0.570(=0.009), with statistically significant differences(Z=3.205, =0.001). Altitude and MSpO₂ were independent risk factors for OSA secondary erythrocytosis; MSpO₂ predicted that Hb≥180 g/L in OSA patients was better than altitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2022.05.003DOI Listing
May 2022

The Impact of Peer Education on HIV Testing for Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Mediation Effect of Accompanying Friends for Testing.

Am J Mens Health 2022 Mar-Apr;16(2):15579883221095719

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

This study aims to explore how peer education influences men who have sex with men (MSM) to accompany friends to test and then affects their own testing, and to reveal the internal mechanism of peer education influencing HIV testing. A cross-sectional study among MSM in 11 cities in Shandong province, China was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics, behavior, HIV-related knowledge, HIV testing history, and use of prevention services. Blood samples were tested for HIV status. Logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analyses, and R Mediation package was used for mediating effect analysis. Of 4,005 participants, 66.8% (2,674/4,005) had HIV testing in the last year, 50.6% (2,026/4,004) accompanied a friend for HIV testing, and 65.3% (2,614/4,005) received peer education in the last year. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, MSM who had anal sex with men in the past six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.772, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.438, 2.182]), had used drugs (AOR = 2.762, 95% CI = [2.264, 3.368]), received peer education in the past year (AOR = 2.412, 95% CI = [2.081, 2.796]), and accompanied a friend for testing in the past year (AOR = 3.077, 95% CI = [2.653, 3.569]) were more likely to take HIV testing. Receiving peer education in the past year could influence their own HIV testing in the past year by affecting their accompanying one's friends to take the test in the past year (a*b = 0.889, 95% CI = [0.733, 1.053]). Peer education not only had a direct effect on HIV testing but also had an indirect effect on HIV testing by influencing accompanying friends for testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15579883221095719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9087247PMC
April 2022

preparation of an anatase/rutile-TiO/TiCT hybrid electrode for durable sodium ion batteries.

RSC Adv 2022 Apr 22;12(19):12219-12225. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Ningxia University Yinchuan Ningxia 750021 P. R. China

Herein, a facile one-step method is developed to prepare crystalline anatase and rutile TiO nanocrystals on TiCT by regulating the metastable Ti ions. The combination of TiO nanocrystals and TiCT not only introduces extensive accessible sites for Na storage, but also promotes the charge transport by efficiently relieving the collapse of TiCT . Compared with pristine TiCT , the optimized TiO/TiCT hybrid electrode (anatase/rutile-TiO/TiCT , A/R-TiO/TiCT ) exhibits a desirable specific surface area (22.5 m g), an ultralow charge transfer resistance (42.46 Ω) and excellent ion diffusion (4.01 × 10). Remarkably, rich oxygen vacancies are produced on TiO/TiCT which is beneficial to enhance the insertion/de-insertion of Na during the charge/discharge process. As a result, the A/R-TiO/TiCT delivers a high average capacity of 205.4 mA h g at 100 mA g and a desirable capacitance retention rate of 84.7% can be achieved after 600 cycles at 500 mA g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01589gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9026145PMC
April 2022

Methylsulfonylmethane protects against lethal dose MRSA-induced sepsis through promoting M2 macrophage polarization.

Mol Immunol 2022 Jun 20;146:69-77. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Wound Infection and Drug, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing 400042, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections, which have become a global threat, lack effective treatments. The discoveries of non-antibiotics with different modes of antibacterial action, such as methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), are a promising new treatment for multi-drug-resistant pathogens.

Methods: We constructed a mouse peritonitis infection model to evaluate the effects of MSM against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The time-kill kinetics of MSM against MRSA and the effect of MSM on the integrity of bacterial cell membrane were measured. Viability effects of MSM on THP1 cells were performed by CCK-8 cytotoxicity assay. Systematic inflammatory factor levels of mice were detected using ELISA. The immune response of peritoneal macrophages during MRSA-infection was evaluated using RNA sequencing. Gene Ontology function, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses, and correlation analyses were applied to analysis RNA sequencing data. RT-qPCR, western blotting and flow cytometry were performed to analysis the gene and protein expression levels of macrophages.

Results: In in vitro experiments, MSM did not show significant killing effects on the growth of MRSA directly and did not destroy bacterial membrane integrity. MSM also displayed no significant effects on the proliferative capacity of THP1 cells. However, MSM treatment protected mice against a lethal dose MRSA-infection and decreased systemic inflammation. MSM upregulated metabolic pathway in peritoneal macrophages, especial glycolysis, during MRSA infection. MSM increased the expression of M2 markers (such as Arg1), promoted phosphorylation of STAT3 (which regulates M2 polarization), and decreased the expression of M1 markers in peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, MSM treatment increased the expression of H3K18 lactylation specific target genes, including Arg1. GNE-140, the LDHA-specific inhibitor of glycolysis, blocked the MSM-induced Arg1 expression in this disease model.

Conclusions: MSM protects against MRSA infection through immunomodulation. MSM promotes the expression of Arg1 by lactate-H3K18la pathway to control macrophage to M2 polarization; it firstly provides therapeutic potential for drug-resistant infections and sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2022.04.001DOI Listing
June 2022

A dual crosslinked hydrogel-mediated integrated peptides and BMSC therapy for myocardial regeneration.

J Control Release 2022 May 7;347:127-142. Epub 2022 May 7.

Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study & School of Pharmaceutical Science, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, 28 W Changsheng Road, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

The efficacy of myocardial regeneration strategies for myocardial infarction (MI) is significantly compromised by the complex structure and microenvironment of the myocardium. Although tissue engineering strategies based on cell therapy and/or pro-angiogenesis can somewhat improve cardiac function, the lack of proper myocardial materials that can withstand sustained deformability and adaptable mechanical properties severely affects myocardial wall integrity, systolic-diastolic cycles, and regeneration. Herein, we developed an integrated single "all-in-one" in situ dual crosslinking conductive hydrogel with favorable treatment properties termed as MaHA/B-G-SH/Fe by ionic interactions and chemical covalency based on modified hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin (G), and Fe. The resulting dual crosslinking dynamic hydrogel not only provides self-healing and mechanical properties adapted to the myocardial systolic-diastolic cycle with simultaneous electrical signal transmission to fibrous islands and normal tissue, but also leads to significant increase of the myocardial wall thickness very close to that of normal myocardium upon one single injection with complete degradation within 28 days. Notably, the hydrogel covalently conjugated with a tailored peptide sequence of GGR-KLT and encapsulated with bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was further used for in situ injection in a rat MI model, which exhibited (i) efficient inhibition of excessive matrix degradation dependent on early MMP-2 expression, (ii) triggered on-demand release of KLT for at least 14 days and significant promotion of angiogenesis, and (iii) synergistic BMSCs considerably enhanced myocardial regeneration within 28 days. Taken together, the dual crosslinking conductive hydrogel-mediated synergistic peptide and cell therapy provides comprehensive recovery and regeneration of the structure and function of the injured myocardium, thus demonstrating great potential for clinical translations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.04.010DOI Listing
May 2022

CircRNA and miRNA expression profiles during remote ischemic postconditioning attenuate brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Brain Res Bull 2022 Apr 20;185:39-48. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Institute of Neuroscience, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a protective procedure for brain damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (IR), yet the mechanism of this treatment remains to be elucidated. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that have recently been recognized to play vital roles in ischemic brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore the role of circRNAs in the protective mechanism of RIPostC and to analyze the circRNA-microRNA (miRNA) regulation network in RIPostC. Nine rats were assigned randomly into three groups (three rats per group): sham, IR, and RIPostC. Their brain tissues were extracted for next-generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis was performed for two comparisons: sham vs. IR and IR vs. RIPostC. The expression patterns of selected circRNAs and miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We detected 82 upregulated and 51 downregulated circRNAs and 137 upregulated and 127 downregulated miRNAs in the IR group compared with the sham group, and 41 upregulated and 100 downregulated circRNAs and 45 upregulated and 64 downregulated miRNAs in the RIPostC group compared with the IR group. The proposed competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, which included 24 circRNAs, 20 miRNAs, and 145 mRNAs, indicated that the dysregulated circRNAs played important roles in brain IR injury. On the basis of the expression patterns of selected circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs obtained by qPCR, we proposed a circRNA_0002286-miR-124-3p-VLCAD pathway. In PC12 cell, the expression level of miR-124-3p was significantly upregulated when the expression of circRNA_0002286 was repressed and the expression level of VLCAD (very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was significantly downregulated, which suggested that circRNA_0002286 may act as a miRNA sponge for miR-124-3p to regulate the expression of VLCAD. We found that upregulation of circRNA_0002286 attenuated IR injury and was associated with downregulation of miR-124-3p and upregulation of VLCAD. This is the first time that circRNAs have been shown to be closely related to brain IR injury and RIPostC and suggests that targeting the circRNA_0002286-miR-124-3p-VLCAD pathway might attenuate brain IR injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2022.04.006DOI Listing
April 2022

Effects of dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate on the haematology parameters, secondary sexual characteristics and testicular gene expression in roosters.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China.

A total of 288 11-week-age roosters were used to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on reproductive traits and testicular gene expression. The experimental periods were 12 weeks. All birds were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 12 birds per replicate. Dietary conditions were based on a basal diet and supplemented with 0%, 0.08%, 0.12%, or 0.16% NCG to form C, N1, N2 and N3 groups respectively. Dietary supplementation of NCG had positive effects on the seminiferous tubule parameters, serum gonadotropin-releasing hormone and testosterone levels and the secondary sexual characteristics. Transcriptomics analysis was performed on the testicular tissues between C and N3 groups at the 16-week-age. Genes were mainly enriched in nine pathways, such as cytochrome P450 exogenous metabolism, drug metabolism, steroid hormone synthesis and glutathione metabolism, in which the ZP4 gene, cytochrome P450 family member 11A1 and other genes involved in the maintenance of gonadal function, steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, and so forth, exist differences in expression levels. In summary, dietary supplementation of NCG had positive effects on the reproductive traits of roosters. NCG supplementation improved the development of reproductive traits of roosters by regulating the genes expression in testicular tissues and thus improved the synthesis of reproductive hormones in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13714DOI Listing
April 2022

Asymmetric Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydroalkylation of Racemic Allylic Alcohols for the Synthesis of Chiral Amino Acid Derivatives.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Apr 12:e202203244. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China.

The asymmetric hydroalkylation of racemic allylic alcohols has been developed for the synthesis of chiral amino acid derivatives with two remote chiral centers by borrowing hydrogen catalysis. The stereoselectivities are controlled by a single chiral Ru catalyst via a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation process and an interesting diastereoselectivity amplification process of the product. The method could be used for the synthesis of several types of biologically important molecules, including stereodivergent synthesis of chiral pyrrolidine derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202203244DOI Listing
April 2022

Ecology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2012-2020: A machine learning modelling analysis.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

The ongoing enzootic circulation of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and North Africa is increasingly raising the concern about the possibility of its recombination with other human-adapted coronaviruses, particularly the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We aim to provide an updated picture about ecological niches of MERS-CoV and associated socio-environmental drivers. Based on 356 confirmed MERS cases with animal contact reported to the WHO and 63 records of animal infections collected from the literature as of 30 May 2020, we assessed ecological niches of MERS-CoV using an ensemble model integrating three machine learning algorithms. With a high predictive accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 91.66% in test data), the ensemble model estimated that ecologically suitable areas span over the Middle East, South Asia and the whole North Africa, much wider than the range of reported locally infected MERS cases and test-positive animal samples. Ecological suitability for MERS-CoV was significantly associated with high levels of bareland coverage (relative contribution = 30.06%), population density (7.28%), average temperature (6.48%) and camel density (6.20%). Future surveillance and intervention programs should target the high-risk populations and regions informed by updated quantitative analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14548DOI Listing
April 2022

The Importance of Nonequilibrium to Equilibrium Transition Pathways for the Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells.

Small 2022 Apr 28;18(17):e2200608. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, P. R. China.

Controlled morphology of solution-processed thin films have realized impressive achievements for non-fullerene acceptor (NFA)-based organic solar cells (OSCs). Given the large set of donor-acceptor pairs, employing various processing conditions to realize optimal morphology for high efficiency and stable OSCs is a strenuous task. Therefore, comprehensive correlations between processing conditions and morphology evolution pathways have to be developed for efficient performance and stability of devices. Within the framework of the blend system, crystallization transitions of NFA molecules are tracked utilizing the first heating scan of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurement correlating with respective morphology evolution of blend films. Real-time dynamics measurements and morphology characterizations are combined to provide optimal morphology transition pathways as NFA molecules are shown to be released from the mixed-phase to form balanced ordered packing with variant processing conditions. Polymer:NFA films are fabricated using blade coating incorporating solvent additive or thermal annealing as processing conditions as a correlation is formulated between performance and stability of solar cells with morphology transition pathways. This work demonstrates the significance of processing condition-controlled transition pathways for the realization of optimal morphology leading to superior OSC devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202200608DOI Listing
April 2022

The Effect of Acupuncture Combined with Aerobic Exercise for Coronary Heart Disease as Cardiac Rehabilitation.

J Healthc Eng 2022 15;2022:4903265. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Punan Hospital of Pudong New District, Shanghai 200125, China.

Background: The mortality of coronary heart disease continues to rise. Cardiac rehabilitation intervenes the risk factors of cardiovascular disease, improves cardiopulmonary function, maintains healthy psychology, improves the quality of life of patients, and reduces cardiovascular mortality.

Objective: To explore the effect of acupuncture combined with aerobic exercise on cardiopulmonary exercise ability, blood lipid, fatty acid oxidation, and psychology in patients with coronary heart disease.

Methods: Sixty patients with coronary heart disease from February 2018 to October 2020 were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and experimental group. The control group was given an exercise prescription, and the experimental group was given acupuncture combined with an exercise prescription. Before and after the intervention, the cardiopulmonary exercise test, blood lipid, carnitine acyltransferase (CACT), the Self-Rating Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) of the two groups were compared.

Results: The PHQ-9 score was better in the experimental group than in the control group. In both groups, after the intervention, the peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were increased, and blood lipid and PHQ-9 scores were decreased. In the experimental group, the carbon dioxide metabolic equivalent was decreased, CACT was increased, and SSS and GAD-7 scores were decreased, with statistical difference ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with aerobic exercise can improve the cardiopulmonary exercise ability, increase fatty acid oxidation, decrease blood lipid, and ameliorate anxiety and depression symptoms of patients with coronary heart disease as cardiac rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4903265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8941558PMC
May 2022

Underestimation of travel-associated risks by adult and paediatric travellers compared to expert assessment: A cross-sectional study at a hospital-based family pre-travel clinic.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2022 May-Jun;47:102315. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada; Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Cir, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada; Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College St Room 500, Toronto, ON, M5T 3M7, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Travellers' perception of their risk for acquiring travel-related conditions is an important contributor to decisions and behaviors during travel. In this study, we aimed to assess the differences between traveller-perceived and expert-assessed risk of travel-related conditions in children and adults travelling internationally and describe factors that influence travellers' perception of risk.

Methods: Children and adults were recruited at the Hospital for Sick Children's Family Travel Clinic between October 2014 and July 2015. A questionnaire was administered to participants to assess their perceived risk of acquiring 32 travel-related conditions using a 7-point Likert scale. Conditions were categorized as vector-borne diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases, food and water borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections and other conditions. Two certified travel medicine experts reviewed each patient's chart and assigned a risk score based on the same 7-point Likert scale. Traveller and expert risk scores were compared using paired t-tests.

Results: In total, 207 participants were enrolled to participate in this study, 97 children (self-reported, n = 8; parent-reported, n = 89), and 110 adults. Travel-related risk for adults and parents answering for their children were significantly underestimated when compared to expert-assessed risk for 26 of the 32 assessed conditions. The underestimated conditions were the same for both adults and parents answering for children. Travel-related risk was not over-estimated for any condition.

Conclusions: Adults underestimated their children's and their own risk for most travel-related conditions. Strategies to improve the accuracy of risk perception of travel-related conditions by travellers are needed to optimize healthy travel for children and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102315DOI Listing
May 2022

Sunflower WRINKLED1 Plays a Key Role in Transcriptional Regulation of Oil Biosynthesis.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 11;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 11.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551, Singapore.

Sunflower () is one of the most important oilseed crops worldwide. However, the transcriptional regulation underlying oil accumulation in sunflower is not fully understood. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is an essential transcription factor governing oil accumulation in plant cells. Here, we identify and characterize a sunflower ortholog of (), which is highly expressed in developing seeds. Transient production of HaWRI1 stimulated substantial oil accumulation in leaves. Dual-luciferase reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, fatty acid quantification, and gene expression analysis demonstrate that HaWRI1 acts as a pivotal transcription factor controlling the expression of genes involved in late glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis. HaWRI1 directly binds to the -element, AW-box, in the promoter of (). In addition, we characterize an 80 amino-acid C-terminal domain of HaWRI1 that is crucial for transactivation. Moreover, seed-specific overexpression of in Arabidopsis plants leads to enhanced seed oil content as well as upregulation of the genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Taken together, our work demonstrates that HaWRI1 plays a pivotal role in the transcriptional control of seed oil accumulation, providing a potential target for bioengineering sunflower oil yield improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8951541PMC
March 2022

Neural Stem Cell-Derived Exosomal Netrin1 Contributes to Neuron Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Therapy of Spinal Bifida Aperta.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Key laboratory of Health Ministry for Congenital Malformation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Spinal bifida aperta (SBA) is a congenital malformation with a high incidence. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has the potential to repair the structure of damaged tissues and restore their functions. This is an optional treatment that can be used as a supplement to surgery in the treatment of SBA. However, the application of BMSCs is limited, as the neuronal differentiation rate of BMSCs is not satisfactory when used in treating severe SBA. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of neural stem cell (NSC)-derived exosomes on BMSC neuronal differentiation and observe the therapeutic effect in an ex vivo rat SBA embryo model. We found that NSC-derived exosomes increased the neuronal differentiation rate of BMSCs in vitro and in the SBA embryo model ex vivo. Proteomic analysis showed that NSC-derived exosomes were enriched in Netrin1, which positively regulated neuronal differentiation. Netrin1 increased the neuronal differentiation rate of BMSCs and NSCs and upregulated the expression of the neuronal markers, microtubule-associated protein (Map2), neurofilament, and β3-tubulin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Netrin1 treatment increased the expression of the transcription factors Hand2 and Phox2b, related to neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, the Netrin1-induced NSC neuronal differentiation was significantly blocked by Phox2b knockdown. We suggest that NSC-derived exosomal Netrin1 induces neuronal differentiation via the Hand2/Phox2b axis by upregulating the expression of Hand2 and Phox2b. Therefore, NSC-derived exosomes are a critical inducer of BMSC neuronal differentiation and represent a potential treatment agent that can benefit BMSC treatment in SBA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/stcltm/szac009DOI Listing
March 2022
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