Publications by authors named "Wei Gao"

2,510 Publications

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Personal exposure to PM in five commuting modes under hazy and non-hazy conditions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 23;289:117823. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Effective reducing exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) during commuting can help lower the risk of adverse health effects therefrom; however, few studies have examined the influence of different background levels of air pollution-particularly in China where PM concentrations are high globally. In this study, personal sampling was conducted to measure individual exposure during five different modes of commuting (bus, metro, car, bicycle and walking) in Shanghai, China. A total of 125 measurements were conducted for five days under haze and non-haze conditions, following which the corresponding doses of PM inhaled were estimated. The mean concentrations (±standard deviation, SD, 1-min averaging) of background PM were 155.9 (±98.7) μg/m during haze and 36.3 (±17.6) μg/m under the non-haze conditions. Under both conditions, active commuters were exposed to higher PM concentrations than those using motorized commuting modes (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.01). Moreover, driving with closed windows and air conditioning effectively reduces the PM concentrations in cars by 35 %-57 %. Cyclists inhaled the highest doses (539.8 ± 313.2 and 134.8 ± 71.3 μg/h under haze and non-haze conditions, respectively), whereas car drivers inhaled the lowest doses (28.8 ± 21.2 and 3.7 ± 2.6 μg/h under haze and non-haze conditions, respectively). Individual exposure to PM during commuting varied with the modes; the discrepancy between the latter depended largely on the ambient concentration. Our findings provided evidence that traffic-related air pollution contributed to daily pollutant exposure and highlighted the importance of taking personal protective measures while commuting, particularly during haze.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117823DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-148a-3p silences the CANX/MHC-I pathway and impairs CD8 T cell-mediated immune attack in colorectal cancer.

FASEB J 2021 Aug;35(8):e21776

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Nonresponse, or acquired resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancer (CRC) highlight the importance of finding potential tolerance mechanisms. Low expression of major histocompatibility complex, class I (MHC-I) on the cell surface of the tumor is one of the main mechanisms of tumor escape from T-cell recognition and destruction. In this study, we demonstrated that a high level of calnexin (CANX) in the tumors is positively correlated with the overall survival in colorectal cancer patients. CANX is a chaperone protein involved in the folding and assembly of MHC-I molecules. Using miRNA target prediction databases and luciferase assays, we identified miR-148a-3p as a potential regulator of CANX. Inhibition of miR-148a-3p restores surface levels of MHC-I and significantly enhanced the effects of CD8 T-cell-mediated immune attack in vitro and in vivo by promoting CANX expression. These results reveal that miR-148a-3p can function as a tumor promotor in CRC by targeting the CANX/MHC-I axis, which provides a rationale for immunotherapy through targeting the miR-148a-3p/CANX/MHC-I pathway in patients with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100235RDOI Listing
August 2021

Maternal trait anxiety symptoms, frontolimbic resting-state functional connectivity, and cognitive development in infancy.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Exposure to maternal anxiety symptoms during infancy has been associated with difficulties in development and greater risk for developing anxiety later in life. Although previous studies have examined associations between prenatal maternal distress, infant brain development, and developmental outcomes, it is still largely unclear if there are associations between postnatal anxiety, infant brain development, and cognitive development in infancy. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the association between maternal anxiety symptoms and resting-state functional connectivity in the first year of life. We also examine the association between frontolimbic functional connectivity and infant cognitive development. The sample consisted of 21 infants (mean age = 24.15 months, SD = 4.17) that were scanned during their natural sleep using. We test the associations between maternal trait anxiety symptoms and amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) functional connectivity, a neural circuit implicated in early life stress exposure. We also test the associations between amygdala-ACC connectivity and cognitive development. We found a significant negative association between maternal trait anxiety symptoms and left amygdala-right ACC functional connectivity (p < .05, false discovery rate corrected). We found a significant negative association between left amygdala-right ACC functional connectivity and infant cognitive development (p < .05). These findings have potential implications for understanding the role of postpartum maternal anxiety symptoms in functional brain and cognitive development in infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.22166DOI Listing
July 2021

Recovery of structure and activity of disintegrated aerobic granular sludge after long-term storage: Effect of exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 20;281:130894. Epub 2021 May 20.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266237, China. Electronic address:

Long-term storage of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) may lead to granule inactivation and disintegration. Granule recovery in both structure and activity is important for scale-up and stability of AGS, but information about the structure recovery of stored AGS is limited. In addition, whether short-term exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) regulations could accelerate the granule recovery and sustain positive effects on AGS is unknown. Herein, the recovery of 33-month stored AGS was performed in three reactors for 38 days (phase I) at different exogenous AHLs concentrations (0, 50 and 500 nM of AHL-mixtures in R0, R1 and R2, respectively) and for an extended 45 days without exogenous AHLs (phase II). Results demonstrated successful recovery of disintegrated AGS in all reactors, although it was relatively time-consuming in R0. The treatment performance was similar among the reactors and steady-state removal of COD (90%) and NH-N (94%) could be recovered within 7 and 21 days, respectively. However, exogenous AHLs regulation (especially in R1) obviously accelerated bioactivity recovery of heterotrophs and nitrifiers and improved granule characteristics, including biomass, density, hydrophobicity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). During phase II, sustainable positive effects remained in R1, but granule characteristics deteriorated in R2. The abundance of functional genera Thauera, Nitrosomonas and Candidatus_Nitrotoga, contributed to the rapid recovery and helped maintain the structure and activity of AGS. The predictive functional profiling of bacterial communities also demonstrated sustainably higher activities of metabolism, growth and signal sensing under exogenous AHLs regulation at an appropriate content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130894DOI Listing
October 2021

Epigenetic regulation of energy metabolism in obesity.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, UC Irvine Diabetes Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally. Although modern adoption of a sedentary lifestyle coupled with energy-dense nutrition is considered to be the main cause of obesity epidemic, genetic preposition contributes significantly to the imbalanced energy metabolism in obesity. However, the variants of genetic loci identified from large-scale genetic studies do not appear to fully explain the rapid increase in obesity epidemic in the last 4‒5 decades. Recent advancements of next-generation sequencing technologies and studies of tissue-specific effects of epigenetic factors in metabolic organs have significantly advanced our understanding of epigenetic regulation of energy metabolism in obesity. The epigenome, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, is characterized as mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function without alteration of DNA sequence. Importantly, epigenetic modifications are reversible. Therefore, comprehensively understanding the landscape of epigenetic regulation of energy metabolism could unravel novel molecular targets for obesity treatment. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation, and RNA-mediated processes in regulating energy metabolism. We also discuss the effects of lifestyle modifications and therapeutic agents on epigenetic regulation of energy metabolism in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab043DOI Listing
July 2021

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of (Fabaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 6;6(8):2249-2250. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Fujian Academy of Forestry Science, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

(Fabaceae), a nitrogen-fixing tree species, is critically important for coastal protection in southeast China. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of , with a length of 176,493 bp. It contains a pair of inverted repeats (IR 39,851 bp), a large single-copy region (LSC 91,869 bp), and a small single-copy region (SSC 4,922 bp). The complete genome comprises 138 genes, including 93 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that is closely related to and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1944365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266222PMC
July 2021

Alpinetin Attenuates Persistent Inflammation, Immune Suppression, and Catabolism Syndrome in a Septic Mouse Model.

J Immunol Res 2021 5;2021:9998517. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Trauma Center/Department of Emergency and Traumatic Surgery, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Patients who survive the acute phase of sepsis can progress to persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS), which usually results in extended recovery periods and multiple complications. Alpinetin is a flavonoid isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata that has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of alpinetin could attenuate PICS in a septic mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: the (1) sham-operated group, (2) sham+alpinetin (1 mg/kg intravenously infused for once per day after sham operation), (3) cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and (4) CLP+alpinetin (50 mg/kg intravenously infused for once per day after CLP). Eight days after sham operation or CLP surgery, mice were euthanized for subsequent examination. Alpinetin significantly improved the survival of septic mice. Also, it attenuated the CLP-induced persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome. The level of plasma proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis of T lymphocytes were obviously decreased by alpinetin as well. Moreover, oxidative stress in the organs was compelling lower in the alpinetin-treated CLP mice. In this clinically relevant model of sepsis, alpinetin ameliorates CLP-induced organ dysfunction and improves the likelihood of survival, possibly through suppressing the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. These findings suggested that alpinetin could be a potential novel therapeutic approach to prevent sepsis-induced PICS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9998517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275435PMC
July 2021

Broadband, Enhanced, and Antithermally Quenched Near-Infrared Phosphors via a Cosubstitution Approach.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

Wearable biosensing and food safety inspection devices with high thermal stability, high brightness, and broad near-infrared (NIR) phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs) could accelerate the next-generation NIR light applications. In this work, NIR LaGdGaGeO:Cr ( = 0 to 1.5) phosphors were successfully fabricated by a high-temperature solid-state method. Here, by doping Gd ions into the La sites in the LaGaGeO matrix, a 7.9-fold increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the Cr ions, as well as a remarkably broadened full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the corresponding PL spectra, is achieved. The enhancements in the PL, PLE intensity, and FWHM are attributed to the suppression of the nonradiative transition process of Cr when Gd ions are doped into the host, which can be demonstrated by the decay curves. Moreover, the LaGdGaGeO:Cr phosphor displays an abnormally negative thermal phenomenon that the integral PL intensity reaches 131% of the initial intensity when the ambient temperature increases to 160 °C. Finally, the broadband NIR pc-LED was fabricated based on the as-explored LaGdGaGeO:Cr phosphors combined with a 460 nm chip, and the potential applications for the broadband NIR pc-LEDs were discussed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01588DOI Listing
July 2021

HOME vs. LAB hair samples for the determination of long-term steroid concentrations: a comparison between hair samples collected by laypersons and trained research staff.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Hair segment analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of cumulative long-term steroid secretion. Preliminary findings suggest comparable cortisol concentrations in hair collected by instructed laypersons and research staff. However, it remains unclear whether hair sample quality and hair steroids other than cortisol are affected by level of experience (laypersons vs. research staff), home collection circumstances (instructions, familiarity to participant, performance confidence), and characteristics of the layperson (conscientiousness). Sixty participants (23.6 ± 3.9 years; 43 females) provided hair samples twice: first collected by laypersons (HOME) according to provided instructions (written vs. written/video-based instructions) and second by trained research staff (LAB) on the same day or the day after the HOME collection. Hair steroid concentrations (cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, progesterone) were determined using LC-MS/MS. Hair sample quality was evaluated using nine predefined criteria. Laypersons completed questionnaires for the assessment of potential factors of hair outcome measures (hair steroid concentrations, hair sample quality). Hair steroids from HOME and LAB samples were positively correlated (rs between 0.76 and 0.89) and did not significantly differ, with the exception of cortisone. The quality of hair samples was significantly higher for LAB than for HOME samples. Neither HOME collection circumstances nor layperson-related characteristics had an impact on hair outcome measures. However, a low self-reported performance confidence predicted a high absolute difference between HOME and LAB DHEA. In summary, our findings suggest higher quality of hair samples collected by trained research staff compared to instructed laypersons. However, these differences might be negligible, considering the high correlation between HOME and LAB hair steroid concentrations, with the characteristics of the layperson or collection circumstances having a minor impact on hair steroids and hair sample quality. These findings provide further support for the notion that well-instructed laypersons can be enabled to collect hair samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-021-02367-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Map of dimorphic switching‑related signaling pathways in based on its transcriptome.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 19;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Dermatology, University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000, P.R. China.

) induces sporotrichosis, which has gained attention in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence. The dimorphic switching process is essential for the pathogenesis of . Previously, overexpression of several signal transduction genes, including SsDRK1 and SsSte20, was observed during the mycelium‑to‑yeast transition; these were necessary for asexual development, yeast‑phase cell formation, cell wall integrity and melanin synthesis. However, the mechanisms of the signaling pathways during dimorphic switching of remain unclear. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of the 48‑h induced yeast forms and mycelium of was performed. In total, 24,904,510 high‑quality clean reads were obtained from mycelium samples and 22,814,406 from 48‑h induced yeast form samples. Following assembly, 31,779 unigene sequences were obtained with 52.98% GC content (The proportion of guanine G and cytosine C to all bases in nucleic acid). The results demonstrated that 12,217 genes, including genes involved in signal transduction and chitin synthesis, were expressed differentially between the two stages. According to these results, a map of the signaling pathways, including two‑component and heterotrimeric G‑protein signaling systems, Ras and MAPK cascades associated with the dimorphic switch, was drawn. Taken together, the transcriptome data and analysis performed in the present study lay the foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms controlling the dimorphic switch of and support the development of anti‑ strategies targeting genes associated with signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12285DOI Listing
September 2021

A New Fitness Test of Estimating VO in Well-Trained Rowing Athletes.

Front Physiol 2021 2;12:701541. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Sports Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: This study was designed to investigate the validity of maximal oxygen consumption (VO) estimation through the Firstbeat fitness test (FFT) method when using submaximal rowing and running programs for well-trained athletes.

Methods: Well-trained flatwater rowers ( = 45, 19.8 ± 3.0 years, 184 ± 8.7 cm, 76 ± 12.9 kg, and 58.7 ± 6.0 mL⋅kg⋅min) and paddlers ( = 45, 19.0 ± 2.5 years, 180 ± 7.7 cm, 74 ± 9.4 kg, and 59.9 ± 4.8 mL⋅kg⋅min) completed the FFT and maximal graded exercise test (GXT) programs of rowing and running, respectively. The estimated VO was calculated using the FFT system, and the measured VO was obtained from the GXT programs. Differences between the estimated and measured VO values were analyzed to assess the accuracy and agreement of the predictions. Equations from the previous study were also used to predict the VO in the submaximal programs to compare the accuracy of prediction with the FFT method.

Results: The FFT method was in good agreement with the measured VO in both groups based on the intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.8). Additionally, the FFT method had considerable accuracy in VO estimation as the mean absolute percentage error (≤5.0%) and mean absolute error (<3.0 mL⋅kg⋅min) were fairly low. Furthermore, the FFT method seemed more accurate in the estimation of VO than previously reported equations, especially in the rowing test program.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the FFT method provides a considerably accurate estimation of VO in well-trained athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.701541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283806PMC
July 2021

Cytochrome P450 catalyses the 29-carboxyl group formation of celastrol.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jul 15;190:112868. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China. Electronic address:

Celastrol, a potent anticancer and anti-obesity drug, was first isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. and it is produced in small quantities in many members of the Celastraceae family. The heterologous reconstitution of celastrol biosynthesis could be a promising method for the efficient production of celastrol and natural and unnatural derivatives thereof, yet only part of the biosynthetic pathway is known. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (TwCYP712K1) from T. wilfordii that performs the three-step oxidation of friedelin to polpunonic acid in the celastrol pathway. Heterologous expression of TwCYP712K1 showed that TwCYP712K1 catalyses not only the transformation of friedelin to polpunonic acid but also the oxidation of β-amyrin or α-amyrin. The role of TwCYP712K1 in the biosynthesis of celastrol was further revealed via RNA interference. Some key residues of TwCYP712K1 were also screened by molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Our results lay a solid foundation for further elucidating the biosynthesis of celastrol and related triterpenoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112868DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of anthropogenic activities on the environmental fate of chlorinated paraffins in surface soil in an urbanized zone of northern China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 10;288:117766. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been widely used as halogenated flame retardants and plasticizers since the mid-20th century. The prevalence of CPs in soil has been widely reported, but the distribution pattern of CPs in urbanized zones and their association with multiple socioeconomic variables have not been adequately explored. Herein, short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were investigated in surface soil samples from Tianjin, China, a typical urbanized area. The concentration distributions of SCCPs and MCCPs showed similar trends in different administrative divisions and land use types: urban areas > suburbs > outer suburbs (p < 0.001) and residential areas > greenbelts > agricultural areas (p < 0.001). The CP congeners in residential surface soils mainly included those with longer carbon chains and high degree of chlorination, while the CP congeners in agricultural surface soils mainly consisted of those with shorter carbon chains and fewer chlorine substituents. Multiple statistical approaches were used to explore the association between socioeconomic factors and CP distribution. CP concentration was significantly correlated to population density and gross domestic product (GDP) (p < 0.001), and structural equation models incorporating administrative regional planning showed an indirect impact on the distribution of MCCP concentration due to the influence of regional planning on population density. These results highlight the association between CP contamination and the degree of urbanization, and this paper provides useful information toward mitigating the exposure risk of CPs for urban inhabitants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117766DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Pediatric Populations in Beijing (2017-2019): Clinical Characteristics, Molecular Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

MOE Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University) National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China Department of Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China.

Background: Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pnuemoniae (hvKp) are emerging globally causing life-threatening infectious diseases; however, comprehensive studies on pediatric hvKp strains and related infections are still lacking.

Methods: Clinical data were collected from medical records. Genotype (multilocus sequence typing), capsular serotype, virulence gene profile and carbapenemase of the isolates were determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. Broth microdilution method was adopted to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. Hypermucoviscosity phenotype and the virulence of the strains were evaluated by string test and Galleria mellonella larvae killing assay.

Results: Among 319 K. pneumoniae strains, 26 (8.2%) hvKp were identified, the detection rates in 2017, 2018 and 2019 were 1.8%, 5.2% and 11.3%. The majority of hvKp infections were found in school-age children and adolescents (57.7%). Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (38.5%). Single fatal case was hvKp caused liver abscess complicated with bacteremia. hvKp were dominated by ST23 (30.8%) and ST11 (30.8%). Eight carbapenem-resistant hvKp (CR-hvKp) were found, which all belonged to ST11. Virulence gene profile revealed that ST11 hvKp might carry incomplete pLVPK-like plasmids, but they exhibited comparable in vivo virulence to the other hvKp.

Conclusions: The infections caused by hvKp are not frequent among pediatric populations, but the detection rate of hvKp in pediatric populations is increasing rapidly in recent years. The emerging and dissemination of ST11 CR-hvKp should be monitored continuously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003253DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative analysis of bile culture and blood culture in patients with malignant biliary obstruction complicated with biliary infection.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):726-732

Department of Intervention, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: This study is aimed to provide a clinical basis for the identification and treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) complicated with biliary infection by comparing pathogenic bacteria detected in bile and blood cultures from these patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 380 patients with MBO who received percutaneous transhepatic cholangic drainage from January 2004 to January 2019 were included in the study. A total of 90 patients were diagnosed with having MBO complicated with biliary infection, and bile and blood culture were simultaneously performed on these patients. The patients included 58 men and 32 women, ranging in age from 33 to 86 years old, with a mean age of 60.69 years.

Results: The detection rate using bile bacterial culture in patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection was significantly higher than that using blood culture, and there were significant differences in the two kinds of bacterial culture found positive bile and blood cultures from the same patients. Gram-positive cocci were dominant in the bile cultures and Gram-negative bacilli were dominant in the blood cultures. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct simultaneous bile bacterial culture and blood culture for patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection, especially those with severe or critical diseases.

Conclusions: It is vital to enable simultaneous bile bacterial culture and blood culture in patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection. Existing guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary infection are not applicable to patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1705_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Suppression of Kerr-effect induced error in resonant fiber optic gyro by a resonator with spun fiber.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):19631-19642

In order to suppress Kerr-effect induced error in resonant fiber optic gyro (RFOG), a resonator based on spun fiber (SF) is proposed for the first time. The theory of the Kerr-effect induced error in gyro is analyzed first and the suppression method for this issue is explained, highlighting the advantages of circular state of polarization (CSOP) light and SF. Then the structure design and optimization of the resonator are completed to guide resonator fabrication and meet the better noise suppression requirement. Finally, the gyro experiment indicates that the resonator based on SF can suppress the Kerr-effect induced error by at least 96.6 % without a power compensation structure, which is of great significance for simplifying the system. In addition, the method proposed in this article first confirms the potential of CSOP light in optical noise and error suppression of RFOG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.424987DOI Listing
June 2021

Dynamic trends in skin barrier function from birth to age 6 months and infantile atopic dermatitis: A Chinese prospective cohort study.

Clin Transl Allergy 2021 Jul 3;11(5):e12043. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology Children's Hospital of Fudan University & National Children Medical Center Shanghai China.

Background: Skin barrier functions develop after birth and may be related to skin disorders in infants. We aimed to assess associations between dynamic trends of four skin barrier functional parameters in early life with infant atopic dermatitis (AD).

Methods: Based on the prospective cohort MKNFOAD (NCT02889081), we examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), skin pH, and sebum content at five anatomical sites (cheek, forehead, forearm, abdomen, and lower leg) in 418 term infants at birth, 42 days, and 6 months. Trend differences by sex and association with AD at age 1 year were tested using variance analyses. Associations of the parameters with AD risk were tested using discrete time survival analysis, adjusting extensive covariates including parental history of allergy, infant's sex, birth weight (kg), and delivery mode. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were reported.

Results: Overall TEWL and SCH appeared trends of increase while skin surface pH and sebum content showed trends of decrease within the first six postnatal months. Sex differences were significant for sebum content only ( < 0.001). After adjustment for parental and children covariates, cheek TEWL at birth (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.57,  = 0.045) and 42 days (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97,  = 0.002) were significantly associated with increased AD risk. Associations were not observed between SCH, skin pH, and sebum content at birth or 42 days with AD.

Conclusions: Skin barrier functions of Chinese term infants varied nonlinearly after birth. Higher postnatal TEWL levels in early life indicate higher risk of early-onset AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clt2.12043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254580PMC
July 2021

Lipoxin A4 attenuates the lung ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats after lung transplantation.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):1142-1151

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Lung ischaemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) is the major cause of primary lung dysfunction after lung transplantation. Lipoxin A4 inhibits the oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of lipoxin A4 on LIRI in rats.

Methods: SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomised into the sham, LIRI and LA4 groups. Rats in the sham group received anaesthesia, thoracotomy and intravenous injection of saline, while those in the LIRI or LA4 group received left lung transplantation and intravenous injection of saline or lipoxin A4, respectively. After 24 h of reperfusion, the PaO/FiO (Partial pressure of O2 to fraction inspiratory O2), wet/dry weight ratios and protein levels in lungs were measured to assess the alveolar capillary permeability. The oxidative stress response and inflammation were examined. The histological and apoptosis analyses of lung tissues were performed HE staining (Haematoxylin-eosin staining) and TUNEL assay, respectively. The effects of lipoxin A4 on the endothelial viability and tube formation of hypoxaemia and reoxygenation-challenged rat pulmonary microvascular endothelium cells were determined.

Results: Lipoxin A4 significantly ameliorated the alveolar capillary permeability, reduced the oxidative stress and inflammation in transplanted lungs. The histological injury and apoptosis of lung tissues were also alleviated by lipoxin A4. lipoxin A4 treatment promoted the endothelial tube formation and improved the endothelial viability.

Conclusion: Lipoxin A4 protects LIRI after lung transplantation in rats, and its therapeutic effect is associated with the properties of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and endothelium protection.Key messages:Lung transplantation is a treatment approach for the patients with lung disease.LIRI is the major cause of postoperative primary lung dysfunction.Lipoxins A4 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1949488DOI Listing
December 2021

Marriage of Virus-Mimic Surface Topology and Microbubble-Assisted Ultrasound for Enhanced Intratumor Accumulation and Improved Cancer Theranostics.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 07 14;8(13):2004670. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai 200032 P. R. China.

The low delivery efficiency of nanoparticles to solid tumors greatly reduces the therapeutic efficacy and safety which is closely related to low permeability and poor distribution at tumor sites. In this work, an "intrinsic plus extrinsic superiority" administration strategy is proposed to dramatically enhance the mean delivery efficiency of nanoparticles in prostate cancer to 6.84% of injected dose, compared to 1.42% as the maximum in prostate cancer in the previously reported study. Specifically, the intrinsic superiority refers to the virus-mimic surface topology of the nanoparticles for enhanced nano-bio interactions. Meanwhile, the extrinsic stimuli of microbubble-assisted low-frequency ultrasound is to enhance permeability of biological barriers and improve intratumor distribution. The enhanced intratumor enrichment can be verified by photoacoustic resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging in this multifunctional nanoplatform, which also facilitates excellent anticancer effect of photothermal treatment, photodynamic treatment, and sonodynamic treatment via combined laser and ultrasound irradiation. This study confirms the significant advance in nanoparticle accumulation in multiple tumor models, which provides an innovative delivery paradigm to improve intratumor accumulation of nanotherapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261514PMC
July 2021

Correction to: Correlation between Wall Shear Stress and Acute Degradation of the Endothelial Glycocalyx during Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-021-10145-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Implementation science protocol for a participatory, theory-informed implementation research programme in the context of health system strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa (ASSET-ImplementER).

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 8;11(7):e048742. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Centre for Implementation Science, Department of Health Services and Population Research, King's College London, London, UK.

Objectives: ASSET (Health System Strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa) is a health system strengthening (HSS) programme involving eight work-packages (ie, a research study that addresses a specific need for HSS) that aims to develop solutions that support high-quality care. Here we present the protocol for the implementation science (IS) theme within ASSET (ASSET-ImplmentER) that aims to understand what HSS interventions work, for whom and how, and how IS methodologies can be adapted to improve the HSS interventions within resource-poor contexts.

Settings: Publicly funded health facilities in rural and urban areas in in Ethiopia, South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe.

Participants: Research staff including principal investigators, coinvestigators, field staff, PhD students, and research assistants.

Interventions: Work-packages use a mixed-methods effectiveness-effectiveness hybrid designs. At the end of the pre-implementation phase, a workshop is held whereby the IS theme, jointly with ASSET work-packages apply IS determinant frameworks to research findings to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of delivering evidence-informed care. Determinants are used to select a set of HSS interventions for further evaluation, where work-packages also theorise selective mechanisms., work-packages pilot the HSS interventions. An iterative process then begins involving evaluation, reflection and adaptation. Throughout this phase, IS determinant frameworks are applied to monitor and identify barriers/enablers to implementation. Selective mechanisms of action are also investigated. Implementation outcomes are evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The psychometric properties of outcome measures including acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility are also evaluated. In a final workshop, work-packages come together, to reflect and explore the utility of the selected IS methods and provide suggestions for future use.Structured templates are used to organise and analyse common and heterogeneous patterns across work-packages. Qualitative data are analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data are analysed using means and proportions.

Conclusions: We use a novel combination of IS methods at a programmatic level to facilitate comparisons of determinants and mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of HSS interventions in achieving implementation outcomes across different contexts. The study also contributes conceptual development and clarification at the underdeveloped interface of IS, HSS and global health.The ASSET-ImplementER theme is considered minimal risk as we only interview researchers involved in the different work-packages. To this effect we have received approval from King's College London Ethics Committee for research that is considered minimal risk (Reference number: MRA-20/21-21772).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-048742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268893PMC
July 2021

Functional characterization and substrate promiscuity of sesquiterpene synthases from Tripterygium wilfordii.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 6;185:949-958. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038, PR China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China. Electronic address:

Acyclic terpenes, commonly found in plants, are of high physiological importance and commercial value, and their diversity was controlled by different terpene synthases. During the screen of sesquiterpene synthases from Tripterygium wilfordii, we observed that Ses-TwTPS1-1 and Ses-TwTPS2 promiscuously accepted GPP, FPP, and GGPP to produce corresponding terpene alcohols (linalool/nerolidol/geranyllinalool). The Ses-TwTPS1-2, Ses-TwTPS3, and Ses-TwTPS4 also showed unusual substrate promiscuity by catalyzing GGPP or GPP in addition to FPP as substrate. Furthermore, key residues for the generation of diterpene product, (E, E)-geranyllinalool, were screened depending on mutagenesis studies. The functional analysis of Ses-TwTPS1-1:V199I and Ses-TwTPS1-2:I199V showed that Val in 199 site assisted the produce of diterpene product geranyllinalool by enzyme mutation studies, which indicated that subtle differences away from the active site could alter the product outcome. Moreover, an engineered sesquiterpene high-yielding yeast that produced 162 mg/L nerolidol in shake flask conditions was constructed to quickly identify the function of sesquiterpene synthases in vivo and develop potential applications in microbial fermentation. Our functional characterization of acyclic sesquiterpene synthases will give some insights into the substrate promiscuity of diverse acyclic terpene synthases and provide key residues for expanding the product portfolio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Antibiotics modulate neoadjuvant therapy efficiency in patients with breast cancer: a pilot analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 7;11(1):14024. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Breast Center, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 169 Tianshan Street, Shijiazhuang, 050000, People's Republic of China.

Mounting evidence suggests that microbiota dysbiosis caused by antibiotic administration is a risk factor for cancer, but few research reports focus on the relationships between antibiotics and chemotherapy efficiency. We evaluated the influence of antibiotic administration on neoadjuvant therapy efficacy in patients with breast cancer (BC) in the present study. BC patients were stratified into two groups: antibiotic-treated and control based on antibiotic administration within 30 days after neoadjuvant therapy initiation. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analyses. The pathologic complete response rate of the control group was significantly higher than that of the antibiotic-treated group (29.09% vs. 10.20%, p = 0.017). Further univariate analysis with Kaplan-Meier calculations demonstrated that antibiotic administration was strongly linked with both reduced DFS (p = 0.04) at significant statistical levels and OS (p = 0.088) at borderline statistical levels. Antibiotic administration was identified as a significant independent prognostic factor for DFS [hazard ratio (HR) 3.026, 95%, confidence interval (CI) 1.314-6.969, p = 0.009] and OS (HR 2.836, 95% CI 1.016-7.858, p = 0.047) by Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Antibiotics that initiated reduced efficiency of chemotherapy were more noticeable in the HER2-positive subgroup for both DFS (HR 5.51, 95% CI 1.77-17.2, p = 0.003) and OS (HR 7.0395% CI 1.94-25.53, p = 0.003), as well as in the T3-4 subgroup for both DFS (HR 20.36, 95% CI 2.41-172.07, p = 0.006) and OS (HR 13.45, 95% CI 1.39-130.08, p = 0.025) by stratified analysis. Antibiotic administration might be associated with reduced efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy and poor prognosis in BC patients. As a preliminary study, our research made preparations for further understanding and large-scale analyses of the impact of antibiotics on the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93428-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263554PMC
July 2021

[Effect of isopentenyl pyrophosphate translocation on the biosynthesis of triptolide].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Jun;37(6):2039-2049

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Triptolide has wide clinical applications due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunosuppressive activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of blocking isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) translocation on the biosynthesis of triptolide by exogenously adding D,L-glyceraldehyde (DLG) to the suspension cells of Ttripterygium wilfordii at different stages (7 d, 14 d). Subsequently, the cell viability, biomass accumulation, triptolide contents, as well as the profiles of the key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide biosynthesis, were analyzed. The results showed that IPP translocation is involved in the biosynthesis of triptolide. IPP is mainly translocated from the plastid (containing the MEP pathway) to the cytoplasm (containing the MVA pathway) in the early stage of the culture, but reversed in the late stage. Blocking the translocation of IPP affected the expression of key enzyme genes involved in the upstream pathway of triptolide, which in turn affected the accumulation of triptolide. Understanding the characteristics and mechanism of IPP translocation provides a theoretical basis for further promoting triptolide biosynthesis through synthetic biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200752DOI Listing
June 2021

A case of applying left bundle branch pacing combined with atrioventricular node ablation to treat atrial fibrillation-induced heart failure.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2021 Jun;18(6):492-497

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, NHC Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220378PMC
June 2021

An integrated model for medical expense system optimization during diagnosis process based on artificial intelligence algorithm.

J Comb Optim 2021 Jun 26:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

In the era of artificial intelligence, the healthcare industry is undergoing tremendous innovation and development based on sophisticated AI algorithms. Focusing on diagnosis process and target disease, this study theoretically proposed an integrated model to optimize traditional medical expense system, and ultimately helps medical staff and patients make more reliable decisions. From the new perspective of total expense estimation and detailed expense analysis, the proposed model innovatively consists of two intelligent modules, with theoretical contribution. The two modules are SVM-based module and SOM-based module. According to the rigorous comparative analysis with two classic AI techniques, back propagation neural networks and random forests, it is demonstrated that the SVM-based module achieved better capability of total expense estimation. Meanwhile, by designing a two-stage clustering process, SOM-based module effectively generated decision clusters and corresponding cluster centers were obtained, that clarified the complex relationship between detailed expense and patient information. To achieve practical contribution, the proposed model was applied to the diagnosis process of coronary heart disease. The real data from a hospital in Shanghai was collected, and the validity and accuracy of the proposed model were verified with rigorous experiments. The proposed model innovatively optimized traditional medical expense system, and intelligently generated reliable decision-making information for both total expense and detailed expense. The successful application on the target disease further indicates that this model is a user-friendly tool for medical expense control and therapeutic regimen strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10878-021-00761-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235905PMC
June 2021

Melatonin increases leaf disease resistance and saponin biosynthesis in Panax notogiseng.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Aug 26;263:153466. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax notoginseng Resources, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Panax notoginseng in Yunnan Province, Panax notoginseng Research Institute in Yunnan Province, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 650500, Kunming, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Panax notoginseng (Bruk.) FH Chen is a valuable traditional herb in China, with saponins being the main medicinal components in its roots. However, leaf diseases are a major factor limiting growth and production of P. notoginseng. Melatonin is a ubiquitous signaling molecule associated with abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in leaf disease resistance of P. notoginseng in field conditions. Additionally, saponin concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the suitability of melatonin use in agricultural practice. Our results showed that exogenous application of melatonin promoted the endogenous phytomelatonin accumulation via upregulation of genes involved in its biosynthesis. The application of 10 μM melatonin decreased the incidence of leaf diseases (gray mold, round spot, and black spot) by about 40% compared with the solvent control, which might have been due to the increased expression of genes associated with immunity and disease resistance. Furthermore, concentrations of saponins and expression of their biosynthesis-related genes were significantly increased by melatonin. Taken together, the data presented here suggested that melatonin could be used in agricultural management of P. notoginseng because it increased leaf disease resistance and biosynthesis of saponins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2021.153466DOI Listing
August 2021

High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Fe-10Cr Steel under Different Atmospheres.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;14(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, 11 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110819, China.

Using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), Fe-10Cr steel was oxidized in dry air and in a mixed atmosphere of air and water vapor at a relative humidity of 50% and a temperature of 800-1200 °C for 1 h. The oxidation weight gain curves under the two atmospheres were drawn, the oxidation activation energy was calculated, and the phase and cross-sectional morphology of the iron oxide scales were analyzed and observed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that when the oxidation temperature was 800 °C, the spheroidization of Fe-10Cr steel occurred, and the oxidation kinetics conformed to the linear law. At 900-1200 °C, the oxidation kinetics followed a linear law in the preliminary stage and a parabolic law in the middle and late stages. In an air atmosphere, when the oxidation temperature reached 1200 °C, CrO in the inner oxide layer was partially ruptured. In an atmosphere with a water vapor content of 50%, CrO at the interface reacted with HO to generate volatile CrO(OH), resulting in a large consumption of Cr at the interface. At the same time, a large number of voids and microcracks appeared in the iron oxide layer, which accelerated the entry of water molecules into the substrate, as well as the oxidation of Fe-10Cr steel, and caused the iron oxide scales to fall off. Due to the volatilization of CrO and the conversion from internal oxidation to external oxidation, the internal oxidation zone (IOZ) of Fe-10Cr steel under water vapor atmosphere decreased or even disappeared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14133453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269460PMC
June 2021
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