Publications by authors named "Wei Feng"

1,821 Publications

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Stimulus-driven liquid metal and liquid crystal network actuators for programmable soft robotics.

Mater Horiz 2021 Aug 31;8(9):2475-2484. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Advanced Materials and Liquid Crystal Institute and Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

Sophisticated soft matter engineering has been endorsed as an emerging paradigm for developing untethered soft robots with built-in electronic functions and biomimetic adaptation capacities. However, the integration of flexible electronic components into soft robotic actuators is challenging due to strain mismatch and material incompatibilities. Herein, we report a general strategy to integrate electrically conductive liquid metals (LMs) and shape-morphing liquid crystal networks (LCNs) towards multifunctional and programmable soft robotics. A unique colloidal LM ink with superior adhesion and photothermal conversion efficiency was judiciously designed and fabricated by ultrasonicating LMs and miniature carboxylated gold nanorods (MiniGNR-COOH) in an aqueous suspension of biological bacterial cellulose. The designed nanocellulose-based colloidal LM ink is used for shape-deformable and electrically conductive LM-LCN soft robots that can be electro- and photo-thermally actuated. As proof-of-concept demonstrations, we present a light-fueled soft oscillator, an inchworm-inspired soft crawler and programmable robotic Shadow Play exhibiting multifunctional controllability. The strategy disclosed here could open up a new technological arena for advanced multifunctional soft materials with potential utility in bioinspired soft machines, integrated soft electronics, human-computer interaction and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1mh00623aDOI Listing
August 2021

An emerging role of the 5' termini of mature tRNAs in human diseases: Current situation and prospects.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Dec 1;1868(2):166314. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

The fundamental biological roles of a class of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), derived from mature tRNAs or pre-tRNAs, in human diseases have received increasing attention in recent years. These ncRNAs are called tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) or tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). tRFs mainly include tRF-1, tRF-5, tRF-3 and tRNA halves (tiRNAs or tRHs), which are produced by enzyme-specific cleavage of tRNAs. Here, we classify tRF-5 and 5' tiRNAs into the same category: 5'-tRFs and review the biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of 5'-tRFs in cancer and other diseases (metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, pathological stress injury and virus infection) to provide a new theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166314DOI Listing
December 2021

Correlation between clinicopathological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma and the risk of venous thromboembolism.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine and Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, lung adenocarcinoma characteristics differ across histological subtypes. Therefore, we performed comprehensive analyses on the clinicopathological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma and risk of VTE.

Methods: A total of 952 surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma cases were reviewed and classified according to criteria of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) /European Respiratory Society (ERS). The correlation between this classification and VTE risk was retrospectively analyzed. The risks of other clinicopathological features including pleural invasion, vascular invasion and associated surgical intervention risks were also assessed.

Results: Of the 952 patients, 100 (10.4%) cases experienced VTE events during the follow-up period. Among those with VTE, 28 (28%) were found before surgery, 47 (47%) were found within 1 month after surgery, and 91 (91%) were found in hospital. Univariate analysis revealed that ages, extent of resection and presence of micropapillary features were predictive of VTE risk. Furthermore, multivariable analysis demonstrated that the presence of micropapillary features (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 1.560, 95% CI: 1.043-2.330) and age >60 (SHR: 2.270, 95% CI:1.491-3.470) were associated with increased risk of VTE. After one year, the probability of developing VTE was 13.1% and 8.3% in patients with micropapillary features and those without, respectively.

Conclusions: VTE is a common complication for lung adenocarcinoma patients who undergo surgery, especially during the perioperative process and hospitalization. Presence of micropapillary subtype and age are positively associated with VTE risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14260DOI Listing
December 2021

Crystal Structure of the Core Module of the Yeast Paf1 Complex.

J Mol Biol 2021 Nov 28;434(2):167369. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Protein Science, and College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071, China; Nankai International Advanced Research Institute (Shenzhen Futian), Shenzhen, Guangdong 518045, China. Electronic address:

The highly conserved multifunctional polymerase-associated factor 1 (Paf1) complex (PAF1C), which consists of five core subunits: Ctr9, Paf1, Leo1, Cdc73, and Rtf1, acts as a diverse hub that regulates all stages of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription and various other cellular functions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the core module derived from a quaternary Ctr9/Paf1/Cdc73/Rtf1 complex of S. cerevisiae PAF1C, which reveals interfaces between the tetratricopeptide repeat module in Ctr9 and Cdc73 or Rtf1, and find that the Ctr9/Paf1 subcomplex is the key scaffold for PAF1C assembly. Our study demonstrates that Cdc73 binds Ctr9/Paf1 subcomplex with a very similar conformation within thermophilic fungi or human PAF1C, and that the binding of Cdc73 to PAF1C is important for yeast growth. Importantly, our structure reveals for the first time that the extreme C-terminus of Rtf1 adopts an "L"-shaped structure, which interacts with Ctr9 specifically. In addition, disruption of the binding of either Cdc73 or Rtf1 to PAF1C greatly affects the normal level of histone H2B K123 monoubiquitination in vivo. Collectively, our results provide a structural insight into the architecture of the quaternary Ctr9/Paf1/Cdc73/Rtf1 complex and PAF1C functional regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2021.167369DOI Listing
November 2021

Postoperative alterations of sagittal cervical alignment and risk factors for cervical kyphosis in 124 Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Nov 30;22(1):1001. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Orthopedic Department, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: This study aims to analyze postoperative changes of cervical sagittal curvature and to identify independent risk factors for cervical kyphosis in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients.

Methods: A total of 124 AIS patients who received all-pedicle-screw instrumentation were enrolled. All patients were followed up for at least 2 years. The following parameters were measured preoperatively, immediately after the operation, and at the last follow-up: pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), global thoracic kyphosis (GTK), proximal thoracic kyphosis (PrTK), T1-slope, cervical lordosis (CL), McGregor slope (McGS), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2-7 SVA (cSVA), and main thoracic angle (MTA). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate postoperative alterations of and correlations between the parameters and to identify risk factors for cervical kyphosis. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: After the operation, PrTK and T1-slope significantly increased (3.01 ± 11.46, 3.8 ± 10.76, respectively), cervical lordosis improved with an insignificant increase (- 2.11 ± 13.47, P = 0.154), and MTA, SS, and LL decreased significantly (- 33.68 ± 15.35, - 2.98 ± 8.41, 2.82 ± 9.92, respectively). Intergroup comparison and logistic regression revealed that preoperative CK > 2.35° and immediate postoperative GTK < 27.15° were independent risk factors for final cervical kyphosis, and △T1-slope < 4.8° for a kyphotic trend.

Conclusions: Postoperative restoration of thoracic kyphosis, especially proximal thoracic kyphosis, and T1-slope play a central role in cervical sagittal compensation. Preoperative CK, postoperative small GTK, and insufficient △T1-slope are all independent risk factors for cervical decompensation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04884-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8630904PMC
November 2021

Motor domain-mediated autoinhibition dictates axonal transport by the kinesin UNC-104/KIF1A.

PLoS Genet 2021 Nov 29;17(11):e1009940. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The UNC-104/KIF1A motor is crucial for axonal transport of synaptic vesicles, but how the UNC-104/KIF1A motor is activated in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we identified point mutations located in the motor domain or the inhibitory CC1 domain, which resulted in gain-of-function alleles of unc-104 that exhibit hyperactive axonal transport and abnormal accumulation of synaptic vesicles. In contrast to the cell body localization of wild type motor, the mutant motors accumulate on neuronal processes. Once on the neuronal process, the mutant motors display dynamic movement similarly to wild type motors. The gain-of-function mutation on the motor domain leads to an active dimeric conformation, releasing the inhibitory CC1 region from the motor domain. Genetically engineered mutations in the motor domain or CC1 of UNC-104, which disrupt the autoinhibitory interface, also led to the gain of function and hyperactivation of axonal transport. Thus, the CC1/motor domain-mediated autoinhibition is crucial for UNC-104/KIF1A-mediated axonal transport in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009940DOI Listing
November 2021

Therapeutic effect of an external fixator in the treatment of unstable pelvic fractures in children.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Nov 24:103150. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Orthopaedics, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, 100045, China. Electronic address:

Background: Unstable pelvic fractures in children are serious and complex injuries, and the optimal method to manage these injuries is controversial.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that an external fixator would be a satisfactory method of treating unstable pelvic fractures in children.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric patients with unstable pelvic fractures who were treated with an external fixator in Beijing Children's Hospital from June 2006 to June 2016. Postoperative follow-up was 12 to 108 months, with an average of 26 months. One year after the operation, fracture healing, pelvic asymmetry, and deformity index were assessed by X-ray. Pelvic function was evaluated with the Cole evaluation standard, and daily cognitive and motor functions were evaluated by weeFIM. Patient complications were recorded.

Results: The average age of the 40 patients was 5.9±3.1 years (2.0 to 14.5 years), including 25 boys and 15 girls. Among these cases, 37 (92.5%) had injuries caused by traffic accidents and 3 (7.5%) had injuries caused by falling from height. Based on the Tile classification, there were 18 cases of class B (14 class B2 and 4 class B3) and 22 cases of class C (15 class C1, 6 class C2, and 1 class C3). The X-rays showed good fracture healing at the 1-year postoperative follow-up. The pelvic asymmetry was reduced from 1.13 cm before the operation to 0.88 cm after (P<0.05), and the deformity index was decreased from 0.09 before to 0.05 after the operation (P<0.05). At the 1-year postoperative follow-up, 36 patients had excellent Cole scores, and 4 had good Cole scores, with a good or excellent rate of 100%. According to the weeFIM, 28 patients had complete independence, 11 had basic independence, and 1 had conditional independence. Three patients (7.5%) had complications, all of which were postoperative pin-site infections.

Discussion: For children with horizontally unstable pelvic fractures, an external fixator can be used alone. For children with horizontally and vertically unstable pelvic fractures, after external fixator placement and reduction, lower extremity traction can be performed to achieve better reduction and maintain stability, and the therapeutic effect is satisfactory.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective observational cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.103150DOI Listing
November 2021

Enhanced Energy Density for P-Doped Hierarchically Porous Carbon-Based Symmetric Supercapacitor with High Operation Potential in Aqueous HSO Electrolyte.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Oct 25;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China.

Phosphorus-doped hierarchically porous carbon (HPC) is prepared with the assistance of freeze-drying using colloid silica and phytic acid dipotassium salt as a hard template and phosphorus source, respectively. Intensive material characterizations show that the freeze-drying process can effectively promote the porosity of HPC. The specific surface area and P content for HPC can reach up to 892 m g and 2.78 at%, respectively. Electrochemical measurements in aqueous KOH and HSO electrolytes reveal that K of a smaller size can more easily penetrate the inner pores compared with SO, while the developed microporosity in HPC is conducive to the penetration of SO. Moreover, P-doping leads to a high operation potential of 1.5 V for an HPC-based symmetric supercapacitor, resulting in an enhanced energy density of 16.4 Wh kg. Our work provides a feasible strategy to prepare P-doped HPC with a low dosage of phosphorus source and a guide to construct a pore structure suitable for aqueous HSO electrolyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11112838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8624919PMC
October 2021

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Light Field Based on Phase Similarity.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Nov 20;21(22). Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Modern Manufacturing Quality Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068, China.

Light field imaging plays an increasingly important role in the field of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction because of its ability to quickly obtain four-dimensional information (angle and space) of the scene. In this paper, a 3D reconstruction method of light field based on phase similarity is proposed to increase the accuracy of depth estimation and the scope of applicability of epipolar plane image (EPI). The calibration method of the light field camera was used to obtain the relationship between disparity and depth, and the projector calibration was removed to make the experimental procedure more flexible. Then, the disparity estimation algorithm based on phase similarity was designed to effectively improve the reliability and accuracy of disparity calculation, in which the phase information was used instead of the structure tensor, and the morphological processing method was used to denoise and optimize the disparity map. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the light field was realized by combining disparity information with the calibrated relationship. The experimental results showed that the reconstruction standard deviation of the two objects was 0.3179 mm and 0.3865 mm compared with the ground truth of the measured objects, respectively. Compared with the traditional EPI method, our method can not only make EPI perform well in a single scene or blurred texture situations but also maintain good reconstruction accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21227734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8618702PMC
November 2021

Novel Design and Finite Element Analysis of Diamond-like Porous Implants with Low Stiffness.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Nov 16;14(22). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Foshan Hemera Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Foshan 528000, China.

The purpose of this study was to design porous implants with low stiffness and evaluate their biomechanical behavior. Thus, two types of porous implants were designed (Type I: a combined structure of diamond-like porous scaffold and traditional tapered thread. Type II: a cylindrical porous scaffold filled by arrayed basic diamond-like pore units). Three implant-supported prosthesis models were constructed from Type I, Type II and commercial implants (control group) and were evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The stress distribution pattern of the porous implants were assessed and compared with the control group. In addition, the stiffness of the cylindrical specimens simplified from three types of implants was calculated. The Type I implant exhibited better stress distribution than the Type II implant. The maximum stress between the cortical bone-Type I implant interface was 12.9 and 19.0% lower than the other two groups. The peak stress at the cancellous bone-Type I implant interface was also reduced by 16.8 and 38.7%. Compared with the solid cylinder, the stiffness of diamond-like pore cylinders simplified from the two porous implants geometry was reduced by 61.5 to 76.1%. This construction method of porous implant can effectively lower its stiffness and optimize the stress distribution at the implant-bone interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14226918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625789PMC
November 2021

Light-driven bimorph soft actuators: design, fabrication, and properties.

Mater Horiz 2021 Mar 7;8(3):728-757. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.

Soft robots that can move like living organisms and adapt to their surroundings are currently in the limelight from fundamental studies to technological applications, due to their advances in material flexibility, human-friendly interaction, and biological adaptation that surpass conventional rigid machines. Light-fueled smart actuators based on responsive soft materials are considered to be one of the most promising candidates to promote the field of untethered soft robotics, thereby attracting considerable attention amongst materials scientists and microroboticists to investigate photomechanics, photoswitch, bioinspired design, and actuation realization. In this review, we discuss the recent state-of-the-art advances in light-driven bimorph soft actuators, with the focus on bilayer strategy, i.e., integration between photoactive and passive layers within a single material system. Bilayer structures can endow soft actuators with unprecedented features such as ultrasensitivity, programmability, superior compatibility, robustness, and sophistication in controllability. We begin with an explanation about the working principle of bimorph soft actuators and introduction of a synthesis pathway toward light-responsive materials for soft robotics. Then, photothermal and photochemical bimorph soft actuators are sequentially introduced, with an emphasis on the design strategy, actuation performance, underlying mechanism, and emerging applications. Finally, this review is concluded with a perspective on the existing challenges and future opportunities in this nascent research Frontier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0mh01406kDOI Listing
March 2021

High-responsivity photodetector based on scrolling monolayer MoS2 hybridized with carbon quantum dots.

Nanotechnology 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Micro/Nano Technology Research Center of HIT, Harbin Institute of Technology, Room 211, Building B1, No2 Yi Kuang Street, Harbin, 15001China, Harbin, 150080, CHINA.

The monolayer MoS2 based photodetectors have been widely investigated, which show limited photoelectric performances due to its low light absorption and uncontrollable adsorbates. In this paper, we present a MoS2-based hybrid nanoscrolls device, in which one-dimensional nanoscrollsof MoS2 is hybridized with carbon quantum dots (CQDs). This device architecture effectively enhanced the photodetection performance. The photoresponsivity and detectivity values of MoS2/CQDs-NS photodetectors are respectively 1793 A W-1 and 5.97×1012 Jones, which are 830-fold and 268-fold higher than those of pristine MoS2 under 300 nm illumination at Vds = 5 V. This research indicates a significant progress in fabricating high-performance MoS2 photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac3ce1DOI Listing
November 2021

Current status of total neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hebei Medical University Fourth Affiliated Hospital and Hebei Provincial Tumor Hospital & Hebei Clinical Research Center for Radiation Oncology, Shijiazhuang, China.

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus total mesorectal excision (TME) has been the standard regimen for treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), because it significantly reduces the rate of local recurrence and enables sphincter preservation. However, distant metastasis remains the major reason for treatment failure, and the value of postoperative chemotherapy is still controversial. Recent studies have examined the use of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), defined as induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy (CONCT) with radiotherapy (RT) or nCRT prior to surgery. The results indicated that TNT may increase the rates of chemotherapy compliance and pathological complete response (pCR), and probably improve the success rate of sphincter preservation surgery. TNT may also improve disease-free survival and overall survival, and even reduce the rate of relapse. Here, we critically appraise the existing literature on three different TNT schemes used for LARC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13640DOI Listing
November 2021

[Consistency comparison of the parameters of the lumbar spine-pelvic sagittal plane between the whole-spine EOS images system and traditional X-ray].

Zhongguo Gu Shang 2021 Jul;34(11):1082-6

Department of Spine Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Bei jing 100035, China.

Objective: To explore the consistency of the parameters of the lumbar spine pelvic sagittal plane between the whole spine EOS images (EOS) and traditional X-ray imaging.

Methods: A total of 50 patients (26 males and 24 females) hospitalized in the Spine Surgery Department of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from May to July 2019 were selected for standard standing EOS full-length spine anterolateral and traditional X-ray lumbar pelvic anterior and lateral X-rays. Two attending physicians used Surgimap software to measure the pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL) of the two types of images and repeated these process after two weeks. The consistency test (reliability analysis) was performed on the results measured by two physicians, and the results measured at the two time points were tested for intra-observer consistency (repeatability analysis).The data were combined to perform consistency and difference tests for the parameters between two types of images finally.

Results: The mean values of PI measured by EOS imaging and traditional X-ray imaging were(50.5±12.6)° and (51.4±12.2)°, mean difference 0.9, 95% credible interval (0.2-1.6), =0.020; the mean values of PT were (16.2±8.9)° and (16.9±8.6)°, mean difference 0.7, 95% credible interval (-0.6-2.0), =0.283; the mean values of SS were (34.3±9.9)° and (34.5±10.4)°, mean difference 0.2, 95% credible interval (-1.2-1.5), =0.800;the mean values of LL were (42.7±14.9)° and (43.3±15.3)°, mean difference 0.6, 95% confidence interval (-0.8-2.0), =0.149. The difference in PI between the two imaging methods was statistically significant ( =0.020, <0.05), but the average difference was small (0.9°), there was no clinical difference. There were no significant differences in PT, SS and LL between the two imaging methods (>0.05). Inter-group reliability analysis showed excellent agreement between the two physicians in measuring lateral PI, PT, SS and LL using Surgimap software (correlation coefficients within EOS imaging were 0.984, 0.993, 0.980, 0.989;correlation coefficients within X-ray imaging were 0.975, 0.985, 0.976, 0.988). Repeatability analysis showed that PI, PT, SS and LL measured by the two attending physicians at two time points had excellent consistency(ICC within the group was 0.963-0.996).

Conclusion: In the local lumbar pelvis segment, the PI, PT SS and LL measured by EOS imaging and traditional X-ray imaging had good agreement, and there was no difference in guiding clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12200/j.issn.1003-0034.2021.11.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Afterglow Implant for Arterial Embolization and Intraoperative Imaging.

Chemistry 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Fudan University, Department of Chemistry, CHINA.

Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is wildly used in clinical treatments. However, the online monitoring of the thrombosis formation is limited due to the challenges of the direct visualization of embolic agents and the real-time monitoring of dynamic blood flow. Thus, we developed a photochemical afterglow implant with strong afterglow intensity and a long lifetime for embolization and imaging. The liquid pre-implant injected into the abdominal aorta of mice was rapidly transformed into a hydrogel in situ to embolize the blood vessel. The vascular embolism position can be observed by the enhanced afterglow of the fixed implant, and the long lifetime of afterglow can also be used to monitor the effect of embolization. This provides an excellent candidate in bio-imaging to avoid the autofluorescence interference from continuous light excitation. The study suggests the potential usefulness of the implant as an embolic agent in TAE and artery imaging during a surgical procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202103795DOI Listing
November 2021

Marine and Anthropogenic Bromopyrroles Alter Cellular Ca Dynamics of Murine Cortical Neuronal Networks by Targeting the Ryanodine Receptor and Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca-ATPase.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Bromopyrroles (BrPyr) are synthesized naturally by marine sponge symbionts and produced anthropogenically as byproducts of wastewater treatment. BrPyr interact with ryanodine receptors (RYRs) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca-ATPase (SERCA). Influences of BrPyr on the neuronal network activity remain uncharted. BrPyr analogues with differing spectra of RYR/SERCA activities were tested using RYR-null or RYR1-expressing HEK293 and murine cortical neuronal/glial cocultures (NGCs) loaded with Fluo-4 to elucidate their mechanisms altering Ca dynamics. The NGC electrical spike activity (ESA) was measured from NGCs plated on multielectrode arrays. Nanomolar tetrabromopyrrole (TBP, ) potentiated caffeine-triggered Ca release independent of extracellular [Ca] in RYR1-HEK293, whereas higher concentrations produce slow and sustained rise in cytoplasmic [Ca] independent of RYR1 expression. TBP, 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole (), pyrrole (), 2,3,4-tribromopyrrole (), and ethyl 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylate () added acutely to NGC showed differential potency; rank order (IC ≈ 220 nM) > ≫ , whereas and were inactive at 10 μM. >2 μM elicited sustained elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca] and loss of neuronal viability. did not alter network ESA. BrPyr from marine and anthropogenic sources are ecological signaling molecules and emerging anthropogenic pollutants of concern to environmental and human health that potently alter ER Ca dynamics and warrant further investigation .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c05214DOI Listing
November 2021

Photosynthetic Oxygenation-Augmented Sonodynamic Nanotherapy of Hypoxic Tumors.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Nov 17:e2102135. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Center of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery, Department of Radiology and Ultrasound, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, P. R. China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been employed as a powerful therapeutic agent for eradicating tumor via oxidative stress. As an emerging ROS-involving noninvasive anticancer therapeutic modality, sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with high tissue penetration depth and benign remote spatiotemporal selectivity has been progressively utilized as the distinct alternative for ROS-based tumor treatment. However, the hypoxic tumor microenvironment substantially restricts the sonodynamic effect. In this work, an oxygen self-sufficient hybrid sonosensitizer on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms cyanobacteria (Cyan) integrated with ultrasmall oxygen-deficient bimetallic oxide Mn WO nanosonosensitizers, termed as [email protected], is designed and engineered to overcome the critical issue of hypoxia-induced tumor resistance and strengthen the SDT effect. The sustained photosynthetic oxygen production by Cyan under light illumination can promote Mn WO nanosonosensitizers to produce more ROS against cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo under ultrasound (US) irradiation. Especially, the sustained oxygen evolution for suppressing the gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) further boosts and augments the SDT efficiency. Thus, this work provides the paradigm that the rationally engineered biohybrid microorganism-based multifunctional sonosensitizers can serve as an effective bioplatform for augmenting the therapeutic efficiency of SDT, particularly for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202102135DOI Listing
November 2021

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 is expected to be a therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis using integrated bioinformatic analysis.

Bioengineered 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Currently, the definitive treatment modality for HCC is radical resection. However, HCC cells possess biological characteristics of high invasion and metastasis. In this respect, to prevent cancer cell invasion and metastasis and early active intervention, we herein screened through the TCGA database for further prognostic analysis including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The Kaplan-Meier curve suggested that Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) might be an independent prognostic factor for HCC. Moreover, we performed mRNA expression analysis to measure CDK4 levels in normal liver tissues and HCC tissues, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to detect protein level of CDK4 in Non-tumor tissue and HCC tissues collected from patients. Our findings indicated that the expression of CDK4 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with Non-tumor tissue in HCC, which increased from HCC stage 1 to 3. Furthermore, the results of transwell-assay indicated that knocking down CDK4 significantly suppresses the invasion and migration of HCC cells, and the results of bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes closely associated with CDK4 are potentially worthy of further investigation. Additionally, the results of Western Blot indicated CDK4 regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC,and CDK4 appears to regulate EMT and HCC progression via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Collectively, this study found the key target gene through bioinformatic analysis and further functional validation through cell experiments. In particular, CDK4 is anticipated to become a crucial hub gene to snipe the metastasis of cancer cells in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.2006942DOI Listing
November 2021

[Clinical classification and treatment experience of wrist gouty arthritis].

Authors:
Wei Feng Ge Xiong

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Nov;35(11):1411-1416

Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hostpital, Beijing, 100035, P.R.China.

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, clinical classification, and treatment of wrist gouty arthritis.

Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients with wrist gouty arthritis and complete follow-up between April 2011 and August 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 males and 3 females; the first onset age was 21-72 years, with a median age of 50 years. There were 15 cases of simple wrist joint disease, and 9 cases of other joints (hand, knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal joint) involvement; 19 cases of wrist joint as the first site. Except for 1 patient with a medical history of 21 years, the time from onset to diagnosis in the remaining 23 patients was 7 days to 9 years, with a median time of 2 months. According to the clinical manifestations, imaging manifestations, lesion range, and intraoperative wrist arthroscopy manifestations of wrist gouty arthritis, they were classified into 5 types from mild to severe. Among the 24 patients, 13 were type Ⅰ, 2 were type ⅡA, 3 were type ⅡB, 2 were type ⅢA, 3 were type Ⅳ, and 1 was type Ⅴ. The time from first onset to diagnosis for type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ patients was (12.7±40.1) months, and for type Ⅲ-Ⅴ patients was (152.0± 88.5) months, the difference was significant ( =-4.355, =0.001). Thirteen patients with type Ⅰ received conservative treatment (including diet, exercise, lifestyle intervention, and medication), and 11 patients with type Ⅱ-Ⅴ received surgical treatment (including 1 case of arthroscopic synovial membrane and gout crystal clearing, 1 case of ligament repair, 5 cases of lesion debridement/artificial bone grafting and filling, 3 cases of wrist fusion, and 1 case of tophicectomy). Before and after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the improvement of wrist joint pain; and the range of motion of the wrist joint (including palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation) was evaluated.

Results: Thirteen conservatively treated patients were followed up 10 months to9 years, with an average of 2.2 years. The VAS scores before treatment and at last follow-up were 6.8±0.7 and 2.9±0.9, respectively, and the difference was significant ( =12.309, =0.000). During follow-up, there was no wrist bone and wrist joint damage; wrist joint range of motion basically reached normal. At last follow-up, the wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation significantly improved when compared with the values before treatment ( <0.05). Eleven surgically treated patients were followed up 5 months to 9 years, with an average of 4.9 years. The swelling and pain of all patients fully relieved, and the VAS scores were 7.3±0.8 before operation, 2.7±0.6 at 1 month after operation, and 2.5±0.6 at last follow-up, which significantly improved after operation ( <0.05); there was no significant difference between 1 month after operation and last follow-up ( >0.05). Excluded 3 patients who underwent wrist fusion, the other 8 patients had significantly improved wrist joint palmar flexion, dorsal extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation at last follow-up ( <0.05). The patient's subjective satisfaction with the surgical results reached 100%.

Conclusion: A missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis of wrist gouty arthritis will greatly damage the wrist stability and functions. Early and proper interventions can effectively retard the progress of the disease. For the late-stage cases, a staged surgical protocol is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202103043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586759PMC
November 2021

Immediate Effect of Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Point on Hand Spasticity in Chronic Post-stroke Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:745618. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Rehabilitation, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hand spasticity after stroke influences the rehabilitation of hand function. Immediate and effective relief of spasticity potentially creates conditions for later rehabilitation training, which has far-reaching significance in the smooth transition of patients to the recovery period. To evaluate the immediate effect of dry needling (DN) at myofascial trigger point on hand spasticity in stroke patients. This was a prospective, evaluator blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. A total of 210 participants were randomly divided into DN group (DN, = 70), sham dry needling group (SDN, = 70), and control group ( = 70). Participants in the DN group were treated with DN at myofascial trigger point five times (30 min each time) every week for 4 weeks. Subjects in the SDN group were manipulated the same way as in the DN group, except that the acupuncture site was located in the area adjacent to the myofascial trigger point, which constituted a SDN. Routine rehabilitation treatment was performed for participants in the two groups and in the control group. The primary evaluation index was the immediate effect of hand spasticity relief. Secondary evaluation indicators included the cumulative effect of hand spasticity relief from baseline to week 4, and the changes in flexion angles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers 2-5 in the rest position before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after intervention. The immediate effective rate of spasticity relief (thumb, fingers 2-5, and wrist) of patients with different degrees of spasticity in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups (thumb, χ = 55.833, < 0.001; fingers 2-5, χ = 68.096, < 0.001; wrist, χ = 49.180, < 0.001) ( < 0.05). The effective rate of spasticity relief from baseline to 4 weeks in the DN group exceeded that in the control group and SDN groups (thumb, χ = 8.806, = 0.012; fingers 2-5, χ = 8.087, = 0.018; and wrist, χ = 8.653, = 0.013) ( < 0.05). No difference in immediate and cumulative effect was found between the control group and SDN group. The change of joints flexion angles in resting position before and after each treatment in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups ( < 0.05), but it was not significantly different between the control group and SDN group. At 4 weeks, although the change in the DN group was higher than that in the control group and SDN group, this difference was not statistically significant ( > 0.05). Dry needling can relieve varying degrees of hand spasticity instantly in post-stroke. www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900022379.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.745618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585994PMC
October 2021

Relationship between TNF-α levels and psychiatric symptoms in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia before and after risperidone treatment and in chronic patients.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 11 11;21(1):561. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 100096, People's Republic of China.

Background: The influence of antipsychotic drugs on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels is unclear, and there is no consensus on the association between TNF-α and psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the differences in TNF-α levels and clinical correlations in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment and in chronic patients.

Methods: A total of 103 (51 FEDN and 52 chronic) patients and 114 healthy controls were recruited. Demographic and clinical data, including TNF-α levels, were recorded. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to measure the psychopathology of all patients.

Results: TNF-α levels before treatment were significantly higher in FEDN patients than in chronic patients and healthy controls. No significant sex differences were found in the TNF-α levels of patients with schizophrenia. The TNF-α levels before treatment were significantly positively related to changes in PANSS negative symptoms in FEDN patients. The TNF-α levels in chronic patients were significantly negatively correlated with the general psychopathology subscales and PANSS total scores.

Conclusions: Increased TNF-α levels in FEDN patients and their correlation with psychopathology indicate that inflammatory cytokines may play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia, and inflammation-directed therapy may, therefore, improve negative symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03569-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588730PMC
November 2021

Cloning, expression and characterization of metalloproteinase HypZn from Aspergillus niger.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(11):e0259809. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

School of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

A predicted metalloproteinase gene, HypZn, was cloned from Aspergillus niger CGMCC 3.7193 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the physicochemical characteristics of recombinant HypZn were investigated after separation and purification. The results showed that the specific activity of the purified HypZn reached 1859.2 U/mg, and the optimum temperature and pH value of HypZn were 35°C and 7.0, respectively. HypZn remained stable both at 40°C and at pH values between 5.0 and 8.0. The preferred substrate of HypZn was soybean protein isolates, and the Km and Vmax values were 21.5 μmol/mL and 4926.6 μmol/(mL∙min), respectively. HypZn was activated by Co2+ and Zn2+ and inhibited by Cu2+ and Fe2+. The degree of soybean protein isolate hydrolysis reached 14.7%, and the hydrolysates were of uniform molecular weight. HypZn could tolerate 5000 mM NaCl and completely lost its activity after 30 min at 50°C. The enzymological characterizations indicated that HypZn has great application potential in the food industry, especially in fermented food processing.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259809PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584677PMC
November 2021

Genistein protects epilepsy-induced brain injury through regulating the JAK2/STAT3 and Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathways in the developing rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Dec 6;912:174620. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Pediatrics, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, 421001, China.

Background: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease. Recurrent seizures can cause irreversible brain damage. This study aimed to explore the regulation of Genistein on JAK2/STAT3 and Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the protective effects on brain injury after epilepsy.

Methods: Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was used to induce epilepsy in developing rats and Genistein was used for pretreatment of epilepsy. The seizure latency, grade scores and duration of the first generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCs) were recorded. Hippocampus tissue was sampled at 24 h post-epilepsy. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe mature neurons, activated microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 region. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA levels of JAK2, STAT3, TNF-α, IL-1β, Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, caspase3, Bax and Bcl2 in the hippocampus.

Results: Immunofluorescence showed that the number of neurons significantly decreased, and activated microglia and astrocytes significantly increased after epilepsy; Western blot and q-PCR showed that the expressions of JAK2, STAT3, TNF-α, IL-1β, Keap1, caspase3 and Bax significantly increased, while Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1 and Bcl-2 were significantly reduced after epilepsy. These effects were reversed by Genistein treatment. Moreover, Genistein was found to prolong seizure latency and reduce seizure intensity score and duration of generalized tonic-clonic seizures(GTCs) CONCLUSIONS: Genistein can activate the Keap1/Nrf2 antioxidant stress pathway and attenuate the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Genistein also inhibits the JAK2-STAT3 inflammation pathway and expression of apoptotic proteins, and increases the number of surviving neurons, thus having a protective effect on epilepsy-induced brain damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174620DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluating the Efficacy of Combined P188 Treatment and Surgical Intervention in Preventing Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Following a Traumatic Knee Injury.

J Biomech Eng 2022 Apr;144(4)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003; S631 Life Sciences Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, 240 Thatcher Road, Amherst, MA 01003.

Previous studies have shown that reconstructive surgery alone following injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does not prevent the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Poloxamer 188 (P188) has been shown to prevent cell death following trauma in both articular cartilage and meniscal tissue. This study aims to test the efficacy of single or multiple administrations of P188 in conjunction with reconstructive surgery to help prevent or delay the onset of the disease. Thirty skeletally mature rabbits underwent closed-joint trauma that resulted in ACL rupture and meniscal damage and were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with varying doses of P188. ACL reconstruction was then performed using an autograft from the semitendinosus tendon. Animals were euthanized 1-month following trauma, meniscal tissue was assessed for changes in morphology, mechanical properties, and proteoglycan content. Femurs and tibias were scanned using microcomputed tomography to determine changes in bone quality, architecture, and osteophyte formation. The medial meniscus experienced more damage and a decrease in the instantaneous modulus regardless of treatment group, while P188 treatment tended to limit degenerative changes in the lateral meniscus. Both lateral and medial menisci had documented decreases in the equilibrium modulus and inconsistent changes in proteoglycan content. Minimal changes were documented in the tibias and femurs, with the only significant change being the formation of osteophytes in both bones regardless of treatment group. The data suggest that P188 was able to limit some degenerative changes in the meniscus associated with PTOA and may warrant future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4052564DOI Listing
April 2022

Assessment of tissue-specific changes in structure and function induced by in vivo skin/skull optical clearing techniques.

Authors:
Chao Zhang Wei Feng

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Zhanjiang Institute of Clinical Medicine, Central People's Hospital of Zhanjiang, Guangdong, Zhanjiang, China.

Background Objectives: Newly developed in vivo skin and skull optical clearing techniques can greatly improve the optical imaging performance, showing great advantages and clinical prospects. However, there is a poor understanding of in vivo optical clearing-induced changes in the skin and skull.

Materials And Methods: Here, we employed in vivo skin/skull optical clearing techniques to improve the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging quality. And we also used polarization-sensitive OCT to monitor the dynamic changes in the polarization characteristics of the skin and skull during in vivo optical clearing processes. Two-photon imaging was used to evaluate changes in tissue barrier function and structure. Additionally, Raman spectra were employed for assessing the changes of each component in the skin and skull before and after optical clearing treatment.

Results: The results indicated that the polarization states of the skin and skull were altered with the usages of optical clearing agents. And the barrier permeability and collagen fiber distribution of them became disordered. Furthermore, the Raman spectra of tissue demonstrated that the applications of in vivo tissue optical clearing methods could lead to the reduction of proteins, lipids, and inorganic salts in these two organs. Interestingly, after recovery treatment, the structure and function of the skin and skull could almost recover to the initial states.

Conclusion: In vivo tissue optical clearing can lead to changes in the structure and function of tissue, which was reversible to some extent. This study plays an important role in revealing the underlying mechanisms of tissue optical clearing techniques; moreover, it is conducive to the development and optimization of a novel in vivo tissue optical clearing approaches in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23489DOI Listing
November 2021

Analysis of trends in patent development for coronavirus detection, prevention, and treatment technologies in key countries.

J Biosaf Biosecur 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Wuhan Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071.

Coronavirus causes significant damage to human health and the global economy. In this paper, we undertake patent analysis and data mining to systematically analyze the trend in patent applications for coronavirus detection, prevention, and treatment technologies. Our goals are to determine the correlation between typical coronavirus outbreaks and changes in patent technology applications, and to compare the research and development (R&D) progress, patent layout, and characteristics of major institutions in various countries experiencing coronavirus outbreaks. We find that the United States commenced coronavirus detection and vaccine technology R&D earlier than other countries, as it attached importance to the R&D for treatment technologies from the time of the SARS outbreak and initiated the trend of multi-party R&D, with full technology chain coverage by the government, enterprises, universities, and research institutions. China's patent applications have grown rapidly in recent years, mainly based on the R&D of research institutions and universities, although it has formed full technology chain coverage. However, the patent quality and technology global layout still need to be improved. This paper reviews the patent development trends of important coronavirus technologies, and proposes that policymakers should establish a long-term mechanism for R&D, pay attention to intellectual property protection, and deepen international technical cooperation to provide a reference for the development and application of coronavirus detection technology, vaccine technology, and treatment technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2021.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563342PMC
November 2021

Rational application of gefitinib in NSCLC patients with sensitive EGFR mutations based on pharmacokinetics and metabolomics.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Gefitinib has been available in the market for 20 years, but its pharmacokinetic mechanism of response is little known. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetic and metabolomic profiles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. A total of 216 advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled, and administered gefitinib at the standard dosage of 250 mg/day, which was established in heterogeneous subjects with non-sensitive mutations. We identified and quantified three main metabolites (named as M1, M2 and M3) in the plasma of patients, the correlations between the concentration of gefitinib/metabolites and efficacy were analyzed. In exploratory and validation set, gefitinib concentration was not correlated with clinical effects. Considering the result that the therapeutic effects of 250 mg/2-day was better than that of 250 mg/day in a multiple center clinical trial, the standard dose might be higher than that for maximal efficacy according to the hypothetical dose-response curve. Among the three metabolites, the IC of M2 in HCC827 and PC9 cell lines was significantly lower, and Conc./Conc. of M2 in mice was significantly higher than those of gefitinib, suggesting its higher potential to penetrate blood-brain barrier and might be more effective in the treatment of brain metastatic tumor than gefitinib. Consistently and attractively, higher M2 plasma concentration was found to be correlated with better clinical outcome in patients with brain metastases (the median PFS of C < 12 ng/mL and C ≥ 12 ng/mL were 17.0 and 27.1 months, respectively, P = 0.038). The plasma concentration of M2 ≥ 12 ng/mL was a strong predictor of the PFS of NSCLC patients. In conclusion, for NSCLC patients with EGFR sensitive mutations, the standard dose is suspectable and could be decreased reasonably. M2 plays an important role in efficacy and may be more effective in the treatment of metastatic tumor than gefitinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00791-5DOI Listing
November 2021

Biogenic fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by bio structured ZnO nanoparticles.

Environ Technol 2021 Dec 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resource and Environment, Ministry of Education, College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using Zinc Nitrate as precursor salt, and plant leaves extracts from (Common name: Neem), (Common name: Lemongrass), and (Common name: Mango), as both chelating and reducing agents for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by a simple cost-effective and eco-friendly green method. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were well characterized by various methods. XRD pattern revealed a hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO, with no other impurity peaks present revealing XRD crystalline sizes of 13.94-16.37 nm calculated using Scherrer equation. The XPS confirmed the presence of Zn, O, and C, and the carbon peaks are almost in agreement with peaks observed by FT-IR. TEM showed the different ZnO with spherical shapes and some aggregations. BET surface area gave 24.98, 21.62, and 22.72 m/g, respectively for ZnO-AI, ZnO-Cyc, and ZnO-MI, while BJH pore volume and average pore diameter were estimated to be 0.217 cc/g, 0.209 cc/g, 0.211 cc/g, and 2.132 nm, 2.025 nm, and 2.100 nm respectively for ZnO-AI, ZnO-Cyc, and ZnO-MI.Furthermore, the bio-synthesized ZnO NPs were evaluated for their catalytic and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC). The biosynthesized ZnO NPs exhibit good photodegradation efficiency for TC in varying degrees with ZnO-AI > ZnO-MI > ZnO-Cyc. Optimum operational parameters for TC degradation using the ZnO-AI were established, and maximum degradation efficiency of 84.8% was obtained. In addition, the catalyst can also be regenerated and reused up to three cycles, with the third cycle still achieving greater than 80% TC degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.2001049DOI Listing
December 2021

Plant-based high internal phase emulsions stabilized by dual protein nanostructures with heat and freeze-thaw tolerance.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 23;373(Pt B):131458. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology-Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Jiangsu Provincial Research Centre for Bioactive Product Processing Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

The formation of coherent, three-dimensional (3D) networks by particles either at the interface or in the bulk phase is vital for the stability of emulsions. In this study, nanoparticles of walnut proteins (WPs) were associated by unfolded fibrillar rice proteins (RPs), forming dual protein nanostructures (DPNs) characteristic of coherent 3D networks. The DPNs emulsified walnut oil and formed high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs), which were stable against 2-month storage and 30-min heating at 95 °C. Furthermore, the interfacial structures can be further reinforced by sodium chloride (50 mM and above), and became invulnerable to repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Based on the above results, a plant-based walnut sauce was developed with superior freeze-thaw stability to three arbitrary commercial mayonnaises. The HIPEs with tunable rheological properties in response to salt concentration and excellent stabilities against long-term storage, heating, and freeze-thaw may be potential surrogates of futuristic plant-based textural and sensory materials in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131458DOI Listing
October 2021

Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Quality Control of Shap.: A Review.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:761811. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Education, Pharmacy School of Shihezi University, Xinjiang, China.

Shap. (Kokyantak) is a ethnic medicine used in the Uyghur traditional medicine system for the treatment of colds, rheumatic pains, diarrhea, stomach pains, headaches, and toothaches, in addition to being an important local source of nectar and high-quality forage grass, and playing a crucial role in improving the ecological environment. Currently, approximately 178 chemical constituents have been identified from , including flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, and 19 polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies have already confirmed that has antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-neuroinflammatory effects, hepatoprotective effects, renoprotective effects and immune regulation. Toxicological tests and quality control studies reveal the safety and nontoxicity of . Therefore, this paper systematically summarizes the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and toxicology of , in order to provide a beneficial reference of its further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.761811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551495PMC
October 2021
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