Publications by authors named "Warwick J M Bruce"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Thrombosis rates using aspirin and a compression device as multimodal prophylaxis for lower limb arthroplasty in a screened population.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020 Mar 16;11(Suppl 2):S187-S191. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) (Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE)), is a common complication in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Recently, aspirin was recommended by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) as VTE prophylaxis following TJA. This study investigates VTE rates in TJA patients using as thromboprophylaxis.

Methods: DVT was screened for in 396 consecutive total hip or knee arthroplasty procedures. Patients were treated with early mobilisation, calf compression device and 300 mg aspirin for 5 days and then 100 mg aspirin for 5 weeks. All patients received lower-limb duplex ultrasonography prior to discharge. Patients were clinically evaluated at 6 weeks post-op documenting any VTE.

Results: 51 TJA's (12.87%) were complicated by VTE: one proximal, 47 distal DVT and 3 PE. No fatal PE occurred. Only four DVT were symptomatic. Of 159 THA, 2 (1.25%) had VTE: one distal DVT and one PE. Of 237 TKA, 49 (20.67%) had VTE: 1 proximal, 46 distal DVT and 2 PE. Patients with a history of diabetes and those receiving TKA were at higher risk of DVT.

Conclusion: Multimodal VTE prophylaxis demonstrated a low rate of proximal DVT, PE and bleeding complications. The rate of asymptomatic DVT was high, but most were distal and unlikely to be clinically significant. Patients with diabetes and those receiving TKA could be at higher risk of asymptomatic DVT, and may benefit from closer clinical assessment. These findings suggest aspirin is safe and efficacious when used in combination with mechanical compressors and early mobilisation. However, our findings require further validation, particularly with larger, prospective comparative studies.
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March 2020

Ambient theatre temperature and cement setting time in total knee arthroplasty.

ANZ J Surg 2019 11 18;89(11):1424-1427. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Inner West Hip & Knee Clinic, Concord Hospital, The University of Sydney Medical School, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Polymethylmethacrylate cement is used in total knee arthroplasty and plays a significant role in the success of the procedure. Temperature variation is known to influence cement setting time in vitro. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between ambient theatre temperature and cement setting time in vivo.

Methods: Theatre temperature and cement setting time were prospectively recorded during 683 total knee arthroplasties over 8 years using a single cement and vacuum mixing system (Simplex with tobramycin). Setting time was defined as the time until a scalpel blade could not indent the cement surface.

Results: Mean temperature was 18.92°C (SD 1.16) and setting time 13.08 min (SD 1.92). A moderate inverse relationship exists between ambient temperature and setting time (Pearson's R = -0.423); however, potential setting times within a given temperature range varied considerably (<19°C: 8-19.1 min, 19-20°C: 7-18 min and >20°C: 7.5-16 min), suggesting that temperature alone cannot reliably predict setting time.

Conclusion: Our data support the current understanding of bone cement properties in vivo and suggest that surgeons should be mindful in regards to unpredictable cement setting time and optimal theatre environment.
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November 2019

Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Bicruciate-Stabilized or Posterior-Stabilized Knee Implants Provided Comparable Outcomes at 2 Years: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial of Patient Outcomes.

J Arthroplasty 2017 11 22;32(11):3356-3363.e1. Epub 2017 May 22.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Department of Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Mount Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: The bicruciate-stabilized (BCS) knee arthroplasty was developed to replicate normal knee kinematics. We examined the hypothesis that patients with osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will have better functional outcome and satisfaction with the BCS implant compared with an established posterior cruciate-stabilized implant.

Methods: This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial compared the clinical outcomes of a BCS implant against an established posterior cruciate-stabilized implant with 2-year follow-up. Of the patients awaiting primary knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, 228 were randomized to receive either a posterior-stabilized or BCS implant. Primary outcomes were knee flexion and Oxford Knee Score. Secondary outcomes were rate of complications and adverse events (AEs). Tertiary outcomes included Knee Society Score, University of California, Los Angeles, activity score, Patella scores, EQ-5D, 6-minute walk time, and patient satisfaction.

Results: Complete data were recorded for 98 posterior-stabilized implants and 97 BCS implants. Twelve patients had bilateral knee implants. There was no difference between the groups for any of the measures at either 1 or 2 years. At 2 years, knee flexion was 119 ± 0.16 and 120 ± 1.21 degrees for the posterior-stabilized and BCS implants, respectively, (mean, standard error, P = .538) and Oxford Knee Scores were 40.4 ± 0.69 and 40.0 ± 0.67 (P = .828), respectively. There were similar device-related AEs and revisions in each group (AEs 18 vs 22; P = .732; revisions 3 vs 4; P = .618).

Conclusion: There was no evidence of clinical superiority of one implant over the other at 2 years.
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November 2017

Accuracy of MRI-based vs. CT-based patient-specific instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

J Orthop Sci 2017 Jan 4;22(1):116-120. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; Department of Orthopaedics, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: The technical objective of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore normal mechanical parameters to the knee. Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was developed to streamline the operative process and improve accuracy. PSI produces individualized cutting guides based on three-dimensional models of the patient's anatomy acquired from computed-tomography (CT) or magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). However, the superiority of one modality over the other remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to compare the accuracy of patient-specific cutting guides produced from MRI or CT imaging methods in TKA.

Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched using relevant keywords and MeSH terms for original-data English-language publications comparing the accuracy of CT and MRI-based PSI cutting guides in TKA. Data was extracted from the text, tables and figures of studies and meta-analysed.

Results: MRI-based PSI cutting guides produced a lower proportion of coronal plane outliers (>3°) with regard to overall limb mechanical axis (OR 2.75, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two in terms of sagittal femoral and tibial component placement, or coronal femoral and tibial placement, or femoral component axial rotation. Tibial rotation was not analysed in the literature.

Conclusions: MRI-based patient-specific cutting guides produced a lower proportion of outliers in the overall coronal alignment of the limb compared to CT, with no significant difference between the two in terms of femoral or tibial component placement. Future studies should investigate the differences in resource usage and operative time between the two to inform surgeons' decision making when choosing an ideal imaging modality for PSI TKA.

Study Design: Meta-analysis.

Level Of Evidence: III, systematic review of cohort and comparative studies.
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January 2017

Aspirin as Thromboprophylaxis in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2016 11 13;31(11):2608-2616. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Faculty of Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis and is a complication of particular concern in lower limb arthroplasty. In recent years, aspirin has emerged as a potential alternative thromboprophylactic agent, particularly after its acceptance as a recommended agent by the American College of Chest Physicians. Aspirin is favorable due to its relative cost-effectiveness and convenience compared to novel oral anticoagulants and warfarin. However, its efficacy since its inclusion in the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines remains unclear. The present systematic review aimed to establish the efficacy of aspirin in preventing VTE in total hip and knee arthroplasty.

Methods: Electronic searches were performed using 6 databases from up to June 2015, identifying all relevant studies. Data were extracted and meta-analyzed.

Results: Eleven relevant studies were identified for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The overall rate of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in both hip and knee arthroplasty was 1.2% and 0.6%, respectively. The rate of major bleeding was 0.3%. Pooled mortality rate was 0.2%. All findings demonstrated a high and significant degree of heterogeneity.

Conclusion: Aspirin, both alone and in multimodal approaches to thromboprophylaxis, confers a low rate of VTE, with a low risk of major bleeding complications. However, the evidence for its use is limited by the low quality of studies and variation in dose in dosing regimes. Future randomized controlled trials should investigate the efficacy of aspirin, as well as the ideal dosing protocol for its use in thromboprophylaxis in arthroplasty.
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November 2016

The accuracy of bony resection from patient-specific guides during total knee arthroplasty.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2017 Jun 4;25(6):1678-1685. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Sydney Olympic Park Hip and Knee Clinic, Shop 4/8 Australia Ave, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW, 2127, Australia.

Purpose: In patient-specifically instrumented (PSI) total knee arthroplasty, the correlation between the pre-operative surgical plan, accuracy of the cutting block, and intra-operative resection size is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to accurately execute the PSI surgical plan and to add to the merging information with respect to this technology with the hypothesis that the PSI blocks would demonstrate good accuracy with regard to the bony thickness of the resections.

Methods: One hundred and thirty TKAs using PSI (MRI/long-leg radiographs) were retrospectively analysed. All surgeries were conducted via similar surgical approach and technique, with resection performed after guide placement and alignment assessment. The bony cut thicknesses of the medial (MTP) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP), distal medial (DM), distal lateral (DL), posterior medial (PM) and posterior lateral (PL) femur were measured with a vernier calliper. The measured resection thickness was subtracted from the planned resection. Errors were defined as ≤1.5 mm (acceptable), 1.5-2.5 mm (borderline), and >2.5 mm (outliers).

Results: Overall, 81 (62.3 %) of the knees were free of outliers. The distal femur cut had the highest proportion of acceptable cut error with 209 of 260 total cuts acceptable (80.4 %). The tibial cuts had the lowest proportion of "acceptable" cuts (68.9 %). Tibial cuts had more outliers (33 of 260 cuts, 12.7 %) than the femur (39 of 520 cuts, 7.5 %) (p = 0.01). Pre-operative varus (n = 97) and valgus (n = 33) deformities demonstrated 7.7 % (45/482) and 13.6 % (27/198) of cuts which were outliers, respectively (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: PSI showed only fair to moderate accuracy with 62.3 % of the knees presenting no outliers. The tibia cutting guide was less accurate than the femur. Specific attention is needed when cutting the tibia and in correction of valgus deformity. Moreover, intra-operative verifying measurements can provide feedback to the accuracy of the surgical plan.

Level Of Evidence: IV, case series with no comparison group.
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June 2017

Early clinical and radiological results of total knee arthroplasty using patient-specific guides in obese patients.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2016 Feb 7;136(2):265-70. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, Concord Repatriation General Hospital/Sydney Private Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenging procedure in patients with a high body mass index (BMI). The aim of our study was to assess the outcome and accuracy of restoration of mechanical alignment in TKA using patient-specific guides (PSG) involving patients with high BMI.

Materials And Methods: Patients with BMI of 30 or above were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 65.15 years. The study comprised of 46 males and 54 females. Total knee arthroplasty was planned after a pre-operative MRI and long leg x-ray films using customized PSG.

Results: Of the 105 knees (100 patients) in the study, average BMI was 35.42 kg/m(2) (30-56). Twenty patients (20 %) had class III obesity (≥40 kg/m(2)). The average blood loss and operative time were 236.1 ml (range 50-700 ml) and 92.2 min (65-130 min), respectively. The average post-operative mechanical axis was noted to be 1.85° varus (range 4° valgus to 6° varus). Eighty-eight patients (86.27 %) had mechanical alignment within 3° of neutral. There were no adverse intraoperative events. One patient had deep infection that required a two-stage revision. The average post-operative range of motion at 1-year follow-up was 105.8° (range 80°-130°).

Conclusion: Patient-specific guides technology restores the coronal mechanical axis reliably in obese patients without adversely affecting outcomes. Our short-term follow-up has shown favorable outcomes. Surgeons should use these customized jigs as a guide and adjust the size of components, alignment and rotation according to normal surgical principles.
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February 2016

Verification of the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry using a surgeon's database.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2013 Dec;21(3):347-50

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Concord Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: To assess the completeness of registration and any discrepancies between the senior author's database and the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOA NJRR).

Methods: From 2002 to 2005, the senior author performed 231 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) on 217 patients using the Corail femoral stem and one of the 3 types of the acetabular component: Pinnacle, ASR, or Duraloc/Option. The name of each patient was forwarded to the AOA NJRR for matching and verification.

Results: The AOA NJRR recorded 230 of the 231 primary THAs; all but one was matched with the senior author's database. Nine (3.9%) of them were revised by the same (n=7) or another (n=2) surgeon. Three (43%) of the 7 revision surgeries were not recorded on the AOA NJRR. One patient revised for a ceramic liner fracture was incorrectly recorded as 'wear acetabulum' in the AOA NJRR.

Conclusion: Although the AOA NJRR achieved high registration completeness for primary THA, accuracy for revision THA was much lower.
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December 2013

Whip stitch versus grasping suture for tendon autograft.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2013 Jan 20;23(1):105-9. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Headington, Oxford OX37LD, UK.

Purpose: During tendon autograft harvest, either a grasping suture or traditional whip stitch can be used to grasp tendon prior to definitive bone fixation. Their grip strength has not, to our knowledge, been compared. This article compares a needle-free suture technique to a standard whip stitch by testing grip strength in vitro.

Methods: Twelve uniform ovine flexor tendons were prepared; six tendons with a standard, non-locking whip stitch and six tendons with a grasping suture. All the samples were tested to failure in uniaxial tension in a materials testing machine. Load/displacement curves were generated, and qualitatively assessed and peak loads were compared.

Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in tendon length or diameter. Modes of failure between the groups, as characterised by the load/displacement curves, were quite distinct. Peak load to failure was lower in the utility suture group (mean peak load at failure 121.28 N) than the whip stitch group (mean peak load to failure 188.82 N). All failures in the utility suture group occurred when the suture snapped.

Conclusions: The grasping suture described here is weaker than a standard whip stitch but may be sufficiently strong to harvest and handle tendon autograft. A standard whip stitch remains the choice for definitive graft fixation.
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January 2013

Infection or allergy in the painful metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2010 Feb 24;25(2):334.e11-6. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Concord Repatriation General Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Metal-on-metal articulations are increasingly used in total hip arthroplasty. Patients can be sensitive to metal ions produced by the articulation and present with pain or early loosening. Infection must be excluded. Correct diagnosis before revision surgery is crucial to implant selection and operation planning. There is no practical guide in the literature on how to differentiate between allergy and infection in a painful total hip arthroplasty. We present the history, clinical findings and hip scores, radiology, serology, hip arthroscopy and aspirate results, labeled white cell scan, revision-hip findings, histology and clinical results of a typical patient with a hypersensitivity response to a metal-on-metal hip articulation, and how results differ from patients with an infected implant. A practical scheme to investigate patients with a possible hypersensitivity response to an implant is presented.
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February 2010

Primary total hip arthroplasty in severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ten-year results using a cementless modular stem.

J Arthroplasty 2009 Jan 5;24(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

We report the average 10-year clinical and radiographic results of 28 hips with Crowe III or IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and a technically difficult primary hip arthroplasty using the cementless modular S-ROM stem (DePuy Orthopedics, Warsaw, Ind). Twenty-one patients required significant autologous bone grafting, 1 had a large allograft, and 6 patients required femoral shortening at the time of their total hip arthroplasty. Three patients had an intraoperative technical complication. The average preoperative Harris hip score was 37; at 10 years, 81. The Short Form 12 was 41.64 physical/54.03 mental at 10 years, and the WOMAC average score was 23 at 10 years. None of the S-ROM stems had been revised or were loose at latest follow-up. Six hips had osteolysis in Gruen zones 1 or 7 but none around or distal to the sleeve. The 10-year results of the S-ROM stem used in patients with osteoarthritis secondary to severe DDH are excellent.
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January 2009

The accuracy of bone resections made during computer navigated total knee replacement. Do we resect what the computer plans we resect?

Knee 2008 Jun 20;15(3):238-41. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK.

Many studies have shown that computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty aids the surgeon to place the prosthesis in a more accurate overall alignment. Bony resection creates the flexion and extension gaps; important in balancing the knee and implant selection in TKR. The computer plans the bone cuts but has variables that it cannot control: the surgeon, the saw blade thickness and oscillation, the accuracy of the jigs, movement of the pins, and the quality of initial mapping data inputted by the surgeon. The accuracy of computer navigated bone resections are validated on cadavers, but this is the first study to compare the predicted bone cuts to that physically resected during TKR. For 89 patients undergoing primary TKR, the bone cut from the distal femur and proximal tibia was measured using Vernier callipers and compared to the computer calculation of the same. Results show that computer measurement of the physical space left by the resected bone is accurate.
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June 2008

Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound on healing of an ulna defect filled with a bone graft substitute.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008 Jul;86(1):74-81

Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of New South Wales, Division of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia.

A 1.5 cm unilateral rabbit ulna defect model was performed in 18 adult NZ white rabbits. The defects were filled with a beta-tricalcium phosphate bone graft substitute (JAX TCP). The surgical site in half the animals was treated daily with 20 min of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks (n = 3 per group) or 12 weeks (n = 6 per group) following surgery for radiographic and histologic endpoints. Radiography revealed some resorption of the JAX TCP by 12 weeks in the control and LIPUS treated groups. LIPUS treatment did not accelerate this resorption. Some new bone formation was noted in the control groups at the defect margins while little bone formed in the center of the defect at 4 and 12 weeks. In contrast, radiographs revealed more new bone at 4 and 12 weeks in the LIPUS treated animals throughout the section. Bone mineral density (DEXA) revealed a statistically significant difference at 4 weeks with LIPUS while no differences were found at 12 weeks. Histology of the LIPUS treated sections demonstrated new woven bone formation on and between the JAX TCP bone graft substitute particles across the defect. VEGF expression was increased with LIPUS treatment at 4 weeks and remained elevated at 12 weeks compared with controls. CBFA-1 expression levels were elevated with LIPUS treatment at both time points. LIPUS treatment increased bone formation in ulna defect healing with a beta-tricalcium phosphate bone graft substitute.
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July 2008

Lateral hip pain: does imaging predict response to localized injection?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2007 Apr;457:144-9

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Lateral hip pain is a common complaint in patients with a history of lower back pain from spinal disease. These patients often are diagnosed and treated for trochanteric bursitis because of localized pain and tenderness in the lateral hip. We presumed numerous scintigraphic features could provide diagnostic criteria for diagnosing gluteus medius tendinitis and trochanteric bursitis. A study was designed to assess the scintigraphic criteria for diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis and to evaluate the relationship of trochanteric bursitis to gluteus medius tendinitis and lumbar degenerative disease in predicting relapse after injection. We evaluated 97 patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome to find a correlation between trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius tendinitis, and spinal degenerative disease using scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. We also evaluated predictors for responding to trochanteric injection of local anesthetic/glucocorticoid injection. We found a correlation between lumbar degenerative disease, gluteus medius tendinopathy, and trochanteric bursitis. Of these, 30 of 48 patients (63%) responded to injection of local anesthetic and glucocorticoids. The major predictor of relapse of pain after injection in 18 patients was the presence of moderate to severe lumbar degenerative disease seen on scintigraphic imaging. We propose a mechanistic model of the greater trochanteric pain syndrome to explain the interrelationship and response to therapy. Scintigraphy can provide sensitive and specific diagnoses of gluteus medius tendinitis and trochanteric bursitis.
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April 2007

The influence of ambient theater temperature on cement setting time.

J Arthroplasty 2006 Apr;21(3):381-4

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Cosham, Postmouth, UK.

We have prospectively recorded ambient operating theater temperature from 186 total knee arthroplasties and the time taken for the cement to set at implantation. The majority of cases used Antibiotic Simplex cement (n = 131), and the rest, Simplex with tobramycin (n = 55). Set time was defined as when a no. 15 scalpel could not indent the cement surface at either the femoral or tibial interface. There was a reasonable negative correlation between temperature and setting time (Antibiotic Simplex: Pearson correlation coefficient, R = -0.674; Simplex with tobramycin: R = -0.655). There was also a considerable variation of setting time at any given theater temperature. There is an inverse relationship between ambient theater temperature and the setting time for Simplex cement, and surgeons should be aware that the setting time can vary considerably. Their operative protocol should take this into account.
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April 2006

Reoperated clavicular nonunion treated with osteogenic protein 1 and electrical stimulation.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2004 Sep-Oct;13(5):573-5

Prince of Wales Hospital Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Prince of Wales Private Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

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December 2004

Role of community diagnostic ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

ANZ J Surg 2003 Oct;73(10):797-9

Orthosports Group, Prince of Wales Hospital ,University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Diagnostic ultrasound examination has become the most commonly used investigation in Australia for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The authors felt that the results of such investigations were often inaccurate in their clinical practices.

Methods: The diagnostic ultrasound findings in 336 cases were compared to arthrography, and in 225 cases findings at surgery.

Results: A very poor accuracy rate of 0.38 was found for diagnostic ultrasound examination. The sensitivity was 0.24 and specificity was 0.61.

Conclusions: Extreme caution is recommended in the use of diagnostic ultrasound, as currently practised in a general community setting, in diagnosing full-thickness rotator cuff tears.
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October 2003