Publications by authors named "Wei Jia"

1,293 Publications

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Analysis of efficacy of intervention strategies for COVID-19 transmission: A case study of Hong Kong.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 18;156:106723. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

By the end of February 2021, COVID-19 had spread to over 230 countries, with more than 100 million confirmed cases and 2.5 million deaths. To control infection spread with the least disruption to economic and societal activities, it is crucial to implement the various interventions effectively. In this study, we developed an agent-based SEIR model, using real demographic and geographic data from Hong Kong, to analyse the efficiency of various intervention strategies in preventing infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Close contact route including short-range airborne is considered as the main transmission routes for COVID-19 spread. Contact tracing is not that useful if all other interventions have been fully deployed. The number of infected individuals could be halved if people reduced their close contact rate by 25%. For reducing transmission, students should be prioritized for vaccination rather than retired older people and preschool aged children. Home isolation, and taking the nucleic acid test (NAT) as soon as possible after symptom onset, are much more effective interventions than wearing masks in public places. Temperature screening in public places only disrupted the infection spread by a small amount when other interventions have been fully implemented. Our results may be useful for other highly populated cities, when choosing their intervention strategies to prevent outbreaks of COVID-19 and similar diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106723DOI Listing
June 2021

The association between caudal block and urethroplasty complications of distal tubularized incised plate repair: experience from a South China National Children's Medical Center.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2084-2090

Department of Pediatric Urology, Provincial Key Laboratory of Research in Structure Birth Defect Disease, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The effect of caudal block (CB) on the incidence of urethroplasty complications in hypospadias repair remains controversial. The evidence is conflicting, and some confounding bias issues need to be addressed. We sought to study a more homogenous group of distal hypospadias patients undergoing primary tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair by a senior pediatric urology surgeon in the past 2 years to examine the relationship between urethroplasty complications and the use of CB.

Methods: We reviewed our database to identify consecutive patients who had undergone hypospadias repairs by a senior director surgeon at our Center between January 2018 and November 2020. To be eligible to participate in the study, patients had to meet the following inclusion criteria: (I) have distal hypospadias; (II) have undergone a primary TIP repair; and (III) have attended follow-up appointments for a minimum period of 6 months. The primary outcome was the development of urethroplasty complications during the follow-up period. The principal variable of interest was whether or not CB was used perioperatively. The patients were categorized into a CB group (general anesthesia combined with CB) or a control group (general anesthesia only). Other potential risk factors were analyzed, including patient age at operation, patient weight, glans width, and the length of the urethral plate defect.

Results: Thirty (12.2%) of the distal patients developed postoperative surgical complications. The postoperative surgical complication rates were similar between the different anesthesia groups. Weight, the length of the urethral plate length, and glans width did not contribute to the risk. Age was the only independent risk factor for postoperative surgical complications, and the complication rates increased in older patients.

Conclusions: Our data from consecutive TIP repairs in distal hypospadias patients indicated no association between the use of CB anesthesia and the postoperative urethroplasty complication rate. Patients who were older in age when they underwent surgery had a higher risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185679PMC
May 2021

ASO Author Reflections: Comparison of Three Lymph Node Staging Systems for Prognostic Evaluation of Resected Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

Authors:
Keying Che Jia Wei

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10331-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrated metabolomics and lipidomics profiling reveals beneficial changes in sensory quality of brown fermented goat milk.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 16;364:130378. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an 710021, China. Electronic address:

Fermentation and thermal processing can improve the sensory properties of foods. Chemical composition of fermented brown goat milk was investigated using an integrated lipomics and metabonomic method while the effects of changes in chemical composition on sensory quality were also explored. After fermentation, organic acid, peptide and medium- and long-chain fatty acid contents in brown goat milk samples increased significantly. A total of 108 metabolites and 174 lipids related to sensory quality were identified. Heterocyclic compounds, as intermediates of Maillard reaction, modified colour, taste, and aroma, while changes in triglyceride content reduced the impact of off-odour, greatly improving sensory quality of fermented brown goat milk. This study provided new approaches for examining goat milk sensory quality and insights into how these can be modified to further diversify dairy products on the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130378DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of a Glypican-3 Binding Peptide From a Phage-Displayed Peptide Library for PET Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:679336. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Tumor-targeting peptides functioned as molecular probes are essential for multi-modality imaging and molecular-targeting therapy in caner theronostics. Here, we performed a phage-displayed bio-panning to identify a specific binding peptide targeting Glypican-3 (GPC-3), a promising biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After screening in the cyclic peptide library, a candidate peptide named F3, was isolated and showed specific binding to HCC cell lines. In a bio-distribution study, higher accumulation of F3 peptide was observed in HepG-2 tumors compared to PC-3 tumors in xenograft models. After labeling with radioactive Ga, the F3 peptide tracer enabled the specific detection of tumors in HCC tumor models with PET imaging. More importantly, the expression of GPC-3 in human tissue samples may be distinguished by an F3 fluorescent peptide probe indicating its potential for clinical application. This cyclic peptide targeting GPC-3 has been validated, and may be an alternative to serve as an imaging probe or a targeting domain in the drug conjugate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.679336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212053PMC
June 2021

Sex-Specific Differences in Blood Lipids and Lipid Ratios in type 2 Diabetic Foot Patients.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Tongji University, 1239 Si Ping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Aims/introduction: Few people have reported whether there are sex differences in blood lipids and lipid ratios in type 2 diabetic foot (T2DF) patients in China. This paper attempts to identify the contribution to sex-specific differences in blood lipids and lipid ratios in these patients.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, we explore that 306 patients with T2DF as study group and 306 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as control group. Patients were diagnosed according to the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2014 (ADA). Blood lipid and lipid ratios were determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.

Results: We studied male patients with T2DF who were 68.00 (18.00) years old and females who were 73.50 (19.00) years old; 61.76% of the patients were male. Males had higher BMIs and HbA1c levels than females. Compared to T2DM patients, T2DF patients had significant differences in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and apoB/apoA-I ratios. HDL-C, TG, apoA-I and apoB/apoA-I ratio were cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in males, while TC, LDL-C, apoB, and the LDL/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were better predictors in females. The apoB/apoA-I ratio OR values were 2.18 (95%CI:1.17-4.41) and 2.14 (95%CI:1.14-4.00) in male patients with T2DF before and after adjusting for age respectively (P<0.05).

Conclusions: T2DF patients present sex-specific differences in their blood lipid and lipid ratios, especially in the apoB/apoA-I ratio, which could be a better indicator for CVD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13615DOI Listing
June 2021

Beta2-microglobulin(B2M) in cancer immunotherapies: Biological function, resistance and remedy.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapies have made much headway during the past decades. Techniques including the immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) have harvested impressive efficacy and provided far-reaching tools for treating cancer patients. However, due to inadequate priming of the immune system, a certain subgroup of patients remains resistant to cancer immunotherapies during or after the treatment. β2-microglobulin (B2M) is an important subunit of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I which exerts substantive biological functions in tumorigensis and immune control. Accumulating evidence have shown that alterations of B2M gene and B2M proteins contribute to poor reaction to cancer immunotherapies by dampening antigen presentation. Here, we discuss the basic biological functions of B2M, its distribution in a spectrum of cancers, and current understanding of its role in ICI, cancer vaccines, CAR-T therapies. Furthermore, we summarize some promising therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy inhibited by B2M defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.06.008DOI Listing
June 2021

Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a potent acetic acid-producing bacterium, attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-20

Functional Metabolomic and Gut Microbiome Laboratory, Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The emerging evidence supports the use of prebiotics like herb-derived polysaccharides for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by modulating gut microbiome. The present study was initiated on the microbiota-dependent anti-NAFLD effect of polysaccharides (APS) extracted from Bunge in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of APS on NAFLD formation remain poorly understood.Co-housing experiment was used to assess the microbiota dependent anti-NAFLD effect of APS. Then, targeted metabolomics and metagenomics were adopted for determining short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacteria that were specifically enriched by APS. Further experiment was carried out to test the capacity of SCFAs-producing of identified bacterium. Finally, the anti-NAFLD efficacy of identified bacterium was tested in HFD-fed mice.Our results first demonstrated the anti-NAFLD effect of APS in HFD-fed mice and the contribution of gut microbiota. Moreover, our results indicated that SCFAs, predominantly acetic acid were elevated in APS-supplemented mice and experiment. Metagenomics revealed that from genus was not only enriched by APS, but also a potent generator of acetic acid, which showed significant anti-NAFLD effects in HFD-fed mice. In addition, modulated the hepatic gene expression pattern of lipids metabolism, particularly suppressed hepatic fatty acid synthase (FASN) and CD36 protein expression.Our results demonstrate that APS enriched is effective on attenuating hepatic steatosis possibly through producing acetic acid, and modulation on hepatic lipids metabolism in mice. Further studies are warranted to explore the long-term impacts of on host metabolism and the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1930874DOI Listing
June 2021

A High-Throughput Comparative Proteomics of Milk Fat Globule Membrane Reveals Breed and Lactation Stages Specific Variation in Protein Abundance and Functional Differences Between Milk of Saanen Dairy Goat and Holstein Bovine.

Front Nutr 2021 28;8:680683. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an, China.

Large variations in the bioactivities and composition of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were observed between Saanen dairy goat and Holstein bovine at various lactation periods. In the present study, 331, 250, 182, and 248 MFGM proteins were characterized in colostrum and mature milk for the two species by Q-Orbitrap HRMS-based proteomics techniques. KEGG pathway analyses displayed that differentially expressed proteins in colostrum involved in galactose metabolism and an adipogenesis pathway, and the differentially expressed proteins in mature milk associated with lipid metabolism and a PPAR signaling pathway. These results indicated that the types and functions of MFGM proteins in goat and bovine milk were different, and goat milk had a better function of fatty acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis, which can enhance our understanding of MFGM proteins in these two species across different lactation periods, and they provide significant information for the study of lipid metabolism and glycometabolism of goat milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.680683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193056PMC
May 2021

Early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy helps decrease recurrence rate of cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used for treatment of cervical cancer for a long time; however, the role of early non-response on prognosis is still confusing. This study was designed to assess its impact on disease-free survival (DFS).

Methods: Databases "PubMed", "Embase" and the "Cochrane Library" were searched out through May 2020, and both random effects model and fixed effect model were employed to calculate the main pooled results. I2 and Cochrane Q test were used to test the heterogeneity among the studies. Funnel plot with Begg's and Egger's tests was used to assess the publication bias that may exist in the study. Sensitivity analysis was performed to detect the origin of the heterogeneity.

Results: A total of 1,349 articles were found at first; then, after several rounds of exclusion, we identified 8 articles with 9 studies which were accordant with the standards of the inclusion. A combined analysis was performed among the 1,462 responders and 490 non-responders. For 1-year DFS, sub-analysis showed hazard ratio (HR) was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.14-0.43) using RECIST criteria; and HR was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.36- 0.75) using WHO criteria; Egger's test showed that P=0.35 for RECIST criteria and P=0.57 for WHO criteria; Begg's test showed P=0.34 for RECIST criteria and P=0.60 for WHO criteria. For 3-year DFS, HR was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.16-0.43) using RECIST criteria and was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.30-0.73) using WHO criteria. For 5-year DFS, HR was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.16-0.42) using RECIST criteria and was 0.49 (95% CI: 0.33-0.71) using WHO criteria.

Conclusions: Early non-response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with higher recurrence of cervical cancer. Prospective randomized studies are warranted to validate this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2004DOI Listing
May 2021

Physicochemical properties, digestibility and anti-osteoporosis effect of yak bone powder with different particle sizes.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 11;145:110401. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

As a kind of promising resource, animal bone has been widely processed into functional foods. However, there is little research about the effect of particle size on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of yak bone powder (YBP), as well as its anti-osteoporosis activity. In this study, the YBP with median particle sizes (MPS) ranging from 19.68 to 128.37 μm were prepared, and their digestibility and anti-osteoporosis activity were investigated. The results showed that smaller MPS significantly increased water holding capacity and protein solubility without changing composition. The MPS reduction greatly promoted protein digestion, producing more peptides<3 kDa and free amino acids while decreased Ca and P release during gastrointestinal digestion. The in vivo results revealed the positive effect of YBP on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. The bone mineral density of ovariectomized (OVX) rats was obviously improved by regulating bone turnover markers (B-ALP, OCN, S-CTX, ES and TRAP), thus potentially shedding light on osteoporosis remission. However, different MPS exhibited a weak effect on osteoporosis in OVX rats. Therefore, YBP could be produced in relatively large particle size without sacrificing food sensory quality, the processing time of which could also be shortened for higher productivity and lower cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110401DOI Listing
July 2021

Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike responses to Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines by previous infection status.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: We investigate determinants of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG responses in healthcare workers (HCWs) following one or two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines.

Methods: HCWs participating in regular SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing were invited for serological testing prior to first and second vaccination, and 4 weeks post-vaccination if receiving a 12-week dosing interval. Quantitative post-vaccination anti-spike antibody responses were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (detection threshold: ≥50 AU/ml). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of seropositivity and generalised additive models to track antibody responses over time.

Results: 3570/3610(98.9%) HCWs were seropositive >14 days post-first vaccination and prior to second vaccination, 2706/2720(99.5%) after Pfizer-BioNTech and 864/890(97.1%) following Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines. Previously infected and younger HCWs were more likely to test seropositive post-first vaccination, with no evidence of differences by sex or ethnicity. All 470 HCWs tested >14 days after second vaccine were seropositive. Quantitative antibody responses were higher after previous infection: median(IQR) >21 days post-first Pfizer-BioNTech 14,604(7644-22,291) AU/ml vs. 1028(564-1985) AU/ml without prior infection (p<0.001). Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine recipients had lower readings post-first dose compared to Pfizer-BioNTech, with and without previous infection, 10,095(5354-17,096) and 435(203-962) AU/ml respectively (both p<0.001 vs. Pfizer-BioNTech). Antibody responses >21 days post-second Pfizer vaccination in those not previously infected, 10,058 (6408-15,582) AU/ml, were similar to those after prior infection and one vaccine dose.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination leads to detectable anti-spike antibodies in nearly all adult HCWs. Whether differences in response impact vaccine efficacy needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.05.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180449PMC
June 2021

Lung microbiome alterations in NSCLC patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11736. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Lung is colonized by a diverse array of microbes and the lung microbiota is profoundly involved in the development of respiratory diseases. There is little knowledge about the role of lung microbiota dysbiosis in lung cancer. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from two different sampling methods in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and non-cancer controls. We found the obvious variation between bronchoscopy samples and lobectomy samples. Oral taxa can be found in both bronchoscopy and lobectomy samples and higher abundance of oral taxa can be found in bronchoscopy samples. Although the NSCLC patients had similar microbial communities with non-cancer controls, rare species such as Lactobacillus rossiae, Bacteroides pyogenes, Paenibacillus odorifer, Pseudomonas entomophila, Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, fungus Chaetomium globosum et al. showed obvious difference between NSCLC patients and non-cancer controls. Age-, gender-, and smoking-specific species and EGFR expression-related species in NSCLC patients were detected. There results implicated that different lung segments have differential lung microbiome composition. The oral taxa are found in the lobectomy samples suggesting that oral microbiota are the true members of lung microbiota, rather than contamination during bronchoscopy. Lung cancer does not obviously alter the global microbial composition, while rare species are altered more than common species. Certain microbes may be associated with lung cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91195-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175694PMC
June 2021

Accurate Quantification of Sulfonamide Metabolites in Goat Meat: A New Strategy for Minimizing Interaction between Sheep Serum Albumin and Sulfonamide Metabolites.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 3;69(23):6556-6568. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

To date, the determination of sulfonamide metabolites in animal-derived food has universal disadvantages of low throughput and no integrated metabolites involved. In this study, a powerful and reliable strategy for high-throughput screening of sulfonamide metabolites in goat meat was proposed based on an aqueous two-phase separation procedure (ATPS) combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap). Noncovalent interactions including van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic effect were determined to be staple interactions between the sulfonamide metabolites and sheep serum albumin by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking technology, and an 80% acetonitrile-water solution/(NH)SO was used as ATPS in order to release combined sulfonamide metabolites and minimize the influence of sheep serum albumin. Sulfonamide metabolites in the matrix were screened based on a mechanism of mass natural loss and core structure followed by identification combined with the pharmacokinetic. The developed strategy was validated according to EU standard 2002/657/EC with CCα ranging from 0.07 to 0.98 μg kg, accuracy recovery with 84-107%, and RSDs lower than 8.9%. Eighty seven goat meat samples were used for determination of 26 sulfonamides and 8 potential metabolites. On the basis of the established innovative process, this study has successfully implemented the comprehensive detection of sulfonamide metabolites, including -acetylated substitution, -hydroxylation, 4-nitroso, azo dimers, oxidized nitro, monoglucose conjugation, β-d-glucuronide, and -4-aminobenzenesulfonyl metabolites, which were shown to undergo oxidation, hydrogenation, sulfation, glucuronidation, glucosylation, and -aminomethylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02496DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between Pre-Diagnostic Serum Bile Acids and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a commonly diagnosed malignancy with poor prognosis. Rising incidence of HCC may be due to rising prevalence of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, where altered bile acid metabolism may be implicated in HCC development. Thirty-five bile acids were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry assays in pre-diagnostic serum of 100 HCC cases and 100 matched controls from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations for bile acid levels with risk of HCC. Conjugated primary bile acids were significantly elevated whereas the ratios of secondary bile acids over primary bile acids were significantly lower in HCC cases than controls. The respective odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of HCC were 6.09 (1.75-21.21) for highest vs. lowest tertile of cholic acid species and 30.11 (5.88-154.31) for chenodeoxycholic acid species. Doubling ratio of taurine-over glycine-conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid was associated significantly with 40% increased risk of HCC whereas doubling ratio of secondary over primary bile acid species was associated with 30-40% reduced risk of HCC. In conclusion, elevated primary bile acids and taurine over glycine-conjugated ratios were strongly associated with HCC risk whereas the ratios of secondary bile acids over primary bile acids were inversely associated with HCC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198655PMC
May 2021

Evidence for lack of transmission by close contact and surface touch in a restaurant outbreak of COVID-19.

J Infect 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease that has become a global pandemic. Close contact plays an important role in infection spread, while fomite may also be a possible transmission route. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic has identified long-range airborne transmission as one of the important transmission routes although lack solid evidence.

Methods: We examined video data related to a restaurant associated COVID-19 outbreak in Guangzhou. We observed more than 40,000 surface touches and 13,000 episodes of close contacts in the restaurant during the entire lunch duration. These data allowed us to analyse infection risk via both the fomite and close contact routes.

Results: There is no significant correlation between the infection risk via both fomite and close contact routes among those who were not family members of the index case. We can thus rule out virus transmission via fomite contact and interpersonal close contact routes in the Guangzhou restaurant outbreak. The absence of a fomite route agrees with the COVID-19 literature.

Conclusions: These results provide indirect evidence for the long-range airborne route dominating SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the restaurant. We note that the restaurant was poorly ventilated, allowing for increasing airborne SARS-CoV-2 concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.05.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164346PMC
May 2021

UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS-based quantitative lipidomics reveals the chemical changes of phospholipids during thermal processing methods of Tan sheep meat.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 18;360:130153. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

Thermal processing affects the lipid compositions of meat products. The study determined the effects of boiled, steamed and roasted processing methods on the lipidomics profiles of Tan sheep meat with a validated UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS combined lipid screening strategy method. Combined with sphingolipid metabolism, the boiled approach was the suitable choice for atherosclerosis patients for more losses of sphingomyelin than ceramide in meat. The similarly less losses of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine showed in glycerophospholipid metabolism implied that steamed Tan sheep meat was more suitable for the populations of elderly and infants. Furthermore, a total of 90 lipids with significant difference (VIP > 1) in 6 lipid subclasses (sphingomyelin, ceramide, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamines, triacylglycerol,) were quantified among raw and three types of thermal processed Tan sheep meat, further providing useful information for identification of meat products with different thermal processing methods (LOD with 0.14-0.31 μg kg, LOQ with 0.39-0.90 μg kg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130153DOI Listing
October 2021

Ambulatory Orchidopexy Is a Potential Solution to Improve the Rate of Timely Repair in Cryptorchid Boys: An 8 Year Retrospective Study of 4,972 Cases.

Front Pediatr 2021 4;9:671578. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital anomaly in pediatric urology. Although early surgery on cryptorchid boys is recommended by pediatric urologists worldwide, the actual age at orchidopexy is often older than the recommended age. Our medical center has started performing ambulatory orchidopexy since March 2016 at the ambulatory surgery center. We aimed to investigate whether ambulatory orchidopexy can improve the timely repair rate. A retrospective analysis was conducted from 2012 to 2019 at our medical center. Ambulatory orchidopexy was started at our medical center on March 24, 2016. Boys born on or after September 24, 2015 were classified into the "with ambulatory medical resource" group, and boys born before September 24, 2014, were classified into the "without ambulatory medical resource" group. The timely repair rates were calculated and compared. A total of 4,972 cryptorchidism cases were included in the final study. Approximately 33.0% of cryptorchid boys received timely surgery (orchidopexy by the age of 18 months), and only 6.8% of all cryptorchid boys underwent surgery before the age of 1 year. After the performance of ambulatory orchidopexy, the timely repair rate increased from 25.7 to 37.0% ( < 0.001), and the percentage of patients receiving surgery before the age of 1 year increased significantly from 3.5 to 8.6% ( < 0.001). The proportion of timely repair in patients with ambulatory medical resources was significantly higher than that in patients without ambulatory medical resources (15.6% vs. 58.2%, < 0.001). Significant changes in the rate of surgery before 12 months of age were also found between the two groups (2.4% vs. 14.8%, < 0.001). After the performance of ambulatory orchidopexy in our medical center, the rates of both timely repair and receiving surgery before the age of 1 year increased significantly. Ambulatory orchidopexy is a potential solution to improve the rate of timely repair in cryptorchid boys, and it is worthy of promotion in developing countries and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.671578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129512PMC
May 2021

Regulatory effect of volatile compounds in fermented alcoholic beverages on gut microbiota and serum metabolism in a mouse model.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 19;12(12):5576-5590. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Ethanol (EtOH) is the main risk factor for alcoholic liver disease. However, fermented alcoholic beverages contain not only ethanol but also various volatile compounds. Currently, the effects of volatile compounds in ethanol-containing fermented beverages on gut microbiota and host metabolism are largely unclear. To fill this gap, we constructed an 8-week mice model using three types of Baijiu (a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage), sterile water and ethanol as controls. Results revealed that three types of Baijiu contain various volatiles, mainly belonging to esters, alcohols, and acids. All of Baijiu caused the lower levels of liver injury in mice than EtOH (at the same EtOH concentration) by phenotypic, biochemical and pathological analysis. We observed that Baijiu volatiles affect the gut microbiota structure and serum metabolomic patterns of mice. Compared with EtOH, Baijiu feeding profoundly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus (the highest relative abundance in the Baijiu-fed group was 11.16 ± 1.52%, and in the EtOH-fed group it was 1.80 ± 0.66%). Esters, acids and phenols in volatiles showed strong positive correlations (P < 0.01, R > 0.6) with Lactobacillus. Moreover, Baijiu feeding significantly (P < 0.05) enriched serum metabolites related to bioenergy (i.e., D-glucose, the highest fold change was 1.16) and anti-inflammatory activity (i.e., arachidonic acid, the highest fold change was 1.43) as compared to EtOH. Finally, the microbial and metabolic function analysis showed that volatiles will enhance the citrate cycle and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathways. Overall, these data demonstrated the potential of volatile compounds for attenuating the progress of alcoholic liver disease by regulating the gut microbiota and host metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03028gDOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular mechanism of protein dynamic change for Hengshan goat meat during freezing storage based on high-throughput proteomics.

Food Res Int 2021 May 9;143:110289. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

As traditional frozen storage leads to the degradation of meat quality, elucidation of dynamic change mechanism is urgently needed. Proteomic differences in postmortem frozen storage time (0, 30 and 60 days) of Hengshan goat meat at -18 °C were studied by label-free proteomics based on high resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. A total of 492 proteins were identified, of which 485 proteins were quantified, and the difference of 199 proteins was observed. The analysis of the differentially expressed proteins related to quality observed that triosephosphate isomerase and peroxiredoxin-6 were potential biomarkers for goat meat discoloration. Troponin and myosin can represent the tenderness of goat meat. Heat shock protein 70 can be used as water-retaining proteins in goat meat. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the distinguishingly expressed proteins were involved in glycolysis and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway revealing that the strong degradation of proteins, which cause of the degradation of long-term frozen meat quality. These results could enrich and beyond the existing knowledge of frozen meat, expecting to have a further understanding of the changes of meat quality at the molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110289DOI Listing
May 2021

Bifunctional iRGD-anti-CD3 enhances antitumor potency of T cells by facilitating tumor infiltration and T-cell activation.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Background: Poor infiltration and limited activation of transferred T cells are fundamental factors impeding the development of adoptive cell immunotherapy in solid tumors. A tumor-penetrating peptide iRGD has been widely used to deliver drugs deep into tumor tissues. CD3-targeting bispecific antibodies represent a promising immunotherapy which recruits and activates T cells.

Methods: T-cell penetration was demonstrated in tumor spheroids using confocal microscope, and in xenografted tumors by histology and in vivo real-time fluorescence imaging. Activation and cytotoxicity of T cells were assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscope. Bioluminescence imaging was used to evaluate in vivo antitumor effects, and transmission electron microscopy was used for mechanistic studies.

Results: We generated a novel bifunctional agent iRGD-anti-CD3 which could immobilize iRGD on the surface of T cells through CD3 engaging. We found that iRGD-anti-CD3 modification not only facilitated T-cell infiltration in 3D tumor spheroids and xenografted tumor nodules but also induced T-cell activation and cytotoxicity against target cancer cells. T cells modified with iRGD-anti-CD3 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in several xenograft mouse models, which was further enhanced by the combination of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade. Mechanistic studies revealed that iRGD-anti-CD3 initiated a transport pathway called vesiculovacuolar organelles in the endothelial cytoplasm to promote T-cell extravasation.

Conclusion: Altogether, we show that iRGD-anti-CD3 modification is an innovative and bifunctional strategy to overcome major bottlenecks in adoptive cell therapy. Moreover, we demonstrate that combination with PD-1 blockade can further improve antitumor efficacy of iRGD-anti-CD3-modified T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126316PMC
May 2021

Lipophilic recombinant-protein insertion endows lymphocytes with enhanced targeting-infiltration ability in EGFR positive cancer.

Cell Immunol 2021 Jul 5;365:104376. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Adoptive T cell transfer is one of the most promising ways to combat solid tumors. However, the weak infiltration of T cells into tumor sites has restricted their antitumor efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we used the lipophilic protein painting strategy to improve tumor targeting and penetrating capacity of lymphocytes for the first time. We synthesized the lipid anchor consisting of a bispecific recombinant protein iRGD-antiEGFR and DSPE-PEG derivates, then successfully inserted it into the membranes of T cells. This surface modification was non-invasive and could efficiently improve the infiltration ability of T cells into multicellular spheroids and tumor masses. The surface modified T cells also displayed superior antitumor activities in EGFR-positive tumor xenografts via systematic infusion. Moreover, the permeability and antitumor efficacy of these surface painted T cells could be remarkably enhanced when used in combination with local low-dose irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2021.104376DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimization of microcystin biodegradation by bacterial community YFMCD4 using response surface method.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 8;274:129897. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Typical Environmental Pollution and Health Hazards, School of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, China. Electronic address:

The increasing production of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) causing animal and human health issues is found in eutrophic water bodies, marine habitats and desert environments. The health threat posed by MC-LR has led to the establishment of World Health Organization's water guideline value of 1 μg/mL. Combating this has increased the search for cost-effective approach to degrade MC-LR. The study aimed to optimize the MC-degrading environmental factors of bacterial community YFMCD4. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to evaluate the influence of varying temperatures, pH and initial MC-LR concentration on the biodegradation efficiency of MC-LR by bacterial community YFMCD4. The optimal MC-LR biodegradation environmental factors were found to be 30 °C, pH 7 and 2 μg/mL initial MC-LR. The biodegradation rate reached 100% after 10 h. YFMCD4 mainly consisted of genera Alacligenes, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas using High-throughput pyrosequencing technology. The mlrA gene encoding MlrA enzyme considered most important for MC-LR biodegradation was obtained from YFMCD4. Data demonstrated that the bacterial structure and biodegradation efficiency of YFMCD4 varied with the change of environmental factors including temperature, pH and MC-LR concentrations. RSM is considered a good method to examine the optimal biodegradation environmental conditions for MC-LR. To date, RSM and High-throughput pyrosequencing technology are employed to optimize the biodegradation conditions (30 °C, pH 7 and 2 μg/mL initial MC-LR) and analyze the structure of bacterial community for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129897DOI Listing
July 2021

Massive congenital immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle in a 33-day infant comorbidity with atrial septal defect.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Congenital teratomas are extremely rare and mainly midline tumors arising in the pineal regions in childhood brain tumors which are rarer cases occur in the lateral ventricle. Atrial septal defect (ASD) is detected in approximately 0.15% of newborns. We report an intracranial massive immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle in a 33-day-old infant on account of its rare location, comorbidity, and rapidly increasing size after surgery. Based on our information, this was the first case of congenital immature teratoma of the lateral ventricle comorbidity with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-021-05168-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Eliminating base-editor-induced genome-wide and transcriptome-wide off-target mutations.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 May 10;23(5):552-563. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Life Science and Technology and Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The fusion of CRISPR-Cas9 with cytidine deaminases leads to base editors (BEs) capable of programmable C-to-T editing, which has potential in clinical applications but suffers from off-target (OT) mutations. Here, we used a cleavable deoxycytidine deaminase inhibitor (dCDI) domain to construct a transformer BE (tBE) system that induces efficient editing with only background levels of genome-wide and transcriptome-wide OT mutations. After being produced, the tBE remains inactive at OT sites with the fusion of a cleavable dCDI, therefore eliminating unintended mutations. When binding at on-target sites, the tBE is transformed to cleave off the dCDI domain and catalyses targeted deamination for precise base editing. After delivery into mice through a dual-adeno-associated virus (AAV) system, the tBE system created a premature stop codon in Pcsk9 and significantly reduced serum PCSK9, resulting in a ~30-40% decrease in total cholesterol. The development of tBE establishes a highly specific base editing system and its in vivo efficacy has potential for therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00671-4DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 Rehabilitation With Herbal Medicine and Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Protocol for a Clinical Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 26;10(5):e25556. Epub 2021 May 26.

Centre for Health and Exercise Science Research, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Background: Recent studies have revealed that many discharged patients with COVID-19 experience ongoing symptoms months later. Rehabilitation interventions can help address the consequences of COVID-19, including medical, physical, cognitive, and psychological problems. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the effects of rehabilitation following discharge from hospital for patients with COVID-19.

Objective: The specific aims of this project are to investigate the effects of a 12-week exercise program on pulmonary fibrosis in patients recovering from COVID-19. A further aim will be to examine how Chinese herbal medicines as well as the gut microbiome and its metabolites regulate immune function and possibly autoimmune deficiency in the rehabilitation process.

Methods: In this triple-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial, we will recruit adult patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital in Hong Kong and are experiencing impaired lung function and pulmonary function. A total of 172 eligible patients will be randomized into four equal groups: (1) cardiorespiratory exercise plus Chinese herbal medicines group, (2) cardiorespiratory exercise only group, (3) Chinese herbal medicines only group, and (4) waiting list group (in which participants will receive Chinese herbal medicines after 24 weeks). These treatments will be administered for 12 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up period. Primary outcomes include dyspnea, fatigue, lung function, pulmonary function, blood oxygen levels, immune function, blood coagulation, and related blood biochemistry. Measurements will be recorded prior to initiating the above treatments and repeated at the 13th and 25th weeks of the study. The primary analysis is aimed at comparing the outcomes between groups throughout the study period with an α level of .05 (two-tailed).

Results: The trial has been approved by the university ethics committee following the Declaration of Helsinki (approval number: REC/19-20/0504) in 2020. The trial has been recruiting patients. The data collection will be completed in 24 months, from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2022.

Conclusions: Given that COVID-19 and its sequelae would persist in human populations, important findings from this study would provide valuable insights into the mechanisms and processes of COVID-19 rehabilitation.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04572360; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04572360.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/25556.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/25556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158531PMC
May 2021

Investigation of differentially expressed gene profile for cisplatin-treated lung cancer patients.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Tianjin Medical University Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, China.

The purpose of the study was to establish a comprehensive differential gene profile for lung cancer patients treated with cisplatin compared with control patients without any chemotherapy drug treatment. The RNA sequencing data and miRNA sequencing data of 108 lung cancer patients treated with cisplatin only and 232 lung cancer patients treated without any chemotherapeutic drugs, were analyzed using differential expression, protein-protein interaction, and immune cell infiltration ratio analysis. Compared with control patients, the cisplatin-treated patients demonstrated 336 differentially expressed genes, which included 48 upregulated genes and 288 downregulated genes. Meanwhile, 12 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs), including 7 upregulated miRNAs and 5 downregulated miRNAs showed a differentially expressed pattern. With further instigation, five miRNAs (hsa-miR-548ah, hsa-miR-466, hsa-miR-552, hsa-miR-371a, and hsa-miR-4445) were suggested to be the key targets in the cisplatin-treated patients. At the same time, we also found a significant correlation between the cisplatin treatment and six immune checkpoints including programmed cell death ligand. This study helped us better understand the potential targets and underline molecular mechanisms for cisplatin treatment and provided references to eliminate existing side effects in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001075DOI Listing
May 2021

Increased hypospadias risk by rs3743104[G] in the southern Han Chinese population.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 05 7;13(10):13898-13908. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, Guangdong, China.

Hypospadias is a common congenital genitourinary malformation characterized by ventral opening of the urethral meatus. As a member of the bone morphogenic protein antagonist family, has been identified as associated with susceptibility to hypospadias in the European population. The present study was designed to elaborate on the mutual relationship between replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and hypospadias in Asia's largest case-control study in the Southern Han Chinese population involving 577 patients and 654 controls. Our results demonstrate that the risk allele rs3743104[G] markedly increases the risk of mild/moderate and severe hypospadias (, 0.280.66). GTEx expression quantitative trait locus data revealed that the eQTL SNP rs3743104 has more associations of eQTL SNP rs3743104 and targets in pituitary tissues. Additionally, Bioinformatics and Luciferase Assays show that miR-182 is identified as a suppressor for expression, likely through regulation of its binding affinity to rs3743104 locus. In conclusion, the risk allele rs3743104[G] increases hypospadias susceptibility in mild/moderate and severe cases among the southern Han population. rs3743104 regulates expression by altering the binding affinity of miR-182 to their locus. Collectively, this study provides new evidence that rs3743104 is associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. These findings provide a promising biomarker and merit further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202882PMC
May 2021

Prenatal exposure to propylparaben at human-relevant doses accelerates ovarian aging in adult mice.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 28;285:117254. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Embryonic exposure to environmental chemicals may result in specific chronic diseases in adulthood. Parabens, a type of environmental endocrine disruptors widely used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, have been shown to cause a decline in women's reproductive function. However, whether exposure to parabens during pregnancy also negatively affect the ovarian function of the female offspring in adulthood remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of prenatal propylparaben (PrP) exposure on the ovarian function of adult mice aged 46 weeks, which is equivalent to the age of 40 years in women. Pregnant ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with human-relevant doses of PrP (i.e., 0, 7.5, 90, and 450 mg/kg/day) during the fetal sex determination period-from embryonic day E7.5 to E13.5. Our results revealed that ovarian aging was accelerated in PrP-exposed mice at 46 weeks, with altered regularity of the estrous cycle, decreased serum estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels, reduced size of the primordial follicle pool, and increased number of atretic follicles. It was found that prenatal exposure to human-relevant doses of PrP exacerbated ovarian oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, which promoted follicular atresia by activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. To compensate, the depletion of primordial follicles was also accelerated by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in PrP-exposed mice. Moreover, PrP induced hypermethylation of CpG sites in the promoter region of Cyp11a1 (a 17.16-64.28% increase) partly led to the disrupted steroidogenesis, and the altered methylation levels of imprinted genes H19 and Peg3 may also contribute to the phenotypes observed. These remarkable findings highlight the embryonic origin of ovarian aging and suggest that a reduced use of PrP during pregnancy should be advocated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117254DOI Listing
April 2021

Hyocholic acid and glycemic regulation: comments on 'Hyocholic acid species improve glucose homeostasis through a distinct TGR5 and FXR signaling mechanism'.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai 200233, China.

Hyocholic acid species (HCA, hyodeoxycholic acid, and their glycine and taurine conjugated forms) comprise 80% of the composition of pig bile (Haslewood, 1956). An interesting fact about pigs is that they do not get diabetes even though they eat almost anything and in abundant amounts, a diabetes-promoting diet. The first use of pig bile for treatment of 'xiao-ke', a condition known today as diabetes, was recorded ∼400 years ago by the Chinese medical practitioners in the Compendium of Materia Medica (Li, 1573‒1593). Recently, we found HCA species as novel biomarkers for metabolic diseases (Zheng et al., 2021b) and also identified the role of HCA species in the prevention of diabetes as well as their mechanism of action (Zheng et al., 2021a). Although bile acids (BAs) are mostly associated with their aid in food digestion, they have also been shown to act as signaling molecules by binding to two particular receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G-protein-coupled receptor, TGR5. Experiments were thus directed to the effect of HCA binding to these two BA receptors on glycemic regulation in both in vivo and in vitro models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab027DOI Listing
April 2021