Publications by authors named "Wang Yun-Jiao"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of the thoracolumbar fascia graft for massive rotator cuff tears in a rat model.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Army Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Fascial autografts, which are easily available grafts, have provided a promising option in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. However, no fascial autografts other than the fascia lata have been reported, and the exact healing process of the fascia-to-bone interface is not well understood. The objective of this study is to histologically and biomechanically evaluate the effect of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) on fascia-to-bone healing.

Methods: A total of 88 rats were used in this study. Eight rats were sacrificed at the beginning to form an intact control group, and the other rats were divided randomly into 2 groups (40 rats per group): the thoracolumbar fascia augmentation group (TLF group) and the repair group (R group). The right supraspinatus was detached, and a 3*5 mm defect of the supraspinatus was created. The thoracolumbar fascia was used to augment the torn supraspinatus in the TLF group, whereas in the R group, the torn supraspinatus was repaired in only a transosseous manner. Histology and biomechanics were assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks postoperatively.

Results: The modified tendon maturation score of the TLF group was higher than that of the R group at 8 weeks (23.00 ± 0.71 vs. 24.40 ± 0.89, P=.025) and 16 weeks (24.60 ± 0.55 vs. 26.40 ± 0.55, P≤.001). The TLF group showed a rapid vascular reaction, and the peak value appeared at 1 week. Later, the capillary density decreased, and almost no angiogenesis was observed at 8 weeks postoperatively. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of collagen I in the TLF group at 4, 8 and 16 weeks (24.78% ± 2.76% vs. 20.67% ± 2.11% at 4 weeks, p=.046; 25.46% ± 1.77% vs. 21.49% ± 2.33% at 8 weeks, p=.026; 34.77% ± 2.25% vs. 30.01% ± 3.17% at 16 weeks, p=.040) postoperatively. Biomechanical tests revealed that the ultimate failure force in the TLF group was significantly higher than that in the R group at the final evaluation (29.13 ± 2.49 N vs. 23.10 ± 3.47 N, p=.022).

Conclusions: The TLF autograft can promote a faster biological healing process and a better fixation strength. It could be used as an alternative reinforcement or bridging patch when the fascia lata is not appropriate or available for SCR.

Level Of Evidence: Basic Science Study; Histology and Biomechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.10.019DOI Listing
November 2021

MiR-6924-5p-rich exosomes derived from genetically modified Scleraxis-overexpressing PDGFRα(+) BMMSCs as novel nanotherapeutics for treating osteolysis during tendon-bone healing and improving healing strength.

Biomaterials 2021 Nov 5;279:121242. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Orthopedics/Sports Medicine Center, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, First Affiliated Hospital of Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400000, China. Electronic address:

Osteolysis at the tendon-bone interface can impair pullout strength during tendon-bone healing and lead to surgery failure, but the effects of clinical treatments are not satisfactory. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been used as potent and feasible natural nanocarriers for drug delivery and have been proven to enhance tendon-bone healing strength, indicating that MSC-derived exosomes could be a promising therapeutic strategy. In this study, we explored Scleraxis (Scx) dynamically expressed in PDGFRα(+) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) during natural tendon-bone healing. Then, we investigated the role of PDGFRα(+) BMMSCs in tendon-bone healing after Scx overexpression as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that Scx-overexpressing PDGFRα(+) BMMSCs (BMMSC) could efficiently inhibit peritunnel osteolysis and enhance tendon-bone healing strength by preventing osteoclastogenesis in an exosomes-dependent manner. Exosomal RNA-seq revealed that the abundance of a novel miRNA, miR-6924-5p, was highest among miRNAs. miR-6924-5p could directly inhibit osteoclast formation by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of OCSTAMP and CXCL12. Inhibition of miR-6924-5p expression reversed the prevention of osteoclastogenic differentiation by BMMSC derived exosomes (BMMSC-exos). Local injection of BMMSC-exos or miR-6924-5p dramatically reduced osteoclast formation and improved tendon-bone healing strength. Furthermore, delivery of miR-6924-5p efficiently inhibited the osteoclastogenesis of human monocytes. In brief, our study demonstrates that BMMSC-exos or miR-6924-5p could serve as a potential therapy for the treatment of osteolysis during tendon-bone healing and improve the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121242DOI Listing
November 2021

Gait analysis combined with the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3 and CREB during Achilles tendon healing in rat.

Chin J Traumatol 2021 Nov 12;24(6):360-367. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400042, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To observe the changes of gait behavior and the expression of wound healing factors of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β3 and cAMP response element binding protein-1 (CREB-1) during the healing of Achilles tendon in a rat model, and to investigate whether gait analysis can be used to evaluate the tendon healing.

Methods: Achilles tendon of 40 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and sutured to establish the Achilles tendon injury (ATI) model. They were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the observational time point at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury (n = 10 for each group). Before modeling, 9 rats were randomly selected for CatWalk gait analysis, which contained step cycle, single stance time and average speed. Data were recorded as the normal controls. After then, ATI models were established in the left hind limbs of the all 40 rats (ATI group), while the right hind limbs were only cut and sutured without injury of the Achilles tendon (sham operation group). At 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, the gait behavior of the corresponding group of rats (n = 9) as observed and recorded by CatWalk platform. After then, the rats were sacrificed and Achilles tendon of both limbs was harvested. The tendon healing was observed by gross anatomy and histological examination, and the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 were observed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The results of tendon gross grading were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test, and other data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance among multiple groups.

Results: Compared with normal controls, all gait indexes (step cycle, single stance time and average speed) were greatly affected following ATI, which however improved with time. The step cycle was significantly lower at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after ATI (compared with normal controls, all p < 0.05), but almost returned to the normal level at 6 weeks ((0.694 ± 0.102) vs. (0.503 ± 0.094) s, p > 0.05). The single stance time of the ATI group was significantly shorter at 1 and 2 weeks after operation ((0.078 ± 0.010) s at 1 week, (0.078 ± 0.020) s at 2 weeks, all p < 0.001) and revealed no significant difference at 4 weeks (p = 0.120). The average speed of ATI group at 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (all p < 0.001). Gross observation showed that the grade of local scar adhesion in ATI group increased significantly at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, compared with the sham operation group (all p < 0.001). Extensive adhesion was formed at 6 weeks after ATI. The results of HE staining showed that the number of fibroblast increased gradually and arranged more orderly in ATI group at 1, 2 and 4 weeks (all p < 0.001), and decreased at 6 weeks, but it was still significantly higher than that of the sham operation group (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed that the positive expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 in ATI group was higher than that in the sham operation group at 4 time points (all p < 0.05), which reached the peak at 2 weeks after operation and decreased at 4 weeks (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p = 0.041, respectively). The results of qPCR suggested that the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 in ATI group was higher than that in the sham operation group at all-time points (all p < 0.05), which reached the peak at 2 weeks after operation, decreased at 4 weeks, and significantly decreased at 6 weeks (all p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Gait behavior indexes are associated with Achilles tendon healing. The study gives an insight of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 changes in the coursing of Achilles tendon healing and these cytokines may be able to be used to regulate the Achilles tendon healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2021.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8606907PMC
November 2021

TMA/TMAO in Hypertension: Novel Horizons and Potential Therapies.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300193, China.

Hypertension is the most prevalent chronic disease and a risk factor for various diseases. Although its mechanisms and therapies are constantly being updated and developed, they are still not fully clarified. In recent years, novel gut microbiota and its metabolites have attracted widespread attention. It is strongly linked with physiological and pathological systems, especially TMA and TMAO. TMA is formed by intestinal microbial metabolism of choline and L-carnitine and converted into TMAO by FMO3. This paper collected and collated the latest researches and mainly discussed the following four parts. It introduced gut microbiota; provided a focus on TMA, TMA-producing bacteria, and TMAO; summarized the alternations in hypertensive patients and animals; discussed the mechanisms of TMAO with two respects; and summarized the regulatory factors may be as new interventions and therapies of hypertension. And, more relevant studies are still prospected to be accomplished between hypertension and TMA/TMAO for further clinical services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-021-10115-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 promotes the Warburg effect possibly by inducing pyruvate kinase M2 phosphorylation in liver precancerous lesions.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Apr;25(16):1936-1949

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Background: Study shows that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can increase the Warburg effect by stimulating hexokinase 2 in breast cancer and upregulate lactate dehydrogenase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 in myeloma. STAT3 and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) can also be activated and enhance the Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma. Precancerous lesions are critical to human and rodent hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the development of liver precancerous lesions remains unknown. We hypothesized that STAT3 promotes the Warburg effect possibly by upregulating p-PKM2 in liver precancerous lesions in rats.

Aim: To investigate the mechanism of the Warburg effect in liver precancerous lesions in rats.

Methods: A model of liver precancerous lesions was established by a modified Solt-Farber method. The liver pathological changes were observed by HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The transformation of WB-F344 cells induced with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and hydrogen peroxide was evaluated by the soft agar assay and aneuploidy. The levels of glucose and lactate in the tissue and culture medium were detected with a spectrophotometer. The protein levels of glutathione S-transferase-π, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STAT3, and PKM2 were examined by Western blot and immunofluorescence.

Results: We found that the Warburg effect was increased in liver precancerous lesions in rats. PKM2 and p-STAT3 were upregulated in activated oval cells in liver precancerous lesions in rats. The Warburg effect, p-PKM2, and p-STAT3 expression were also increased in transformed WB-F344 cells. STAT3 activation promoted the clonal formation rate, aneuploidy, alpha-fetoprotein expression, PCNA expression, G1/S phase transition, the Warburg effect, PKM2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in transformed WB-F344 cells. Moreover, the Warburg effect was inhibited by stattic, a specific inhibitor of STAT3, and further reduced in transformed WB-F344 cells after the intervention for PKM2.

Conclusion: The Warburg effect is initiated in liver precancerous lesions in rats. STAT3 activation promotes the Warburg effect by enhancing the phosphorylation of PKM2 in transformed WB-F344 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i16.1936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487376PMC
April 2019

Initial stability and stress distribution of ankle arthroscopic arthrodesis with three kinds of 2-screw configuration fixation: a finite element analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2018 Oct 20;13(1):263. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Gaotanyan Str. 30, Chongqing city, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Background: Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis (AAA) is recognized as the standard treatment for the end-stage ankle arthritis. Two-screw configuration fixation is a typical technique for AAA; however, no consensus has been reached on how to select most suitable inserted position and direction. For better joint reduction, we developed a new configuration (2 home run-screw configuration: 2 screws are inserted from the lateral-posterior and medial-posterior malleolus into the talar neck) and investigated whether it turned out to be better than the other commonly used 2-screw configurations.

Methods: In this study, we investigated three kinds of 2-screw configurations: 2 "home run"-screw configuration (group A), crossed transverse configuration (the screw is inserted from the medial malleolus into the anterior talus and the other from the lateral tibia maintains posterior talus, group B), and 2 parallel screw configuration (2 parallel screws are inserted from the posteromedial side of the tibia into talus, group C). The effects of the above three insertions on the loading stress of the tibio-talar joint were comparatively analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model.

Results: Group A was better than groups B and C in respect of stress distribution uniformity and superior to both groups B and C in anti-flexion strength and anti-internal rotation strength. Group A was slightly worse than group C but better than group B in anti-dorsiflexion and anti-valgus and varus strength.

Conclusions: Two "home run"-screw configuration facilitates the reduction of anterior talus dislocation of end-stage ankle arthritis. Our finite element analysis demonstrates the configuration is superior to crossed transverse and parallel configuration for arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in terms of stress distribution and initial stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-018-0972-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195968PMC
October 2018

Interleukin-15 facilitates muscle regeneration through modulation of fibro/adipogenic progenitors.

Cell Commun Signal 2018 07 20;16(1):42. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Gaotanyan Str. 30, Chongqing city, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Background: Chronic muscle injury is characteristics of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. Recently, fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) were found to be indispensable for muscular regeneration while were also responsible for fibrosis and fatty infiltration in muscle injury. Many myokines have been proven to regulate the adipose or cell proliferation. Because the fate of FAPs is largely dependent on microenvironment and the regulation of myokines on FAPs is still unclear. We screened the potential myokines and found Interleukin-15 (IL-15) may regulate the fatty infiltration in muscle injury. In this study, we investigated how IL-15 regulated FAPs in muscle injury and the effect on muscle regeneration.

Methods: Cell proliferation assay, western blots, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric analysis were performed to investigate the effect of IL-15 on proliferation and adipogensis of FAPs. Acute muscle injury was induced by injection of glycerol or cardiotoxin to analyze how IL-15 effected on FAPs in vivo and its function on fatty infiltration or muscle regeneration.

Results: We identified that the expression of IL-15 in injured muscle was negatively associated with fatty infiltration. IL-15 can stimulate the proliferation of FAPs and prevent the adipogenesis of FAPs in vitro and in vivo. The growth of FAPs caused by IL-15 was mediated through JAK-STAT pathway. In addition, desert hedgehog pathway may participate in IL-15 inhibiting adipogenesis of FAPs. Our study showed IL-15 can cause the fibrosis after muscle damage and promote the myofiber regeneration. Finally, the expression of IL-15 was positively associated with severity of fibrosis and number of FAPs in patients with chronic rotator cuff tear.

Conclusions: These findings supported the potential role of IL-15 as a modulator on fate of FAPs in injured muscle and as a novel therapy for chronic muscle injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-018-0251-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053744PMC
July 2018

Mistletoe alkaloid fractions alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis through inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation via TGF-β/Smad interference.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 24;158 Pt A:230-8. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Department of Pathophysiology, Capital Medical University, 100069 Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai) has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its application in cancer therapy, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China. In the present study, we investigated the antifibrotic effect and mechanisms of action of mistletoe extracts in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity.

Materials And Methods: An experimental model of hepatic fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of rats with CCl4 for 8 weeks. Rats were subsequently treated with a mistletoe alkaloid fraction preparation via oral administration (120mg/kg daily for 8 weeks) or with distilled water as a control. Histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson׳s trichrome staining. The expression of markers relevant to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in the liver was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The anti-fibrosis activity and mechanisms of action of mistletoe alkaloid fractions were further investigated in the HSC-T6 HSC line, following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions (12mg/ml) for 48h.

Results: Hepatic fibrosis decreased markedly in CCl4-treated animals following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions, compared to controls. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), procollagen I and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were significantly downregulated, by about 40%, 40% and 45%, respectively, in liver tissues from rats treated with mistletoe alkaloid fractions. Furthermore, significant downregulation of TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor, phosphorylated Smad 2 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins, by about 45%, 30% and 40%, respectively, was also observed in liver tissues from mistletoe alkaloid fractions-treated rats. In contrast, Smad 7 levels were significantly increased by about 30% in mistletoe alkaloid fractions-treated rats. Treatment of HSC-T6 cells with mistletoe alkaloid fractions significantly induced Smad 7 expression and inhibited the expression of α-SMA, TGFβ1, TGF-β1 receptor, Smad 2 and TIMP-1, in vitro.

Conclusion: We demonstrate that mistletoe alkaloid fractions decrease extracellular matrix accumulation by inhibiting HSC activation. Mechanistically, this may occur via inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad 2 and Smad 7 signal transduction, thereby blocking the synthesis of procollagen I and TIMP-1. These findings suggest that mistletoe alkaloid fractions may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.10.028DOI Listing
December 2014

Intrathecal infusion of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate for the prevention and reversal of neuropathic pain in rats using a sciatic chronic constriction injury model.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010 May-Jun;35(3):231-7

Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background And Objectives: Recent studies have suggested that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) may play a role in mediating nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the effects of intrathecal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-κB inhibitor, on the development of neuropathic pain, spinal microglial activation, and CX3CR1 expression induced by sciatic chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats.

Methods: Under chloral hydrate anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) fitted with intrathecal catheters underwent either sciatic CCI or sham surgery. Intrathecal saline or PDTC (100 or 1000 pmol/d) was infused 1 day before or 3 days after CCI (n = 8). The rat hind-paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and withdrawal latency to radiant heat were determined before surgery and from days 1 to 7 after CCI. Spinal microglial activation was evaluated with OX-42 immunoreactivity, and spinal CX3CR1 expression was assessed by Western blotting.

Results: Chronic constriction injury induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and microglial activation as demonstrated by OX-42 expression. Whereas it had no apparent effect on spinal cord histology, intrathecal administration of PDTC prevented the development of the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and inhibited nerve injury-induced microglial activation and spinal CX3CR1 expression.

Conclusions: In this study, we have shown the protective effect of intrathecal PDTC on the development of nociceptive behaviors induced by CCI in rats. The activation of NF-κB pathway may contribute to spinal microglial activation and CX3CR1 up-regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181df245bDOI Listing
January 2011

[Narcotrend for monitoring the anesthetic depth during endotracheal intubation in sevoflurane anesthesia].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010 Jul;30(7):1654-7, 1662

Deparament of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To study the feasibility of using Narcotrend (NCT) in monitoring the anesthetic depth during endotracheal intubation in sevoflurane anesthesia.

Methods: Thirty ASA I-II patients (aged 20-49 years) undergoing gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation were randomized into sevoflurane group (n=15) and sevoflurane plus rocuronium group (n=15). In the former group, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane at the primary concentration of 8% till the final end expiratory concentration reaching 2 MAC(minimum alveolar concentration) for 3 min, followed then by tracheal intubation and further observation of the indicators for another 3 min. The patients in sevoflurane plus rocuronium group received identical anesthesia procedures except for the administration of intravenous injection of rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) after the loss of eyelash reflex. The NCT, BIS and hemodynamics were recorded during the process.

Results: No significant differences were noted in NCT, bispectral index (BIS), MAP and heart rate before tracheal intubation between the two groups (P>0.05). The NCT and BIS increased significantly after tracheal intubation in sevoflurane group (P<0.05), but remained below 60. No significant changes in NCT and BIS occurred during intubation in sevoflurane plus rocuronium group (P>0.05). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were significantly increased in both groups after tracheal intubation in comparison with those before tracheal intubation (P<0.05), but the increment in sevoflurane group was significantly greater (P<0.05).

Conclusion: NCT may reflect the changes of the anesthetic depth resulting from the nociceptive stimulus of tracheal intubation in sevoflurane- induced anesthesia. NCT and BIS can not serve such a purpose in combined anesthesia with sevoflurane and rocuronium.
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July 2010

[Correlation between the Narcotrend index, the cerebral state index and the predicted effect site concentration during different state of consciousness in elderly patients with target controlled infusion of propofol].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009 Sep;89(33):2315-8

Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To study the correlation between the Narcotrend index, cerebral state index and predicted effect site concentration during different state of consciousness in the absence of surgery in elderly patients with target controlled infusion of propofol.

Methods: Twenty patients aged from 65-75 years categorized as ASA class I - II who were scheduled to undergo general surgery under general anesthesia with target controlled infusion of propofol were recruited. During the target controlled infusion of propofol, the propofol infusion was set at an initial effect site concentration of 0.5 mg/L and increased by 0.5 mg /L every 5 min until the modified observer's assessment of alertness / sedation scale (OAA/S) values of zero. The predicted effect site concentration of propofol, the values of CSI and NCT were recorded and the sedation level was examined by the modified OAA/S every 20 s. The predicted effect site concentrations of propofol in target controlled infusion (TCI) system were recorded when they increased by more than 0.1 mg/L. The predicted effect site concentrations of propofol and the values of NCT and CSI at LVC and LOC of the patients were recorded.

Results: There was a good linear correlation between NCT and the predicted effect site concentration of propofol (R2 = 0. 867, P < 0.01), as well as that between CSI and the predicted effect site concentration of propofol (R2 = 0.893, P < 0.01). The predicted effect site concentrations of propofol at LVC was (1.56 +/- 0.13) mg/L while the values of NCT was 74.00 +/- 4.69 and CSI 69.82 +/- 5.47. The predicted effect site concentrations of propofol at LOC was (2.15 +/- 0.27) mg/L while the values of NCT and CSI were 63.30 +/- 7.50 and 58.78 +/- 6.90 respectively. All of the values of NCT, CSI and the predicted effect site concentrations had a good linear correlation with OAA/S. There was a negative correlation between OAA/S and the predicted effect site concentration. At the same time, there was a positive correlation between OAA/S and NCT as well as that between OAA/S and CSI. And the correlation coefficients were - 0.968, 0.938, 0.940 respectively (P < 0.01). The values of NCT were higher significantly than that of CSI in different degree of LOC (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: During elder people's target controlled infusion of propofol, LVC and LOC occur within a definite range of predicted effect site concentrations. There is a good linear correlation between NCT, CSI and the predicted effect site concentrations of propofol. For the elders, both NCT and CSI reflect the sedation level of propofol. Although there is a significant correlation between NCT and CSI, a deviation does exist in a certain range. Therefore a simple 1:1 transfer from NCT to CSI is inadequate.
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September 2009

[Effects of selective head mild hypothermia on endogenous neuroprotection in brain following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: experiment with dogs].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007 May;87(19):1318-21

Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To study the effects of selective head mild hypothermia on endogenous neuroprotection in brain following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Methods: Fifteen dogs were randomly divided into three groups: nonischemic control group (Group A, n = 4), undergoing thoracotomy without cerebral ischemia and general care for 8 hours thereafter; cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group (Group B, n = 5) undergoing thoracotomy, clipping of the ascending aorta for 18 min, cardiac resuscitation, maintenance of respiration and circulation for 8 h; and mild hypothermia group (Group C, n = 6), received selective head mild hypothermia, i.e. lowering the tympanic temperature to (34 +/- 0.5) degrees C for 8 hours after cerebral ischemia. The neurological function was assessed by Glasgow coma scale and Pittsburgh brain stem score. At the end of experiment, the dog brains were taken out to obtain the right parietal cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the parvalbumin (PV) and HSP(70). Xanthine oxidase method was used to detect the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities: total SOD (T-SOD), manganese SOD (Mn-SOD), and copper-zinc SOD (Cu-ZnSOD). Spectrophotometry was used to detect the activities of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).

Results: The comprehensive neurological score of Group C was 23.4 +/- 1.5, significantly higher than that of Group B (18.6 +/- 1.0, P < 0.05). The cerebral cortex of Group A showed a lot of PV positive neurons, the density of PV-positive neurons decreased significantly in Group B (P < 0.05), and the density of PV-positive neurons win Group C was significantly higher then that of Group B, however, still significantly lower than that of Group A (both P < 0.05). The density of HSP70-LI neurons of Group A was very low (5.5 +/- 2.1), those of Groups B and C were significantly higher than that of Group A (15.6 +/- 3.7 and 27.1 +/- 4.9 respectively, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), that of Group C being significantly higher than that of Group B (P < 0.05). The contents of GSH, T-SOD, MnSOD, Cu-ZnSOD, and GSH-Px of Group B were all significantly lower than those of Group A (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The contents of GSH, T-SOD, and Cu-ZnSOD of Group C were significantly higher than those of Group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01),

Conclusion: Mild hypothermia may up-regulate the endogenous neuroprotection in brain tissue following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and may be beneficial to cerebral ischemia.
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May 2007

[Effects of intravenous anesthetics on LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha from primary cultures of rat glial cells in vitro].

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2007 Jun;32(3):413-6

Department of Anesthesiology Xiangya Hospital, Central South Uniersity, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of intravenous anesthetics on LPS-induced inflammatory responses of primary cultures of rat glial cells in vitro.

Methods: The primary cultures of rat glial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide( LPS) to produce inflammatory responses. Glial cells were divided into 8 groups (n=4): blank control (Group C), LPS(Group L), 100micromol/L ketamine with LPS(Group K1), 1000micromol/L ketamine with LPS (Group K2), 30micromol/L propofol with LPS (Group P1), 300micromol/L propofol with LPS (Group P2), 3micromol/L midazolane with LPS (Group M1), and 30micromol/L midazolane with LPS (Group M2). TNF-alpha released into the culture media was measured by radioimmunity assay.

Results: Compared with the blank control Group C, LPS-induced TNF-alpha productions in Group L, K1, K2, P1, P2, M1 and M2 increased significantly. The levels of TNF-alpha in Group K1 and K2 were significantly lower than those in Group L (P<0.05), but TNF-alpha productions in Group P1, P2, M1 and M2 were not significantly different as compared with that in Group L.

Conclusion: Ketamine can reduce LPS-induced TNF-alpha production of glial cells, thereby inhabiting some of the inflammatory responses. Propofol and midazolam have no effect on the production of TNF-alpha from LPS-stimulated glial cells.
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June 2007

[Effects of isoket on hemodynamics during extubation and anesthesia emergency].

Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2003 Aug;28(4):437-8

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August 2003

[Clinical observation of granisetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting following supratentorial craniotomy].

Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2002 Dec;27(6):545-6

Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To observe the prophylactic effect of granisetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after supratentorial craniotomy.

Methods: Seventy ASA I-II patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy were randomly and double-bindly divided into two groups: control group (Group C, n = 35) and granisetron group (Group G, n = 35). All the patients received either 0.9% NS (Group C) or granisetron 3 mg (Group G) via intravenous injection. The incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after supratentorial craniotomy.

Results: The incidence of PONV in Group G was lower than that in Group C (25.7% vs 57.1%, P < 0.01). The incidence of server nausea with vomiting or vomiting in Group G was lower than that in Group C (17.2% vs 48.6%, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Granisetron can be used effectively and safely to prevent PONV in supratentorial craniotomy.
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December 2002
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