Publications by authors named "Wan-Tie Wang"

63 Publications

[The regulatory role of autophagy in rats lung ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(4):385-388

Institute of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

To investigate the role of cell autophagy in lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (=8): ①Sham operated group (sham group):just open rat chest for 3.5 h; ②Ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R group):after open chest, clamp pulmonary hilus for 0.5h then reperfusion for 3 h; ③Solvent group (DMSO group): intraperitoneal injection of DMSO solution for 1h before operation; ④Autophagic inhibitor group (3-MA group); ⑤Autophagic agonist group (Rap group): intraperitoneal injection of autophagic agonist rapamycin before operation; the rest operations of DMSO, 3-MA and Rap groups are the same as that of I/R group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed by euthanasia-killing. The lung tissues were collected and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and total lung water content (TLW) of the lung tissues were detected. The lung tissue structure and cell ultramicro morphology were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy and the injuried alveolar rate(IAR) was calculated. The autophagy-related protein expressions were detected by Western blot. Compared with sham group, the levels of W/D, TLW and IAR were increased, the expressions of autophagy related protein and p-AMPK, Beclin 1, LC3 II were also increased in other four groups, while the protein expressions of p-mTOR and p62 were decreased significantly (< 0.05 or <0.01). Under the light microscope, the other groups of lung tissue had edema and exudation in varying degrees, the structure of alveoli was disordered, the ultrastructural damage of cells was aggravated under the electron microscope, and autophagosome could be observed. Compared with DMSO group, the expressions of autophagy related protein, the levels of W/D, TLW and IAR in 3-MA group were decreased (<0.05 or <0.01), the edema of lung interstitial was lighter, and less cells were found in alveolar cavity. Ultrastructural damage was also lighter and with less autophagosome. Besides, there was no significant difference among I/R, DMSO and Rap groups (>0.05). Autophagy can be activated during ischemia/reperfusion in rats to induce lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6061.2021.019DOI Listing
July 2021

[The regulation of retinoid X receptor-mediated oxidative stress pathway in rat pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2019 Apr;71(2):301-310

Institute of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of retinoid X receptor (RXR)-mediated oxidative stress pathway in rat pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury (PIRI) and the underlying mechanism. Seventy-seven male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (n = 11): control group, sham group, sham+9-cis-retinoid acid (9-cRA, RXR agonist) group, sham+HX531 (RXR inhibitor) group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, I/R+9-cRA group, and I/R+HX531 group. The unilateral lung I/R model was established by obstruction of left lung hilus for 30 min and reperfusion for 180 min in vivo. The rats in I/R+9-cRA and I/R+HX531 groups were given intraperitoneal injection of 9-cRA and HX531 before thoracotomy. After reperfusion, the left lung tissue was taken to evaluate the lung tissue injury, and the oxidative stress-related indexes of the lung tissue were detected by the corresponding kits. The lung tissue morphology and the ultrastructure of the alveolar epithelial cells were observed by HE staining and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The protein expression of RXR in lung tissue was observed by immunofluorescence labeling method, and the expression level of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein was detected by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the sham group, the I/R group exhibited obviously injured lung tissue, decreased SOD activity, increased MDA content and MPO activity, and down-regulated expression level of Nrf2 protein. Compared with the I/R group, the I/R+9-cRA group showed alleviated lung tissue injury, increased activity of SOD, decreased MDA content and MPO activity, and up-regulated expression levels of RXR and Nrf2 protein. The above-mentioned improvement effects of 9-cRA were reversed by HX531 treatment. These results suggest that RXR activation can effectively protect the lung tissue against I/R injury, and the mechanism may involve the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway, the enhancement of antioxidant level and the reduction of oxidative stress response.
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April 2019

[The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pulmonary hypertension in rat induced by chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr;34(4):327-333

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

Objective: To observe the pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia, and to explore the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pulmonary hypertension.

Methods: Forty SD rats were random-ly divided into four groups:normoxic control group (N), hypoxia hypercapnia group (HH), ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid group (4-PBA), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway agonist tunicamycin group (TM), ten rats in each group.The mean pulmona-ry artery pressure (mPAP), mean carotid artery pressure (mCAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index of rats in each group were measured.Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were identified by immunofluorescence α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA).Morphologi-cal changes of lung tissue and pulmonary artery were observed by electron microscope.The apoptotic index of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in each group was detected by TUNEL.Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 (caspase-12) mRNA and protein in each group.

Results: ①Compared with the N group, the mPAP, the ratio of right ventricle weight to left ventricle plus ventricular septum weight[RV/(LV+S)]and the ratio of pulmonary artery wall area to total tube area (WA/TA) were increased (<0.01), and the ratio of pulmonary artery luminal area to total tube area (LA/TA) were decreased (<0.01), pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis index were decreased (<0.05 or <0.01) in HH group, 4-PBA group and TM group.ERS related protein and mRNA expressions were increased, the differences were statistically significant.②Compared with the HH group, the mPAP, [RV/(LV+S)]and WA/TA of 4-PBA group were decreased ( <0.01), LA/TA and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis index were increased (<0.01, <0.05).The expressions of ERS related protein and mRNA were all decreased (<0.05 or <0.01).③Compared with the HH group, the mPAP, [RV/(LV+S)]and WA/TA of TM group were increased (<0.05 or <0.01), pulmonary artery middle layer thickened, LA/TA and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptotic index were decreased (<0.01).ERS related protein and mRNA expressions were increased with statistical significance except GRP78 protein.

Conclusions: Pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia may be related to the excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and too little apopto-sis;ERS related factors (JNK, caspase-12 and CHOP) are involved in the regulation of pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia hypercapnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5644.2018.075DOI Listing
April 2018

[The effect of Yiqi Wenyang Huoxue Huatan Fang on hypoxia-hypercarbia induced pulmonary hypertension and its mechanism].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2018 May;34(5):408-413

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Yiqi Wenyang Huoxue Huatan Fang (YWHHF) on alleviating hypoxia-hypercarbia pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) BMP-7/Smads pathway.

Methods: Fifty male healthy SD rats of clean grede, weighting (180~220) g, were randomly divided into 5 groups (=10):normoxia group (N), hypoxia-hypercarbia group (HH); YWHHF high dose group (YH), middle dose group (YM) and low dose group (YL). The rats in N group were kept in normal oxygen environment, the remaining four groups were intermittently exposed to hypoxia-hypercarbia environment (9%~11% O, 5%~6% CO) for 4 weeks, 6 days a week, 8 hours per day. The rats in YH, YM, YL groups were received YWHHF gavage in a dosageof 0.6, 0.3, 0.15g/kg respectively (3 ml/kg),the rats in N and HH groups were received equal volume of normal saline. After 4 weeks, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure(mPAP) was detected,the right ventricular free wall and left ventricle plus ventricular septum were isolated to determine the right ventricular hypertrophy index. Lung ultrastructural changes were surveyed under an electronic microscopy, the changes of pulmonary artery structure surveyed by immunofluorescence, the mRNA levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)、platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31)、bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7)、drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein1/5/8 (Smad1/5/8) were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein levels of α-SMA、CD31、BMP-7、p-Smad1/5/8 and Smad1/5/8 were detected by Western blot.

Results: Compared with N group, mPAP and the right ventricular hypertrophy index were increased,some significant injuries also were discovered under microscopic observation,the mRNA and protein expression of α-SMA was increased, and the mRNA expressions of CD31、BMP-7、Smad1/5/8 were decreased in the other four groups, the protein expressions of CD31、BMP-7、p-Smad1/5/8 were decreased(<0.05). Compared with HH group, the above changes in YH、YM、YL groups were all improved (<0.05).

Conclusions: YWHHF can inhibit EndoMT to alleviate pulmonary hypertension, and the mechanism may be related to the promotion of the expression of BMP-7/Smads pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5626.2018.093DOI Listing
May 2018

[Effect of dexmedetomidine on apoptosis and CHOP in hypoxia/reoxygenation injury A549 cell].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2018 Feb;34(2):137-142

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on injury of A549 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)and the influence of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression.

Methods: Logarithmic growth phase A549 cells(it originated from alveolar type Ⅱ epithelial cell line) were randomly divided into 4 groups (=10):normoxic control group (N), Dex group (D), hypoxia/reoxygenation group (H), hypoxia/reoxygenation + Dex group(HD). At the beginning of modeling, 1 nmol/L Dex was puted into D and HD groups. N and D groups were cultured in the normoxic incubator for 30 h. H and HD group were incubated in the anoxic cultivation for 6 h, fo llowed by normoxic culture for 24 h. Then A549 cells were observed under the inverted microscope to observe the morphological changes. Cell activity was detected by cell counting Kit-8(CCK-8) and the apoptosis index(AI) was detected by in situ end labeling (TUNEL) method. The expression of CHOP、glucose-regulated protein of molecular weight 78 kDa (Grp78)、cysteinyl aspirate-specificprotease-3 (caspase-3) protein and CHOP、Grp78 mRNA were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR.

Results: Compared with N group, the number of adherent cells in H group decreased significantly, and cell morphology changed. The absorbance value in H group decreased obviously (<0. 01). The AI value and expression of CHOP, Grp78, caspase-3 proteins and CHOP, Grp78 mRNA were significantly increased (<0.01). Compared with H group, the cell damage in HD group was decreased, the absorbance value increased (<0.01), the number of apoptosis cells decreased relatively (<0.01), the expression of CHOP, caspase-3 protein and CHOP mRNA decreased (<0. 01).

Conclusions: Dex has notable effects against H/R injury, which may be related to effective inhibition of apoptosis mediated by the CHOP's signal path.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047.j.cjap.5554.2018.034DOI Listing
February 2018

[Effects of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress on lung ischemia/reperfusion induced myocardial injury in mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jan;34(1):8-13

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress on lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced myocardial injury in mice.

Methods: Forty healthy SPF male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups randomly (=10):sham operation group (Sham group), lung I/R group (I/R group), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway agonist Tunicamycin group (TM) and ERS inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid group (4-PBA). The model of lung I/R injury was established by clamping the left hilum of lung for 30 min followed by 180 min of reperfusion. In sham group, only sternotomy was performed, the hilum of lung was not clamped, and the mice were mechanically ventilated for 210 min. In TM and 4-PBA groups, TM 1mg/kg and 4-PBA 400 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally, respectively, at 30 min before establishment of the model. At 180 min of reperfusion, blood samples were collected from the orbit for determination of myocardial enzyme. The animals were then sacrificed, and hearts were removed for determination of light microscope, TUNEL, Caspase 3 enzymatic activity, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.

Results: Compared with sham group, the cardiomyocytes had obvious damage under light microscope, and the serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, apoptosis index and Caspase 3 enzymatic activity were increased significantly, the expressions of p-Jun N-terminalkinase(p-JNK), Caspase 12, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose regulated protein 78(GRP78) protein and mRNA were up-regulated in I/R, TM and 4-PBA groups (<0.01). Compared with I/R group, the cardiomyocytes damage was obvious under light microscope, and the serum CK-MB and LDH activities, apoptosis index and Caspase 3 enzymatic activity were increased significantly, the expressions of p-JNK, Caspase 12, CHOP and GRP78 protein and mRNA were up-regulated in group TM; while all above changes were relieved in group 4-PBA (<0.01). Compared with TM group, the cardiomyocytes damage was relieved under light microscope, and the serum CK-MB and LDH activities, apoptosis index and Caspase 3 enzymatic activity were decreased significantly, the expressions of p-JNK, Caspase 12,CHOP and GRP78 protein and mRNA were down-regulated in group 4-PBA.

Conclusions: The excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in myocardial injury induced by lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and inhibit excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress response can relieved myocardial injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5581.2018.003DOI Listing
January 2018

[Effects of Dexmedetomidine on the levels of proinflammatory mediators IL-1βand TNF-α in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury rats and the mechanisms].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;33(5):415-419

Institute of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

Objective: To evaluate the effects and mechanism of the Dexmedetomidine on the levels of proinflammatory mediators interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in ischemia/reperfusion(I/R)rats.

Methods: Fifty healthy SPF male SD rats, 250~310 g,8~12 weeks,were randomly divided into five groups(=10):sham operation group(sham group),I/R group, dexmedetomidine group(Dex group), atipamezole group(Atip group), dexmedetomidine plus atipamezole(Dex+Atip group). The I/R model was established by clipping hilus of left lung for 30 min and then reperfusion for 2 h. Dex group, Atip group and Dex + Atip group were performed by intraperitoneal injection dexmedetomidine(20 μg/kg),atipamezole(250 μg/kg),Dexmedetomidine(20 μg/kg)+atipamezole(250 μg/kg)respectively 30 min in advance before hilus of left lung was clipped, the rest of the process was the same with I/R group. After the experiment the rats were killed and the left lung tissues to determine the lung wet/dry weight(W/D) and total lung water content(TLW); Ultra structure of lung tissues were observed under light microscope and electron microscope; IL-1β and TNF-α levels were determined by using ELISA.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the W/D、TLW、IL-1β and TNF-α in other groups were increased significantly (<0.05). The structure damages of lung tissues observed under light microscope and electron microscope in other groups were more serious than that of sham group. Compared with I/R、Atip、Dex+Atip group, the levels of W/D、TLW,IL-1β and TNF-α in Dex group were lower (<0.05), the structure damages of lung tissues observed under light microscopy and electron microscope in Dex group were slighter. There was no significant difference of the above parameters among I/R、Atip、Dex+Atip group.

Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine can alleviate ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat lung through lowering the level of proinflammatory mediators IL-1β and TNF-α,the possible mechanism may be through stimulation of α adrenaline receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5526.2017.100DOI Listing
May 2017

[Effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-12 expression in A549 cells].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2017 Aug;69(4):437-444

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-12 expression, A549 cells were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, DEX group, H/R group and DEX+H/R group. Cells of control and DEX groups were cultured in the normoxic incubator for 30 h. Cells of H/R and DEX+ H/R groups were incubated in the anoxic cultivation for 6 h, followed by normoxic culture for 24 h, and DEX (1 nmol/L) was added into the culture medium in DEX and DEX+H/R groups. Morphological changes were observed under the inverted microscope. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8. The apoptosis index (AI) of A549 cells was detected by TUNEL method. The activity of caspase-3 enzyme in cells was detected by using caspase-3 kit. The expressions of GRP78, caspase-12 protein and mRNA were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR respectively. Compared with control group, the morphological changes of the cultured cells were observed: some of the cell fusion occurred and the shape of the cells was multilateral; the cell viability was decreased significantly (P < 0.01), the number of apoptotic cells and the AI value, caspase-3 activity, and the expressions of GRP78, caspase-12 protein/mRNA were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in H/R group. While the administration of DEX alleviated the H/R injury-induced cell damage, obviously increased the cell viability (P < 0.01), significantly decreased the increment of apoptotic cells and the AI value induced by H/R injury (P < 0.01), and also dramatically decreased the H/R injury-induced high level of caspase-3 activity (P < 0.01) as well as high expression of caspase-12 protein and mRNA (P < 0.01). Taken together, the results suggest that DEX can effectively protect A549 cells from the H/R injury, which may be mediated by down-regulating the expression of caspase-12 and inhibiting cell apoptosis.
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August 2017

[Excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates brain damage in hypoxia hypercapnia induced pulmonary hypertension rats].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2017 Aug;69(4):413-421

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) on the brain damage in hypoxia hypercapnia induced pulmonary hypertension (HHPH) rats. Forty healthy SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 for each): control group, hypoxia hypercapnia group, ERS pathway agonist tunicamycin (TM) group and ERS pathway inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) group. The rats of control group lived in normal environment, while the rats of other three groups were raised for four weeks in the tank with 8.5%-11% O and 5%-6% CO. TM (0.08 mg/kg, twice a week) and 4-PBA (80 mg/kg, daily) were respectively intraperitoneally injected into the rats of TM and 4-PBA groups, and the hypoxia hypercapnia group was given the same volume of normal saline. The mean pulmonary artery pressure and heart perfusion of the rats were determined and recorded after four-week raising. Then the brain tissue of the rats were quickly taken out for the brain water content measuring and morphological changes observing. The Caspase-3 activity and the apoptotic index of the brain cells were also determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of p-JNK, Caspase-12, CHOP and GRP78 in brain tissues were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the control group, the mean pulmonary artery pressure, brain water content and brain cells apoptotic index, Caspase-3 activity, the protein and mRNA levels of p-JNK, Caspase-12, CHOP and GRP78 were increased (P < 0.05), and the brain tissues of the rats were obviously damaged in the rats raised in the hypoxia hypercapnia environment; compared with hypoxia hypercapnia group, the mean pulmonary artery pressure, brain water content, brain apoptotic index and Caspase-3 activity, p-JNK, Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 protein and mRNA expressions in TM group were increased (P < 0.05), and the brain tissues of the rats were obviously damaged, while all above changes were relieved in 4-PBA group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that excessive ERS may participate in the brain injury induced by HHPH in rats and inhibition of excessive ERS can relieve the brain injury in the rats with HHPH.
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August 2017

[Effect of dexmedetomidine on renal injury induced by lung ischemia/reperfusion in mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;33(4):380-384

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex) on renal injury induced by lung ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) in mice.

Methods: Fifty healthy SPF male C57BL/6J mice, weighing 20 g~24 g,aged 8~10 weeks,were randomly divided into five groups(=10 each):sham operation group(sham group),lung ischemia/reperfusion group(I/R group), lung ischemia/reperfusion and normal saline group (NS group), dexmedetomidine group(Dex group), dexmedetomidine and atipamezole group (DA group). Lung ischemia/reperfusion model was established by occlusion of the left pulmonary artery for 30 min followed by 180 min reperfusion in mice. In Dex and DA groups, dexmedetomidine 20 μg/kg and dexmedetomidine 20 μg/kg plus atipamezole 250 μg/kg were injected intraperitoneally respectively at 30 min before establishment of the model, isopyknic normal saline instead of Dex were injected intraperitoneally in NS group. After the experiment the mice were killed and plasma IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) concentration were detected by ELISA; the renal tissues were harvested to observe ultra structure under electron microscope.

Results: Compared with sham group, the concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in other groups were increased significantly and the structure damages of renal tissues observed under electron microscope in other groups were more serious than those of sham group. Compared with I/R group, NS groups and DA group, the concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in Dex group were significantly lower(<0.05)and the structure damages of renal tissues observed under electron microscope in Dex group were slighter.

Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine pretreatment can attenuate renal injury induced by lung ischemia/reperfusion and the mechanism may be related to inhibition of inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5500.2017.092DOI Listing
April 2017

[The regulation of MAPK signaling pathway on cell proliferation and apoptosis in hypoxic PASMCs of rats].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 Mar;33(3):226-230

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To explore the relationship between hypoxic pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells(PASMCs)proliferation, apop-tosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPK) signal pathway in rats.

Methods: PASMCs were obtained from male SD rats by the enzyme digestion method and primarily cultured; PASMCs were identified through two methods:immunofluorescence staining and light microscopy; the 4~6th generation PASMCs of logarithmic growth state of good growth period were selected, and randomly divided into 7 groups:normoxic con-trol group (N), hypoxia group (H), DMSO group (D), extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(ERK1/2) inhibitor-U0126 group (U) and p38MAPK inhibitor-SB203580 group (S), the p38MAPK activator-Anisomycin group (A), the ERK1/2 activator-Staurosporine Aglycone group (SA). When all the models were completed, the all groups joined the CCK-8 to measure cell proliferation; cell apoptosis of each group was detected by TUNEL kit after the modeling.

Results: Compared with N group, the expression of OD value in H group was up-regulated (0.990 ±0.041 1.143 ±0.033, < 0.01). There was no statistical significance on PASMCs apoptosis index(AI) in H group (4.913 ±0.451 5.452 ±0.557, > 0.05); Compared With H group, there were no statistical significance on the expression of PASMCs OD value and apoptosis index(AI)in D group (1.143 ±0.033 1.142 ±0.049,5.452 ±0.557 5.402 ±0.651, > 0.05); the expression of OD value in U group was down-regulated, and the expression of AI was up-regulated (1.143 ±0.033 0.985 ±0.078, 5.452 ±0.557 10.145 ±2.545, < 0.01); the expression of OD value in S group was up-regulated, and the expression of AI was down-regulated (1.143 ±0.033 1.295 ±0.039, 5.452 ±0.557 3.093 ±0.409, < 0.01); the expression of OD value in A group was down-regulated, and the expres-sion of AI was up-regulated (1.143 ±0.033 0.347 ±0.067, 5.452 ±0.557 25.753 ±1.262, < 0.01); the expression of OD value in SA group was up-regulated, and the expression of AI was down-regulated (1.143 ±0.033 1.685 ±0.100, 5.452 ±0.557 1.700 ±0.095, < 0.01).

Conclusions: The regulation of PASMCs' proliferation and apoptosis under hypoxia condition have a relationship with the participation of MAPK signal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5422.2017.056DOI Listing
March 2017

[Role of TRPC6 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and apoptosis under hypoxia and hypercapnia].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2017 Feb;69(1):47-54

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

The present study was to investigate the role of TRPC6 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and apoptosis under hypoxia and hypercapnia. PASMCs were isolated from chloral hydrate-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Cellular purity was assessed by immunofluorescence staining for smooth muscle α-actin under fluorescence microscopy. Passage 4-6 PASMCs were starved for 24 h in serum-free DMEM and divided into 5 groups randomly: normoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia, DMSO, TRPC6 inhibitor SKF-96365 and TRPC6 activator OAG groups. The normoxic group was incubated under normoxia (5% CO, 21% O, 37 °C) for 24 h, and the others were incubated with corresponding drugs under hypoxic and hypercapnic (6% CO, 5% O, 37 °C) atmosphere for 24 h. TRPC6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. TRPC6 protein was detected by Western blotting. The proliferation of PASMCs was performed by CCK-8 kit. Apoptosis of the PASMCs was detected using TUNEL assay. The [Ca] in the PASMCs was measured using Fura 2-AM fluorescence. The results showed that the expressions of TRPC6 mRNA and protein, and [Ca] were upregulated under hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. Hypoxia and hypercapnia promoted cellular proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in the PASMCs. OAG enhanced the above-mentioned effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia, whereas SKF-96365 reversed these effects. These results suggest that TRPC6 may play a role in PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis under hypoxia and hypercapnia by regulating [Ca].
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February 2017

[The effects of YHTJF on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;33(2):151-155

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To explore whether yiqi huoxue tongluo jiedu fang (YHTJF, Traditional Chinese Medicine) alleviates the injury during lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice through inhibiting oxidative stress or not.

Methods: C57BL/6J male mice (=70) were randomly divided into 7 groups:control (C), carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na(CMC·Na) + normal control (CC), carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na + sham (CS), carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na + I/R (CIR), carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na + YHTJF-Low, CMC-Na + YHTJF-Middle, CMC-Na + YHTJF-High (CYL, CYM, CYH). The mice in CYL, CYM and CYH group were treated with YHTJF by intraperitoneal injection every day, while the carboxyl methyl cellulose-Na was administered with the same volume of CYL in CC, CS and CIR group. After 3 h-reperfusion, the left lung tissues were harvested to determine the lung wet/dry weight (W/D), the total lung water content (TLW), and the index of quantita-tive evaluation for alveolar damage (IQA). Morphological observation and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) were applied to evaluate the structural changes and the apoptosis index (AI) of the lung tissues. The expressions superoxide of dis-mutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) and myeloperoxidase(MPO) in the lung tissues were detected by kits.

Results: Compared with group C, the W/D, TLW, IQA, AI, lung tissue structural changes, and the expressions of MDA and MPO in group I/R were increased obviously ( < 0.01), and the expression of SOD was decreased, while there was no significant difference between group CC and CS. Compared with group I/R, the parameters of these experiments in group CYL, CYM, CYH were all decreased, and the expression of SOD was increased, while the reduction in group CYM was the most remarkable among them ( < 0.01).

Conclusions: YHTJF may attenuate the I/R injury of the lung by the inhibition of apoptosis via ROS pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5450.2017.038DOI Listing
February 2017

[The effects of ERK1/2 pathway on the expression of calcium activated chloride channel in hypoxia in PASMCs rat model].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jan;33(1):47-50

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

Objective: To investigate the expression of mRNA and protein of Calcium activated chloride channel (CLCA2) in hypoxic pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) of rat and it's relationship with ERK1/2 signal pathway.

Methods: PASMCs were randomly divided into 5 groups including normal group(N group), hypoxia group(H group), DMSO group(D group), U0126 group (U group) and Staurosporine aglycone group(SA group). The protein expression of CLCA2 in PASMCs was detected by Western blot.The mRNA expression of CLCA2 was detected by half quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: The mRNA and protein expressions of CLCA2 in H group were significantly higher than N group (<0.01). Comparing with D group,the mRNA and protein expressions of CLCA2 were significantly increased in U group (<0.01),the mRNA expression of CLCA2 in SA group was obviously decreased (<0.01) with slightly decreasing of its protein expression.

Conclusions: Hypoxia promotes the expressions of mRNA and protein of CLCA2 in rat PASMCs. The ERK1/2 pathway activator Staurosporine aglycone reduces the mRNA and protein expression of CLCA2 in rats PASMCs and the ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor U0126 induces the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expressiosn of CLCA2 in rats PASMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5448.2017.011DOI Listing
January 2017

[The effects and mechanisms of ligustrazine injection on pulmonary arterial hypertension in COPD patients].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2016 May;32(5):408-412

Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

Objective: To observe the effects of ligustrazine hydrochloride injection(LHI) on pulmonary arterial hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) patients and to investigate its possible mechanisms.

Methods: Twenty-two cases of patients with COPD were randomly divided into conventional treatmentgroup (group C) and ligustrazine treatment group(group L), 11 persons were randomly selected from healthy subjects without lung disease served as normal control group(group N). Group C was given bed rest, low flow oxygen inhalation, bronchial diastolic agent, glucocorticoid and antibiotics and other conventional treatment, and group L was added with ligustrazine hydrochloride injection on the above mentioned basis treatment, group N was given no treatment. After 2 weeks, lung function, blood gas analysis and pulmonary arterial pressure were compared among the three groups, and the content of HS in plasma was tested with sensitive sulfur electrode method.

Results: ①After two weeks treatment, in group L and group C pulmonary function, blood gas analysis, pulmonary artery pressure were obviously improved, and group L was better than group C (<0.05); ② In group L the content of HS was increased (<0.01), group C had no significant difference (>0.05), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (<0.01).

Conclusions: Combination with LHI can effectively improve lung function. LHI mayrelieve hypoxic hypercapnia pulmonary hypertension induced by COPD through raising the content of HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13459/j.cnki.cjap.2016.05.006DOI Listing
May 2016

[Dexmedetomidine prevents inflammatory responses in injured rat lung tissues induced by ischemia/reperfusion through inhibition of TLR4 expression].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2016 Apr;32(4):356-360

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Whenzhou Medical University, Whenzhou 325035.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Dexmedetomidine (Dex) on Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) expression in lung during lung ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) in rats and its possible protecting mechanisms.

Methods: In vivo I/R model in left lung of SD rats was estab-lished. Fifty adult healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (=10):control group (Sham group), I/R group, Dex group, atipamezole group (Atip group) and Dex+Atip group. After the I/R experiment,rats were killed and the left lung tissues were harvest-ed to get the lung wet/dry weight(W/D); Ultrastructure of lung tissue were observed under light microscopy; The mRNA expression of TLR4 in lung tissues were determined by RT-PCR; The protein level of TLR4 in lung tissues was detected by Western blot.

Results: ①Compared with those in the Sham group, W/D and total lung water content (TLW) in other groups increased significantly (<0.05), the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in lung tissues increased too. The structure damages of lung tissues observed under light microscopy in other groups were more than that of Sham group. ②Compared with those in the I/R group, W/D and TLW in the Dex group were lower (<0.05, <0.01), the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in lung tissues decreased (<0.01), and reduced structure damages of lung tissues were observed under light microscopy in Dex group. ③Compared with those in the Dex group, W/D and TLW in the Dex+Atip group were higher (<0.01), the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 in lung tissues increased (<0.01), and the structure damages of lung tissues observed under light microscopy were more serious. There was no significant difference of the above parameters among I/R、Atip、Dex+Atip groups.

Conclusions: Lung ischemia/reperfusion caused high expression of TLR4 and finally induced damages of the lung. Dexmedetomidine could inhibit TLR4 expression and alleviate the lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, which was related to activation of α2-adreno receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13459/j.cnki.cjap.2016.04.018DOI Listing
April 2016

[Effects of xuebijing injection on cardiac function and structure in rats with myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation injury].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2016 Feb;32(2):173-176

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute, Whenzhou Medical University, Whenzhou 325035.

Objective: To investigate the protective effects of xuebijing (XBJ, Traditional Chinese Medicine Complex) injection on cardiac function in rats with myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) injury.

Methods: The isolated langendorff perfused rat heart model was established. One hundred and thirty SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, hypoxia/reoxygenation group, low dose XBJ(XBJ) group, middle dose XBJ(XBJ) group and high dose XBJ(XBJ) group. All groups except sham group were divided into three subgroups according to reoxygenation time(0.5 h,1 h, 2 h) (=10). In sham group, left ventricular development pressure(LVDP), maximal rates of increase/decrease of the left ventricular pressure(±dp/dt), left ventricular pressure (LVP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded after 20 minutes balance perfusion. The creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in myocardium was detected by ELISA. In other groups, after 20 minutes balance perfusion, we perfused ThomasⅡto stop the hearts from beating for 30 minutes, then reperfused the K-H until hearts recover beating. The microstructure of myocardium was observed under light microscopy. LVDP, ±dp/dt, LVP and HR were continuously recorded in other four groups and the concentrations of CK-MB in myocardium were measured by ELISA at different time points after reoxygenation. Microstructure of myocardium in each group were observed under light microscopy.

Results: LVDP, ±dp/dt, LVP and HR of other groups were significantly lower than those of sham group(<0.05). The levels of CK-MB were higher than that of sham group(<0.05). LVDP, ±dp/dt, LVP and HR of XBJL, XBJM and XBJH groups were higher than those of I/R group at corresponding time points after reoxygenation(<0.05). The levels of CK-MB were lower than that of I/R group(<0.05) and the cardiac function was improved. The middle dose of XBJ had the best protective effect.

Conclusions: Xuebijing injection can effectively improve cardiac function and structure in rats with myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, and middle dose of XBJ is the best.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13459/j.cnki.cjap.2016.02.021DOI Listing
February 2016

[Effect of dexmedetomidine on expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related Caspase-12 in lung ischemia/reperfusion injury mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2016 Feb;32(2):164-168

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Research Institute of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related cysteinyl aspirate specific proteinase-12 (Caspase-12) in lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mice.

Methods: Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:sham operation group (sham group),ischemia/reperfusion injury group (I/R group), normal salinecontrol group (NS group), ischemia/reperfusion + dexmedetomidine group (DEX group). Dexmedetomidine was infused intraperitoneally into the mice to stablish situ left pulmonary I/R injury mouse model. In NS group, the isometric dexmedetomidine was replaced by normal saline,other operations were as the same as the DEX group. After reperfusion 3 hours, the lung tissue wet/dry weight (W/D), the total lung water content (TLW) of the left lung tissues were determined. The lung tissue morphology changes were observed by light microscopy and the damage assessment(IQA) was taken. The structure changes and the apoptosis index (AI) of the lung tissues were evaluated by TUNEL method. The protein and mRNA expression of Caspase-12 and grp78 in lung tissues were detected by Western blot and reverse translate-PCR.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the W/D, TLW, IQA, AI, lung tissue structure damages, and the expression of Caspase-12 and grp78 protein and mRNA obviously raised both in I/R group and NS group (<0.01 or <0.05). Compared with I/R group, the W/D, TLW, IQA, AI of DEX group were all decreased, the demaged lung tissue morphology changes were significantly reduced, the protein and mRNA expression level of Caspase-12 and grp78 in DEX group were decreased (<0.01).

Conclusions: DEX can effectively relieve the lung I/R injuries in mice, which maybe associated with inhibition of pneumocyte apoptosis induced by ERS-related Caspase-12 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13459/j.cnki.cjap.2016.02.018DOI Listing
February 2016

[Effect of ERK1/2 on rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells Kv1.5 channel in the process of hypoxia].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2015 Sep;31(5):418-21, 426

Objective: To explore the effect of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway on the expression of Kv1.5 channel, a voltage-gated potassium ion channel, in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and its mechanisms during the process of hypoxia.

Methods: The PASMCs derived from SD rats were cultivated primarily. The third to sixth generation of PASMCs were divided into 5 groups randomly: (1) Normal group (N); (2) Hypoxic group (H); (3) Demethy sulfoxide(DMSO) group (HD); (4) U0126 group (HU): 10 micromol/L U0126; (5) Anisomycin group (HA): 10 micromol/L anisomycin. There were three dishes of cells in each group. The cells in normal group were cultured in normoxic incubator (5% CO2, 37 degrees C), the cells in other groups were added to 0.05% DMSO in the hypoxic incubator (5% CO2, 2% O2, 37 degrees C), all cells were cultured for 60 h. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detected the espressions of Kv1.5 mRNA and protein in PASMCs.

Results: Compared with N group, the expressions of Kv1.5 mRNA and protein in H, HD and HA groups were reduced significantly (P < 0.05); Compared with H group and HD groups, Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expressions in HU group were increased sharply (P < 0.05). Compared with the HU group, Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expressions in HA groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Low oxygen reduced Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expressions, U0126 could resistant the Kv1.5 channel lower expression caused by hypoxia. Anisomycin had no significant effect on Kv1.5 channel expression under hypoxia, but the expression of Kv1.5 was still significantly lower than the normal oxygen group. These data suggest that hypoxia may cause hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by interfering ERK1/2 signaling pathway to inhibit Kv1.5
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September 2015

[Dynamic changes of IL-1β in rat myocardium during hypoxia/ reoxygenation transition].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2015 Jan;31(1):27-30

Objective: To investigate the expression profile of interleuki-1β (IL-1β) in rat myocardium at different time points during hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)transition.

Methods: The isolated Langendorff perfused rat heart model was established.Forty SD rats were randomly divided into sham group (A group) and hypoxia/reoxygenation group (H/R group). The H/R group rats were subdivided into H/R 0.5 h group(B group), H/R 1 h group(C group), H/R 2 h group(D group)according to reoxygenation time. The left ventricular development pressure(LVDP), maximal rates of increase/decrease of the left ventricular pressure(±dp/dtmax) were continuously recorded. The concentration of interleukin-1β(IL-lβ) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in myocardium was measured by ELISA. The mRNA expression of IL-lβ in myocardium was determined by RT-PCR. Microstructure of myocardium was observed under light microscopy.

Results: The value of LVDP and ±dp/dtmax in hypoxia/reoxygenation group rat were significantly lower than that in sham group(P < 0.05). The expression of IL-lβ and CK-MB at protein level and the expression of IL-1β at mRNA level in hypoxia /reoxygenation group were higher than that in sham group(P < 0. 05). There were significant differences of the above parameters among H/R 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h group(P <0.05). The concentration of IL-1β and CK-MB, the mRNA expression of IL-1β were higher in H/R 2 h group than that of other groups(P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The high expression of IL-Iβ in myocardium after myocardial hypoxia /reoxygenation in rats might lead to. ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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January 2015

[Effect of Xuebijing Injection on TLR4-NF-κB-TNF-α pathway of rats' myocardial anoxia/reoxygenation].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2014 Dec;34(12):1463-8

Objective: To explore the role of Xuebijing Injection (XBJI) in inhibiting inflammatory factors associated with anoxia/reoxygenation myocardial inflammatory response of rats.

Methods: Totally 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, 280 ± 30 g were randomly divided into six groups, i.e., the normal control group (N group), the balanced perfusion group (BP group),the model group (M group),the low dose XBJI group (XBJI(L) group), the middle dose XBJI group (XBJI(M) group),and the high dose XBJI group (XBJI(H) group), 6 in each group. The myocardial anoxia/reoxygenation rat model was established by Langendorff isolated heart perfusion. The concentration of TNF-α in the myocardial tissue was detected by ELISA. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) protein and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein were detected using Western blot. The expression of NF-κB p65 mRNA and TLR4 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Ultrastructural changes of anoxia-reoxygenation rats' heart muscle were observed under transmission electron microscope.

Results: Compared with the M group,the TNF-α concentration, expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein and mRNA, TLR4 protein and mRNA decreased to various degrees in the XBJI(L) group, the XBJI(M) group, and the XBJI(H) group. The TNF-α expression level decreased most significantly in the XBJI(L), group (P < 0.01), while other indices decreased most obviously in the XBJI(M) group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Expression levels of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 protein were obviously lower in the XBJI(M) group than in the XBJI(L) group (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in other indices among the three XBJI groups (P > 0.05). Myocardial fibers were loose and broken with disappearance of transverse striation, and mitochondrial cristae was dissolved and severely damaged in the M group. The aforesaid condition was improved after treated by XBJI, with the most obvious effect obtained in the XBJI(M) group.

Conclusions: Different doses of XBJI could attenuate inflammatory reactions after myocardial anoxia/reoxygenation rats' heart muscle through inhibiting TLR4-NF-κB-TNF-α signal transduction pathway. The best effect could be obtained by 4 mL/100 mL XBJI.
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December 2014

Effect of panax notoginseng saponins injection on the p38MAPK pathway in lung tissue in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

Chin J Integr Med 2015 Feb 19;21(2):147-51. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Department of Pathophysiology, Basic Medicine College, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) injection on pulmonary artery pressure and the expression of p38MAPK in lung tissue of rats subjected to chronic hypoxia.

Methods: Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (ten in each group): rats in control group were exposed to normoxic condition and the rats in hypoxia group and PNS group were subjected to 4-week hypoxia, and PNS injection (50 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) was administrated intraperitoneally at 30 min in the PNS group daily before the rats were kept in the hypoxic chamber, while rats in the other two groups received equal dose of normal saline instead. After chronic hypoxia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and mean carotid artery pressure (mCAP) were measured. The heart and lung tissues were harvested, and right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle plus ventricular septum (LV+S) were weighed to calculate the ratio of RV/(LV+S). The expression of p38MAPK mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the quantity of phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) in rat lung tissues and pulmonary arterioles was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Compared with the control group, mPAP and the ratio of RV/(LV+S) in the hypoxia group were increased, the expression of p-p38MAPK in pulmonary arterioles and p38MAPK mRNA in the lung were higher (P<0.05). The changes of these parameters in the hypoxia group were significantly attenuated by PNS treatment (P<0.05).

Conclusion: PNS injection was shown to prevent hypoxic pulmonary hypertension at least partly by regulating p38MAPK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-014-1790-2DOI Listing
February 2015

[Effect of curcumin on caspase-12 and apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury mice].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2014 Sep;34(9):1118-24

Objective: To explore the effect of curcumin (CUR) on cycteinyl aspirate specific protease-12 (Caspase-12) and pneumocyte apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mice.

Methods: The in vivo unilateral in situ pulmonary I/R injury mouse model was established in C57BL/6J mice. Sixty experimental mice were randomly divided into six groups by random digit table, i. e., the sham-operation group (Sham), the I/R group, the I/R + dimethyl sulfoxide group (I/R + DMSO), the I/R + low dose CUR pre-treated group (I/R + CUR-100), the I/R + middle dose CUR pre-treated group (I/R + CUR-150), the I/R + high dose CUR pre-treated group (I/R + CUR-200), 10 in each group. Mice were euthanized and their left lungs were excised. Wet lung weight to dry lung weight (W/D) and the total lung water content (TLW) were tested. The morphological changes of the lung tissue were observed and index of quantitative evaluation for alveolar damage (IQA) detected under light microscope. The ultra-microstructure of the lung tissue was observed under electron microscope. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Caspase-12 and glucose regulated protein (GRP78) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Apoptosis index (AI) of the lung tissue was determined by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.

Results: Compared with the Sham group, expression levels of Caspase-12, GRP78 mRNA and protein all significantly increased in the I/R group (P < 0.05); W/D, TLW, IQA, and AI were all notably higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); the morphological and ultrastructural injury of the lung tissue were notably observed in I/R group. Compared with the I/R + DMSO group, expression levels of GRP78 mRNA and protein were increasingly higher in the I/R + CUR-100 group, the I/R + CUR-150 group, and the I/R +CUR-200 group (P < 0.05), expression levels of Caspase-12 mRNA and protein were lower (P < 0.05); W/D, TLW, IQA, and AI also decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); the morphological and ultrastructural injury of the lung tissue were gradually alleviated in the I/R + CUR groups.

Conclusion: CUR had better effect on the lung protection against I/R injury, which might be related to inhibition for pneumocyte apoptosis associated with Caspase-12 in excessive unfolded protein response (UPR).
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September 2014

[Ischemic postconditioning attenuates pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury via inactivation of p38 MAPK].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2014 May;30(3):251-6

Objective: To investigate the role of p38 MAPK on ischemic postconditioning (IPO) attenuating pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (LIRI).

Methods: Forty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based upon the intervention (n = 8): control group (C), LIR group (I/R), LIR + IPO group (IPO), IPO + solution control group (D), IPO + SB203580 group (SB). Left lung tissue was isolated after the 2 hours of reperfusion, the ratio of wet lung weight to dry lung weight (W/D), and total lung water content (TLW) were measured. The histological structure of the left lung was observed under light and electron transmission microscopes, and scored by alveolar damage index of quantitative assessment (IQA). Apoptosis index (AI) of lung tissue was determined by terminal deoxynuleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end and labeling (TUNEL) method. The mRNA expression and protein levels of and Bax were measured by RT-PCR and quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Results: Compared with C group, W/D, TLW, IQA, AI and the expression of Bax of I/R were significantly increased, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and was obviously morphological abnormality in lung tissue. Compared with I/R group, all the indexes of IPO except for the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/ Bax were obviously reduced, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). All the indexes between D and IPO were little or not significant( P > 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax of SB were significantly increased and other indexes were reduced than those of IPO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: IPO may attenuate pneumocyte apoptosis in LIRI by inactivation of p38 MAPK, up-regulating expression of Bcl-2/Bax ratio.
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May 2014

[Glybenclamide regulate ERK1/2 signal pathway during hypoxia hypercapnia pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2014 Mar;30(2):110-4

Objective: To investigate the role and significance of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the pathological process of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV) and the relationship with ERK1/2 signal pathway in rats.

Methods: We made the third pulmonary artery rings of SD rats, used the model of pulmonary artery rings perfusion in vitro. Under acute hypoxia hypercapnia condition, and observed the effects of the three stages of HHPV incubated by glybenclamide(Gly) and the combined application of Gly and U0126. At the same time, the values of rings' tension changes were recorded via the method of hypoxia hypercapnia conditions reactivity.

Results: Under the normoxia condition, the values of the third pulmonary artery rings tension were relatively stable, but under the hypoxia hypercapnia condition, we observed a biphasic pulmonary artery contractile response compared with N group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). When the third pulmonary artery rings incubated by Gly, it's phase II persistent vasoconstriction was enhanced compared with the H group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the phase I vasoconstriction was also heightened. Moreover, under the hypoxia hypercapnia condition, U0126 could significantly relieve the phase II persistent vasoconstriction compared with HD group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) induced by Gly, but the phase I acute vasoconstriction and the phase I vasodilation had no changes (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Gly may mediate HHPV via activating ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway.
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March 2014

[Expression of KATP in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia-hypercapnia condition and the relationship with p38 MAPK pathway].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2014 Jun;66(3):283-8

Department of Pathophysiology; Institute of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China; Department of Pathology, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310012, China.

The aim of the present study is to investigate the expressions of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the relationship with p38 MAPK signal pathway in rats. Male SD rat PASMCs were cultured in vitro, and a model of hypoxia and hypercapnia was reconstructed. PASMCs were divided to normal (N), hypoxia-hypercapnia (H), hypoxia-hypercapnia+DMSO incubation (HD), hypoxia-hypercapnia+SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAPK pathway) incubation (HS) and hypoxia-hypercapnia+Anisomycin (agonist of p38 MAPK pathway) incubation (HA) groups. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of SUR2B and Kir6.1; semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of SUR2B and Kir6.1. The results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with N, H, HD and HS groups, the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein in PASMCs of HA group were decreased significantly (P < 0.01), but there were no differences among N, H, HD and HS groups (P > 0.05); (2) Compared with N group, the expressions of SUR2B mRNA and protein in H, HD, HS and HA groups were increased significantly (P < 0.05), but there were no differences among H, HD, HS and HA groups (P > 0.05). The results imply that: (1) Hypoxia-hypercapnia, SB203580 didn't change the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein in PASMCs, but Anisomycin decreased the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein, so Kir6.1 may be regulated by the other subfamily of MAPK pathway; (2) Hypoxia-hypercapnia raised SUR2B mRNA and protein expressions in PASMCs, but SB203580 and Anisomycin did not affect the changes, so the increasing of SUR2B mRNA and protein induced by hypoxia-hypercapnia may be not depend on p38 MAPK pathway.
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June 2014

[Calcium-activated chloride channels are involved in two-phase hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in rat pulmonary arteries].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2014 Apr;66(2):203-9

Department of Pathophysiology; Institute of Ischemia-reperfusion Injury, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China; Department of Anesthesiology, The Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200233, China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of calcium-activated chloride channels (Cl(Ca)) in the two-phase hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). The second pulmonary artery branches were dissected from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the changes in vascular tone were measured by using routine blood vascular perfusion in vitro. The result showed that, under normoxic conditions, Cl(Ca) inhibitors (NFA and IAA-94) significantly relaxed second pulmonary artery contracted by norepinephrine (P < 0.01), but merely had effects on KCl-induced second pulmonary artery contractions. A biphasic contraction response was induced in second pulmonary artery ring pre-contracted with norepinephrine exposed to hypoxic conditions for at least one hour, but no biphasic contraction was observed in pulmonary rings pre-contracted with KCl. NFA and IAA-94 significantly attenuated phase II sustained hypoxic contraction (P < 0.01), and also attenuated phase I vasodilation, but had little effect on phase I contraction. These results suggest that Cl(Ca) is an important component forming phase II contraction in secondary pulmonary artery, but not involved in phase I contraction.
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April 2014

[The effect of niflumic acid in hypoxic hypercapnia pulmonary vasoconstriction].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jan;30(1):74-8

Objective: To investigate the effect of chloride channel blocker--niflumic acid (NFA) on the pathological process of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats.

Methods: We used the model of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction rats, and divided the second, third branch pulmonary artery rings randomly into four groups (n = 8): control group (N group), hypoxia hypercapnia group (H group), DMSO incubation group (HD group), niflumic acid group (NFA group). Under acute hypoxia hypercapnia conditions, we observed the effects of the three stages of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV) incubated by NFA in the second, third brach pulmonary artery rings. At the same time, the values of rings' tension changings were recorded via the method of hypoxia hypercapnia conditions reactivity. And investigated the effect of NFA to HHPV.

Results: (1) Under the hypoxia hypercapnia condition, we observed a biphasic pulmonary artery contractile (the phase I rapid contraction and vasodilation; the phase II sustained contraction) response in both the second and the third branch pulmonary artery rings compared with the control group (P < 0.05 , P < 0.01); (2) The second and third pulmonary artery rings incubated by NFA which phase II persistent vasoconstriction were significantly attenuated compared with the H group (P < 0.05 , P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The blocker of the chloride channels attenuates the second and third branch pulmonary artery rings constriction in rat, especially the phase II persistent vasoconstriction, so then have an antagonistic effect on HHPV.
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January 2014

[Effects of ischemic postconditioning on pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jan;30(1):60-3

Objective: To investigate the effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) on pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

Methods: Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups based upon the intervention (n = 8): control group (C), lung ischemic reperfusion group (LIR), LIR+ IPostC group (IPostC). At the end of the experiment, blood specimens drawn from the arteria carotis were tested for the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO); the pneumocyte apoptosis index (AI) was achieved by tennrminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end abeling (TUNEL); the expression of Bcl-2, Bax protein in lung tissue was accessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry (MHC) and Bcl-2, Bax mRNA by RT-PCR.

Results: IPostC could significantly attenuate the MDA level, MPO activity and improve SOD activity in blood serum which was comparable to I/R and significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared with I/R group, expressed as Al (% total nuclei) from (39.0 +/- 3.46) to (8.0 +/- 0.88) (P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax showed that IPO significantly attenuated the ischemia/reperfusion-upregulated expression of Bax protein but improved the expression of Bcl-2 that improved the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P < 0.01) .

Conclusion: IPostC may attenuate pneumocyte apoptosis in LIRI by up-regulating expression of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and by inhibiting oxidant generation and neutrophils filtration.
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January 2014

[Effect of Xuebijing injection on TLR4--NF-kappaB--IL-1beta pathway of myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation in rats].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jan;30(1):55-9

Objective: To investigate the role of Xuebijing injection(XBJI, traditional Chinese medicine), in inhibiting TLR4--NF-kappaB--IL-1beta pathway of myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation in rats.

Methods: Thirty six male SD rats (280 +/- 30) g were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6): normal group (N group), balanced perfusion group (BP group), model group (M group), low dose XBJI group (XBJI(L) group), middle dose XBJI group (XBJI(M) group), high dose XBJI group (XBJI(H) group). By Langendorff isolated heart perfusion device to establish the model of myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation in rats. ELISA was used to detect the concentration of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta); Western blot was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-kappaB p65) protein and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein; and RT-PCR to determine the expression of NF-kappaB p65 mRNA and TLR4 mRNA;To observe microstructure changes of hypoxia/reoxygenation myocardial by light microscopy.

Results: Compared with M group, the IL-1beta concentration, NF-kappaB p65 and TLR4 protein,NF-kappaB p65 and TLR4 mRNA of XBJIL group, XBJI(M) group, XBJI(H) group expression decreased in varying degrees,and decreased most obviously all in XBJI(M) group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); Myocardical structural damage was serious in M group, and improved after treatment XBJI, the most obvious was the XBJI(M).

Conclusion: Different dose of XBJI can inhibit TLR4--NF-kappaB--IL-1beta signal transduction pathway and reduce several inflammatory reaction after myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, the 4 ml/100 ml of XBJI is the best.
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January 2014
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