Publications by authors named "Wei Gao"

2,895 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome analysis and 2'-fucosyllactose utilization characteristics of a new Akkermansia muciniphila strain isolated from mice feces.

Mol Genet Genomics 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

Akkermansia muciniphila is considered to be a next-generation probiotic, and closely related to host metabolism and immune response. Compared with other probiotics, little is known about its genomic analysis. Therefore, further researches about isolating more A. muciniphila strains and exploring functional genes are needed. In the present study, a new strain isolated from mice feces was identified as A. muciniphila (Muc). Whole-genome sequencing and annotation revealed that Muc possesses key genes necessary for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) utilization, including α-L-fucosidases, β-galactosidases, exo-α-sialidases, and β-acetylhexosaminidases. The complete metabolic pathways for γ-aminobutyric acid and squalene and genes encoding functional proteins, such as the outer membrane protein Amuc_1100, were annotated in the Muc genome. Comparative genome analysis was used to identify functional genes unique to Muc compared to six other A. muciniphila strains. Results showed Muc genome possesses unique genes, including sugar transporters and transferases. Single-strain incubation revealed faster utilization of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), galacto-oligosaccharides, and lactose by Muc than by A. muciniphila DSM 22959. This study isolated and identified an A. muciniphila strain that can utilize 2'-FL, and expolored the genes related to HMO utilization and special metabolites, which provided a theoretical basis for the further excavation of A. muciniphila function and the compound application with fucosylated oligosaccharides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-022-01937-8DOI Listing
August 2022

Direct growth of h-BN multilayers with controlled thickness on non-crystalline dielectric substrates without metal catalysts.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

We report an rGO-assisted CVD approach that enables the direct growth of high-quality single crystalline h-BN films with adjustable thickness and layered order on amorphous quartz and SiO/Si substrates at relatively low temperatures. This work demonstrates a viable prototype for growing continuous ultrathin h-BN films on desired substrates without the requirement of lattice orientation, thus offering a great opportunity for their appealing applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc03025jDOI Listing
August 2022

First Report of Colletotrichum truncatum Causing Anthracnose of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis) in China.

Plant Dis 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection, Xiqing, Tianjin, China;

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.), belonging to the family Gramineae, is a monocotyledonous plant that is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. S. viridis is one of the most abundant weeds in corn, soybean, rice and other major crops in China, which competes with crops for light, moisture and nutrients, leading to yield losses. In September 2021, an unknown leaf spot disease was observed on the leaves of S. viridis in many greenhouses of Xinkou town, Xiqing district, Tianjin, China (116.95729, 39.09088), under cloudy and high humid conditions after a week of rain. Over 60% of the weeds were observed with leaf spots in 28 greenhouses of XinKou town. The characteristics of the disease were observed and investigated. Initial symptoms were brown spots of 1 to 5 mms, longitudinal elliptic, round, or spindle-shaped lesions on leaves of S. viridis. These spots continued to spread shortly after the onset of the symptoms. At the late-stage disease, the spots' edges were dark brown and irregular. Eventually, the center of the spots turned grayish-white and became thinner and drier until fracture. To investigate the disease, symptomatic weed leaves were separated and small patches with infected spots were cut out. Diseased tissues (3×3 mm) were disinfected with 75% alcohol for 30s  35s, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water and then placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25°C with a 12-h photoperiod for 7 days in incubators (RXZ-280C, Ningbo, China). With the pathogen growing on the PDA, three mycelia with uniform morphology were observed, which were named SVCT-01, SVCT-02, and SVCT-03, respectively. These mycelia were transferred and cultured for daily observation. The color of these mycelia on PDA appeared gray at first, which eventually turned to grayish black with numerous black microsclerotia, setae, and a few aerial mycelia after 7 days. The setae were 75 to 120 ×3.5 to 5 μm, with elliptic to claviform appressoria. Conidia were hyaline, falcate, unicellular, 16 to 25 × 2.6 to 3.8 μm (n=50). All characteristics of isolates were consistent with the description of Colletotrichum truncatum (Sutton, 1992). Pathogenicity testing was conducted on 3-leaves-stage S. viridis seedlings. Conidial suspension (106 conidia/mL) of isolates were sprayed on 20 S. viridis seedlings with the suspension of each isolate was sprayed on 10 seedlings. Ten seedlings sprayed with sterilized distilled water were used as the control. Three replicates were performed on each treatment. The treatment plants were maintained in the incubator (25°C, relative humidity > 80%, 12-h photoperiod). Typical leaf spot symptoms were observed on inoculated leaves after 7 days, the control leaves remained symptomless. The fungus reisolated from the lesions of diseased leaves were morphological and molecularly identical to the inoculated isolates. The results echo with Koch's postulates,suggesting that the obtained isolates SVCT-01, SVCT-02 and SVCT-03 are potential pathogen in Setaria viridis. To confirm the species' identity, total genomic DNA of isolates were extracted using a Fungal DNA Kit (GBCBIO, Guangzhou, China). Sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), and β-tubulin (TUB2) regions were identified via PCR (Guerber et al, 2003; Weir et al, 2012). The sequences of SVCT-01, SVCT-02 and SVCT-03 showed more than 99% homology with Colletotrichum truncatum strains CBS:151.35 (GenBank Accession No. GU227862, GU228254, GU227960, GU228156) (Damm, 2009). The sequences of SVCT-01 were deposited in GenBank as a representative isolate under the accession numbers OL629177, OL627527, OM040388, OM040389. Maximum likelihood trees based on concatenated sequences of the four genes were constructed using MEGA7.0. The results showed that the strains isolated from Setaria viridis were closely related to Colletotrichum truncatum with 100% bootstrap support. According to morphological, pathological characteristics, and multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the isolated strains (SVCT-01, SVCT-02 and SVCT-03) from S. viridis were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum (Weir et al, 2012). Colletotrichum sp. is a significant plant pathogen that was previously reported causing anthracnose on Setaria sp. Up to now, it has been reported that C. graminicola has infected nine species of Setaria sp. Such as Setaria glauca in New Zealand (Pennycook, 1989) and Setaria pumila in Zimbabwe (Lenne, 1990). In 1979s, C.graminicola was obtained from Setaria lutescens in China (Tai, 1979). To our knowledge, this is a new host record for Colletotrichum truncatum causing anthracnose on S. viridis in China. Colletotrichum truncatum spread rapidly and caused serious disease to Setaria viridis. We hope to discovery a biocontrol method against weed on non-host cultivated plants through the production of secondary metabolites by C. truncatum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-22-0352-PDNDOI Listing
August 2022

Land-Ocean Exchange Mechanism of Chlorinated Paraffins and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Diverse Sources in a Coastal Zone Boundary Area, North China: The Role of Regional Atmospheric Transmission.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The marine environment is regarded as a crucial "sink" of numerous land-origin pollutants. As typical boundary regions, the coastal and offshore areas are used to evaluate the dominating transfer process and land-ocean exchange mechanism of semivolatile organic compounds. In air samples collected from a coastal area in North China over a whole year, chlorinated paraffins (CPs), including short-chain CPs and medium-chain CPs, and prior control 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined, with mean concentrations of 25.8 and 94.7 ng/m, respectively. Results of different gas-particle partitioning models indicated that the steady-state hypothesis provides a better description of the possible land-ocean exchange molecular mechanism. The source-sink influences for CPs and PAHs were affected by the predominant atmospheric motion, which alternated between gaseous diffusion and particulate sedimentation in different seasons. Source apportionment results indicated that different transfer characteristics contributed to the source divergence of ambient CPs and PAHs within 12 nautical miles in the same area. Coal/biomass combustion and diesel/natural gas combustion were the main PAH sources in the coast site (43.1%) and sea site (35.3%), respectively. Similar industrial sources CP-52 and CP-42 were the main CP sources in the coast site (41.4%) and sea site (40.8%), respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c00742DOI Listing
August 2022

Phosphate removal from aqueous solutions with a zirconium-loaded magnetic biochar composite: performance, recyclability, and mechanism.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Pollution Prevention Biotechnology Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, 050018, China.

Phosphate (P) removal is significant for water pollution control. In this paper, a novel penicillin biochar modified with zirconium (ZMBC) was synthesized and used to adsorb P in water. The results showed that ZMBC had a porous structure and magnetic properties, and the zirconium (Zr) was mainly present in the form of an amorphous oxide. P adsorption displayed strong pH dependence. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process well, and the saturated adsorption capacity was 27.97 mg/g (25 ℃, pH = 7). The adsorption kinetics were consistent with the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption rates were jointly controlled by the surface adsorption stage and intraparticle diffusion stage. Coexisting anion experiments showed that CO inhibited P adsorption, reducing the adsorption capacity by 62.63%. The adsorbed P was easily desorbed by washing with a 1 M NaOH solution, and after 5 cycles, the adsorbent had almost the same capacity. The mechanism for P adsorption was inner-sphere complexation and electrostatic adsorption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22354-9DOI Listing
August 2022

Correlation between the Treg/Thl7 Index and the Efficacy of PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Complicated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 8;2022:2923998. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Affiliated Suqian Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Suqian, 223800 Jiangsu, China.

Objective: It was to explore the correlation between regulatory T cells (Treg)/T helper cell 17 (Thl7) and the efficacy of receiving a programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) complicated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: The research subjects were 82 patients who were clinically evaluated and treated in the Respiratory Department of Suqian Hospital connected with Xuzhou Medical University from January to December 2021. All of the patients were given PD-1 immunotherapy, and 50 healthy people were chosen as the control group. Classification was carried out according to tumor type and tumor stage. The levels of Th17 and Treg/Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients with different tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages and different types were compared, and the immune function, lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1%/FVC), FEV1%, and FVC), and changes in inflammatory factors were compared before and after treatment. The levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and transforming growth factor (TGF)- were compared between the two groups. The correlation between Th17 cells and Treg cells in the peripheral blood of patients with NSCLC complicated with COPD was analyzed.

Results: After treatment, the levels of IL-17, IL-6, TNF-, and TGF- in patients with NSCLC combined with COPD were notably superior to those in the control group ( < 0.05). The immune function and lung function of the patients were improved after treatment. There were 43 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 30 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 9 cases of large cell carcinoma. The proportion of Th17 cells to CD4+ T cells in the blood of the three types of patients and the proportion of CD4CD25CD127 regulatory T cells to CD4+ lymphocyte cells in Treg cells showed no considerable difference among the different case types ( > 0.05). No considerable difference was indicated in Treg/Th17 in peripheral blood between stage IIIB and stage IV lung cancer patients ( > 0.05). A positive linear correlation was revealed between Th17 cells and Treg cells in the peripheral blood of patients with NSCLC combined with COPD, = 0.26, = 0.039.

Conclusion: Treg and Th17 cells were shown to be much higher in lung cancer patients with COPD, which could lead to immunosuppression and tumor growth. PD-1 therapy for NSCLC has demonstrated efficacy and can improve patients' immunological state while being extremely safe.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2923998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338744PMC
August 2022

Preoperative Liver Stiffness is Associated With Hospital Length of Stay After Cardiac Surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2022 Jun 26. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objectives: Risk assessment models for cardiac surgery do not account for the degrees of liver dysfunction. Ultrasound shear-wave elastography measures liver stiffness (LSM), a quantitative measurement related to fibrosis, congestion, and inflammation. The authors hypothesized that preoperative liver stiffness would be associated with hospital length of stay after cardiac surgery.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: University hospital, single center.

Participants: One hundred five adult patients undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgery.

Interventions: Preoperative liver stiffness measured by ultrasound elastography.

Measurements And Main Results: The associations were analyzed using linear mixed models, with adjustments for preoperative variables, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and type of surgery. Median liver stiffness was 6.4 kPa (range, 4.1-18.6 kPa). The median length of hospital stay was 6 days (range, 3-18 d). Each unit increase in liver stiffness, treated as a continuous variable, was associated with an increase of 0.32 ± 0.10 days in the hospital (p = 0.002). When treated as a categorical variable (<6 kPa, 6-9.4 kPa, and ≥9.5 kPa), LSM ≥9.5 kPa v LSM <6 kPa was associated strongly with an increase in hospital length of stay of 3.25 ± 0.87 days (p = 0.0003).

Conclusions: A preoperative LSM ≥9.5 kPa was associated with a significantly longer postoperative hospital length of stay. This association appeared independent of preoperative comorbidities commonly associated with coronary disease. Preoperative liver stiffness is a novel risk metric that is associated with the postoperative hospital length of stay after cardiac surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2022.06.028DOI Listing
June 2022

Biosynthesis, total synthesis, and pharmacological activities of aryltetralin-type lignan podophyllotoxin and its derivatives.

Nat Prod Rep 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Covering: up to 2022Podophyllotoxin (PTOX, 1), a kind of aryltetralin-type lignan, was first discovered in the plant and its structure was clarified by W. Borsche and J. Niemann in 1932. Due to its potent anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, it is considered one of the molecules most likely to be developed into modern drugs. With the increasing market demand and insufficient storage of natural resources, it is crucial to expand the sources of PTOXs. The original extraction method from plants has gradually failed to meet the requirements, and the biosynthesis and total synthesis have become the forward-looking alternatives. As key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of PTOXs and their catalytic mechanisms being constantly revealed, it is possible to realize the heterogeneous biosynthesis of PTOXs in the future. Chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis also provide schemes for strictly controlling the asymmetric configuration of the tetracyclic core. Currently, the pharmacological activities of some PTOX derivatives have been extensively studied, laying the foundation for clinical candidate drugs. This review focuses primarily on the latest research progress in the biosynthesis, total synthesis, and pharmacological activities of PTOX and its derivatives, providing a more comprehensive understanding of these widely used compounds and supporting the future search for clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2np00028hDOI Listing
August 2022

Recyclable, UV-Blocking, and Radiative Cooling Multifunctional Composite Membranes.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 12;7(29):25244-25252. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, China.

It is well known that UV radiation can cause human health problems and that energy consumption can lead to human survival problems. Here, we prepared a composite membrane that can block UV radiation as well as reduce energy consumption. Carbon dots (CDs) and acrylates were prepared from xylose and epoxidized soybean oil as biomass feedstocks, respectively, and the composite membrane was prepared by a self-assembly strategy. The first layer of the membrane is composed of CDs and epoxy resin. Its main function is not only to weaken UV rays and the aggregation-induced quenching effect of CDs but also to reduce the absorption of UV rays by the second layer of the membrane. The second layer consists of barium sulfate (BaSO) and acrylate. Compared to TiO (3.2 eV), BaSO (∼6 eV) has a higher electronic band gap, which reduces the absorption of UV light by the membrane. The composite membrane exhibits excellent UV-blocking and radiative cooling performance, shielding 99% of UV rays. In addition, the membrane can reduce 4.4 °C in radiative cooling tests, achieving a good cooling effect. Finally, the recyclability of the BaSO/acrylate membrane is discussed, and 95% recovery rate provides sustainable utilization of the membrane. The composite membrane is expected to be popularized and used in low latitudes and areas with high temperature and high UV radiation near the equator.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c02162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330185PMC
July 2022

Antiproliferative piperidine alkaloids from giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza).

Chin J Nat Med 2022 Jul;20(7):541-550

School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Lead Compounds & Drug Discovery, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

The rhizome of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott), which is a highly adaptable wild plant, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In the current study, the antiproliferative constituents of giant taro were investigated and six new (1-6) and four known piperidine alkaloids (7-10) were isolated from its rhizomes. Their chemical structures and absolute configurations were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods and the Mosher ester method. The isolated alkaloids were screened for the antiproliferative activity through MTT assay. The results indicated that piperidine alkaloids exerted potential antiproliferative activity against HepG2, AGS and MCF-7 tumor cells. Further researches showed that compounds 3-5 dose-dependently decreased the colony formation rate and induced the apoptosis of AGS cells, while compound 4 induced AGS cell death via the proapoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that the piperidine alkaloids isolated from giant taro exhibit significant antitumor activity, which provides phytochemical evidence for further development and utilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(22)60165-1DOI Listing
July 2022

Polarization-Resolved p-Se/n-WS Heterojunctions toward Application in Microcomputer System as Multivalued Signal Trigger.

Small 2022 Jul 29:e2202523. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Institute of Semiconductors, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, P. R. China.

Polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWH) have excellent polarization-resolved optoelectronic properties that can enable the applications in polarized light identification and imaging. With the development of optical microcomputer control systems (OMCS), it is crucial and energy efficient to adopt the self-powered and polarization-resolved signal-generators to optimize the circuit design of OMCS. In this work, the selenium (Se) flakes with in-plane anisotropy and p-type character are grown and incorporated with n-type tungsten disulfide (WS ) to construct the type-II vdWH for polarization-sensitive and self-powered photodetectors. Under 405 nm monochrome laser with 1.33 mW cm power density, the photovoltaic device exhibits superior photodetection performance with the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.6%, the responsivity (R) of 196 mA W and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of about 60%. The strong in-plane anisotropy of Se crystal structure gives rise to the capability of polarized light detection with anisotropic photocurrent ratio of ≈2.2 under the 405 nm laser (13.71 mW cm ). Benefiting from the well polarization-sensitive and photovoltaic properties, the p-Se/n-WS vdWH is successfully applied in the OMCS as multivalued signal trigger. This work develops the new anisotropic vdWH and demonstrates its feasibility for applications in logic circuits and control systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202523DOI Listing
July 2022

Improving Insecticidal Activity of Chlorantraniliprole by Replacing the Chloropyridinyl Moiety with a Substituted Cyanophenyl Group.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Aug 29;70(31):9645-9663. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

Insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are molecular targets of the anthranilic diamide insecticides. In the present study, a new series of anthranilic diamides containing a cyanophenyl pyrazole moiety were rationally designed by active-fragment assembly and computer-aided design using the 3D structure of RyRs as a receptor and chlorantraniliprole as a ligand. Most of the titled compounds showed good toxicity against , , and . Compounds , , and with corresponding LC values of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.52 mg·L, respectively, against showed comparable activity to that of chlorantraniliprole (0.13 mg·L). Surprisingly, , , and with corresponding LC values of 1.6 × 10, 3.0 × 10, and 2.8 × 10 mg·L, respectively, against were at least 5-fold more active than chlorantraniliprole (1.5 × 10 mg·L). In the case of , , , and had good potency but lower than chlorantraniliprole in terms of LC values (0.58, 0.54, and 0.56 mg·L versus 0.31 mg·L). Molecular docking of and chlorantraniliprole to RyRs validated the molecular design, and the calcium imaging technique further proved the potential target of as RyRs. Compounds , , and could be more effective than chlorantraniliprole in targeting the resistant RyR mutants of (G4891E, I4734M) through the binding mode and energy obtained by molecular docking. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) and electrostatic potential (ESP) studies gave the structure-activity relationship. Compounds , , and could be used as potent insecticide leads for further optimization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c03133DOI Listing
August 2022

Genome-wide analysis of MYB family genes in and their potential roles in terpenoid biosynthesis.

Plant Direct 2022 Jul 22;6(7):e424. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing China.

Terpenoids are a class of significant bioactive components in the woody vine of . Previous studies have shown that MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, growth, and developmental processes. However, the MYB involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in are unknown. To identify MYB (TwMYB) genes that are involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, we conducted the genome-wide analysis of the TwMYB gene family. A total of 207 TwMYBs were identified including 84 1R-TwMYB, 117 R2R3-TwMYB, four 3R-TwMYB, and two 4R-TwMYB genes. The most abundant R2R3-TwMYBs together with their Arabidopsis homologs were categorized into 26 subgroups. Intraspecific collinearity analysis found that the 74.9% of the TwMYBs may be generated by segmental duplication events, and 36.7% of duplicated gene pairs were derived from the specific whole genome duplication (WGD) event in . In addition, interspecies collinearity analysis found that 16 TwMYB genes formed homologous gene pairs with MYB genes in seven representative species, which indicated they may have a key role in evolution. Notably, we found that the TwMYB genes were differentially expressed in various tissues by expression pattern analysis. In order to further select the candidate genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis, the assay of Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induction and analysis of phylogenetic tree was conducted. It was speculated that six candidate TwMYB genes (, , , , , and ) are involved in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis. This study is the first systematic analysis of the TwMYB gene family and will lay a foundation for the functional characterization of TwMYB genes in the regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307386PMC
July 2022

Study on the Initiation of Interface Crack in Rock Joints.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;15(14). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Geomechanics and Embankment Engineering, College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

The interfacial fracture of rock joints is an important although easily ignored issue in jointed rock engineering. To conduct this study, an interface crack model of rock joints was proposed. By analyzing the ratio of stress intensity factor to fracture toughness, the fracture mode of the interface crack was studied. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, an interface fracture criterion considering T-stress was established. To verify the proposed fracture criterion, laboratory and numerical tests were conducted. Finally, the effect of relative critical size α, internal friction angle and cohesion on the initiation of an interface crack was comprehensively discussed. It is concluded that the proposed fracture criterion can predit the initiation of the interface cracks properly. With an increase in cohesion , mode II fracture toughness also clearly increases. When the absolute value of is small, the effect of is much larger than that of . In addition, with an increase in the absolute value of the mode I stress intensity factor, the of the joint plays a more important role in the initiation of the interface crack.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15144881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319163PMC
July 2022

Selected Transesophageal Echocardiographic Parameters of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Predict Length of Stay Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft-A Prospective Observational Study.

J Clin Med 2022 Jul 8;11(14). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

(1) Importance: Abnormal left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, with or without a diagnosis of heart failure, is a common finding that can be easily diagnosed by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The association of diastolic function with duration of hospital stay after coronary artery bypass (CAB) is unknown. (2) Objective: To determine if selected TEE parameters of diastolic dysfunction are associated with length of hospital stay after coronary artery bypass surgery (CAB). (3) Design: Prospective observational study. (4) Setting: A single tertiary academic medical center. (5) Participants: Patients with normal systolic function undergoing isolated CAB from September 2017 through June 2018. (6) Exposures: LV function during diastole, as assessed by intra-operative TEE prior to coronary revascularization. (7) Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was duration of postoperative hospital stay. Secondary intermediate outcomes included common postoperative cardiac, respiratory, and renal complications. (8) Results: The study included 176 participants (mean age 65.2 ± 9.2 years, 73% male); 105 (60.2%) had LV diastolic dysfunction based on selected TEE parameters. Median time to hospital discharge was significantly longer for subjects with selected parameters of diastolic dysfunction (9.1/IQR 6.6-13.5 days) than those with normal LV diastolic function (6.5/IAR 5.3-9.7 days) ( < 0.001). The probability of hospital discharge was 34% lower (HR 0.66/95% CI 0.47-0.93) for subjects with diastolic dysfunction based on selected TEE parameters, independent of potential confounders, including a baseline diagnosis of heart failure. There was a dose-response relation between severity of diastolic dysfunction and probability of discharge. LV diastolic dysfunction based on those selected TEE parameters was also associated with postoperative cardio-respiratory complications; however, these complications did not fully account for the relation between LV diastolic dysfunction and prolonged length of hospital stay. (9) Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with normal systolic function undergoing CAB, diastolic dysfunction based on selected TEE parameters is associated with prolonged duration of postoperative hospital stay. This association cannot be explained by baseline comorbidities or common post-operative complications. The diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction can be made by TEE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11143980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319456PMC
July 2022

Metabolic Adaptation-Mediated Cancer Survival and Progression in Oxidative Stress.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Jul 5;11(7). Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Lihuili Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315040, China.

Undue elevation of ROS levels commonly occurs during cancer evolution as a result of various antitumor therapeutics and/or endogenous immune response. Overwhelming ROS levels induced cancer cell death through the dysregulation of ROS-sensitive glycolytic enzymes, leading to the catastrophic depression of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which are critical for cancer survival and progression. However, cancer cells also adapt to such catastrophic oxidative and metabolic stresses by metabolic reprograming, resulting in cancer residuality, progression, and relapse. This adaptation is highly dependent on NADPH and GSH syntheses for ROS scavenging and the upregulation of lipolysis and glutaminolysis, which fuel tricarboxylic acid cycle-coupled OXPHOS and biosynthesis. The underlying mechanism remains poorly understood, thus presenting a promising field with opportunities to manipulate metabolic adaptations for cancer prevention and therapy. In this review, we provide a summary of the mechanisms of metabolic regulation in the adaptation of cancer cells to oxidative stress and the current understanding of its regulatory role in cancer survival and progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9311581PMC
July 2022

Cardiovascular Toxicity With PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2022 8;13:908173. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Oncology, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Background: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have significantly improved the outcomes of those patients with various malignancies. However, the incidence of adverse events also increased. This meta-analysis aims to systematically evaluate the risk of cardiovascular toxicity in patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

Materials And Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library databases for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing all-grade and grade 3-5 cardiovascular toxicity of single-agent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors to placebo/chemotherapy, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy to chemotherapy, or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with CTLA-4 inhibitors to single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and pooled our data in a meta-analysis stratified by tumor types and PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors. The Mantel-Haenszel method calculated the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: A total of 50 trials were included in the analysis. Single-agent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors increased the risk of all-grade cardiotoxicity compared with placebo (OR=2.11, 95%CI 1.02-4.36, 0.04). Compared with chemotherapy, patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy had a significant higher risk of all-grade (OR=1.53, 95%CI 1.18-1.99, 0.001) and grade 3-5 cardiotoxicity (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.11-2.39, 0.01) cardiotoxicity, especially patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [all-grade cardiotoxicity (OR=1.97, 95%CI 1.14-3.41, 0.02) and grade 3-5 cardiotoxicity (OR=2.15, 95%CI 1.08-4.27, 0.03)]. Subgroup analysis showed that PD-1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy were associated with a higher risk of grade 3-5 cardiotoxicity (OR=2.08, 95%CI 1.18-3.66, 0.01). Compared with placebo or chemotherapy, single-agent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors did not increase the risk of all-grade of myocarditis, arrhythmia and hypertension. However, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy increased the risk of all-grade arrhythmia (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.07-2.46, 0.02) [PD-L1 inhibitor-containing treatment (OR=1.75, 95%CI 1.09-2.80, 0.02)], and the risk of all-grade hypertension (OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.02-1.77, 0.04) and grade 3-5 hypertension (OR=1.54, 95%CI 1.10-2.15, 0.01).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that single-agent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors increase the risk of all-grade cardiotoxicity, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy increase the risk of all-grade and grade 3-5 cardiotoxicity, especially in those patients treated with PD-1 inhibitor-containing treatment and those with NSCLC. In addition, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy increase the risk of arrhythmia and hypertension. Therefore, this evidence should be considered when assessing the benefits and risks of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in treating malignancies.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022303115.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.908173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307961PMC
July 2022

Nonlinear Optical Activities in Two-Dimensional Gallium Sulfide: A Comprehensive Study.

ACS Nano 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials are fascinating for fundamental physics and optoelectronic device development. However, relatively few investigations have been conducted to establish the combined NLO activities of a 2D material. Herein, a study of numerous NLO properties of 2D gallium sulfide (GaS), including second-harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), and NLO absorption are presented. The layer-dependent SHG response of 2D GaS identifies the noncentrosymmetric nature of the odd layers, and the second-order susceptibility (χ) value of 47.98 pm/V (three-layers of GaS) indicates the superior efficiency of the SHG signal. In addition, structural deformation induces the symmetry breaking and facilitates the SHG in the bulk samples, whereas a possible efficient symmetry breaking in the liquid-phase exfoliated samples results in an enhancement of the SHG signal, providing prospective fields of investigation for researchers. The generation of TPEF from 800 to 860 nm depicts the two-photon absorption characteristics of 2D GaS material. Moreover, the saturable absorption characteristics of 2D GaS are realized from the largest nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) of -9.3 × 10, -91.0 × 10, and -6.05 × 10 cm/GW and giant modulation depths () of 24.4%, 35.3%, and 29.1% at three different wavelengths of 800, 1066, and 1560 nm, respectively. Hence, such NLO activities indicate that 2D GaS material can facilitate in the technical advancements of future nonlinear optoelectronic devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c03566DOI Listing
July 2022

Molecular Subtyping Based on Cuproptosis-Related Genes and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment Infiltration in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2022 6;12:919083. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Laboratory Animals, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is rising worldwide, and the prognosis is poor. Cuproptosis is a new form of cell death that is dependent on and regulated by copper ions. The relationship between cuproptosis and KIRC remains unclear. In the current study, changes in cuproptosis-related genes (CRGs) in TCGA-KIRC transcriptional datasets were characterized, and the expression patterns of these genes were analyzed. We identified three main molecular subtypes and discovered that multilayer CRG changes were associated with patient clinicopathological traits, prognosis, elesclomol sensitivity, and tumor microenvironment (TME) cell infiltration characteristics. Then, a CRG score was created to predict overall survival (OS). The CRG score was found to be strongly linked to the TME. These findings may help elucidate the roles of CRGs in KIRC, potentially enhancing understanding of cuproptosis and supporting the development of more effective immunotherapy strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.919083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9299088PMC
July 2022

Rational Design of WSe /WS /WSe Dual Junction Phototransistor Incorporating High Responsivity and Detectivity.

Small Methods 2022 Jul 24:e2200583. Epub 2022 Jul 24.

Institute of Semiconductors, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510631, P. R. China.

The excellent semiconducting properties and ultrathin morphological characteristics allow van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on 2D materials to be promising channel materials for the next-generation optoelectronic devices, especially in photodetectors. Although various 2D heterostructure-based photodetectors have been developed, the unavoidable trade-off between responsivity and detectivity remains a critical issue for these devices. Here, an ingenious phototransistor based on WSe /WS /WSe dual-vdW heterostructures is constructed, performing both high responsivity and detectivity. In the charge neutrality point (gate voltage of -15 V and bias voltage of 1 V), this device demonstrates a pronounced photosensitivity, accompanying with high detectivity of 1.9 × 10  Jones, high responsivity of 35.4 A W , and fast rise/fall time of 3.2/2.5 ms at 405 nm with power density of 60 µW cm . Density functional theory calculations, energy band profiles, and optoelectronic characteristics jointly verify that the high performance is ascribed to the distinctive device design, which not only facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers but also produces a strong photogating effect. As a feasible application, an automotive radar system is demonstrated, proving that the device has considerable potential for application in vehicle intelligent assisted driving.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200583DOI Listing
July 2022

Supramolecular DNA sensor based on the integration of host-guest immobilization strategy and WP5-Ag/PEHA supramolecular aggregates.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Aug 12;1220:340077. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of Education, International Joint Research Center for Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, 650224, China. Electronic address:

Primary liver cancer, mostly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is the dominant factor that influences the progression of HCC. In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor triggered by a sandwich hybridization reaction has been developed for the ultrasensitive detection of HBV DNA. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydroxylatopillar [5]arene (HP5) stabilized Au nanoparticles are used to modify the electrode to immobilize Rhodamine B-labeled DNA probes and improve the electron transfer efficiency. A supramolecular aggregate was synthesized based on pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) induced self-assembly behavior of water-soluble pillar [5]arene (WP5) stabilized Ag nanoparticles through host-guest interaction, which serves as signal materials. The sensitivity of the sensor has enhanced on account of the electrochemical oxidation from Ag to Ag to yield an electrochemical response greater than that of the single silver nanoparticle. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curves illustrate that the response has a good linear relationship with the logarithm of HBV-DNA concentration in a wide range from 0.1 fmol/L to 0.1 nmol/L, and the detection limit is 0.19 fmol/L according to the 3σ rule. Besides, the sensor shows good reproducibility, stability and selectivity, providing a promising prospect for application in disease diagnosis and prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.340077DOI Listing
August 2022

Diagnostic Value and High-Risk Factors of Two-Dimensional Ultrasonography Combined with Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography in Prenatal Ultrasound Screening of Fetal Congenital Malformations.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 12;2022:7082832. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Prenatal Diagnosis Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004 Ningxia, China.

Objective: This study mainly analyzes the diagnostic value of two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D-US) combined with four-dimensional ultrasonography (4D-US) in prenatal ultrasound screening of fetal congenital malformations (CMs) and explores the high-risk factors affecting fetal malformations.

Methods: The clinical and imaging data of 2247 pregnant women who underwent prenatal fetal malformation screening in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University between February 2020 and October 2021 were collected and analyzed, retrospectively. All pregnant women underwent 2D-US, and those with suspected fetal malformations were further inspected by 4D-US. The accuracy of ultrasound examination results relative to actual pregnancy outcomes was analyzed, taking the neonatal malformation after induced labor or actual delivery as the gold standard, and the risk factors influencing the occurrence of fetal malformations were discussed.

Results: A total of 87 cases (3.87%) of fetal malformations were detected out of the 2247 parturients examined. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 2D-US diagnosis were 81.40%, 43.68%, and 82.92%, respectively, while the data were 83.67%, 51.72%, and 84.95% for 4D-US, respectively, and 93.59%, 90.80%, and 93.70%, respectively, for 2D-US +4D-US. The combined diagnosis of 2D-US +4D-US achieved statistically higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than either of them alone. One-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that the independent risk factors affecting fetal malformation were age ≥ 35, history of adverse pregnancy and childbirth, medication during pregnancy, toxic exposure during pregnancy, and history of seropositive for TORCH-IgM. Folic acid supplementation was a protective factor.

Conclusions: Prenatal US is an effective approach for screening fetal malformations. 2D-US +4D-US can effectively improve the diagnostic rate of fetal malformations. For pregnant women with high-risk factors, prevention should be given priority, and prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis should be standardized to reduce the occurrence of fetal malformations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7082832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9296308PMC
July 2022

Why 90% of clinical drug development fails and how to improve it?

Acta Pharm Sin B 2022 Jul 11;12(7):3049-3062. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Translational Development and Clinical Pharmacology, Bristol Meyer Squibb Company, Summit, NJ, 07920, USA.

Ninety percent of clinical drug development fails despite implementation of many successful strategies, which raised the question whether certain aspects in target validation and drug optimization are overlooked? Current drug optimization overly emphasizes potency/specificity using structure‒activity-relationship (SAR) but overlooks tissue exposure/selectivity in disease/normal tissues using structure‒tissue exposure/selectivity-relationship (STR), which may mislead the drug candidate selection and impact the balance of clinical dose/efficacy/toxicity. We propose structure‒tissue exposure/selectivity-activity relationship (STAR) to improve drug optimization, which classifies drug candidates based on drug's potency/selectivity, tissue exposure/selectivity, and required dose for balancing clinical efficacy/toxicity. Class I drugs have high specificity/potency and high tissue exposure/selectivity, which needs low dose to achieve superior clinical efficacy/safety with high success rate. Class II drugs have high specificity/potency and low tissue exposure/selectivity, which requires high dose to achieve clinical efficacy with high toxicity and needs to be cautiously evaluated. Class III drugs have relatively low (adequate) specificity/potency but high tissue exposure/selectivity, which requires low dose to achieve clinical efficacy with manageable toxicity but are often overlooked. Class IV drugs have low specificity/potency and low tissue exposure/selectivity, which achieves inadequate efficacy/safety, and should be terminated early. STAR may improve drug optimization and clinical studies for the success of clinical drug development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2022.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9293739PMC
July 2022

Impact of Subintimal Plaque Modification on Reattempted Chronic Total Occlusions Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2022 07;15(14):1427-1437

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China; Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Predictors of success in reattempted chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures remain obscure, mainly owing to the lack of consecutive angiograms and procedural records of initial attempts in the same cohort.

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the factors predicting the success of reattempted CTO PCI procedures.

Methods: A total of 208 consecutive patients who underwent a failed CTO PCI attempt and received reattempted procedure at the same cardiac center were retrospectively analyzed. Predictors of the success of reattempted procedures were evaluated.

Results: The overall technical success rate of reattempted CTO PCI procedures was 71.2%. Subintimal plaque modification (SPM) was implemented in 35 (16.8%) procedures in initial attempts. The reattempted technical success rate was 93.3% in cases in which SPM with guidewire (GW) crossing was achieved in the initial attempt; however, the success rate was 55.0% for procedures involving SPM without GW crossing. SPM with GW crossing (OR: 11.21; 95% CI: 1.31-96.16; P = 0.028), referral to high-volume operators (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.14-4.98; P = 0.021), and a bidirectional approach (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12-4.79; P = 0.024) were positive independent predictors of technical success in the subsequent reattempt. The time interval for reattempt (per 90-day increment) was negatively correlated with the technical success of the reattempted procedures (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73-0.98; P = 0.030).

Conclusions: This study identified independent predictors of success in reattempted CTO PCI procedures. SPM with GW crossing achieved in the initial attempt is associated with a higher success rate in the subsequent reattempt.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2022.06.015DOI Listing
July 2022

A simple "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for reversible recognition of aluminum ion in living cell.

Anal Sci 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, Changzhi University, Changzhi, 046011, People's Republic of China.

A simple and reliable "turn-on" fluorescent sensor (E)-1-[((2-hydroxyethyl)imino) methyl] naphthalen-2-ol (HNP) has been designed, synthesized, and characterized by H-NMR, C-NMR, FT-IR, and EI-MS analysis. The binding property of HNP was examined employing UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. HNP exhibited high selectivity towards Al among other cations and anions. The fluorescence titration experiment has established binding stoichiometry of HNP with Al is 2:1, which can be further verified by HR-MS. The detection limit of HNP is 2.9 μM, and it can be reversible five-to-seven times to detect Al without losing much efficiency which indicates that it can be a reliable probe for Al. Additionally, HNP was successfully applied for the detection of Al in living cells. To achieve the detection of aluminum ion across a simple, reliable, and precise method, we have investigated the reversible detection (which can reversible response to Al for five-to-seven times) of Al through an extremely simple (requires only one-step reaction) "turn-on" fluorescent probe which enables us to visualize and analyze Al with low detection limit (2.9 μM) and high selectivity in living cell without interference from the high abundant small biological molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s44211-022-00154-yDOI Listing
July 2022

Serum Retinol Binding Protein 4 as a Potential Biomarker for Sarcopenia in Older Adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Geriatrics, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and function due to aging. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine with pro-inflammatory effects. However, the change of RBP4 concentration and its role in sarcopenia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum RBP4 level with sarcopenia in the older adults. A total of 816 community dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years were enrolled. Serum RBP4 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), grip strength, and gait speed were measured. We found that serum RBP4 levels were higher in patients with sarcopenia when compared to those without sarcopenias [44.3 (33.9-57.7) vs. 38.0 (28.0-48.4) μg/mL]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the optimal cut-off value of serum RBP4 level that predicted sarcopenia was 38.79 μg/mL with a sensitivity of 67.8% and a specificity of 53.3%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the subjects with higher level of RBP4 had a higher risk of sarcopenia (adjusted OR =2.036, 95%CI =1.449-2.861). Serum RBP4 concentration was negatively correlated with grip strength (r =-0.098), gait speed (r =-0.186), and AMSI (r =-0.096). Moreover, serum RBP4 levels were higher in patients with severe sarcopenia when compared to those with moderate sarcopenia [49.0 (37.3-61.2) vs. 40.4 (31.3-51.2) μg/mL]. Taken together, our results demonstrate that serum RBP4 level is correlated with the risk and severity of sarcopenia in the older adults, indicating that RBP4 might serve as a surrogate biomarker for the screening and evaluation of sarcopenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glac151DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training and High-Intensity Interval Training on Lung Function and Respiratory Muscle Function in Asthma.

Respir Care 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, China Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation School of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Although inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are beneficial for patients with asthma, controversies persist. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of IMT and HIIT on lung function and respiratory muscle function of subjects with asthma.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases up to May 2021. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of subjects with asthma who received either IMT or HIIT. The outcome measures were changes in lung function and respiratory muscle function.

Results: A total of 13 RCTs (10 in IMT and 3 in HIIT) were included, with a total of 598 subjects. The meta-analysis showed a significantly improved FEV of the expected value (FEV%pred) (mean difference [MD] 4.49% [95% CI 2.31-6.67], < .001; I = 13%), FVC of the expected value (FVC % pred) (MD 5.72% [95% CI 3.56-7.88], < .001; I = 0%), FEV/FVC % (MD 5.01% [95% CI 2.45-7.58], < .001; I = 25%), FVC (L) (MD 0.21 L [95% CI 0.03-0.40], = .02; I = 0%), maximum inspiratory pressure (P) (MD 27.62 cm HO [95% CI 6.50-48.74], = .01; I = 96%), and P (%pred) (MD 27.35% [95% CI 6.94-47.76], = .009; I = 83.5%) in the IMT group. There was no statistical significance in maximum expiratory pressure.

Conclusions: IMT improved pulmonary function (FEV%pred, FVC) and inspiratory muscle strength in subjects with stable asthma. Due to the small number of RCT studies included and the limited outcome measures involving HIIT, we were unable to draw conclusions about whether HIIT was beneficial in this meta-analysis. Moreover, clinical heterogeneity exists in different areas such as population and training programs; the above conclusions still need to be confirmed in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.09813DOI Listing
July 2022

Prussian Blue Nanozyme Normalizes Microenvironment to Delay Osteoporosis.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 Jul 18:e2200787. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common orthopedic disease in the elderly and the main cause of age-related mortality and disability. However, no satisfactory intervention is currently available in clinical practice. Thus, an effective therapy to prevent or delay the development of OP should be devised. Osteoclastogenesis overactivation and excessive bone resorption are the main characteristics of OP. Accordingly, a paradigm for nanozyme-mediated normalization of the disease microenvironment to regulate osteoclast differentiation and delay OP is proposed. Hollow Prussian blue nanozymes (HPBZs) are prepared via template-free hydrothermal synthesis and selected as representative nanozymes. The intrinsic osteoclast activity-remodeling bioactivities of the HPBZs are explored in vitro and in vivo, focusing on their impact on osteogenesis and specific molecular mechanisms using an OP murine model. The HPBZs significantly normalize the OP microenvironment, thereby inhibiting osteoclast formation and osteoclast resorption, possibly owing to the suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB signaling pathways. Consistently, in an ovariectomy-induced OP murine model, HPBZ treatment significantly attenuates osteoporotic bone loss in vivo. The findings confirm the HPBZ-mediated normalization of the disease microenvironment for the treatment of OP and suggest its application to other inflammation-related diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200787DOI Listing
July 2022

Long-term antiretroviral therapy mitigates mortality and morbidity independent of HIV tropism: 18 years follow-up in a women's cohort.

AIDS 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objective: CXCR4 (X4)-tropic HIV-1 was found previously to herald CD4+ cell depletion and disease progression in individuals who were antiretroviral-naive or took combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for less than 5 years. We updated this finding by investigating whether the deleterious effect of X4-tropic strains is mitigated by long-term cART.

Design: We examined morbidity and mortality in relation to HIV-1 tropism and cART in 529 participants followed up to 18 years in the Women's Interagency HIV Study; 91% were women of color.

Methods: Plasma-derived HIV-1 tropism was determined genotypically.

Results: We categorized participants according to the number of visits reported on cART after initiation. Group 1: three or less visits, 74% of these participants reporting no cART; group 2: at least four visits and less than 70% of visits on cART; group 3: at least 70% of visits on cART. AIDS mortality rates for participants in each group with X4 virus compared with those with R5 virus exclusively were, respectively: 62 vs. 40% (P = 0.0088); 23 vs. 22% [nonsignificant (NS)]; 7 vs. 14% (NS). Kaplan-Meier curves showed accelerated progression to AIDS death or AIDS-defining illness in participants with three or less cART visits and X4 viruses (P = 0.0028) but no difference in progression rates stratified by tropism in other groups. Logistic regression found that HIV-1 suppression for at least 10 semiannual visits (≥5 years total) mitigated X4 tropism's deleterious effect on mortality, controlling for maximal viral load, and CD4+ nadir.

Conclusion: Long-term cART markedly mitigated the deleterious effect of X4 viruses on AIDS morbidity and mortality. Mitigation was correlated with duration of viral suppression, supporting HIV-1 suppression as a crucial goal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000003337DOI Listing
July 2022
-->