Publications by authors named "Wei Guan"

473 Publications

Research on the non-point source pollution of microplastics.

Front Chem 2022 22;10:956547. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Remediation Technologies, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, China.

Microplastics are characterized with universality, persistence and toxicity to aquatic organisms, the pollution of microplastics has attracted worldwide attention. At present, studies on microplastic pollution were mainly focused on the composition, abundance and species of microplastics in water bodies and sediments, and few studies were focused on the source and influence characteristics of microplastics in surface water bodies. Starting from the sources of microplastic pollution in surface water of this paper, the pollution status of agricultural microplastics was analyzed, and the importance and urgency of studying microplastic pollution in agricultural non-point sources were put forward. Therefore, it was intended to provide effective scientific basis and technical support for the control of microplastics non-point source pollution in river basins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.956547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353645PMC
July 2022

Ginsenoside Rh2 administration produces crucial antidepressant-like effects in a CUMS-induced mice model of depression.

Brain Behav 2022 Jul 18:e2705. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy College, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Introduction: The most striking feature of depression is sadness and a loss of interest in activities, which represents a major cause of disability globally. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel antidepressants for clinical practice. Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides that can be extracted from Panax ginseng and has been demonstrated to improve both memory and learning. The purpose of this study was to provide broad insight into the mechanisms underlying depression and gain greater insights into antidepressant therapy.

Methods: In this study, we first established an effective and feasible depression animal model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and behavioral testing was evaluated by the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test (TST) and the sucrose preference test. Following pretreatment with Rh2 (10 and 20 mg/kg), the immobility time of mice was reduced without affecting locomotor activity in both the FST and TST. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the activation of the hippocampal BDNF signaling pathway and hippocampal neurogenesis.

Results: Different concentrations of Rh2 significantly reduced depressive-like symptoms in CUMS-induced mice and downregulated the effects of the BDNF signaling cascade and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the administration of K252a completely prevented the antidepressant-like activity of Rh2 in mice.

Conclusion: The results indicated that Rh2 possesses the antidepression action via the positive regulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2705DOI Listing
July 2022

Hippocampal miR-124 participates in the pathogenesis of depression via regulating the expression of BDNF in a Chronic Social Defeat Stress model of depression.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2022 Jul 13. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy College, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu, China.

Objective As one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, the exact pathogenesis of depression remains elusive. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antidepressants for effective treatment. MicroRNA-124 (miR-124), the most abundant miRNA in brain tissue, plays a key effect on adult neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanism of miR-124 in depression has not been clarified so far, the aim of this study is to provide broad insight into the mechanisms underlying depression. Methods In the study, we used the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test (TST), and a Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS) mice model of depression. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, immunofluorescence and virus-mediated gene transfer were used together. The level of plasma corticosterone in mice was analyzed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results It was found that CSDS robustly increased the level of miR-124 in the hippocampus. Genetic knockdown of hippocampal miR-124 produced significant antidepressant-like effects in the CSDS model of depression. Furthermore, AAV-siR-124-EGFP treatment increased the level of plasma corticosterone in CSDS-induced mice. Moreover, it was found that the antidepressant-like effects induced by miR-124 inhibition required the hippocampal BDNF-TrkB system. Conclusion Hippocampal miR-124 participated in the pathogenesis of depression by regulating BDNF biosynthesis and was a feasible antidepressant target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202619666220713105306DOI Listing
July 2022

Ir/Ni-Metallaphotoredox-Catalyzed Enantioselective Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Amino Acids: Theoretical Insight of Enantio-Determining Outer-Sphere Reductive Elimination.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jul 21;61(26):10190-10197. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, People's Republic of China.

The Ir/Ni-metallaphotoredox-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative arylation of α-amino acids has been systematically investigated using density functional theory calculations. The combination of oxidative quenching (Ir-*Ir-Ir-Ir) or reductive quenching (Ir-*Ir-Ir-Ir) cycle with the nickel catalytic cycle (Ni-Ni-Ni-Ni) is possible. The favorable reaction mechanism consists of three major processes: single-electron transfer, oxidative addition, and stepwise outer-sphere reductive elimination. The rate-determining step is the oxidative addition. Unexpectedly, the enantio-determining C-C bond formation occurs via an ion-pair intermediate involved in the stepwise outer-sphere reductive elimination process, which is unusual in the Ir/Ni-metallaphotoredox catalysis. Furthermore, computational results reveal that the high enantioselectivity of this reaction is mainly dependent on the steric effect of substituents on substrates. This theoretical study provides useful knowledge for deep insights into the activity and selectivity of visible-light-mediated enantioselective metallaphotoredox dual catalysis at the molecular and atomic levels and benefits the development of asymmetric synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01387DOI Listing
July 2022

Recovery of nickel from electroless nickel plating wastewater based on the synergy of electrocatalytic oxidation and electrodeposition technology.

Water Environ Res 2022 Jun;94(6):e10741

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and New Environmental Materials, College of Environment and Resources, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.

Nickel exists primarily as a stable complex in electroless nickel plating wastewater, and the Ni recovery from it cannot be achieved solely through electrodeposition. As the electrocatalytic oxidation has excellent oxidation potential to break down the complex, an efficient and stable electrochemical system using the synergy of electrocatalytic oxidation and electrochemical deposition technology was developed for the recovery of nickel from electroless nickel plating wastewater. In the present study, the effects of initial pH, current density, and initial nickel ion concentration on the treatment performance of the electrochemical system was investigated. The highest Ni recovery (94.84%) and total organic carbon removal (63.94%) were achieved at a current density of 83.3 mA/cm , initial pH of 3.0, and initial Ni concentration of 0.01 M. At the same time, the recovered nickel product was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical system displayed good stability and economic benefits, thereby suggesting its excellent application potential for the treatment of electroless nickel plating wastewater. PRACTITIONER POINTS: An efficient and stable electrochemical system was developed for the recovery of nickel from electroless nickel plating wastewater. In an acidic medium, the nickel recovery rate and TOC removal ratio were 94.84% and 63.94%, respectively. The system displayed good stability, thereby suggesting its excellent application potential for the treatment of nickel plating wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.10741DOI Listing
June 2022

Sex disparities and the risk of urolithiasis: a large cross-sectional study.

Ann Med 2022 12;54(1):1627-1635

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most common diseases in urology, with a lifetime prevalence of 14% and is more prevalent in males compared to females. We designed to explore sex disparities in the Chinese population to provide evidence for prevention measures and mechanisms of stone formation.

Materials And Methods: A total of 98232 Chinese individuals who had undergone a comprehensive examination in 2017 were included. Fully adjusted odds ratios for kidney stones were measured using restricted cubic splines. Multiple imputations was applied for missing values. Propensity score matching was utilised for sensitivity analysis.

Results: Among the 98232 included participants, 42762 participants (43.53%) were females and 55470 participants (56.47%) were males. Patients' factors might cast an influence on the development of kidney stone disease distinctly between the two genders. A risk factor for one gender might have no effect on the other gender. The risk for urolithiasis in females continuously rises as ageing, while for males the risk presents a trend to ascend until the age of around 53 and then descend.

Conclusions: Patients' factors might influence the development of kidney stones distinctly between the two genders. As age grew, the risk to develop kidney stones in females continuously ascended, while the risk in males presented a trend to ascend and then descend, which was presumably related to the weakening of the androgen signals.Key messagesWe found that patients' factors might cast an influence on the development of kidney stone disease distinctly between the two sexes.The association between age and urolithiasis presents distinct trends in the two sexesThe results will provide evidence to explore the mechanisms underlying such differences can cast light on potential therapeutic targets and promote the development of tailored therapy strategies in prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2022.2085882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9196832PMC
December 2022

Inosine and D-Mannose Secreted by Drug-Resistant Affect Viability of Lung Epithelial Cells.

Molecules 2022 May 6;27(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

College of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

The antibiotic resistance rates of have been steadily increasing in recent years. Nevertheless, the metabolic features of the drug-resistant and its associated benefits for bacterial pathogenicity are far from expounded. This study aims to unravel the unique physiological and metabolic properties specific to drug-resistant . Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed a thicker extracellular mucus layer around a drug-resistant strain (Kp-R) than a drug-sensitive strain (Kp-S). Kp-R also produced more capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and biofilm, and appeared to have a significant competitive advantage when co-cultured with Kp-S. Moreover, Kp-R was easier to adhere to and invade A549 epithelial cells than Kp-S but caused less cell-viability damage according to cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) tests. Immunofluorescence revealed that both Kp-R and Kp-S infection destroyed the tight junctions and F-actin of epithelial cells, while the damage caused by Kp-S was more severe than Kp-R. We detected the extracellular metabolites secreted by the two strains with UHPLC-Q-TOF MS to explore the critical secretion products. We identified 16 predominant compounds that were differentially expressed. Among them, inosine increased the viability of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, and an AR antagonist can abolish such enhancement. D-mannose, which was secreted less in Kp-R, inhibited the viability of A549 cells in the range of low doses. These findings provide potential targets and research strategies for preventing and treating drug-resistant infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106066PMC
May 2022

Theoretical insight into decatungstate photocatalyzed alkylation of -tosylimine hydrogen atom transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer.

Dalton Trans 2022 May 24;51(20):7928-7935. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, P. R. China.

Decatungstate as a photocatalyst can activate various C(sp)-H bonds to successfully construct the C(sp)-C(sp) bond with -tosylimines. Herein density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal a unique radical mechanism triggered by the reductive quenching cycle of decatungstate. First of all, photoexcited *[WO] activates the C(sp)-H bond of ether through the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism to generate [HWO] and a C-centered radical species. Next, the C-centered radical will selectively attack the imine carbon of -tosylimine to provide the N-centered radical species containing the C(sp)-C(sp) bond. Finally, the C(sp)-C(sp) coupling product can be afforded by the stepwise proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process between [HWO] and the N-centered radical. Importantly, the bridging oxygen in the lateral position of [WO] is the most active. Intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) analysis confirms that *[WO] activates C(sp)-H through HAT instead of PCET. Furthermore, the origin of the regio-selectivity has been explored in depth. We hope that the reductive quenching cycle mechanism ([WO]-*[WO]-[HWO]-[WO]) can provide a clear understanding of the alkylation of -tosylimine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt00927gDOI Listing
May 2022

VHL Ser65 mutations enhance HIF2α signaling and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cancer cells.

Cell Biosci 2022 May 3;12(1):52. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant genetic neoplastic disorder caused by germline mutation or deletion of the VHL gene, characterized by the tendency to develop multisystem benign or malignant tumors. The mechanism of VHL mutants in pathogenicity is poorly understand.

Results: Here we identified heterozygous missense mutations c.193T > C and c.194C > G in VHL in several patients from two Chinese families. These mutations are predicted to cause Serine (c.193T > C) to Proline and Tryptophan (c.194C > G) substitution at residue 65 of VHL protein (p.Ser65Pro and Ser65Trp). Ser65 residue, located within the β-domain and nearby the interaction sites with hypoxia-inducing factor α (HIFα), is highly conserved among different species. We observed gain of functions in VHL mutations, thereby stabilizing HIF2α protein and reprograming HIF2α genome-wide target gene transcriptional programs. Further analysis of independent cohorts of patients with renal carcinoma revealed specific HIF2α gene expression signatures in the context of VHL Ser65Pro or Ser65Trp mutation, showing high correlations with hypoxia and epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling activities and strong associations with poor prognosis.

Conclusions: Together, our findings highlight the crucial role of pVHL-HIF dysregulation in VHL disease and strengthen the clinical relevance and significance of the missense mutations of Ser65 residue in pVHL in the familial VHL disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-022-00790-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9066845PMC
May 2022

Datinolides E-I, five new withanolides with anti-inflammatory activity from the leaves of Datura inoxia Mill.

Fitoterapia 2022 Jun 30;159:105204. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Five new withanolides, datinolides E-I (1-5), and three known withanolides (6-8) were separated from Datura inoxia Mill. leaves, and datinolide E (1) was the first withanolide with C-27 connected to a nitrogen-containing group. Their structures were clarified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature. The anti-inflammatory of isolated compounds against RAW264.7 cells was investigated by the CCK8 assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2022.105204DOI Listing
June 2022

Bulked Segregant RNA Sequencing Revealed Difference Between Virulent and Avirulent Brown Planthoppers.

Front Plant Sci 2022 14;13:843227. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The brown planthopper ( Stål, BPH) is one of the most devastating insect pests of rice ( L.), but BPH populations have varying degrees of virulence to rice varieties carrying different resistance genes. To help efforts to characterize these variations we applied bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-seq) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and genetic loci associated with BPH virulence to YHY15 rice plants carrying the resistance gene BPHs that are highly virulent or avirulent to these plants were selected from an F2 population to form two contrasting bulks, and BSR-seq identified 751 DEGs between the bulks. Genes associated with carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, the endocrine system, and signal transduction were upregulated in the avirulent insects when they fed on these plants. The results also indicated that shifts in lipid metabolism and digestive system pathways were crucial for the virulent BPHs' adaptation to the resistant rice. We identified 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 genes linked with BPH virulence. Possible roles of genes apparently linked to BPH virulence are discussed. Our results provide potentially valuable information for further studies of BPH virulence mechanisms and development of robust control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.843227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047503PMC
April 2022

Sirtuin 1 alleviates microglia-induced inflammation by modulating the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway after traumatic brain injury in male rats.

Brain Res Bull 2022 07 27;185:28-38. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210006, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response play important roles in the central nervous system after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of the PGC-1α pathway is responsible for microglial activation after TBI. Our previous study demonstrated that SIRT1 alleviates neuroinflammation-induced apoptosis after TBI, and activation of the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway extenuates TBI-induced neuronal apoptosis. However, no study has investigated whether SIRT1 can affect the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway to induce microglial excitation and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response. Microglial activation and the levels of pro-inflammatory factors, namely, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed to evaluate the neuroinflammatory response after TBI. To examine the effects of SIRT1, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis were used to observe the nuclear translocation and secretion of PGC-1α, as well as the activation of the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway. Treatment with the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol promoted microglial activation and pro-inflammatory factor expression (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) and inhibited PGC-1α and Nrf2 nuclear translocation and secretion after TBI, while treatment with the SIRT1 activator A3 had the opposite effects. The results of this study suggest that microglial activation, the subsequent neuroinflammatory response, and the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway play essential roles in secondary injury after TBI. These results indicate that SIRT1 protects neurons after TBI by inhibiting microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response, possibly by activating the PGC-1α/Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2022.04.012DOI Listing
July 2022

Transcriptome and Metabolome Profiling Reveal the Resistance Mechanisms of Rice against Brown Planthopper.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 7;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Brown planthopper (, BPH) is one of the most destructive insects affecting rice production. To better understand the physiological mechanisms of how rice responds to BPH feeding, we analyzed BPH-induced transcriptomic and metabolic changes in leaf sheaths of both BPH-susceptible and -resistant rice varieties. Our results demonstrated that the resistant rice reduced the settling, feeding and growth of BPH. Metabolic analyses indicated that BPH infestation caused more drastic overall metabolic changes in the susceptible variety than the resistant rice. Differently accumulated metabolites (DAMs) belonging to flavonoids were downregulated in the susceptible rice but upregulated in resistant variety. Transcriptomic analyses revealed more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in susceptible rice than resistant rice, and DEGs related to stimulus were significantly upregulated in resistant rice but downregulated in susceptible rice. Combined analyses of transcriptome and metabolome showed that many DEGs and DAMs were enriched in phenylpropane biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction. We conducted correlation analyses of DEGs and DAMs in these pathways and found a high correlation between DEGs and DAMs. Then, we found that the contents of endogenous indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) in resistant rice was lower than that of susceptible rice after BPH feeding, while the salicylic acid (SA) content was the opposite. For functional analysis, an exogenous application of IAA decreased rice resistance to BPH, but the exogenous application of SA increased resistance. In addition, biochemical assessment and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the lignin content of resistant accession was constitutively higher than in susceptible accession. By adding epigallocatechin, the substrate of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), to the artificial diet decreased the performance of BPH. We first combined a transcriptome-metabolome-wide association study (TMWAS) on rice resistance to BPH in this study. We demonstrated that rice promoted resistance to BPH by inducing epigallocatechin and decreasing IAA. These findings provided useful transcriptomic and metabolic information for understanding the rice-BPH interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9031479PMC
April 2022

Phenylpropanoids from and their anti-inflammatory activity.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2022 Apr 21:1-7. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao, (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040, China.

Two new phenylpropanoids, 4-O-(1''-O-cis-caffeoyl)--glucopyran osyl-1-allyl-3-methoxy-benzene (), 4'-O-(1''-O-cis-caffeoyl)--glucopyranosyl-hydroxymegastigm-4-en-3-one (), together with nine known compounds were obtained from the leaves of . Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods, and comparing spectral data with those in literature. Meanwhile, their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated on (LPS)-induced RAW 246.7 cells, and , , and showed better inhibitory effects with IC values of 17.19 ± 1.12, 18.15 ± 0.47, and 19.8 ± 0.95 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2022.2066529DOI Listing
April 2022

The Aerial Parts of DC. Aromatic Oil Attenuate Kainic Acid-Induced Epilepsy-Like Behavior and Its Potential Mechanisms.

Biomed Res Int 2022 11;2022:1234612. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, 24 Heping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040, China.

The aerial parts of DC. aromatic oil (BAO) were a well-known Chinese herbal medicine plant extract used to treat epilepsy. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of BAO on kainic acid- (KA-) induced epileptic rats and the possible mechanism of its antiepileptic effect. The composition and content of BAO were analyzed by GC-MS, and BAO was administered orally to alleviate the epileptic behavior induced by KA brain injection. The behavior of epileptic rats was determined by Racine grading criteria. And hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE), Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, Elisa, Western blot, and other methods were used to study the antiepileptic mechanism of BAO, and the possible mechanism was verified by the epileptic cell model of hippocampal neurons induced by the low-Mg extracellular fluid. BAO was mainly composed of terpenoids and aliphatic compounds. And BAO could improve KA-induced epilepsy-like behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurotransmitter abnormalities in the hippocampus. Furthermore, BAO could regulate the expression of GABA, NMDAR1, Notch1, and MAP2 to improve the symptoms of epilepsy. These results were also validated at the cellular level. These results indicated that BAO could alleviate the epilepsy-like behavior through the action of the Notch/NMDAR/GABA pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1234612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015862PMC
April 2022

The Polysaccharides from the Aerial Parts of e DC Attenuate Epilepsy-Like Behavior through Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 7;2022:7907814. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, 24 Heping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040, China.

DC. is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history and is often used as the main ingredient in prescription drugs for epilepsy. The aerial parts of DC. have similar efficacy and composition to DC. Therefore, we speculated that the aerial parts of DC. could be used in the treatment of epilepsy. Polysaccharides from the aerial parts of DC. were selected to explore their therapeutic effects on epilepsy and their potential mechanism of action. The study is aimed at clarifying the antiepileptic effects of the polysaccharides from the aerial parts of DC. and their potential underlying mechanisms. The chemical profile of the aerial parts of DC. polysaccharides (ABP) was characterized by FT-IR spectrum and HPLC chromatogram. To determine the therapeutic effects of ABPs on epilepsy, we established a kainic acid- (KA-) induced rat model of epilepsy, and through H&E staining, Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analysis, ELISA, and Western blot analysis, we explored the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of ABPs on epilepsy. The monosaccharide content of ABP included galacturonic acid (45.19%), galactose (36.63%), arabinose rhamnose (12.13%), and mannose (6.05%). Moreover, the average molecular weight of ABP was 1.38 × 10 kDa. ABP could improve hippocampal injuries and neuronal function in the KA-induced epilepsy rat model. ABP significantly inhibited oxidative stress in the hippocampus of KA-induced rats. More importantly, ABP could regulate TREM2 activation in the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 pathway to inhibit neuronal apoptosis, including increasing the expression of superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing the expression of malondialdehyde. The current study defined the potential role of ABP in inhibiting the development of epilepsy, indicating that ABP could upregulate TREM2 to alleviate neuronal apoptosis, by activating the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 pathway and oxidative stress in epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7907814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9010214PMC
April 2022

Observation of the Gut Microbiota Profile in BALB/c Mice Induced by 17XL Infection.

Front Microbiol 2022 31;13:858897. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Human Parasitology, School of Basic Medicine Science, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Rodent malaria caused by 17XL (Py 17XL) is an ideal animal model for human malaria studies. Although the gut microbiota plays an important role in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases, the gut microbiota associated with Py 17XL infection remains unclear. In the current study, the gut microbiota composition of infected BALB/c mice was surveyed. Mouse fecal samples were collected at 0, 2, 5 days post-infection (dpi), and the gut microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were 634 ± 26 on average. and were typically predominant in the gut microbiota composition at the phylum level. Compared with the Ctrl, was significantly decreased after infection, while was notably increased. The most dominant family was in all samples. The alpha diversity index showed that compared with that of the Ctrl, the observed OTU number was decreased at 2 dpi and then slightly increased at 5 dpi. LEfSe analysis revealed several bacterial taxa were notably related to Py-infected mice at the phylogenetic level. Several bacterial genera, such as , were overrepresented in the Pyinfected fecal microbiota at 2 dpi, while was overrepresented at 5 dpi. Moreover, were overrepresented at 5 dpi compared with 2 dpi. The results indicated Py infection could alter the gut microbiota composition of mice. Besides, biomarkers could serve as direct targets to elucidate their roles in the progression and pathogenesis of malaria and provide insights into studies of antimalarial drugs and malaria vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.858897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9009211PMC
March 2022

Heterogeneous overtaking and learning styles with varied EEG patterns in a reinforced driving task.

Accid Anal Prev 2022 Jun 11;171:106665. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Key Laboratory of Transport Industry of Big Data Application Technologies for Comprehensive Transport, Ministry of Transport, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, PR China.

Overtaking maneuvers occur when vehicle drivers pursue higher driving speeds or comfort scenarios through back-to-back lane-changing behaviors, which require active participation of mental resources and certain self-learning practices. However, few studies have investigated how brain activities change during overtaking. Moreover, the learning process, which indicates the heterogeneity of drivers from a process-based perspective, has been neglected. In this work, we studied varied overtaking and learning styles using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals collected from drivers during a simulated driving task with a possible learning process. The average speed, standard deviation of speed, steering wheel angle and lateral movement distance of overtaking behaviors are analyzed in these reinforced tasks to evaluate overtaking performance. Four types of overtaking styles (i.e., low-speed type, low-speed & strong-oscillation type, high-speed & strong-steering type, and high-speed & close-distance type) and three types of learning styles (i.e., stable, adaptive and changeful) are discovered, not only from eventual overtaking behaviors but also from behavioral changes in a certain learning process. EEG features, such as the power spectral density (PSD) in the θ, α, β and γ bands, are extracted to characterize driver mental states and to correlate with heterogeneous learning styles. The obtained results show that fatigue and fatigue confrontation are more likely with a stable learning style, and the mental workload is reduced with an adaptive learning style, whereas no significant changes in brain activity are apparent with a changeful learning style. Understanding and recognizing heterogeneous overtaking and learning styles with varying EEG patterns will be extremely useful in the future for deep integration of advanced driving assistance systems (ADASs) and brain computer interface (BCI) systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2022.106665DOI Listing
June 2022

Vaccines as a Strategy to Control Trichinellosis.

Front Microbiol 2022 23;13:857786. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Human Parasitology, School of Basic Medicine, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Trichinellosis caused by is a worldwide food-borne parasitic zoonosis. Several approaches have been performed to control infection, including veterinary vaccines, which contribute to improving animal health and increasing public health by preventing the transmission of trichinellosis from animals to humans. In the past several decades, many vaccine studies have been performed in effort to control infection by reducing the muscle larvae and adult worms burden. Various candidate antigens, selected from excretory-secretory (ES) products and different functional proteins involved in the process of establishing infection have been investigated in rodent or swine models to explore their protective effect against infection. Moreover, different types of vaccines have been developed to improve the protective effect against infection in rodent or swine models, such as live attenuated vaccines, natural antigen vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, DNA vaccines, and synthesized epitope vaccines. However, few studies of vaccines have been performed in pigs, and future research should focus on exploring the protective effect of different types of vaccines in swine models. Here, we present an overview of the strategies for the development of effective vaccines and summarize the factors of influencing the effectiveness of vaccines. We also discuss several propositions in improving the effectiveness of vaccines and may provide a route map for future vaccines development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.857786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8984473PMC
March 2022

Identification and potential mechanism of different components from the aerial part of DC. for epileptic treatment.

Nat Prod Res 2022 Mar 25:1-6. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin, China.

The present study aimed to assess the effects of epileptic treatment of the aerial part of DC. in kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy rats and LPS-induced BV2 cells, as well as to identify the active chemical constituents. The in and results showed that 20% ethanol elution fractions of the aerial part of DC. (BCE-20) and 70% ethanol elution fractions of the aerial part of DC. (BCE-70) could improve the epileptic state of the rats and status epilepticus (SE%). Moreover, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-Orbitrap- mass spectrometry (MS) analysis identified BCE-20 and 70 as flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, respectively. The mechanistic analysis also showed that BCE-20 and 70 could regulate neurotransmitter abnormalities and suppresses the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Notably, BCE-20 and 70 could regulate the Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2)/nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB)/inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) pathway to inhibit the neuroinflammation. Our findings support the ethnopharmacological use of the constituent polyphenols and flavonoids from the aerial part of DC., as the strong anti-epileptic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2022.2055557DOI Listing
March 2022

Comprehensive Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology to Explore the Mechanism of 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural in the Treatment of Blood Deficiency Syndrome.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:811331. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangdong, China.

Radix Rehmanniae (RR, from Radix Rehmanniae (Gaertn.) DC.) is a natural medicine used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since ancient times for the treatment of blood disorders. RR is steamed to get Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RP), which has a tonic effect on blood; the content of 5-hydromethylfurfural (5-HMF) increases more than four times after steaming. Studies have shown that 5-HMF has positive pharmacological effects on cardiovascular and hematological disorders. This study aimed to explore and verify the impact of 5-HMF on rats with chemotherapy-induced blood deficiency syndrome (BDS). Rats were given cyclophosphamide (CP) and acetophenhydrazine (APH) to induce BDS, the coefficients of some organs (liver, spleen, and kidney) were measured, and a routine blood test examined the coefficients of several peripheral blood cells. Metabolomics and network pharmacology were combined to find important biomarkers, targets, and pathways. Western blot was used to detect the expression of CYP17A1 and HSD3B1 proteins in the spleen. All these findings suggested that the 5-HMF significantly increased the number of peripheral blood cells and reversed splenomegaly in rats. In addition, 5-HMF upregulated CYP17A1 and HSD3B1 protein expression in splenic tissues. Also, 5-HMF ameliorated chemotherapy-induced BDS in rats, and its therapeutic mechanism might depend on steroid hormone biosynthesis and other pathways. It acts on blood deficiency via multiple targets and pathways, which is unique to Chinese medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.811331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931835PMC
March 2022

Theoretical study of Ni-Ni cycle mediated by heterogeneous zinc in C-N cross-coupling reaction.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Mar 30;24(13):7617-7623. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, P. R. China.

Photoredox/transition-metal dual catalysis could efficiently construct C-N bonds by a cross-coupling reaction. The limitations of low recovery, low utilization rate and high cost have hindered the application and development of low-cost and efficient transition metal catalytic cycles. The integration of heterogeneous metal and transition metal catalysis is an appealing alternative to realize the oxidation state modulation of active species. With the support of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, we have explored the mechanistic details of Ni-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling of aryl bromide and cyclic amine assisted by zinc powder. Zinc successfully regulates the oxidation state of Ni → Ni, thus achieving the Ni-Ni-Ni catalytic cycle in the absence of light. In comparison, when the Ni(0) complex is employed as the initial catalyst, organic zinc reagents can still be involved in the transmetalation process to accelerate the cross-coupling reaction. We hope that such computational studies can provide theoretical reference for the design and development of low-cost and efficient catalytic systems for C-N cross-couplings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00105eDOI Listing
March 2022

Estimating the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of m6A methylation-associated genes.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2022 Feb;13(1):1-12

Cancer Center of Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA modification is the most prevalent in certain tumors. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unknown.

Methods: Herein, we performed an extensive investigation of the m6A-associated gene expression profile and determined its significance in the prognosis of ESCC. We received the RNA expression profiles of 81 ESCC tissues and one normal esophageal tissue from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis was used to assess the predictability of m6A methylation-associated gene expression in ESCC prognosis. In addition, univariate and multivariate Cox regression, as well as least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression models were employed for the establishment of prognostic signatures. Lastly, KM survival analysis, proportional hazard models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to verify the prognostic value. Moreover, we also investigated the associations among the m6A prognostic signature, immune cell infiltration, and programmed cell death-ligand 1 () expression.

Results: We demonstrated that [hazard ratio (HR): 0.910; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.832-0.995; P=0.038], (HR: 0.721; 95% CI: 0.549-0.948; P=0.019), (HR: 0.801; 95% CI: 0.664-0.967; P=0.021), and (HR: 0.948; 95% CI: 0.895-1.003; P=0.0.064) overexpression predicted better overall survival (OS) of ESCC patients. Furthermore, based on prognostic factors, the high-risk (H-R) cohort was found to have worse survival than the low-risk (L-R) cohort (P<0.001).

Conclusions: We revealed three m6A methylation-associated genes that were closely correlated with enhanced survival in ESCC patients. In addition, we generated an independent prognostic signature based on the expression of , , , and genes. The results revealed significantly higher proportions of CD8 T cells and higher expression of in the H-R group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-21-686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8899758PMC
February 2022

Four new withanolides with anti-inflammatory activity from Datura inoxia Mill. leaves.

Steroids 2022 06 11;182:109010. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Four previously undescribed withanolides, datinolides A-D (1-4) and eight known withanolides (5-12), were separated from the 70% ethyl alcohol extract of Datura inoxia Mill. leaves. All structures were clarified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, all withanolides were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity and results showed that 1 exhibited a fairly good suppression against nitric oxide generation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (IC = 10.33 ± 1.53 μM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2022.109010DOI Listing
June 2022

Triterpenoid Saponins From the Fruit of (Rupr. & Maxim.) Harms.

Front Chem 2022 21;10:825763. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin, China.

Five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (), together with 24 known saponins () were isolated from the fruit of . Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), in combination with chemical methods (acid hydrolysis). The neuroinflammation model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia, and the neuroprotective effects of all compounds () were evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.825763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8899614PMC
February 2022

Identification and Quantification of Necroptosis Landscape on Therapy and Prognosis in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2022 14;13:832046. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) has high morbidity and gradually increased in recent years, and the rate of progression once relapsed is high. At present, owing to lack of effective prognosis predicted markers and post-recurrence drug selection guidelines, the prognosis of KIRC patients is greatly affected. Necroptosis is a regulated form of cell necrosis in a way that is independent of caspase. Induced necroptosis is considered an effective strategy in chemotherapy and targeted drugs, and it can also be used to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy. Herein, we quantified the necroptosis landscape of KIRC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and divided them into two distinct necroptosis-related patterns (C1 and C2) through the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. Multi-analysis revealed the differences in clinicopathological characteristics and tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Then, we constructed the NRG prognosis signature (NRGscore), which contained 10 NRGs (PLK1, APP, TNFRSF21, CXCL8, MYCN, TNFRSF1A, TRAF2, HSP90AA1, STUB1, and FLT3). We confirmed that NRGscore could be used as an independent prognostic marker for KIRC patients and performed excellent stability and accuracy. A nomogram model was also established to provide a more beneficial prognostic indicator for the clinic. We found that NRGscore was significantly correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, TIME, and tumor mutation burden (TMB) of KIRC patients. Moreover, NRGscore had effective guiding significance for immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.832046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8882778PMC
February 2022

Speech Representation Used by Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children Aged Three to Six Years.

Authors:
Wei Guan Haitao Liu

J Child Lang 2022 Mar 3:1-27. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Zhejiang University, China.

This study investigates how Mandarin Chinese-speaking children use Mandarin Chinese, a language lacking tense markers, to represent characters' speech in their story narratives. Eighty participants, from three to six years of age, completed an elicited narrative task based on a wordless picture book. The representing forms and signals that they employed in representing activities were assessed. The results showed a significant age-related increase in the overall use of speech representation by the cohort of children. Regarding representing forms, direct representation exhibited its expected dominance among all age groups, and its presence in children's narratives grew significantly with age. Concerning representing signals, shuō 'say' was the most prevalent across all ages and susceptible to significant age effects, and, with advancing age, children's representing signals expanded from single verbs to more complex syntactic constructions. In addition, no significant gender effects were observed regarding the representing forms or signals that Mandarin-speaking children used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305000921000866DOI Listing
March 2022

Sex Disparities in the Association of Serum Uric Acid With Kidney Stone: A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 9;9:774351. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Urology, Tongji Medical College, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background And Aims: Urolithiasis is characterized by high rates of prevalence and recurrence. Hyperuricemia is related to various diseases. We hope to determine the association between serum uric acid (UA) level and kidney stone (KS).

Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, a total of 82,017 Chinese individuals who underwent a comprehensive examination in 2017 were included. The KS was diagnosed based on ultrasonography examination outcomes. Fully adjusted odds ratio () for KS, and mean difference between the two groups were applied to determine the association of UA level with KS.

Results: Among the 82,017 participants included in this study (aged 18~99 years), 9,435 participants (11.5%) are diagnosed with KS. A proportion of 56.3% of individuals is male. The mean UA level of overall participants is 341.77 μmol/L. The participants with KS report higher UA level than the participants without KS [mean UA level 369.91 vs. 338.11 μmol/L; mean difference (MD), 31.96 (95% , 29.61~34.28) μmol/L]. In men, the OR for KS significantly increases from 330 μmol/L UA level. Every 50 μmol/L elevation of UA level increases the risk of KS formation by about 10.7% above the UA level of 330 μmol/L in men. The subgroup analysis for male is consistent with the overall result except for the participants presenting underweight [adjusted , 1.035 (0.875~1.217); MD, -5.57 (-16.45~11.37)], low cholesterol [adjusted , 1.088 (0.938~1.261); MD, 8.18 (-7.93~24.68)] or high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [adjusted , 1.044 (0.983~1.108); MD, 5.61 (-1.84~13.36)]. However, no significant association is observed in women between UA and KS either in all female participants or in female subgroups.

Conclusion: Among Chinese adults, UA level is associated with KS in a dose-response manner in men but not in women. However, the association becomes considerably weak in male participants with malnutrition status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.774351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8864179PMC
February 2022

Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Schisandra chinensis.

Chem Biodivers 2022 Apr 15;19(4):e202100962. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Basic and Application Research of Beiyao, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150040, P. R. China.

One new phenylpropanoid schineolignin D (1), one new sesquiterpene (-)-(7S,10S)-3,11,12,13-tetrahydroxycalamenene (2), one new quinic acid 4-(E)-O-coumaroylquinic acid ethyl ester (3), and seven known compounds 4-10 were separated from the roots of Schisandra chinensis. The chemical structures of all compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopic experiments. All compounds were assessed for their neuroprotective effects on PC12 cell lines induced by H O . Compounds 1, 3-4, and 7 showed statistically significant neuroprotective activities with the negative control group at 12.5 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100962DOI Listing
April 2022
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