Publications by authors named "Wei Lu"

2,822 Publications

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Seven tumor-associated autoantibodies as a serum biomarker for primary screening of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Sep 23:e24020. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Medical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Hangzhou, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of tumor-associated autoantibodies (TAAbs) in lung diseases and determine their diagnostic efficiency in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the levels of 7-TAAbs in 177 newly diagnosed early-stage NSCLC patients, 202 patients with lung benign diseases and 137 healthy cases. The levels of a panel of 7-TAAbs, including p53, GAGE7, PGP9.5, CAGE, MAGE A1, SOX2, GBU4-5, were measured by ELISA.

Results: The serum levels of p53, GAGE7, PGP9.5, CAGE, MAGE A1, SOX2, and GBU4-5 were not statistically different among NSCLC, benign and healthy groups (p > 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of 7-TAAbs was all lower than 0.70. The sensitivity of combined detection was the highest (23.73%), while the specificity was the lowest (88.79%). The positive rates of PGP9.5, SOX2, and combined detection were significantly different among the three groups (p < 0.05). Among them, PGP9.5 and combined detection were significantly different between the NSCLC and benign groups (p < 0.05), PGP9.5, SOX2 and combined detection were significantly different between the NSCLC and healthy groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The diagnostic efficiency of 7-TAAbs in early-stage NSCLC was not high, so it cannot be used alone as a screening method for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24020DOI Listing
September 2021

A camptothecin-based, albumin-binding prodrug enhances efficacy and safety in vivo.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Sep 16;226:113851. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062, PR China. Electronic address:

The albumin-based drug delivery system is an effective drug delivery strategy for traditional chemotherapeutic drugs that can improve their antitumour efficacies and reduce systemic toxicities. The camptothecin derivative CPTS0001 has excellent antitumour activity in vitro, but it shows toxicity and side effects in vivo. In this study, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of the β-glucuronidase-reactive albumin-binding prodrug Mal-glu-CPTS0001 based on quaternary ammonium. After intravenous administration, the compound covalently binds to plasma albumin through Michael addition, enabling it to accumulate in tumours, where tumour-associated β-glucuronidase triggers the selective release of CPTS0001. This prodrug significantly reduced the toxicity of the parent drug, and the maximum tolerated dose was increased by 2.5 times. At the same time, this prodrug enhanced the selectivity in vivo and improved the preferential accumulation of prodrug in tumours. Notably, this prodrug exhibited excellent in vivo antitumour effects in a murine breast cancer xenograft model without visible pathological toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113851DOI Listing
September 2021

Diphosphino-Functionalized 1,8-Naphthyridines: a Multifaceted Ligand Platform for Boranes and Diboranes.

Chemistry 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, Department of Chemistry, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, GERMANY.

A 1,8-naphthyridine diphosphine (NDP) reacts with boroncontaining Lewis acids to generate complexes featuring a number of different naphthyridine bonding modes. When exposed to diborane B 2 Br 4 , NDP underwent self-deprotonation to afford [NDP-B 2 Br 3 ]Br, an unsymmetrical diborane comprised of four fused rings. The reaction of two equivalents of monoborane BBr 3 and NDP in a non-polar solvent provided the simple phosphine-borane adduct NDP(BBr 3 ) 2 , which then underwent intramolecular halide abstraction to furnish the salt [NDP-BBr 2 ][BBr 4 ], featuring a different coordination mode from that of [NDP-B 2 Br 3 ]Br. Direct deprotonation of NDP by KHMDS or PhCH 2 K generates mono- and dipotassium reagents, respectively. The monopotassium reagent reacts with one or half an equivalent of B 2 (NMe 2 ) 2 Cl 2 to afford NDP-based diboranes with three or four amino substituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202102721DOI Listing
September 2021

The Efficacy and Postoperative Follow-Up of Different Interventional Methods in Cesarean Section for Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorders.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Sep 21;27:e932674. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and postoperative recovery between uterine artery embolization (UAE) and infrarenal aortic balloon occlusion (IABO) in planned cesarean sections for placenta accreta spectrum disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis using the clinical data of 62 patients with placenta previa combined with placenta accreta for planned cesarean between January 2014 and December 2019 was performed at the First People's Hospital in Lianyungang. Thirty-five cases undergoing UAE during cesarean section were defined as group A, while the other 27 cases undergoing IABO were defined as group B. Intraoperative and postoperative parameters including intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion volume, radiation duration, radiation dose, hysterectomy rate, operation duration, Intensive Care Unit hospitalization, complications, and neonatal outcomes as well as the maternal recovery during follow-up were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion volume, radiation time, radiation dose, hysterectomy rate, duration of surgery, Intensive Care Unit admission, and complications were higher in group A than group B, with differences being statistically significant (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in birth weight, 1-min Apgar score, neonatal asphyxia rate, admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, breastfeeding time, duration of postpartum lochia, and data related to menstruation between the 2 groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS IABO, which was more effective than UAE in cesarean section of patients with placenta accreta spectrum, could be further applied in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.932674DOI Listing
September 2021

Eye-preserving therapies for advanced retinoblastoma: a multicenter cohort of 1678 patients in China.

Ophthalmology 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Eye Hospital and Key laboratory of ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University.

Purpose: Multiple eye-preserving treatments have been widely used in China for the last 15 years, however, controversy remains on using eye-preserving therapies for advanced retinoblastoma (The International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification: groups D and E). This study attempts to estimate the impact of eye-preserving therapies for the long-term prognosis of advanced retinoblastoma with regard to overall survival and ocular salvage.

Design: A retrospective cohort study covering all 31 provinces (38 retinoblastoma treating centers) of Chinese mainland.

Participants: A total of 1678 patients diagnosed with groups D or E retinoblastoma from January 2006 to May 2016.

Methods: Medical charts review was performed. The patients were divided into primary enucleation and eye-preserving groups, and they were followed up for survival status. The impact of initial treatment on survival was evaluated by Cox analyses.

Main Outcome Measures: Overall survival and final eye-preservation rate.

Results: After a median follow-up period of 43.9 months, 196 (12%) patients died, and the 5-year overall survival was 86%. In total, the eyeball preservation rate was 48%. In this cohort, 1172 (70%) patients had unilateral retinoblastoma, whereas 506 (30%) were bilateral. For unilateral patients, 570 (49%) eyes had primary enucleation, and 602 (51%) patients had eye-preserving therapies initially. During the follow-up (median: 45.6 months), 59 (10%) patients from primary enucleation group and 56 (9.3%) patients from eye-preserving group died. Multivariate Cox analyses indicated no significant difference in overall survival between the two groups (HR=1.25; 95%CI:0.85-1.84; p=0.250). For bilateral patients, only 95 (19%) eyes had primary enucleation, and 411 (81%) patients had eye-preserving therapies initially. During the follow-up (median: 40.1 months), 12 (13%) patients from primary enucleation group and 69 (17%) patients from eye-preserving group died. For bilateral retinoblastoma with the worse eye of group E, patients had primary enucleation exhibited better overall survival (HR=2.35; 95%CI:1.10-5.01; p=0.027), however, this survival advantage was not evident until passing 22.6 months after initial diagnosis.

Conclusion: Eye-preserving therapies have been widely used for advanced retinoblastoma in China. Bilateral patients with the worse eye of group E initially underwent eye-preserving therapies exhibited a worse overall survival. The choice of primary treatment for advanced retinoblastoma should be carefully weighed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.09.002DOI Listing
September 2021

Predictive performance of eLIFT for liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic liver diseases.

Int J Med Sci 2021 27;18(15):3599-3608. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Hepatobiliary Medicine, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

The easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT) is a novel predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the eLIFT for liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD patients. We enrolled 1125 patients with CLD who underwent liver biopsy. The predictive accuracy for liver inflammation and fibrosis of the eLIFT was assessed and compared to that of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA). The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) of the eLIFT for assessing liver inflammation G ≥ 2 and G ≥ 3 were 0.77 (0.75-0.80) and 0.81 (0.79-0.84), with cut-offs of 8.0 and 11.0, respectively. The AUROCs of the eLIFT for predicting fibrosis stages S ≥ 2 and S4 were 0.72 (0.70-0.76) and 0.76 (0.72-0.80), with cut-offs of 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. In discriminating G≥2 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was better than that of the FIB-4, with no difference compared with the GPR, but lower than that of the APRI. When discriminating G≥3 inflammation, the AUROC of the eLIFT was comparable to that of the APRI and GPR but superior to that of the FIB-4. There were no significant differences between the four indexes for predicting S≥2 and S4. The eLIFT is a potentially useful noninvasive predictor of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with CLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.62386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436088PMC
August 2021

Metagenomics reveals contrasting energy utilization efficiencies of captive and wild camels (Camelus ferus).

Integr Zool 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Captive conditions can affect the symbiotic microbiome of animals. In this study, we compared the structural and functional differences of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) between wild and captive populations, as well as their different host energy utilization performances through metagenomics. The results showed that wild-living camels harbored more microbial taxa related to the production of volatile fatty acids, fewer methanogens, and fewer genes encoding enzymes involved in methanogenesis, leading to higher energy utilization efficiency compared to that of captive-living camels. These findings suggest that the wild-living camel fecal microbiome demonstrates a series of adaptive characteristics that enable the host to adjust to a relatively barren field environment. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of wildlife adaptations to habitats from the perspective of the microbiome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12585DOI Listing
September 2021

Versatile TiCT MXene for free-radical scavenging.

Nano Res 2021 Sep 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Flexible Printed Electronics Technology Center and School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, 518055 China.

MXene, as an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material with ultrathin structure and fascinating physiochemical properties, has been widely explored in broad applications. Versatile functions of MXenes are continuously explored. This work presents distinctive feature of MXene-TiCT nanosheets for free-radical (FRs) scavenging that never reported before. We demonstrated the mechanism and equation in regard to the reaction between TiCT and HO, which was applied to design colorimetric HO strip assay with good performance. The good FRs scavenging capability of TiCT , including a series of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), was systemically confirmed. The antioxidation capability of TiCT for protecting cells from oxidative damage was demonstrated using the oxidative damage model of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells. This original work provides huge opportunities for MXenes in FR-related biomedical applications.

Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (further details of the experimental procedures, investigation of the reaction between TiCT and other oxidants, the characterization of endocytosis of cells for TiCT , and the comparison of different antioxidants for scavenging free radicals) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-021-3751-y.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3751-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427154PMC
September 2021

The Mechanistic Effects and Clinical Applications of Various Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Immune Thrombocytopenia.

Acta Haematol 2021 Aug 10:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by persistent thrombocytopenia resulting from increased platelet destruction and a loss of autoimmune tolerance. The pathogenesis of ITP is highly complex. Although ITP may be effectively controlled with currently available medications in some patients, a subset of cases remain refractory. The application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has increasingly demonstrated that MSCs modulate innate or adaptive immunity, thus resulting in a tolerant microenvironment. Functional defects and immunomodulatory disorders have been observed after the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from patients with ITP. Here, we summarize the underlying mechanisms and clinical applications of various derived MSCs for ITP treatment, focusing on the main mechanisms underlying the functional defects and immune dysfunction of BM-MSCs from patients with ITP. Functional effects associated with the activation of the p53 pathway include decreased activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway and activation of the TNFAIP3/NF-κB/SMAD7 pathway. Immune dysfunction appears to be associated with an impaired ability of BM-MSCs to induce various types of immune cells in ITP. At present, research focusing on MSCs in ITP remains in preliminary stages. The application of autologous or exogenous MSCs in the clinical treatment of ITP has been attempted in only a small case study and must be validated in larger-scale clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517989DOI Listing
August 2021

Environmental inequity in hilly neighborhood using multi-source data from a health promotion view.

Authors:
Peijin Sun Wei Lu

Environ Res 2021 Sep 15;204(Pt A):111983. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Section of Environment Design, School of Architecture and Fine Art, Dalian University of Technology, China.

The study focused on the justice of residents' opportunity to engage in healthy behavior under different environments is not vast, especially in a hilly dwelling environment. Therefore, this paper investigates environmental inequalities in a hilly urban environment in the context of the booming real estate market in China, comprised of health promotion-related elements, namely, built environment, physical activity facilities, street infrastructure, green spaces, and environmental perceptions. The multi-source data are used to calculate environmental attributes and the socioeconomic status of communities. We take the central districts of Dalian city as the research area and measure environmental equity across different socioeconomic residential areas using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The results reveal the spatial disparities in physical activity facilities, street greening, and positive perceptions between different communities. However, green injustice is mitigated in the hilly neighborhoods when we consider only ground-level greenness. This paper studies environmental justice by taking a health-enhancing view, and the results of this study can provide guidance on hilly urban development for government leaders and planners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111983DOI Listing
September 2021

Coarse-Grained Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ca-Calmodulin.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 24;8:661322. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-binding protein that transduces signals to downstream proteins through target binding upon calcium binding in a time-dependent manner. Understanding the target binding process that tunes CaM's affinity for the calcium ions (Ca), or vice versa, may provide insight into how Ca-CaM selects its target binding proteins. However, modeling of Ca-CaM in molecular simulations is challenging because of the gross structural changes in its central linker regions while the two lobes are relatively rigid due to tight binding of the Ca to the calcium-binding loops where the loop forms a pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry with Ca. This feature that underlies the reciprocal relation between Ca binding and target binding of CaM, however, has yet to be considered in the structural modeling. Here, we presented a coarse-grained model based on the Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure, and Energy Model (AWSEM) protein force field, to investigate the salient features of CaM. Particularly, we optimized the force field of CaM and that of Ca ions by using its coordination chemistry in the calcium-binding loops to match with experimental observations. We presented a "community model" of CaM that is capable of sampling various conformations of CaM, incorporating various calcium-binding states, and carrying the memory of binding with various targets, which sets the foundation of the reciprocal relation of target binding and Ca binding in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.661322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421859PMC
August 2021

Remodeling of Macrophages in White Adipose Tissue under the Conditions of Obesity as well as Lipolysis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 30;2021:9980877. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, 350 Longzihu Road, Xinzhan District, Hefei 230012, China.

Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are a major source of low-grade inflammation in obesity, and yet reasons driving ATM accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) are not fully understood. Emerging evidence suggested that ATM underwent extensive remodeling in obesity. In addition to abundance, ATM in obesity were lipid-laden and metabolically reprogrammed, which in turn was tightly related to their functional alterations and persistence in obesity. Herein, we aimed to discuss that activation of lipid sensing signaling associated with metabolic reprogramming in ATM was indispensible for their migration, retention, or proliferation in obesity. Likewise, lipolysis also induced similar but transient ATM remodeling. Therefore, we assumed that obesity might share overlapping mechanisms with lipolysis in remodeling ATM. Formation of crown-like structures (CLS) in WAT was presumably a common event initiating ATM remodeling, with a spectrum of lipid metabolites released from adipocytes being potential signaling molecules. Moreover, adipose interlerkin-6 (IL-6) exhibited homologous alterations by obesity and lipolysis. Thus, we postulated a positive feedback loop between ATM and adipocytes via IL-6 signaling backing ATM persistence by comparison of ATM remodeling under obesity and lipolysis. An elucidation of ATM persistence could help to provide novel therapeutic targets for obesity-associated inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9980877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423577PMC
August 2021

Decreased Serum NCAM Levels Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Dementia.

Dis Markers 2021 31;2021:2792884. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Third Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250000, China.

Objective: Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a glycoprotein widely distributed in the brain, has recently been shown to regulate neuroplasticity. However, the role of NCAM in vascular dementia (VaD) is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether NCAM is involved in the course of VaD.

Methods: Continuous recruitment of VaD patients and control population to join this study. Doctors or nurses are responsible for collecting their clinical characteristics including age, gender, formal education, heart rate, supine systolic blood pressure, supine diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Each participant received the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale after being enrolled in the group. At the same time, their peripheral blood was collected, and their serum NCAM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: 98 VaD patients and 83 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. There was no significant statistical difference between the VaD group and the control group in terms of the comparison of clinical characteristics ( > 0.05). The MoCA score of VaD patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (27.9 ± 1.4 vs. 23.0 ± 2.1 points, < 0.001). In addition, the circulating NCAM level of VaD patients was also significantly lower than that of controls (21.7 ± 3.8 vs. 17.6 ± 4.2 ng/mL, < 0.001). The circulating NCAM level of VaD patients was significantly positively correlated with MoCA score ( = 0.285, = 0.026). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, circulating NCAM levels are still an independent pathogenic factor of VaD (regression coefficient = 0.223, = 0.034).

Conclusions: VaD patients have low circulating NCAM levels, which can be used as a potential predictor of VaD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2792884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423537PMC
August 2021

Geochemical Anomaly Characteristics of Cd in Soils around Abandoned Lime Mines: Evidence from Multiple Technical Methods.

Molecules 2021 Aug 24;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Crust Mande Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Lime mines are a potential source of pollution, and the surrounding soil environment is generally at threat, especially in abandoned lime mines. This paper focuses on the study area in eastern Anhui, attempting to analyze whether Cd enrichment is related to abandoned mines. On the basis of geological investigation, this study systematically used XRD, XRF, GTS and universal Kriging interpolation to determine the distribution law of Cd in the study area, and evaluated the potential ecological risk of Cd. The results showed that the main mineral types of soil samples of red clastic rock soil parent material (RdcPm) and soil samples of carbonate soil parent material (CPm) were not completely the same. Correlation analysis showed that CaO, MgO and Cd were positively correlated with the CPm. Human activities led to the accumulation of Cd in the study area. High Cd was mainly concentrated in the northwest of the study area, which was correlated with abandoned mines and soil parent materials. The study area was dominated by slight potential risks, although some areas had medium potential risks and high potential risks. All potential high risks were in the CPm field. This study provides a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization and development planning of soil in the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434320PMC
August 2021

Circ-UQCRC2 aggravates lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in human bronchial epithelioid cells via targeting miR-495-3p/MYD88-mediated inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

Autoimmunity 2021 Sep 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pediatrics, The First College of Clinical Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang City, Hubei Province, China.

Infantile pneumonia is a common inflammatory disease with the infections of various pathogens in lower respiratory tracts. Here, the role and working mechanism of circular RNA (circRNA) ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 (circ-UQCRC2; hsa_circ_0038467) in infantile pneumonia were investigated. Cell viability, apoptosis, and inflammatory response were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot assay were performed to determine the expression of RNAs and proteins. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay were performed to confirm the interaction between microRNA-495-3p (miR-495-3p) and circ-UQCRC2 or myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment suppressed the viability while induced the apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress of 16HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. LPS exposure dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of circ-UQCRC2 in 16HBE cells. Circ-UQCRC2 absence attenuated LPS-induced injury in 16HBE cells. miR-495-3p was a target of circ-UQCRC2, and circ-UQCRC2 silencing-mediated protective effects in LPS-induced 16HBE cells were partly reversed by anti-miR-495-3p. MYD88 was a target of miR-495-3p, and MYD88 overexpression partly counteracted miR-495-3p accumulation-mediated influences in 16HBE cells upon LPS exposure. Circ-UQCRC2 interference decreased the protein expression of MYD88 partly by up-regulating miR-495-3p in LPS-induced 16HBE cells. In conclusion, circ-UQCRC2 contributed to LPS-induced injury of 16HBE cells by targeting miR-495-3p/MYD88 signalling-mediated inflammatory response and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08916934.2021.1975273DOI Listing
September 2021

NMDAR-dependent somatic potentiation of synaptic inputs is correlated with β amyloid-mediated neuronal hyperactivity.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 09 8;10(1):34. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

MOE Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, School of Life Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

Background: β Amyloid (Aβ)-mediated neuronal hyperactivity, a key feature of the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is recently proposed to be initiated by the suppression of glutamate reuptake. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism by which the impaired glutamate reuptake causes neuronal hyperactivity remains unclear. Chronic suppression of the glutamate reuptake causes accumulation of ambient glutamate that could diffuse from synaptic sites at the dendrites to the soma to elevate the tonic activation of somatic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). However, less attention has been paid to the potential role of tonic activity change in extrasynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs) located at the neuronal soma on generation of neuronal hyperactivity.

Methods: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices exposed to TFB-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or human Aβ peptide oligomer. A series of dendritic patch-clamp recordings were made at different distances from the soma to identify the location of the changes in synaptic inputs. Moreover, single-channel recording in the cell-attached mode was performed to investigate the activity changes of single NMDARs at the soma.

Results: Blocking glutamate uptake with either TBOA or the human Aβ peptide oligomer elicited potentiation of synaptic inputs in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Strikingly, this potentiation  specifically occurred at the soma, depending on the activation of somatic GluN2B-containing NMDARs (GluN2B-NMDARs) and accompanied by a substantial and persistent increment in the open probability of somatic NMDARs. Blocking the activity of GluN2B-NMDARs at the soma completely reversed both the TBOA-induced or the Aβ-induced somatic potentiation and neuronal hyperactivity.

Conclusions: The somatic potentiation of synaptic inputs may represent a novel amplification mechanism that elevates cell excitability and thus contributes to neuronal hyperactivity initiated by impaired glutamate reuptake in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-021-00260-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424869PMC
September 2021

Support promotion effect on the SO and K co-poisoning resistance of MnO/TiO for NH-SCR of NO.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 24;416:126117. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Center of Excellence for Environmental Safety and Biological Effects, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China. Electronic address:

Mn-based catalysts are expected to be applied for removing NO due to its excellent low-temperature activity. However, the practical use of these catalysts is extremely restricted with the co-poisoning of alkali metal and SO in the flue gas. Here the MnO/TiO catalyst was employed to elucidate the co-poisoning mechanisms of K and SO for the low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO. The physicochemical properties of catalysts under different toxicity conditions were studied by experiments. The adsorption of NH, SO, NO, and K on active component (MnO) and support (TiO) was studied by density functional theory. This work unravels a promotion effect of support on the alkali and sulfur resistance. The SO&K co-poisoning catalyst had higher SCR activity than the SO-poisoned and K-poisoned catalyst alone. For a single toxic condition: (1) SO was preferentially bonded with the terminated O site of MnO inhibiting the dehydrogenation of NH and redox cycle. (2) The presence of Lewis base (K atom) on the catalyst decreased the binding energy of a Lewis base (NH) and hindered the adsorption of NH. For the synergistic effect of K and SO, the majority of K adsorbed on the support (TiO) lead to increase alkalinity, which could promote the adsorption of SO on the TiO and reduce the toxicity of the active component (MnO).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126117DOI Listing
August 2021

High level production of diacetylchitobiose deacetylase by refactoring genetic elements and cellular metabolism.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 26;341:125836. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China; Science Center for Future Foods, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Diacetylchitobiose deacetylase (Dac) from Pyrococcus horikoshii can realize the one-step production of glucosamine (GlcN). The efficient expression and secretion of Dac play a central role in the green production of GlcN. In this study, Bacillus subtilis WB600 was used as the expression host. Firstly, we screened 12 signal peptides, among which signal peptide NprB had the strongest ability of guiding Dac secretion. Further optimization of the functional region showed that the extracellular Dac activity of NprB mutant was increased to 3682.2 U/mL. Next, the extracellular Dac activity was increased to 4807.6 U/mL by RBS sequence optimization. Then we got a new recombinant B. subtilis C6 for plasmid-free expression of Dac by integrating comK gene and silencing bpr, nprB, aprE, mpr and nprE genes. Finally, the extracellular Dac activity of genome-integrating strain reached 6357.38 U/mL, which was the highest level reported so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125836DOI Listing
August 2021

Docosahexaenoic acid activates the Nrf2 signaling pathway to alleviate impairment of spleen cellular immunity in intrauterine growth restricted rat pups.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 5;28(9):4987-4993. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Children's Institute of Three Gorges University, Yichang Central People's Hospital, The First College of Clinical Medical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443003, PR China.

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs immune function in children. IUGR is associated with an imbalance of oxidative stress and abnormal apoptosis. Therefore, an IUGR rats model was established to determine the antioxidant capacity and apoptosis in newborn IUGR rats and explored whether these effects were regulated after Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to rat pups. First, eight normal-birth-weight (NBW) and eight IUGR neonatal rats (a 10% low-protein diet) were used to obtain the antioxidant capacity and apoptosis in IUGR rat pups. Then, 32 newborn rats were randomly assigned to the normal birth weight (NBW), DHA supplementation for NBW (ND), IUGR, and DHA supplementation for IUGR (ID) groups. Starting from the 7th day after birth, DHA was given to the experimental group and the same volume of distilled water was given to the control group for 21 days. (1) DHA improved the serum and spleen CD4/CD8 ratios and IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA expression. (2) DHA decreased the level of MDA, but increased T-AOC in serum and spleen. (3) DHA increased the protein expression of Bcl-2 while decreased Bax. (4) DHA increased protein expression of the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the downstream antioxidant genes GSH-PX and CAT. DHA may alleviate the impairment of spleen cellular immunity in IUGR rat pups by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis related to the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.05.058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381073PMC
September 2021

Slowing Hot-Electron Relaxation in Mix-Phase Nanowires for Hot-Carrier Photovoltaics.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 30;21(18):7761-7768. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory of Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083, China.

Hot carrier harvest could save 30% energy loss in solar cells. So far, however, it is still unreachable as the photoexcited hot carriers are short-lived, ∼1 ps, determined by a rapid relaxation process, thus invalidating any reprocessing efforts. Here, we propose and demonstrate a feasible route to reserve hot electrons for efficient collection. It is accomplished by an intentional mix of cubic zinc-blend and hexagonal wurtzite phases in III-V semiconductor nanowires. Additional energy levels are then generated above the conduction band minimum, capturing and storing hot electrons before they cool down to the band edges. We also show the superiority of core/shell nanowire (radial heterostructure) in extracting hot electrons. The strategy disclosed here may offer a unique opportunity to modulate hot carriers for efficient solar energy harvest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02725DOI Listing
September 2021

Salidroside Suppresses the Proliferation and Migration of Human Lung Cancer Cells through AMPK-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome Regulation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:6614574. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Institute of Wudang Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China.

Inflammatory reactions mediated by the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression, particularly in patients with bacterial infections. Salidroside (SAL) has recently been shown to suppress lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced NSCLC proliferation and migration, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. It has been shown that SAL improves metabolic inflammation in diabetic rodents through AMP-activated protein kinase- (AMPK-) dependent inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. However, whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated by SAL in NSCLC cells and how its underlying mechanism(s) can be determined require clarification. In this study, human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial (A549) cells were treated with LPS, and the effects of SAL on cell proliferation, migration, AMPK activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were investigated. We found that LPS induction increases the proliferation and migration of A549 cells which was suppressed by SAL. Moreover, SAL protected A549 cells against LPS-induced AMPK inhibition, ROS production, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Blocking AMPK using Compound C almost completely suppressed the beneficial effects of SAL. In summary, these results indicate that SAL suppresses the proliferation and migration of human lung cancer cells through AMPK-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6614574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390167PMC
September 2021

A Machine Learning Approach to Passively Informed Prediction of Mental Health Risk in People with Diabetes: Retrospective Case-Control Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Aug 27;23(8):e27709. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Livongo Health, Inc, Mountain View, CA, United States.

Background: Proactive detection of mental health needs among people with diabetes mellitus could facilitate early intervention, improve overall health and quality of life, and reduce individual and societal health and economic burdens. Passive sensing and ecological momentary assessment are relatively newer methods that may be leveraged for such proactive detection.

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to conceptualize, develop, and evaluate a novel machine learning approach for predicting mental health risk in people with diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A retrospective study was designed to develop and evaluate a machine learning model, utilizing data collected from 142,432 individuals with diabetes enrolled in the Livongo for Diabetes program. First, participants' mental health statuses were verified using prescription and medical and pharmacy claims data. Next, four categories of passive sensing signals were extracted from the participants' behavior in the program, including demographics and glucometer, coaching, and event data. Data sets were then assembled to create participant-period instances, and descriptive analyses were conducted to understand the correlation between mental health status and passive sensing signals. Passive sensing signals were then entered into the model to train and test its performance. The model was evaluated based on seven measures: sensitivity, specificity, precision, area under the curve, F score, accuracy, and confusion matrix. SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values were computed to determine the importance of individual signals.

Results: In the training (and validation) and three subsequent test sets, the model achieved a confidence score greater than 0.5 for sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, and accuracy. Signals identified as important by SHAP values included demographics such as race and gender, participant's emotional state during blood glucose checks, time of day of blood glucose checks, blood glucose values, and interaction with the Livongo mobile app and web platform.

Conclusions: Results of this study demonstrate the utility of a passively informed mental health risk algorithm and invite further exploration to identify additional signals and determine when and where such algorithms should be deployed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/27709DOI Listing
August 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion versus hemodialysis alone in adult patients with end-stage renal disease in China.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1133

King's Health Economics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience at King's College London, London, UK.

Background: This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of hemodialysis (HD) plus hemoperfusion (HP) with HD alone in adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in China.

Methods: A Markov model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions over a lifetime horizon. Model parameters were informed by the HD/HP trial, the first randomized, open-label multicenter trial comparing survival outcomes and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for HD + HP versus HD alone, and supplemented by published literature and expert opinion. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with respect to quality adjusted life-years (QALY). The robustness of the results was examined in extensive sensitivity analyses. Analyses were conducted from a healthcare perspective. Costs were reported in both Chinese Renminbi (RMB) and US Dollars (USD) in 2019 values.

Results: The base case ICER of HD + HP is RMB 174,486 (USD 25,251) per QALY, which is lower than the RMB 212,676 (USD 30,778) willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Gross Domestic Product. This conclusion is sensitive to the mortality for patients with no severe CVD events, the incidence of CVD events, and the cost of HP and HD. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of RMB 212,676 (USD 30,778) per QALY gained, the probability that HD + HP is cost-effective is 58%.

Conclusions: Our results indicate a potential for HD + HP to be cost-effective for patients with ESRD. Further evidence on the longer-term impact of HD + HP on CVD event rates and mortality unrelated to CVD is needed to robustly demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of HD + HP.

Trial Registration: The HD/HP trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IOR-16009332).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350641PMC
July 2021

Battery-free, wireless soft sensors for continuous multi-site measurements of pressure and temperature from patients at risk for pressure injuries.

Nat Commun 2021 08 24;12(1):5008. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25324-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385057PMC
August 2021

Leadership, management, quality, and innovation in organ donation: 2019 Kunming recommendations for One Belt & One Road countries.

Clin Transplant 2021 Aug 24:e14470. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Surgery and Surgical Specializations Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The findings and recommendations of the 2019 consensus conference in organ donation, held in Kunming, China, are here reported. The main objective of the conference was to gather relevant information from experts involved in the field. The data and opinions provided allowed to propose a series of recommendations for "One Belt & One Road Countries" on how to achieve self-sufficiency in organ donation. Leadership in organ donation should be results-oriented and goal-driven based on the principles of excellence, empowerment, and engagement, providing the means, resources, and strategies necessary to reach the goal in earnest. Management includes good governance and transparency of a national registry of patients in the waiting list, donors, transplants, transplant teams, quality, and safety programs with continuous educational training of health care professionals. Mandatory monitoring, auditing and evaluation of quality must be incorporated into donation practices as relevant points in innovation, as well as the adoption of already established and novel processes and technologies. Achievement of self-sufficiency in organ donation is a crucial step to fight against transplant tourism and to prevent organ trafficking. Based on recommendations arising from the conference, each country could review and develop individualized action plans adjusted to its own circumstances and reality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.14470DOI Listing
August 2021

LncRNA ZNF667-AS1 alleviates rheumatoid arthritis by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling pathway.

Autoimmunity 2021 Aug 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Rheumatism Immunology, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China.

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which compromises the synovial membrane resulting in chronic inflammation. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. This study investigated the role of lncRNA ZNF667-AS1 in RA progression.

Methods: Synovial tissues and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were obtained from patients with RA. Gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR. Chondrocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish models of OA. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to examine the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production in chondrocytes. Animal models of OA were established in SD rats. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the OA rats. Flow cytometry was used to measure the changes of the inflammatory T-helper cell 17 (Th17) cells. The relationship between ZNF667-AS1 and miR-523-3p was verified by luciferase reporter assay.

Results: ZNF667-AS1 was downregulated in RA-FLSs and LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. ZNF667-AS1 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation and inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated chondrocytes. Additionally, ZNF667-AS1 overexpression reduced the generation of CD4 + IL-17+ cells. In mechanism, ZNF667-AS1 acted a sponge for miR-523-3p. MiR-523-3p overexpression reversed the ZNF667-AS1-mediated regulation of cell proliferation and inflammation. Furthermore, miR-523-3p overexpression abolished the inhibitory effects of ZNF667-AS1 on the JAK/STAT signalling activation.

Conclusion: ZNF667-AS1 exerts protective effects during RA development by sponging miR-523-3p and inactivating the JAK/STAT signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08916934.2021.1966770DOI Listing
August 2021

Fabrication and characterization of microstructure-controllable COL-HA-PVA hydrogels for cartilage repair.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Aug 18;32(9):100. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel has gained interest in cartilage repair because of its highly swollen, porosity, and viscoelastic properties. However, PVA has some deficiencies, such as its poor biocompatibility and microstructure. This research aimed to design novel hydroxyapatite (HA)-collagen (COL)-PVA hydrogels. COL was added to improve cell biocompatibility, and the microstructure of the hydrogels was controlled by fused deposition modeling (FDM). The feasibility of the COL-HA-PVA hydrogels in cartilage repair was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The scanning electron microscopy results showed that the hybrid hydrogels had interconnected macropore structures that contained a COL reticular scaffold. The diameter of the macropore was 1.08-1.85 mm, which corresponds to the diameter of the denatured PVA column. The chondrocytes were then seeded in hydrogels to assess the cell viability and formation of the cartilage matrix. The in vitro results revealed excellent cellular biocompatibility. Osteochondral defects (8 mm in diameter and 8 mm in depth) were created in the femoral trochlear of goats, and the defects were implanted with cell-seeded hydrogels, cell-free hydrogels, or a blank control. The in vivo results showed that the COL-HA-PVA hydrogels effectively repaired cartilage defects, especially the conditions inoculated with chondrocyte in advance. This research suggests that the COL-HA-PVA hydrogels have promising application in cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06577-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373762PMC
August 2021

Reliability and reproducibility of measurements in para-sagittal planes on sub-axial cervical vertebral bodies: a morphometric study of endplates in three-dimensional models.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 16;16(1):503. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, No.157, Jinbi Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background: Dimensional measurements have been implemented on a variety of entities in morphological studies of the sub-axial cervical vertebral endplate. Despite great progress, little information between the mid-sagittal plane and bilateral uncinate processes has been acquired due to the lack of a reliable method to determine the para-sagittal planes. Also, few studies of this region are available. We proposed a new approach to defining the para-sagittal planes on a 3D cervical vertebral body model; in this approach, dimensions can be measured in a specific plane. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the measurements in different sagittal planes on sub-axial cervical vertebral endplates of 3D models.

Methods: We established mid-sagittal and bilateral quarter para-sagittal planes on the 3D model of a sub-axial cervical vertebral body based on landmarks labeled on the surface. By intersecting the vertebral body with the planes, three curves located at the three para-sagittal planes were generated. Linear dimensions were measured on every curve by two observers separately, and in total, 24 sub-axial cervical spines were included in the study. The first observer (O1) performed the procedure twice with an interval of 2 weeks. The paired t test, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were employed to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the proposed method.

Results: There were no significant differences in most intra- and inter-observer comparisons, and higher non-significant proportions were found in the intra-observer comparisons than in comparisons between different observers. The interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in the measurements were excellent (> 0.75) in most circumstances, and the values in intra-observer comparisons were higher than those in inter-observer comparisons.

Conclusions: In this study, we proposed an approach to determine the bilateral quarter para-sagittal planes in a 3D cervical vertebral body model; the results demonstrated that the method is reproducible with high intra- and inter-observer agreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02648-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365898PMC
August 2021

Risk factors for mortality in patients over 70 years old with COVID-19 in Wuhan at the early break: retrospective case series.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 16;21(1):821. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Elderly patients with COVID-19 were shown to have a high case-fatality rate. We aimed to explore the risk factors associated with death in patients over 70 years old (yr).

Methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled consecutively hospitalized patients over 70 yr with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 15, 2020 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data were collected. Clinical subtypes, including mild, moderate, severe, and critical types, were used to evaluate the severity of disease. Patients were classified into two groups: survivor and non-survivor groups. Clinical data were compared between the two groups. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression methods were used to explore the risk factors.

Results: A total of 147 patients were enrolled. The case-fatality rate was 28.6%. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression showed that clinical subtypes, including the severe type (HR = 2.983, 95% CI: 1.231-7.226, P = 0.016) and the critical type (HR = 3.267, 95%CI: 1.009-10.576, P = 0.048), were associated with increasing risk of death when compared with the general type. Blood urea nitrogen greater than 9.5 mmol/L (HR = 2.805, 95% CI: 1.141-6.892, P = 0.025) on admission was an independent risk factor for death among laboratory findings.

Conclusion: The patients over 70 yr with COVID-19 had a high case-fatality rate. The risk factors, including clinical subtypes and blood urea nitrogen greater than 9.5 mmol/L, could help physicians to identify elderly patients with poor clinical outcomes at an early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06450-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366151PMC
August 2021

The Application of High-Throughput Technologies for the Study of Microbiome and Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 28;12:699793. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Centre for Single-Cell Omics, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Human gut microbiome research, especially gut microbiome, has been developing at a considerable pace over the last decades, driven by a rapid technological advancement. The emergence of high-throughput technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and others, has afforded the generation of large volumes of data, and in relation to specific pathologies such as different cancer types. The current review identifies high-throughput technologies as they have been implemented in the study of microbiome and cancer. Four main thematic areas have emerged: the characterization of microbial diversity and composition, microbial functional analyses, biomarker prediction, and, lastly, potential therapeutic applications. The majority of studies identified focus on the microbiome diversity characterization, which is reaching technological maturity, while the remaining three thematic areas could be described as emerging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.699793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355622PMC
July 2021
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