Publications by authors named "Wei Guo"

3,163 Publications

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Full composition granules of Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) decrease the serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and connective tissue growth factor levels and inhibit kidney nuclear factor-κB expression in rats with high-fat diet-induced diabete.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 Jun;41(3):424-431

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Mongolian Medical and Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Wuhai, Wuhai 016000, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the full composition granules of Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) (FGC) on the serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) levels and kidney nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in rats with high-fat diet-induced diabetes.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by feeding a high-fat chow combined with intravenous streptozotocin injection. Forty diabetic Sprague- Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a normal group (NG), model group (MG), irbesartan group (IG), and low-, middle-, and high-dosage FGC groups (LFGC, MFGC, HFGC), with eight rats per group. The IG rats received 31.25 mg·kg-1·d-1 irbesartan tablets, whereas those in the LFGC, MFGC, and HFGC were administered 52, 312.5, and 625 mg·kg-1·d-1 FGC, respectively. After 12 weeks, bodyweight (BW), left kidney weight (KW), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum creatinine (Scre), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum MCP-1 and CTGF levels were determined, pathological changes of the kidney were recorded, and kidney NF-κB p65 (A) expression was measured.

Results: The 24-h urine albumin and levels of HbA1c, Scre, BUN, and serum MCP-1 and CTGF were significantly increased in in the MG compared with the NG, as was the kidney NF-κB (p65) expression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, clear pathological changes in kidney fibrosis were observed in the MG rats. Following irbesartan and FGC administration, the 24-h urine albumin and the levels of HbA1c, Scre, and serum MCP-1 and CTGF were significantly decreased in FCG groups compared with those in the MG, which is in agreement with the change in the kidney NF-κB (p65) expression, whereas the similarly significant decrease only exist in 24-h urine albumin and the levels of serum CTGF after irbesartan administration. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining results indicated that the fibrosis observed in the MG samples was alleviated through FGC treatment.

Conclusion: FGC may alleviate potential kidney injury by decreasing the serum MCP-1 and CTGF levels and inhibiting NF-kB expression in diabetic nephropathy in rats with high-fat diet-induced diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2021.03.010DOI Listing
June 2021

3D Anisotropic [email protected] Hemispherical Nanostructures as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Methanol, Ethanol, and Formic Acid Oxidation Reaction.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 10:e2100713. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Anisotropic 3D nanostructures exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability due to their heterogeneous elemental distribution and unsymmetrical configuration. However, it is still a huge challenge to combine anisotropically distributed elements and anisotropic morphologies within one 3D nanostructure. Herein, 3D [email protected] hemispherical nanostructures ([email protected] H-Ss) are fabricated as highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxidation reaction, which present heterogenous element distribution and anisotropic morphology. It is demonstrated that the non-uniform adsorption of BO on Au-CTA surface, as well as the simulated lower formation energy of Pt-Pd atoms for Au-CTA -BO , basically contribute to the eventual formation of [email protected] H-Ss. Impressively, the unique anisotropic [email protected] H-Ss exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and durability for methanol, ethanol, and formic acid oxidation reaction compared with commercial Pt/C and previously reported noble-metal based electrocatalysts. Especially, the mass activity of [email protected] H-Ss for MOR is 4.38 A mg , which is about 2.0 and 4.7 times that of [email protected] spherical nanostructures ([email protected] Ss) and commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively. This work provides an important reference for the design and preparation of 3D anisotropic and high-efficiency electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100713DOI Listing
June 2021

Aroma characteristics of traditional Huangjiu produced around Winter Solstice revealed by sensory evaluation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 19;145:110421. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Traditional Huangjiu (a kind of traditional Chinese rice wine) produced around Winter Solstice has higher quality and a more harmonious aroma than those produced during other periods. To determine the specific differences in aroma characteristics, sensory evaluation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) were used to analyze the volatile profiles of the traditional Huangjiu samples produced under different ambient temperature conditions. The sensory evaluation results showed that the aroma attributes of wheat, sweet, ester, alcoholic and sauce were stronger for the samples fermented near Winter Solstice than those for the other samples. GC-MS combined with heatmap analysis showed that with the decrease in average ambient temperature, the contents of esters such as diethyl succinate and ethyl butanoate gradually increased, and the contents of alcohols such as phenylethyl alcohol, 2-methylpropanol and 3-methylbutanol gradually decreased. Some key aroma compounds, such as ethyl butyrate (OAV: 97-151), nonanal (OAV: 189-200), ethyl octanoate (OAV: 859-1134) and ethyl phenylacetate (OAV: 307-353), were more abundant in the samples fermented near Winter Solstice than the other samples. The visualization of GC-IMS suggested that isoamyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were enriched near Winter Solstice. Together, the results suggested that the traditional Huangjiu produced around Winter Solstice contained more flavor volatiles and had better aroma quality than those produced during other periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110421DOI Listing
July 2021

ARGONAUTE 2 increases rice susceptibility to rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection by epigenetically regulating HEXOKINASE 1 expression.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins play crucial roles in plant defence against virus invasion. To date, the role of OsAGO2 in rice antiviral defence remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined that the expression of OsAGO2 in rice was induced upon rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection. Using transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsAGO2 and Osago2 mutants generated through transposon-insertion or CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we found that overexpression of OsAGO2 enhanced rice susceptibility to RBSDV infection. Osago2 mutant lines exhibited strong resistance to RBSDV infection through the elicitation of an early defence response, including reprogramming defence gene expression and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared to Nipponbare control, the expression level of OsHXK1 (HEXOKINASE 1) increased significantly, and the methylation levels of its promoter decreased in the Osago2 mutant on RBSDV infection. The expression profile of OsHXK1 was the opposite to that of OsAGO2 during RBSDV infection. Overexpression of OsHXK1 in rice also induced ROS production and enhanced rice resistance to RBSDV infection. These results indicate that OsHXK1 controls ROS accumulation and is regulated by OsAGO2 through epigenetic regulation. It is noteworthy that the Osago2 mutant plants are also resistant to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection, another member of the genus Fijivirus. Based on the results presented in this paper, we conclude that OsAGO2 modulates rice susceptibility to fijivirus infection by suppressing OsHXK1 expression, leading to the onset of ROS-mediated resistance. This discovery may benefit future rice breeding programmes for virus resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13091DOI Listing
June 2021

Chromosome 10 abnormality predicts prognosis of neuroblastoma patients with bone marrow metastasis.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 Jun 9;47(1):134. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medical Oncology Department, Pediatric Oncology Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. It is known for high heterogeneity and concealed onset. In recent years, the mechanism of its occurrence and development has been gradually revealed. The purpose of this study is to summarize the clinical characteristics of children with NB and abnormal chromosome 10, and to investigate the relationship between the number and structure of chromosome 10 abnormalities and NB prognosis.

Methods: Chromosome G-banding was used at the time of diagnosis to evaluate the genetics of chromosomes in patients with NB and track their clinical characteristics and prognosis. All participants were diagnosed with NB in the Medical Oncology Department of the Beijing Children's Hospital from May 2015 to December 2018 and were followed up with for at least 1 year.

Results: Of all 150 patients with bone marrow metastases, 42 were clearly diagnosed with chromosomal abnormalities. Thirteen patients showed abnormalities in chromosome 10, and chromosome 10 was the most commonly missing chromosome. These 13 patients had higher LDH and lower OS and EFS than children with chromosomal abnormalities who did not have an abnormality in chromosome 10. Eight patients had both MYCN amplification and 1p36 deletion. Two patients had optic nerve damage and no vision, and one patient had left supraorbital metastases 5 months after treatment.

Conclusions: The results indicated that chromosome 10 might be a new prognostic marker for NB. MYCN amplification and 1p36 deletion may be related to chromosome 10 abnormalities in NB. Additionally, NB patients with abnormal chromosome 10 were prone to orbital metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-021-01085-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of the Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Microbiome in Children with Bacterial Meningitis and Its Potential Correlation with Inflammation.

mSystems 2021 Jun 8:e0004921. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China.

Bacterial meningitis shows a higher incidence in children than adults, but signs may be scarce. Although some pathogenic microorganisms of meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported, the signature of the representative microbiota in CSF and blood samples from patients remains incompletely revealed. To extend the understanding of the microbiome in patients, we recruited 32 children with bacterial meningitis, 30 undiagnosed infectious children, and 10 matched healthy individuals, which was followed by untargeted metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and bioinformatic analysis. Our results showed that children with bacterial meningitis exhibited different microbiome signatures in their CSF and blood compared with undiagnosed and healthy children, and patients could be divided into varied subsets according to these signatures, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Thermothelomyces thermophila, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. To further explore their potential role in patients' conditions, we examined their correlation with clinical parameters. Importantly, microbiome signatures with compositional changes were correlated with the C-reactive protein (CRP) level in blood and granulocyte percentage in CSF. Moreover, the blood in subsets of patients with a predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae could replace CSF as the main specimen for clinical monitoring. This study revealed the microbial compositions in children with bacterial meningitis who were treated with antibiotics and made a comprehensive comparison between blood and CSF specimens for the risk and prognosis assessment. We found that microbiome signatures could distinguish patient subsets in the children and were correlated with the CRP level in blood and granulocyte percentage in CSF. The compositional changes in representative microbiota constituents could provide guidance for clinical monitoring and antibiotic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00049-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Pregnancy-associated decrease of Siaα2-3Gal-linked glycans on salivary glycoproteins affects their binding ability to avian influenza virus.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratory for Functional Glycomics, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Salivary glycoproteins are known as an important barrier to inhibit influenza infection by presenting sialic acid (Sia) ligands that can bind with viral hemagglutination. Here, to further understand why pregnant women are more vulnerable to avian influenza virus (AIV), we investigated the alteration of protein sialylation in the saliva of women during pregnancy and postpartum, and its impact on the saliva binding affinity to AIV. Totally 1200 saliva samples were collected, the expression levels of terminal α2-3/6-linked Sia on salivary proteins were tested and validated, and the binding activities of salivary proteins were assessed against 3 strains of AIV and the H1N1 vaccine. Result showed that the expression of terminal α2-3-linked Sia in the saliva of women decreased dramatically during pregnancy compared to that of non-pregnancy control, especially for women in the second or third trimester (fold change = 0.53 and 0.37, p < 0.001). And their salivary protein binding ability to AIV declined accordingly. The variation of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary MUC5B and IgA was consistent with the above results. This study indicates that the decrease of terminal α2-3-linked Sia on salivary glycoproteins of pregnant women affects their binding ability to AIV, which may provide new insights into AIV prevention and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Synthesis of Purine Analogues: Photocatalyst-Free Visible-Light-Enhanced Annulation Approach to Pyrazolo[1,5-][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamines.

J Org Chem 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Organo-Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Jiangxi Province, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000, China.

A new photocatalyst-free visible-light-enhanced strategy for the synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamines via the formation of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes is reported. The generated pyrazolthiourea intermediates from 1-pyrazol-3-amines and isothiocyanates undergo formal [4 + 2] annulation with 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidines (TMG) to deliver the corresponding products involved in three C-N bond formations in a one-pot protocol. The formation of EDA complex from pyrazolthiourea and TMG is confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and H NMR experiments. Moreover, this mild reaction proceeds in the absence of any external transition metals, oxidants, bases, and ligands. This efficient methodology for the synthesis of purine analogues pyrazolo[1,5-][1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamines provides potential synthetic applications in the field of drug research and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00783DOI Listing
June 2021

Curcumin in Osteosarcoma Therapy: Combining With Immunotherapy, Chemotherapeutics, Bone Tissue Engineering Materials and Potential Synergism With Photodynamic Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:672490. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Restorative and Reconstructive Oral Care, Department of Oral Health Sciences, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Osteosarcoma is a dominating malignant bone tumor with high mortality due to pulmonary metastases. Furthermore, because of the cancer cell erosion and surgery resection, osteosarcoma always causes bone defects, which means dysfunction and disfigurement are seldom inevitable. Although various advanced treatments (e.g. chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy) are coming up, the 5-year survival rate for osteosarcoma with metastases is still dismal. In line with this, the more potent treatments for osteosarcoma are in high demand. Curcumin, a perennial herb, has been reportedly applied in the therapy of various types of tumors via different mechanisms. , it has also been reported that curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cell lines and can be used to repair bone defects. This seems curcumin is a promising candidate in osteosarcoma treatment. However, due to its congenital property like hydrophobicity, and low bioavailability, affecting its anticancer effect, clinical applications of curcumin are highly limited. To enhance its performance in cancer therapies, some synergist approaches with curcumin have emerged. The present review presents some prospective ones (i.e. combinations with immunotherapy, chemotherapeutics, bone tissue engineering, and biomaterials) applied in osteosarcoma treatment. Additionally, with the advancements of photodynamic therapy in cancer therapy, this review also prospects the combination of curcumin with photodynamic therapy in osteosarcoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.672490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172965PMC
May 2021

Apatinib plus ifosfamide and etoposide for relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma: A retrospective study in two centres.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 24;22(1):552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, P.R. China.

For osteosarcoma that progresses following first-line chemotherapy, prognosis remains poor although anti-angiogenesis tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been verified to prolong progression-free survival. Apatinib has led to positive responses in the treatment of refractory osteosarcoma. However, it demonstrates only short-lived activity, and the disease control rate of musculoskeletal lesions is worse compared with that of pulmonary lesions. This treatment failure has been partly overcome by the addition of ifosfamide and etoposide (IE). The present study retrospectively compared the activity of apatinib + IE in relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma in two sarcoma centres in China. The included patients had received a combination of apatinib 500 mg (orally) daily and the IE regimen (n=33) between June 3 2017 and July 17 2020. The tumour burden was considerable in these patients: 16/33 (48.5%) Patients had lung and musculoskeletal lesions, and 31/33 (93.9%) patients had progressed to two lines of therapies at baseline. With a median follow-up duration of 28.4 [interquartile range (IQR), 16.1-38.3] months, 21/33 (63.6%) patients had objective responses, and the median event-free survival was 11.4 (IQR, 6.7-18.4) months. The median overall survival time was 19.8 (IQR, 13.1-30.6) months. At the last follow-up, 16/33 patients had tumour downstaging, and all lesions had been completely resected. For osteosarcoma with multiple sites of metastasis, apatinib + IE demonstrated clinically meaningful antitumor activity and delayed disease progression in patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma after failure of chemotherapy. This combination with manageable toxicity deserves further investigation in prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170178PMC
July 2021

Exoskeleton Active Walking Assistance Control Framework Based on Frequency Adaptive Dynamics Movement Primitives.

Front Neurorobot 2021 20;15:672582. Epub 2021 May 20.

Robotics Institute, Shenzhen Academy of Aerospace Technology, Shenzhen, China.

This paper introduces a novel exoskeleton active walking assistance control framework based on frequency adaptive dynamics movement primitives (FADMPs). The FADMPs proposed in this paper is an online learning and prediction algorithm which is able to online estimate the fundamental frequency of human joint trajectory, learn the shape of joint trajectory and predict the future joint trajectory during walking. The proposed active walking assistance control framework based on FADMPs is a model-based controller which relies on the human joint torque estimation. The assistance torque provided by exoskeleton is estimated by human lower limb inverse dynamics model which is sensitive to the noise in the joint motion trajectory. To estimate a smooth joint torque profile, the joint motion trajectory must be filtered first by a lowpass filter. However, lowpass filter will introduce an inevitable phase delay in the filtered trajectory. Both simulations and experiments in this paper show that the phase delay has a significant effect on the performance of exoskeleton active assistance. The active assistant control framework based on FADMPs aims at improving the performance of active assistance control by compensating the phase delay. Both simulations and experiments on active walking assistance control show that the performance of active assistance control can be further improved when the phase delay in the filtered trajectory is compensated by FADMPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2021.672582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173117PMC
May 2021

Cofilin-1 promotes fibrocyte differentiation and contributes to pulmonary fibrosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 2;565:43-49. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central-South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, Central-South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; The Respiratory Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Fibrocytes originate from the bone marrow monocyte lineage and participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Research providing a comprehensive picture of fibrocytes is still limited. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is an important protein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Whether CFL-1 can induce monocyte differentiation into fibrocytes and promote the process of pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Compared with that of healthy controls, the expression of CFL-1 was significantly increased in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) patients (P < 0.05). The percentages of peripheral blood fibrocytes in the IPF group (4.2550 ± 0.3483%) and CTD-ILD group (4.7100 ± 0.4811%) were higher than that in the control group (1.6340 ± 0.2549%) (both P < 0.05). In vitro, PBMCs transfected with siRNA-CFL-1 showed lower expression of CFL-1, and the percentage of fibrocytes was lower than that of the control (P < 0.05). PBMCs transfected with Lv-CFL-1 to increase the expression of CFL-1 showed a higher percentage of fibrocytes than the control (P < 0.05). In mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the relative expression of CFL-1 was increased, and the percentage of fibrocytes was higher than that in the saline group (P < 0.05). In bleomycin-induced mice, interference with Lv-CFL-1 decreased the expression of CFL-1, the percentage of fibrocytes was lower, and the lung tissue showed less fibrosis (P < 0.05). The overexpression of CFL-1 is associated with pulmonary fibrogenesis. CFL-1 could promote the differentiation of fibrocytes from monocyte peripheral blood mononuclear cells and promote pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.085DOI Listing
June 2021

Activation of AhR-NQO1 Signaling Pathway Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury by Improving Redox Balance.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a liver-enriched xenobiotic receptor that plays important role in detoxification response in liver. This study aimed to investigate how AhR signaling may impact the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD).

Methods: Chronic alcohol feeding animal studies were conducted with mouse models of hepatocyte-specific AhR knockout (AhR) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) overexpression, and dietary supplementation of the AhR ligand indole-3-carbinol. Cell studies were conducted to define the causal role of AhR and NQO1 in regulation of redox balance and apoptosis.

Results: Chronic alcohol consumption induced AhR activation and nuclear enrichment of NQO1 in hepatocytes of both alcoholic hepatitis patients and ALD mice. AhR deficiency exacerbated alcohol-induced liver injury, along with reduction of NQO1. Consistently, in vitro studies demonstrated that NQO1 expression was dependent on AhR. However, alcohol-induced NQO1 nuclear translocation was triggered by decreased cellular oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-to-NADH ratio, rather than by AhR activation. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo overexpression NQO1 prevented alcohol-induced hepatic NAD depletion, thereby enhancing activities of NAD-dependent enzymes and reversing alcohol-induced liver injury. In addition, therapeutic targeting of AhR in the liver with dietary indole-3-carbinol supplementation efficiently reversed alcoholic liver injury by AhR-NQO1 signaling activation.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that AhR activation is a protective response to counteract alcohol-induced hepatic NAD depletion through induction of NQO1, and targeting the hepatic AhR-NQO1 pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2021.05.013DOI Listing
May 2021

EZH2-mediated long-chain non-coding RNA LINC00963 promotes proliferation and invasion of glioma cells through inhibiting p21 expression.

J BUON 2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):380-387

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding HospitaI of Qingdao University Medical College, Yantai, China.

Purpose: In the early stage, bioinformatics analysis revealed that the expression of long-chain non-coding RNA LINC00963 in glioma tissues was remarkably increased, but its biological effects on glioma and the potential molecular mechanisms have not been reported. This study aimed to conduct a preliminary discussion on the impact of LINC00963 on glioma, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of this cancer.

Methods: GEPIA database was consulted to determine the expression level of LINC00963 in gliomas. In addition, the interplay between LINC00963 expression and the prognosis of glioma patients was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Effects of LINC00963 on the proliferation and migration of glioma cells were determined using Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) and Transwell assay. The subcellular localization of LINC00963 was determined by nuclear separation experiments. At the same time, the regulation of LINC00963 on p21 expression was verified through qRT-PCR and Western blot experiments.

Results: By analyzing the GEPIA database, we found that LINC00963 was highly expressed in glioma tissues. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR results revealed that LINC00963 level in glioma tissues and cell lines was remarkably higher than that in the normal control group. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test revealed that there was no statistically significant association between the expression level of LINC00963 and the prognosis of patients with glioma. In addition, in vitro cell assay results indicated that downregulation of LINC00963 markedly suppressed the proliferation and invasiveness of glioma cells. Finally, the related mechanism analysis revealed that LINC00963 may inhibit p21 expression through modulation of EZH2.

Conclusions: LINC00963 can inhibit p21 expression through EZH2 and thus enhance the proliferative and invasive capacities of glioma cells. Consequently, LINC00963 may be a potential therapeutic target for gliomas.
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June 2021

Lobetyolin inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells ASCT2 down-regulation-induced apoptosis.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 Jun 2:9603271211021476. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Oncological Surgery, 74540The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

This study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect of lobetyolin on breast cancer cells. Lobetyolin was incubated with MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells for 24 h. Glucose uptake and the mRNA expression of GLUT4 (), and were detected to assess the effect of lobetyolin on glucose metabolism. Glutamine uptake and the mRNA expression of ASCT2 (), , and were measured to assess the effect of lobetyolin on glutamine metabolism. Annexin V/PI double staining and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to investigate the effect of lobetyolin on cell apoptosis. Immunoblot was employed to estimate the effect of lobetyolin on the expression of proliferation-related markers and apoptosis-related markers. knockdown with specific siRNA was performed to study the role of ASCT2 played in the anti-cancer effect of lobetyolin on MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. knockdown with specific siRNA was performed to study the role of c-Myc played in lobetyolin-induced ASCT2 down-regulation. Myr-AKT overexpression was performed to investigate the role of AKT/GSK3β signaling played in lobetyolin-induced down-regulation of c-Myc and ASCT2. The results showed that lobetyolin inhibited the proliferation of both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. Lobetyolin disrupted glutamine uptake down-regulating ASCT2. knockdown attenuated the anti-cancer effect of lobetyolin. knockdown attenuated lobetyolin-caused down-regulation of ASCT2 and Myr-AKT overexpression reversed lobetyolin-caused down-regulation of both c-Myc and ASCT2. In conclusion, the present work suggested that lobetyolin exerted anti-cancer effect ASCT2 down-regulation-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09603271211021476DOI Listing
June 2021

Synthesis of a Co-Sn Alloy-Deposited PTFE Film for Enhanced Solar-Driven Water Evaporation via a Super-Absorbent Polymer-Based "Water Pump" Design.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Photochemical Biomaterials and Energy Storage Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150025, China.

Solar-driven water evaporation is a promising solution to water pollution, the energy crisis, and water shortages. However, the approach in which the photothermal film is in direct contact with bulk water for water evaporation may lead to a large amount of heat loss, thereby reducing the light-to-heat conversion efficiency (η) of the photothermal film. Here, a highly efficient solar-driven water evaporation system was developed using a Co-Sn alloy-deposited Teflon (PTFE) film (Co-Sn [email protected]) and super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) supported with a floating foam substrate. The Co-Sn alloy with full-spectrum (200-2500 nm) absorption characteristics is devoted to high light-to-heat conversion, while the porous PTFE with high mechanical performance can support the Co-Sn alloy. We used density functional theory to prove that the Co-Sn alloy had a strong adhesive force with PTFE without surfactants due to the high adsorption energy between the (101) crystal plane of the Co-Sn alloy and the hydroxyl group on the PTFE film. Importantly, via the SAP-based "water pump" design, we improved the η of the Co-Sn [email protected] film to 89%, mainly because the SAP not only effectively performed water transportation but also markedly reduced the heat loss of the Co-Sn [email protected] film. Our work highlights the strong potential of Co-Sn [email protected] light-to-heat conversion systems for realizing highly effective solar energy-driven water evaporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02586DOI Listing
June 2021

Single cell transcriptome revealed tumor associated antigen (TAA) profile in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).

Biomark Res 2021 Jun 2;9(1):41. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100021, Beijing, China.

It has been suggested that the heterogeneity of TAAs in lung cancer may affect the therapeutic response and disease progression. Up to now, several tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-based cancer vaccines have been investigated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD); however, most of them have failed at the stage of clinical trials. The present study suggests that inter-tumoral heterogeneity of TAAs is large at single-cell resolution, while the communication between tumor cells and infiltrating T cells is closely related to the expression profile of TAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40364-021-00287-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170805PMC
June 2021

Antitumor Activity and Potential Mechanism of Novel Fullerene Derivative Nanoparticles.

Molecules 2021 May 28;26(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Life Science and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

The development of novel nanoparticles as a new generation therapeutic drug platform is an active field of chemistry and cancer research. In recent years, fullerene nanoparticles have received extensive attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Properly modified fullerene nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and significant anti-tumor activity, which makes them have broad application prospects in the field of cancer therapy. Therefore, understanding the anti-tumor mechanism of fullerene nanoparticles is of great significance for the design and development of anti-tumor drugs with low toxicity and high targeting. This review has focused on various anti-tumor mechanisms of fullerene derivatives and discusses their toxicity and their distribution in organisms. Finally, the review points out some urgent problems that need solution before fullerene derivatives as a new generation of anti-tumor nano-drug platform enter clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113252DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Open-Skill Exercises on Cognition on Community Dwelling Older Adults: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Brain Sci 2021 May 10;11(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Physical Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225000, China.

(1) Cognitive function may benefit from physical exercise in older adults. However, controversy remains over which mode of exercise is more beneficial. (2) The aim of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of open-skill exercise training on cognitive function in community dwelling older adults compared with closed-skill exercise, cognitive training, and active control. (3) One hundred and sixty participants, aged between 60 and 80 years old, will be recruited from community senior centers in Yangzhou, China and randomly assigned to one of four groups: open-skill exercise group, closed-skill exercise group, mobile game playing group, and active control group. All participants will join a 24-week program involving 50 min sessions three times a week. The primary outcome measure is visuospatial working memory. Secondary measures include subjective memory complaint, attention network, nonverbal reasoning ability, and physical activities. All participants will be measured before, mid-way, and immediately after intervention, and three months later. (4) If successful, this study is expected to provide evidence-based recommendations for older adults to select the most efficient and effective mode of exercise to improve cognitive function. Importantly, the three intervention groups provide an opportunity to separate the cognitive activity component from the physical activity component. Comparison of these components is expected to help elucidate possible mechanisms contributing to the additional cognitive benefit of open-skill exercises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151174PMC
May 2021

Analysis of the effect of high-quality nursing in the application of acute lower limb arterial embolization.

Minerva Med 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Radiotherapy, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07173-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of quantitative flow ratio-derived microcirculatory indices with anatomical-functional discordance in intermediate coronary lesions.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Discrepancy between coronary lesion severity and functional significance has always been a relevant issue in the management of patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or revascularization. We sought to investigate the relationship between quantitative flow ratio (QFR)-derived microcirculatory indices and anatomical-functional mismatch/reverse mismatch in intermediate coronary lesions. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and QFR were analyzed in 117 de novo intermediate coronary lesions. Lesions with QFR ≤ 0.8 were considered hemodynamically significant. Anatomical significance of the lesions was defined according to the best cutoff value of combined IVUS parameters for predicting QFR ≤ 0.8. QFR-derived microcirculatory indices including contrast-flow QFR minus fixed-flow QFR (cQFR-fQFR), hyperemic flow velocity and angiography-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) were calculated. The best cutoff values of IVUS parameters for predicting QFR ≤ 0.8 were minimum lumen area (MLA) 3.1mm and plaque burden (PB) 70%, with area under the curve of 0.635 and 0.703, respectively. The total discordance rate of lesion functional significance between IVUS and QFR assessments was 26.5%, with 21 lesions (17.9%) being classified as mismatch (MLA ≤ 3.1mm and PB ≥ 70% and QFR > 0.8) and 10 lesions (8.5%) as reverse-mismatch (MLA > 3.1 mm or PB < 70% and QFR ≤ 0.8). At multivariate analysis, IMR was identified as an independent predictor of mismatch (OR1.675, 95%CI:1.176-2.386, P = 0.004), whereas hyperemic flow velocity was identified as an independent predictor of reverse-mismatch (OR 1.233, 95%CI:1.073-1.416, P = 0.003). In intermediate coronary lesions, although MLA 3.1mm and PB 70% determined by IVUS are predictive of QFR-defined functional significance, the discordance rate remains substantial. QFR-derived microcirculatory indices are independently associated with anatomical-functional discordance between IVUS and QFR assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-021-02292-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Easy domain adaptation method for filling the species gap in deep learning-based fruit detection.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):119. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

International Field Phenomics Research Laboratory, Institute for Sustainable Agro-Ecosystem Services, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 188-0002, Japan.

Fruit detection and counting are essential tasks for horticulture research. With computer vision technology development, fruit detection techniques based on deep learning have been widely used in modern orchards. However, most deep learning-based fruit detection models are generated based on fully supervised approaches, which means a model trained with one domain species may not be transferred to another. There is always a need to recreate and label the relevant training dataset, but such a procedure is time-consuming and labor-intensive. This paper proposed a domain adaptation method that can transfer an existing model trained from one domain to a new domain without extra manual labeling. The method includes three main steps: transform the source fruit image (with labeled information) into the target fruit image (without labeled information) through the CycleGAN network; Automatically label the target fruit image by a pseudo-label process; Improve the labeling accuracy by a pseudo-label self-learning approach. Use a labeled orange image dataset as the source domain, unlabeled apple and tomato image dataset as the target domain, the performance of the proposed method from the perspective of fruit detection has been evaluated. Without manual labeling for target domain image, the mean average precision reached 87.5% for apple detection and 76.9% for tomato detection, which shows that the proposed method can potentially fill the species gap in deep learning-based fruit detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00553-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167097PMC
June 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of PD-L1 Expression, Immune Infiltrates, and m6A RNA Methylation Regulators in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:669750. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancer types and represents a threat to global public health. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) methylation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of many tumors, but there are still few studies investigating ESCC. This study attempts to construct a prognostic signature of ESCC based on m6A RNA methylation regulators and to explore the potential association of these regulators with the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME).

Methods: The transcriptome sequencing data and clinical information of 20 m6A RNA methylation regulators in 453 patients with ESCC (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA] cohort, n = 95; Gene Expression Omnibus [GEO] cohort, n = 358) were obtained. The differing expression levels of m6A regulators between ESCC and normal tissue were evaluated. Based on the expression of these regulators, consensus clustering was performed to investigate different ESCC clusters. PD-L1 expression, immune score, immune cell infiltration and potential mechanisms among different clusters were examined. LASSO Cox regression analysis was utilized to obtain a prognostic signature based on m6A RNA methylation modulators. The relationship between the risk score based on the prognostic signature and the TIME of ESCC patients was studied in detail.

Results: Six m6A regulators (METTL3, WTAP, IGF2BP3, YTHDF1, HNRNPA2B1 and HNRNPC) were observed to be significantly highly expressed in ESCC tissues. Two molecular subtypes (clusters 1/2) were determined by consensus clustering of 20 m6A modulators. The expression level of PD-L1 in ESCC tissues increased significantly and was significantly negatively correlated with the expression levels of YTHDF2, METL14 and KIAA1429. The immune score, CD8 T cells, resting mast cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cluster 2 were significantly increased. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) shows that this cluster involves multiple hallmark pathways. We constructed a five-gene prognostic signature based on m6A RNA methylation, and the risk score based on the prognostic signature was determined to be an independent prognostic indicator of ESCC. More importantly, the prognostic value of the prognostic signature was verified using another independent cohort. m6A regulators are related to TIME, and their copy-number alterations will dynamically affect the number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells.

Conclusion: Our study established a strong prognostic signature based on m6A RNA methylation regulators; this signature was able to accurately predict the prognosis of ESCC patients. The m6A methylation regulator may be a key mediator of PD-L1 expression and immune cell infiltration and may strongly affect the TIME of ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.669750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149800PMC
May 2021

Embodiment of intra-abdominal pressure in a flexible multibody model of the trunk and the spinal unloading effects during static lifting tasks.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The role of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in spinal load reduction has remained controversial, partly because previous musculoskeletal models did not introduce the pressure generating mechanism. In this study, an integrated computational methodology is proposed to combine the IAP change with core muscle activations. An ideal gas relationship was introduced to calculate pressure distribution within the abdominal cavity. Additionally, based on flexible multibody dynamics, a muscle membrane element was developed by incorporating the muscular fiber deformation, inter-fiber stiffness, and volume constancy. This element was then utilized in discretizing the diaphragm and transversus abdominis, forming an IAP-muscle coupling system of the abdominal cavity. Based on this methodology, a forward dynamic simulation of spinal flexion was presented to examine the unloading effect of abdominal breathing. The results confirm that core muscle contraction during the abdominal breathing cycle can substantially reduce the forces of spinal compression together with trunk extensor muscles, and this effect is more pronounced when the IAP increase is produced by contraction of the transversus abdominis. This unloading effect still holds even with the co-activation of other abdominal muscles, providing a potential choice when designing trunk movements during weight-lifting tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-021-01465-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Artificial dual solid-electrolyte interfaces based on in situ organothiol transformation in lithium sulfur battery.

Nat Commun 2021 May 28;12(1):3031. Epub 2021 May 28.

Materials Science and Engineering Program & Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

The interfacial instability of the lithium-metal anode and shuttling of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hinder the commercial application. Herein, we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive, i.e., 1,3,5-benzenetrithiol (BTT), which is used to construct solid-electrolyte interfaces (SEIs) on both electrodes from in situ organothiol transformation. BTT reacts with lithium metal to form lithium 1,3,5-benzenetrithiolate depositing on the anode surface, enabling reversible lithium deposition/stripping. BTT also reacts with sulfur to form an oligomer/polymer SEI covering the cathode surface, reducing the dissolution and shuttling of lithium polysulfides. The Li-S cell with BTT delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1,239 mAh g (based on sulfur), and high cycling stability of over 300 cycles at 1C rate. A Li-S pouch cell with BTT is also evaluated to prove the concept. This study constructs an ingenious interface reaction based on bond chemistry, aiming to solve the inherent problems of Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23155-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163853PMC
May 2021

Electrosynthesis of 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanyl) tetrasulfide via sulfur radical addition as cathode material for rechargeable lithium battery.

Nat Commun 2021 May 28;12(1):3220. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, P. R. China.

Organic electrodes are promising as next generation energy storage materials originating from their enormous chemical diversity and electrochemical specificity. Although organic synthesis methods have been extended to a broad range, facile and selective methods are still needed to expose the corners of chemical space. Herein, we report the organopolysulfide, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)tetrasulfide, which is synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of diphenyl dithiophosphinic acid featuring the cleavage of a P-S single bond and a sulfur radical addition reaction. Density functional theory proves that the external electric field triggers the intramolecular rearrangement of diphenyl dithiophosphinic acid through dehydrogenation and sulfur migration along the P-S bond axis. Impressively, the Li/bis(diphenylphosphanyl)tetrasulfide cell exhibits the high discharge voltage of 2.9 V and stable cycling performance of 500 cycles with the capacity retention of 74.8%. Detailed characterizations confirm the reversible lithiation/delithiation process. This work demonstrates that electrochemical synthesis offers the approach for the preparation of advanced functional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23521-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163837PMC
May 2021

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Women During Menopause Transition and Its Association With Cognitive Function and Serum Estradiol Level.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 11;12:652512. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, China.

Objective: Serum hormone deficiencies during menopause transition may affect spontaneous brain activity and global cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in spontaneous brain activity between premenopausal and perimenopausal women, and to investigate the associations between spontaneous brain activity, serum hormone levels and global cognition.

Methods: Thirty-two premenopausal women (47.75 ± 1.55 years) and twenty-five perimenopausal women (51.60 ± 1.63 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scan. Clinical information including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), levels of estradiol (E2), free testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were measured. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity alterations between perimenopausal and premenopausal women. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between brain functional alterations and clinical measures in perimenopausal group.

Results: The results demonstrated increased ReHo value in the right lingual gyrus (LG) and decreased ReHo value in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in perimenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. In perimenopausal group, ReHo of the right LG showed a negative correlation with level of E2 (r = -0.586, p = 0.002), ReHo of the right SFG showed a positive correlation with level of E2 (r = 0.470, p = 0.018) and MMSE (r = 0.614, p = 0.001).

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that women approaching menopause suffered from altered functions in brain regions related to cognitive function, working memory, the results also revealed a direct association between levels of E2 and brain functions in perimenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.652512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146460PMC
May 2021

Non-associative phase separation in an evaporating droplet as a model for prebiotic compartmentalization.

Nat Commun 2021 05 27;12(1):3194. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR), Hong Kong, China.

The synthetic pathways of life's building blocks are envisaged to be through a series of complex prebiotic reactions and processes. However, the strategy to compartmentalize and concentrate biopolymers under prebiotic conditions remains elusive. Liquid-liquid phase separation is a mechanism by which membraneless organelles form inside cells, and has been hypothesized as a potential mechanism for prebiotic compartmentalization. Associative phase separation of oppositely charged species has been shown to partition RNA, but the strongly negative charge exhibited by RNA suggests that RNA-polycation interactions could inhibit RNA folding and its functioning inside the coacervates. Here, we present a prebiotically plausible pathway for non-associative phase separation within an evaporating all-aqueous sessile droplet. We quantitatively investigate the kinetic pathway of phase separation triggered by the non-uniform evaporation rate, together with the Marangoni flow-driven hydrodynamics inside the sessile droplet. With the ability to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, the drying droplets provide a robust mechanism for formation of prebiotic membraneless compartments, as demonstrated by localization and storage of nucleic acids, in vitro transcription, as well as a three-fold enhancement of ribozyme activity. The compartmentalization mechanism illustrated in this model system is feasible on wet organophilic silica-rich surfaces during early molecular evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23410-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160217PMC
May 2021

Mechanisms of the enantioselective effects of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides DCPP and MCPP.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 14;788:147735. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Phenoxyalkanoic acids (PAAs), synthetic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) auxin mimics, are widely used as herbicides. Many PAAs are chiral molecules and show strong enantioselectivity in their herbicidal activity; however, there is a lack of understanding of mechanisms driving enantioselectivity. This study aimed to obtain a mechanistic understanding of PAA enantioselectivity using dichlorprop and mecoprop as model PAA compounds. Molecular docking, in vitro H-IAA binding assay, and surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the R enantiomer was preferentially combined with TIR1-IAA7 (Transport Inhibitor Response1- Auxin-Responsive Protein IAA7) than the S enantiomer. In vivo tracking using C-PAAs showed a greater absorption of the R enantiomer by Arabidopsis thaliana, and further comparatively enhanced translocation of the R enantiomer to the nucleus where the auxin co-receptor is located. These observations imply that TIR1-IAA7 is a prior target for DCPP and MCPP, and that PAA enantioselectivity occurs because the R enantiomer has a stronger binding affinity for TIR1-IAA7 as well as a greater plant absorption and translocation capability than the S enantiomer. The improved understanding of PAA enantioselectivity is of great significance, as the knowledge may be used to design "green" molecules, such as R enantiomer enriched products, leading to improved plant management and environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147735DOI Listing
May 2021