Publications by authors named "Wei Cheng"

1,056 Publications

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A novel full-human CD22-CAR T cell therapy with potent activity against CD22 B-ALL.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Apr 10;11(4):71. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Boren Biotherapy Translational Laboratory, Boren Clinical Translational Center, Department of Hematology, Beijing Boren Hospital, Beijing, 100070, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00465-9DOI Listing
April 2021

[Bacteriophage Therapy: Retrospective Review and Future Prospects].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):170-175

Department of Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

At present, bacterial infections are mainly treated with antibiotics, but new treatment methods are urgently needed because of growing problems with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, phage therapy will be a potential solution to the problem of bacterial drug resistance, and the combined use of bacteriophage and antibiotics is also considered a potential treatment option. However, there has not been any well-designed clinical controlled trials on phage therapy. More future research needs to be done to solve the problems of phage therapy, for example, its narrow antibacterial spectrum, the uncertainty regarding treatment safety, and the bacterial resistance. Some refractory diseases such as breast cancer and alcoholic hepatitis are difficult to treat clinically. The successful experimental research on bacteriophages reported in these fields provides new ideas of treatment for more refractory diseases in the future. In addition, bacteriophages also showed promising performance in vaccine applications and osteanagenesis. We herein summarize the existing weaknesses of phage therapy and its application prospects in treating systemic diseases, hoping to promote further clinical application research of phage therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210360207DOI Listing
March 2021

A New Steel Defect Detection Algorithm Based on Deep Learning.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 17;2021:5592878. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243000, China.

In recent years, more and more scholars devoted themselves to the research of the target detection algorithm due to the continuous development of deep learning. Among them, the detection and recognition of small and complex targets are still a problem to be solved. The authors of this article have understood the shortcomings of the deep learning detection algorithm in detecting small and complex defect targets and would like to share a new improved target detection algorithm in steel surface defect detection. The steel surface defects will affect the quality of steel seriously. We find that most of the current detection algorithms for NEU-DET dataset detection accuracy are low, so we choose to verify a steel surface defect detection algorithm based on machine vision on this dataset for the problem of defect detection in steel production. A series of improvement measures are carried out in the traditional Faster R-CNN algorithm, such as reconstructing the network structure of Faster R-CNN. Based on the small features of the target, we train the network with multiscale fusion. For the complex features of the target, we replace part of the conventional convolution network with a deformable convolution network. The experimental results show that the deep learning network model trained by the proposed method has good detection performance, and the mean average precision is 0.752, which is 0.128 higher than the original algorithm. Among them, the average precision of crazing, inclusion, patches, pitted surface, rolled in scale and scratches is 0.501, 0.791, 0.792, 0.874, 0.649, and 0.905, respectively. The detection method is able to identify small target defects on the steel surface effectively, which can provide a reference for the automatic detection of steel defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5592878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007367PMC
March 2021

Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 transported by extracellular vesicles contributes to breast cancer development by sponging microRNA-141-3p and regulating KLF12.

Cell Biosci 2021 Apr 5;11(1):68. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Center for Precision Medicine, Anhui No.2 Provincial People's Hospital, Hefei, 230041, Anhui, China.

Objective: Breast cancer (BC) remains a public-health issue on a global scale. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play functional roles in BC. This study focuses on effects of NEAT1 on BC cell invasion, migration and chemotherapy resistance via microRNA (miR)-141-3p and KLF12.

Methods: After extraction and identification of serum extracellular vesicles (EVs), NEAT1 expression in EVs was detected and its association with clinical characteristics of BC patients was analyzed. Besides, the gain-of function was performed to investigate the roles of NEAT1 and miR-141-3p in BC, and levels of NEAT1, miR-141-3p, KLF12 and MDR1 after EV treatment were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the in vitro findings were confirmed via lung metastases in nude mice.

Results: NEAT1 expression in serum EVs was high and related to lymph node metastasis, progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor and Ki-67 in BC patients. After EV treatment, NEAT1 and KLF12 levels were increased, miR-141-3p expression was decreased, the abilities of proliferation, invasion, migration and in vivo metastasis were enhanced, and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin, paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil was decreased. After NEAT1 interference, NEAT1 and KLF12 levels in BC cells treated with EVs were decreased, miR-141-3p expression was increased, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and in vivo metastasis were decreased, and drug resistance sensitivity was increased. NEAT1 can bind to miR-141-3p and upregulates KLF12 expression.

Conclusions: EVs inhibit the regulation of KLF12 by miR-141-3p by transporting NEAT1 to BC cells, thus promoting BC cell invasion, migration, and chemotherapy resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00556-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022671PMC
April 2021

Interpretation According to Clone-Specific PD-L1 Cutoffs Reveals Better Concordance in Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei 11219, Taiwan.

Because immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for treating advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays have been widely used as companion or complementary diagnostic tests for predicting treatment outcomes. Because different clones, scoring algorithms, and cutoffs have been used for interpretation, this study investigated the variation, correlation, and concordance of four validated PD-L1 clones (SP142, SP263, 22C3, and 28-8) and proposed a practical solution for the harmonization of PD-L1 IHC. A tissue microarray, including 46 muscle-invasive UCs, was constructed for PD-L1 testing with the four clones. Tumor cell (TC) and immune cell (IC) expression was analyzed. SP142 had significantly low TC expression, whereas SP263, 22C3, and 28-8 exhibited a moderate correlation (rho ≥ 0.6), with almost perfect concordance (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.8) in TC expression. Fair to moderate correlation and concordance were observed in IC expression in most pairwise comparisons of clones. Substantial concordance (kappa > 0.6) was noted when high PD-L1 expression was defined by applying clone-specific cutoffs to each clone. Our findings imply that a universal cutoff value is not feasible for UC; we propose that PD-L1 IHC assays for UC should be interpreted according to a clone-specific scoring algorithm and cutoff value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998202PMC
March 2021

First Report of Strawberry Crown Rot Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Eco-Environmental Protection Research Institute, Shanghai, China;

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is a kind of fruit with great economic importance and widely cultivated in the world. From 2019 to 2020, a serious crown rot disease was sporadically observed in several strawberry cultivars including 'Zhang Ji', 'Hong Yan' and 'Yue Xiu' in Shanghai, China. Initially, water-soaked rot appeared in inner tissue of strawberry crown, then progressed into browning and hollowing symptoms accompanied with yellow discolorations of young leaves. To isolate and identify the causal agent, small pieces of tissue taken from ten diseased crowns were sterilized by 70% alcohol. The cut-up pieces were macerated and serially diluted. The dilutions were placed on nutrient agar (NA) medium. After incubation at 25°C for 4-5 days, the yellow bacterial colonies were tiny and were streaked on NA plate for purification. The colonies were yellow, mucoid, smooth-margined, and five independent representative colonies were used for further confirmation. To confirm the species identity of the bacterial, genomic DNA was extracted from the five representative isolates, and 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using universal primers 27F/1492R. The 16S rRNA sequence was deposited in GenBank (MW725235) and showed 99% nucleotide similarity with Xanthomonas fragariae strain LMG 708 (NR_026318). The isolate's identity was further confirmed by X. fragariae-specific primers XF9/XF12 (Roberts et al. 1996). All five isolates could be detected by XF9/XF12 primer. To confirm Koch's postulates, five healthy strawberry plants were placed in 1000 ml glass beakers by submerging the cutting wound in 50 ml the bacterial suspension of 108 CFU/ml. Five additional strawberry plants treated with sterilized water served as a control. The beakers containing inoculated plants were sealed with plastic film at 25°C. Water-soaked rot appeared on internal tissue of crown similar to those observed in the field within 10-12 days after inoculation, while the control samples remained healthy. The bacteria were re-isolated from rot of inoculated crowns, and confirmed by X. fragariae-specific primers XF9/XF12. X. fragariae has been reported to cause angular leaf spot on strawberry in China (Wang et al. 2017; Wu et al., 2020). It's also found that X. fragariae could systematically infect crown tissue (Milholland et al. 1996; Mahuku and Goodwin, 1997). To our knowledge, this is the first report of X. fragariae causing strawberry crown rot in China. This report increased our understanding of X. fragariae, and showed that the spread of this disease might seriously threaten the development of strawberry industry in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0574-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Understanding and Regulating Cell-Matrix Interactions Using Hydrogels of Designable Mechanical Properties.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Feb;17(2):149-168

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Integration, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, and Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Similar to natural tissues, hydrogels contain abundant water, so they are considered as promising biomaterials for studying the influence of the mechanical properties of extracellular matrices (ECM) on various cell functions. In recent years, the growing research on cellular mechanical response has revealed that many cell functions, including cell spreading, migration, tumorigenesis and differentiation, are related to the mechanical properties of ECM. Therefore, how cells sense and respond to the extracellular mechanical environment has gained considerable attention. In these studies, hydrogels are widely used as the model system. Hydrogels of tunable stiffness, viscoelasticity, degradability, plasticity, and dynamical properties have been engineered to reveal how cells respond to specific mechanical features. In this review, we summarize recent process in this research direction and specifically focus on the influence of the mechanical properties of the ECM on cell functions, how cells sense and respond to the extracellular mechanical environment, and approaches to adjusting the stiffness of hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3026DOI Listing
February 2021

In vivo self-assembled small RNAs as a new generation of RNAi therapeutics.

Cell Res 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Center of Molecular Diagnostic and Therapy, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Extracellular RNA, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute of Life Sciences (NAILS), Institute of Artificial Intelligence Biomedicine, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

RNAi therapy has undergone two stages of development, direct injection of synthetic siRNAs and delivery with artificial vehicles or conjugated ligands; both have not solved the problem of efficient in vivo siRNA delivery. Here, we present a proof-of-principle strategy that reprogrammes host liver with genetic circuits to direct the synthesis and self-assembly of siRNAs into secretory exosomes and facilitate the in vivo delivery of siRNAs through circulating exosomes. By combination of different genetic circuit modules, in vivo assembled siRNAs are systematically distributed to multiple tissues or targeted to specific tissues (e.g., brain), inducing potent target gene silencing in these tissues. The therapeutic value of our strategy is demonstrated by programmed silencing of critical targets associated with various diseases, including EGFR/KRAS in lung cancer, EGFR/TNC in glioblastoma and PTP1B in obesity. Overall, our strategy represents a next generation RNAi therapeutics, which makes RNAi therapy feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00491-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Individual and successive detection of HS and HClO in living cells and zebrafish by a dual-channel fluorescent probe with longer emission wavelength.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Apr 2;1156:338362. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, And College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive sulfur species (RSS) participate in many physiological activities and help maintaining the redox homeostasis in biological system. The complicated intrinsic connection between specific ROS/RSS needs to be further explored. Herein, a novel fluorescent probe (MB-NAP-N) with longer emission wavelength has been rationally designed and synthesized based on the conjugation of the methylene blue moiety and the naphthalimide moiety for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hydrogen sulfide (HS). The dual-signal probe exhibits rapid turn-on fluorescence responses for individual and successive detection of HS and HClO in green and red channels, respectively. Owning to its advantages such as fast response, good selectivity and high sensitivity, the probe was successfully applied to detect endogenous and exogenous HClO/HS in living cells. Furthermore, the outstanding luminescence performance makes it suitable for the visualization of the in vivo interaction between the two analytes in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338362DOI Listing
April 2021

Multifunctional Protein-Decorated Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles for Tumor-Specific Therapy and Bioimaging and .

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 29;13(13):14985-14994. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710000, China.

Multifunctional nanocarriers with a simple structure and biocompatibility for bioimaging, potential tumor targeting, and precise antitumor ability are promising in cancer therapy. Bioactive glass is an important biomaterial and has been used in clinical bone tissue repair due to the high biocompatibility and bioactivity. Herein, we report fetal bovine serum (FBS)-decorated europium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles (EuBGN@FBS) with excellent biosafety and enhanced tumor targeting for cancer imaging and therapy. EuBGN@FBS showed the controlled photoluminescent properties and pH-responsive anticancer drug release behavior. The FBS decoration significantly enhanced the dispersibility in physiological medium and improved hemocompatibility and cellular uptake of EuBGN. Relative to EuBGN, EuBGN@FBS could also efficiently image the cancer cell and show significantly enhanced targeted tumor imaging and chemotherapy while retaining negligible side effects. The simple and biocompatible structure with efficient tumor targeting, imaging, and therapy makes EuBGN@FBS highly promising in future cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01337DOI Listing
April 2021

Surgical correction for scimitar syndrome by right thoracotomy and direct anastomosis in children.

Pediatr Investig 2021 Mar 22;5(1):46-51. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery II Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Importance: Scimitar syndrome (SS) is a rare type of congenital heart disease characterized by total or partial anomalous venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava. However, the surgical repair techniques for SS vary according to patients' anatomical and pathological features.

Objective: This study was performed to analyze the mid-term results of a less invasive surgical correction technique for SS in children.

Methods: Eleven patients with SS who underwent surgical repair from January 2012 to March 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The anomalous scimitar vein (SV) was directly reimplanted to the left atrium, and the concomitant atrial septal defect was simultaneously repaired with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Results: Three male and eight female patients were included in the study. Their mean age was 3.1 ± 1.3 years, and their mean body weight was 12.8 ± 3.0 kg. Most patients had symptoms, such as upper respiratory tract infection, dyspnea, and recurrent pneumonia, and two patients had pulmonary hypertension. None of the 11 patients who underwent direct SV reimplantation by right thoracotomy developed bleeding, arrhythmia, heart failure, or perioperative death, and no patients required reoperation during a mean follow-up period of 36.6 ± 15.2 months. Postoperative echocardiography revealed no restenosis or obstruction of the anastomosis in any patients.

Interpretation: Surgical repair for SS by right thoracotomy and direct anastomosis of the SV to the posterior wall of the left atrium is safe and effective, with good long-term patency of the reimplanted SV and a low mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984008PMC
March 2021

Polo-Like Kinase 4's Critical Role in Cancer Development and Strategies for Plk4-Targeted Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:587554. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Polo-like kinases (Plks) are critical regulatory molecules during the cell cycle process. This family has five members: Plk1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Plk4 has been identified as a master regulator of centriole replication, and its aberrant expression is closely associated with cancer development. In this review, we depict the DNA, mRNA, and protein structure of Plk4, and the regulation of Plk4 at a molecular level. Then we list the downstream targets of Plk4 and the hallmarks of cancer associated with these targets. The role of Plk4 in different cancers is also summarized. Finally, we review the inhibitors that target Plk4 in the hope of discovering effective anticancer drugs. From authors' perspective, Plk4 might represent a valuable tumor biomarker and critical target for cancer diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.587554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994899PMC
March 2021

Utility of photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy in detecting the margins of extramammary Paget disease.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Mar-Apr;87(2):207-213

Department of Dermatologic Surgery, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing.

Background: Due to the clinically poorly delineated unclear margin of extramammary Paget disease, the recurrence rate after surgical resection is high.

Aims: To compare photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic plus reflectance confocal microscopy diagnosis in determining the tumor margins in patients with extramammary Paget disease.

Methods: Thirty-six patients with histopathologically confirmed primary extramammary Paget disease between January 2017 to June 2018 were included in the study. The skin lesion margins were preoperatively observed by the naked eye and with photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy and they were compared to the postoperative histopathological examination results.

Results: Among the 130 sections taken from 36 patients, 83 sections (63.8%, 83/130) had tumor margins beyond the macroscopic line with a distance of 3.5 ± 3.1mm and a median of 2.7mm. Forty-six sections (35.4%, 46/130) exceeded the photodynamic diagnosis marker line with a distance of 2.1 ± 1.7mm and a median of 1.5mm. Twenty seven sections (20.8%, 27/130) were obtained beyond the photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy marker line with a distance of 1.4 ± 1.2mm and a median of 0.9mm.

Limitations: Photodynamic diagnosis and reflectance confocal microscopy detection can be used to observe only the superficial margin of the tumor and not the deep part. Moreover, reflectance confocal microscopy was not used alone as a control.

Conclusion: In terms of determining the extramammary Paget disease margin invasively, photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy were found superior to observations made with the naked eye, while photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy was superior to photodynamic diagnosis alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_90_20DOI Listing
January 2020

The BCMA-Targeted Fourth-Generation CAR-T Cells Secreting IL-7 and CCL19 for Therapy of Refractory/Recurrent Multiple Myeloma.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:609421. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology has revolutionized cancer treatment, particularly in malignant hematological tumors. Currently, the BCMA-targeted second-generation CAR-T cells have showed impressive efficacy in the treatment of refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma (R/R MM), but up to 50% relapse remains to be addressed urgently. Here we constructed the BCMA-targeted fourth-generation CAR-T cells expressing IL-7 and CCL19 (i.e., BCMA-7 × 19 CAR-T cells), and demonstrated that BCMA-7 × 19 CAR-T cells exhibited superior expansion, differentiation, migration and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we have been carrying out the first-in-human clinical trial for therapy of R/R MM by use of BCMA-7 × 19 CAR-T cells (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03778346), which preliminarily showed promising safety and efficacy in first two enrolled patients. The two patients achieved a CR and VGPR with Grade 1 cytokine release syndrome only 1 month after one dose of CAR-T cell infusion, and the responses lasted more than 12-month. Taken together, BCMA-7 × 19 CAR-T cells were safe and effective against refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma and thus warranted further clinical study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.609421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985831PMC
March 2021

Highly Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance BRAF V600E Mutation in Fine-Needle Aspiration Samples by Zip Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

Anal Chem 2021 04 25;93(13):5621-5628. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical Detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P. R. China.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer with high incidence in endocrine tumors, which emphasizes the significance of accurate diagnostics. Still, the commonly used cytological method (fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology) and molecular diagnostic methods (such as PCR and sequencing) are limited in terms of diagnostic time, sensitivity, and user-friendliness. In this study, we introduce a novel Zip recombinase polymerase amplification (Z-RPA) strategy to efficiently detect rare mutant alleles in PTC fine-needle aspiration samples, which is sensitive, fast, and simple to manipulate. Using Zip nucleic acid (ZNA) probes to clamp the mutation region, the phi 29 polymerase could selectively displace mismatched ZNA probes and start amplification, while leaving complementary ZNA probes untouched and blocking amplification according to genotype. We demonstrated the good sensitivity and specificity of this strategy with optimized conditions and design, which enabled detection of BRAF V600E mutation in a total 4 ng of genomic DNA within 40 min (≈1 copy). Robust behavior in clinical specimen analysis was also demonstrated. The Z-RPA strategy provides a pragmatic approach to rapidly, sensitively, and easily detect BRAF V600E mutation in clinical fine-needle aspiration samples, which is a promising method for early cancer diagnosis and treatment guideline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00405DOI Listing
April 2021

Comprehensive analysis of molecular pathways and key genes involved in lumbar disc herniation.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25093

Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Hospital of Beihua University.

Abstract: Based on the Thompson classification of intervertebral discs (IVDs), we systematically analyzed gene expression differences between severely degenerated and mildly degenerated IVDs and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms using bioinformatics methods and multichip integration. We used multiomics analysis, includes mRNA microarray and methylation chips, to explore the genetic network and mechanisms of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Subsequently, the Combat function of the R language SVA package was applied to eliminate heterogeneity between the gene expression data. And the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, gene ontology (GO), and molecular pathways were used to constructs the mechanisms network. Consequently, we obtained 149 differentially expressed genes. Related molecular pathways are the following: ribosome activity, oxidative phosphorylation, extracellular matrix response. Besides, through PPI network analysis, genes with higher connectivity such as UBA52, RPLP0, RPL3, RPLP2, and RPL27 were also identified, suggesting that they play important regulatory roles in the complex network associated with LDH. Additionally, cg12556991 (RPL27) and cg06852319 (RPLP0) were found to be LDH-related candidate DNA methylation modification sites in the IVDs tissue of LDH patients. In conclusions, ribosome activity, oxidative phosphorylation, and extracellular matrix response may be potential molecular mechanisms underlying LDH, while hub genes involved in UBA52, RPLP0, RPL3, RPLP2, and RPL27, and candidate DNA methylation modification sites of cg12556991and cg06852319 are likely key regulators in the development of LDH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025093DOI Listing
March 2021

Brain dynamics: Synchronous peaks, functional connectivity, and its temporal variability.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

We describe advances in the understanding of brain dynamics that are important for understanding the operation of the cerebral cortex in health and disease. Peaks in the resting state fMRI BOLD signal in many different brain areas can become synchronized. In data from 1,017 participants from the Human Connectome Project, we show that early visual and connected areas have the highest probability of synchronized peaks. We show that these cortical areas also have low temporal variability of their functional connectivity. We show that there is an approximately reciprocal relation between the probability that a brain region will be involved in synchronized peaks and the temporal variability of the connectivity of a brain region. We show that a high probability of synchronized peaks and a low temporal variability of the connectivity of cortical areas are related to high mean functional connectivity, and provide an account of how these dynamics with some of the properties of avalanches arise. These discoveries help to advance our understanding of cortical operation in health, and in some mental disorders including schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25404DOI Listing
March 2021

Characterization and evaluation of a femtosecond laser-induced osseointegration and an anti-inflammatory structure generated on a titanium alloy.

Regen Biomater 2021 Mar 13;8(2):rbab006. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institute of Medical Service Support, Institute of Systems Engineering, Academy of Military Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Cell-material interactions during early osseointegration of the bone-implant interface are critical and involve crosstalk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The surface properties of titanium implants also play a critical role in cell-material interactions. In this study, femtosecond laser treatment and sandblasting were used to alter the surface morphology, roughness and wettability of a titanium alloy. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were then cultured on the resulting titanium alloy disks. Four disk groups were tested: a polished titanium alloy (pTi) control; a hydrophilic micro-dislocation titanium alloy (sandblasted Ti (STi)); a hydrophobic nano-mastoid Ti alloy (femtosecond laser-treated Ti (FTi)); and a hydrophilic hierarchical hybrid micro-/nanostructured Ti alloy [femtosecond laser-treated and sandblasted Ti (FSTi)]. The titanium surface treated by the femtosecond laser and sandblasting showed higher biomineralization activity and lower cytotoxicity in simulated body fluid and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Compared to the control surface, the multifunctional titanium surface induced a better cellular response in terms of proliferation, differentiation, mineralization and collagen secretion. Further investigation of macrophage polarization revealed that increased anti-inflammatory factor secretion and decreased proinflammatory factor secretion occurred in the early response of macrophages. Based on the above results, the synergistic effect of the surface properties produced an excellent cellular response at the bone-implant interface, which was mainly reflected by the promotion of early ossteointegration and macrophage polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbab006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955712PMC
March 2021

Source mask optimization for extreme-ultraviolet lithography based on thick mask model and social learning particle swarm optimization algorithm.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5448-5465

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography plays a vital role in the advanced technology nodes of integrated circuits manufacturing. Source mask optimization (SMO) is a critical resolution enhancement technique (RET) or EUV lithography. In this paper, an SMO method for EUV lithography based on the thick mask model and social learning particle swarm optimization (SL-PSO) algorithm is proposed to improve the imaging quality. The thick mask model's parameters are pre-calculated and stored, then SL-PSO is utilized to optimize the source and mask. Rigorous electromagnetic simulation is then carried out to validate the optimization results. Besides, an initialization parameter of the mask optimization (MO) stage is tuned to increase the optimization efficiency and the optimized mask's manufacturability. Optimization is carried out with three target patterns. Results show that the pattern errors (PE) between the print image and target pattern are reduced by 94.7%, 76.9%, 80.6%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418242DOI Listing
February 2021

Thromboembolic events following cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation and flutter: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

CJEM 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Recent studies have presented concerning data on the safety of cardioversion for acute atrial fibrillation and flutter. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of oral anticoagulation use on thromboembolic events post-cardioversion of low-risk acute atrial fibrillation and flutter patients of < 48 h in duration.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane from inception through February 6, 2020 for studies reporting thromboembolic events post-cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation and flutter. Main outcome was thromboembolic events within 30 days post-cardioversion. Primary analysis compared thromboembolic events based on oral anticoagulation use versus no oral anticoagulation use. Secondary analysis was based on baseline thromboembolic risk. We performed meta-analyses where 2 or more studies were available, by applying the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Risk of bias was assessed with the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool.

Results: Of 717 titles screened, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Primary analysis of seven studies with low risk of bias demonstrated insufficient evidence regarding the risk of thromboembolic events associated with oral anticoagulation use (RR = 0.82 where RR < 1 suggests decreased risk with oral anticoagulation use; 95% CI 0.27 to 2.47; I = 0%). Secondary analysis of 13 studies revealed increased risk of thromboembolic events with high baseline thromboembolic risk (RR = 2.25 where RR > 1 indicates increased risk with higher CHADS or CHADS-VASc scores; 95% CI 1.25 to 4.04; I = 0%).

Conclusion: Primary analysis revealed insufficient evidence regarding the effect of oral anticoagulation use on thromboembolic events post-cardioversion of low-risk acute atrial fibrillation and flutter, though the event rate is low in contemporary practice. Our findings can better inform patient-centered decision-making when considering 4-week oral anticoagulation use for acute atrial fibrillation and flutter patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43678-021-00103-0DOI Listing
March 2021

A strategy for enhancing the photoactivity of g-CN-based single-atom catalysts via sulphur doping: a theoretical study.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 12;23(11):6632-6640. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have received intense attention owing to their maximum utilization efficiency of metal atoms and high catalytic activity. Although SACs possess many merits, such as high activity, selectivity and stability in photocatalysis, the difficulty of fabricating atomically dispersed atom catalysts with a high level of metal loading limits their practical applications. Here, a sulphur-doping strategy was proposed to enhance the incorporation of single Pt atoms in monolayer graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN), and the structural, electronic and optical properties were investigated through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This work verified that SACs based on sulphur-doped monolayer g-CN (S-g-CN) exhibit a lower band gap energy, higher photocatalytic oxidation ability, easier charge separation, lower oxidation state of Pt atoms and wider light absorption range. This work provides a promising path for fabricating efficient g-CN-based photocatalytic SACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00192bDOI Listing
March 2021

Neighborhood built environment and late-life depression: A multilevel path analysis in a Chinese society.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Sau Po Centre on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Objective: Neighborhood built environments (BEs) are increasingly recognized as being associated with late-life depression. However, their pathways are still understudied. This study investigates the mediating effects of physical, social activities (PA & SA) and functional ability (FA) in the relationships between BEs and late-life depression.

Method: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with data from 2,081 community-dwellers aged 65 years and above in Hong Kong in 2014. Two road-network-based service area buffers (200- and 500-meter buffers) adjusted by terrain and slope from participants' residences were created to define the scope of neighborhoods. BEs comprised population density in District Council Constituency Areas (DCCAs), urban greenness, land use diversity, and neighborhood facilities within 200- and 500-meter buffers. Multilevel path analysis models were used.

Results: More urban greenness within both buffers and more commercial facilities within a 500-meter buffer were directly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. SA mediated the relationship between the number of community facilities and depressive symptoms within a 200-meter buffer. Neighborhood urban greenness and the number of commercial facilities had indirect associations on depressive symptoms within a 500-meter buffer, which were mediated by FA.

Conclusion: Our findings have implications for the ecological model of aging. The mediating effects of SA and FA underscore the importance of promoting active social lifestyles and maintaining FA for older adults' mental health in high-density cities. Policy implications on how to build age-friendly communities are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbab037DOI Listing
March 2021

The genetic determinants of language network dysconnectivity in drug-naïve early stage schizophrenia.

NPJ Schizophr 2021 Mar 3;7(1):18. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Schizophrenia is a neurocognitive illness of synaptic and brain network-level dysconnectivity that often reaches a persistent chronic stage in many patients. Subtle language deficits are a core feature even in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, the primacy of language network dysconnectivity and language-related genetic variants in the observed phenotype in early stages of illness remains unclear. This study used two independent schizophrenia dataset consisting of 138 and 53 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, and 112 and 56 healthy controls, respectively. A brain-wide voxel-level functional connectivity analysis was conducted to investigate functional dysconnectivity and its relationship with illness duration. We also explored the association between critical language-related genetic (such as FOXP2) mutations and the altered functional connectivity in patients. We found elevated functional connectivity involving Broca's area, thalamus and temporal cortex that were replicated in two FES datasets. In particular, Broca's area - anterior cingulate cortex dysconnectivity was more pronounced for patients with shorter illness duration, while thalamic dysconnectivity was predominant in those with longer illness duration. Polygenic risk scores obtained from FOXP2-related genes were strongly associated with functional dysconnectivity identified in patients with shorter illness duration. Our results highlight the criticality of language network dysconnectivity, involving the Broca's area in early stages of schizophrenia, and the role of language-related genes in this aberration, providing both imaging and genetic evidence for the association between schizophrenia and the determinants of language.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41537-021-00141-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930279PMC
March 2021

Acupuncture and related therapies for poststroke insomnia: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e25039

Huangshi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Huangshi, Hubei, China.

Objective: To compare and evaluate the clinical effects on patients with poststroke insomnia of various acupuncture and acupuncture-related therapies.

Methods: In order to analyze the direct and indirect evidence from related studies, we used network meta-analysis (NMA). In order to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and related therapies in the treatment of poststroke insomnia, 3 English and 4 Chinese databases were searched. After 2 researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the information, and assessed the probability of bias in the included studies, the data was analyzed using Stata15.0 and WinBUGS1.4.3 software.

Results: Based on the existing data, the pros and cons of different acupuncture-related therapies are compared extensively, the effectiveness of different acupuncture-related therapies is ranked compared to drugs with hypnotic effect in poststroke insomnia care, and the best methods or combinations of acupuncture intervention are summarized.

Conclusion: This study will provide new evidence for the safety and effectiveness of acupuncture-related therapies in the treatment of poststroke insomnia, and may be helpful for clinicians, poststroke insomnia patients, and clinical guideline makers to choose the optimal combination of acupuncture for the treatment of poststroke insomnia.

Registration Number: INPLASY202120028.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939198PMC
March 2021

Local singular characteristics on .

Boll Unione Mat Ital (2008) 2021 Feb 22:1-22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China.

The singular set of a viscosity solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation is known to propagate, from any noncritical singular point, along singular characteristics which are curves satisfying certain differential inclusions. In the literature, different notions of singular characteristics were introduced. However, a general uniqueness criterion for singular characteristics, not restricted to mechanical systems or problems in one space dimension, is missing at the moment. In this paper, we prove that, for a Tonelli Hamiltonian on , two different notions of singular characteristics coincide up to a bi-Lipschitz reparameterization. As a significant consequence, we obtain a uniqueness result for the class of singular characteristics that was introduced by Khanin and Sobolevski in the paper [On dynamics of Lagrangian trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi equations. , 219(2):861-885, 2016].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40574-021-00279-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899205PMC
February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Genomic evolution and diverse models of systemic metastases in colorectal cancer.

Gut 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Objective: The systemic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC) is dominated by the portal system and exhibits diverse patterns of metastasis without systematical genomic investigation. Here, we evaluated the genomic evolution of CRC with multiorgan metastases using multiregion sequencing.

Design: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on multiple regions (n=74) of matched primary tumour, adjacent non-cancerous mucosa, liver metastasis and lung metastasis from six patients with CRC. Phylogenetic reconstruction and evolutionary analyses were used to investigate the metastatic seeding pattern and clonal origin. Recurrent driver gene mutations were analysed across patients and validated in two independent cohorts. Metastatic assays were performed to examine the effect of the novel driver gene on the malignant behaviour of CRC cells.

Results: Based on the migration patterns and clonal origins, three models were revealed (sequential, branch-off and diaspora), which not only supported the anatomic assumption that CRC cells spread to lung after clonally expanding in the liver, but also illustrated the direct seeding of extrahepatic metastases from primary tumours independently. Unlike other cancer types, polyphyletic seeding occurs in CRC, which may result in late metastases with intermetastatic driver gene heterogeneity. In cases with rapid dissemination, we found recurrent trunk loss-of-function mutations in , which is enriched in metastatic CRC and associated with poor overall survival. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of enhances the metastatic potential of CRC cells.

Conclusion: Our results provide genomic evidence for metastatic evolution and indicate that biopsy/sequencing of metastases may be considered for patients with CRC with multiorgan or late postoperative metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323703DOI Listing
February 2021

Decidual-derived RANKL facilitates macrophages accumulation and residence at the maternal-fetal interface in human early pregnancy.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 Feb 24:e13406. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Center for Human Reproduction and Genetics, The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Gusu School, Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, China.

Problem: During the first trimester, the accumulation of macrophages, which is the second largest decidual leukocyte population (~20%) at the maternal-fetal interface, is quite vital for a successful pregnancy, including embryo implantation, trophoblast invasion, and vascular remodeling. The mechanism of the enrichment and redistribution of macrophages in the uterine decidua of early pregnancy is largely unclear.

Method Of Study: A total of 37 women with normal early pregnancies were included. Primary decidual macrophages (dMφs) (n = 37) and primary decidual stromal cells (DSCs) (n = 37) were isolated, and the adhesion molecules were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Adhesive experiment was carried out to evaluate the adhesion capacity by counting cell numbers of dMφs adhered to DSCs in a co-culture system.

Results: We found that RANK dMφs was the dominating subtype at the maternal-fetal interface. The expression of adhesion molecules (eg, CD29, CD31, CD54, and CD62L) on the surface of RANK dMφs was higher than that of RANK dMφs. After co-culture with DSCs, the expression of adhesion molecules on dMφs was up-regulated in a RANKL-dependent manner. Meanwhile, dMφs promoted the releasing of RANKL on DSCs after co-culture. Consistently, dMφs exhibited the lessoned capacity of adhesion to DSCs when blocking the crosstalk of RANKL-RANK between the DSCs and dMφs in vitro.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction of RANKL-RANK up-regulates the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of dMφs, contributing to the accumulation and residence of dMφs in human early pregnancy.
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February 2021